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Sample records for buffer bow structure

  1. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  2. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  3. The Effect of Buffer Bow Structures on Collision Damages of Oil Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of buffer bow structures on prevention of oil spills in tanker collisions, probabilistic collision damage analyses were performed using a newly developed Simplified Ship Collision Analysis Tool (SSCAT). Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was carried out using...... the striking ships use conventional bulbous bows. The probability of oil spill from the VLCC, given a collision, is estimated and the risk reducing effect of introducing buffer bow structures is discussed....... SSCAT for collision scenarios where striking ships at various speeds, sizes and bulb shapes collide perpendicularly with a VLCC in fully loaded condition. The probability of oil spill from the struck VLCC in cases where all the striking ships use buffer bulbous bows was compared with the case where all...

  4. Modeling of the wafer bow in GaN-on-Si epiwafers employing GaN/AlN multilayer buffer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Watanabe, Arata; Egawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We built a calculation model for the wafer bow in GaN-on-Si epiwafers employing GaN/AlN multilayer (ML) buffer structures by extending Stoney’s equation. The calculated bow and the derived strain in the epilayers were almost consistent with experimental results. The calculation quantitatively revealed that the ML buffers introduced an in-plane compressive stress in the epitaxial structures. Also, relationships between the epiwafer bow and the stress in the respective layers became clear to a certain extent. For instance, when considering the case where periodic structures with 20 nm thick GaN/5 nm thick AlN pairs were grown as ML buffers on 4-in.-diameter and 525 μm thick Si (111) substrates at a growth temperature (T g) of 1125 °C, the stress in the MLs was derived to be 2.18 GPa in the in-plane compressive direction in the GaN layers and 5.89 GPa in the in-plane tensile direction in the AlN layers at T g. Although magnitude of the in-plane stress in the GaN layers is obviously smaller than that in the AlN layers, the restoring force generated in the GaN layers becomes larger than that in the AlN layers, because the force is in proportion to the layer thickness rather than to just the stress. As a consequence, the generated stress in the MLs was considered to produce enough force to suppress the epiwafer bow. The calculation also demonstrated that GaN epilayers on GaN/AlN MLs were strained in the in-plane compressive direction at T g and almost strain-free at room temperature.

  5. Fatigue analysis of the bow structure of FPSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-qiang; GAO Zhen; GU Yong-ning

    2003-01-01

    The bow structure of FPSO moored by the single mooring system is rather complicated. There are many potential hot spots in connection parts of structures between the mooring support frame and the forecastle. Mooring forces, which are induced by wave excitation and transferred by the YOKE and the mooring support frame, may cause fatigue damage to the bow structure. Different from direct wave-induced-forces, the mooring force consists of wave frequency force (WF) and 2nd draft low frequency force (LF)[3], which are represented by two sets of short-term distribution respectively. Based on two sets of short-term distribution of mooring forces obtained by the model test, the fatigue damage of the bow structure of FPSO is analyzed, with emphasis on two points. One is the procedure and position selection for fatigue check, and the other is the application of new formulae for the calculation of accumulative fatigue damage caused by two sets of short-term distribution of hot spot stress range. From the results distinguished features of fatigue damage to the FPSO's bow structure can be observed.

  6. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  7. A bow-shaped thermal structure traveling upstream of the zonal wind flow of Venus atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Imamura, Takeshi; Kouyama, Toru; Nakamura, Masato; Sato, Takao M.; Ueno, Munetaka; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwagami, Naomoto; Sato, Mitsuteru; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Seiko; Akatsuki Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki acquires a snap shot of Venus in the middle infrared region, and provides a brightness temperature distribution at the cloud-top altitudes of about 65 km. Hundreds of images taken by LIR have been transferred to the ground since the successful Venus orbit insertion of Akatsuki on Dec. 7, 2015. Here we report that a bow shaped thermal structure extending from the northern high latitudes to the southern high latitudes was found in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, 2015, and that it lasted for four days at least surprisingly at almost same geographical position. The bow shape structure looks symmetrical with the equator, and consists of a high temperature region in east or upstream of the background strong westward wind or the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere followed by a low temperature region in west with an amplitude of 5 K. It appeared close to the evening terminator in the dayside, and seems not to have stayed in the same local time rather to have co-rotated with the slowly rotating ground where the western part of Aphrodite Continent was below the center of the bow shape. Meridionally aligned dark filaments similar to the bow shape structure in shape but in much smaller scale were also identified in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, and they propagated upstream of the zonal wind as well. The bow shape structure disappeared when LIR observed the same local time and longitude in the earliest opportunity on Jan. 16, 2016. Similar events, though their amplitudes were less than 1 K, were found on Apr. 15 and 26, 2016, but they appeared in different local times and longitudes. A simulation of a gravity wave generated in the lower atmosphere and propagating upward reproduces the observed bow shape structure. The bow shape structure could be a signature of transferring momentum from the ground to the upper atmosphere.

  8. Effect of bow-type initial imperfection on reliability of minimum-weight, stiffened structural panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, W. Jefferson; Krishnamurthy, Thiagaraja; Sykes, Nancy P.; Elishakoff, Isaac

    1993-01-01

    Computations were performed to determine the effect of an overall bow-type imperfection on the reliability of structural panels under combined compression and shear loadings. A panel's reliability is the probability that it will perform the intended function - in this case, carry a given load without buckling or exceeding in-plane strain allowables. For a panel loaded in compression, a small initial bow can cause large bending stresses that reduce both the buckling load and the load at which strain allowables are exceeded; hence, the bow reduces the reliability of the panel. In this report, analytical studies on two stiffened panels quantified that effect. The bow is in the shape of a half-sine wave along the length of the panel. The size e of the bow at panel midlength is taken to be the single random variable. Several probability density distributions for e are examined to determine the sensitivity of the reliability to details of the bow statistics. In addition, the effects of quality control are explored with truncated distributions.

  9. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  10. THE ROLE OF PICKUP IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE VENUSIAN BOW SHOCK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TERMINATION SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Quanming; Shan Lican; Zhang Tielong; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zank, Gary P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Yang Zhongwei [SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai (China); Du Aimin, E-mail: qmlu@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The recent crossing of the termination shock by Voyager 2 has demonstrated the important role of pickup ions (PUIs) in the physics of collisionless shocks. The Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft orbits Venus in a 24 hr elliptical orbit that crosses the bow shock twice a day. VEX provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of PUIs on the structure of collisionless shocks more generally. Using VEX observations, we find that the strength of the Venusian bow shock is weaker when solar activity is strong. We demonstrate that this surprising anti-correlation is due to PUIs mediating the Venusian bow shock.

  11. Cluster observations of structures at quasi-parallel bow shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Collisionless quasi-parallel shocks are thought to be composed of a patchwork of short, large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMS which act to thermalise the plasma, giving rise to a spatially extended and time varying shock transition. With the launch of Cluster, new observations of the three-dimensional shape and size of shock structures are available. In this paper we present SLAMS observations made when the Cluster tetrahedron scale size was ~100km. The SLAMS magnetic field enhancement is typically well correlated between spacecraft on this scale, although small differences are observed. The statistical characteristics of these differences contain information on the typical gradients of magnetic field changes within the SLAM structure which, in the case studied here, occur on scales of 100-150km, comparable with the upstream ion inertial length.

  12. Compound semiconductor alloys: From atomic-scale structure to bandgap bowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnohr, C. S., E-mail: c.schnohr@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Compound semiconductor alloys such as In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As, GaAs{sub x}P{sub 1−x}, or CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} are increasingly employed in numerous electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices due to the possibility of tuning their properties over a wide parameter range simply by adjusting the alloy composition. Interestingly, the material properties are also determined by the atomic-scale structure of the alloys on the subnanometer scale. These local atomic arrangements exhibit a striking deviation from the average crystallographic structure featuring different element-specific bond lengths, pronounced bond angle relaxation and severe atomic displacements. The latter, in particular, have a strong influence on the bandgap energy and give rise to a significant contribution to the experimentally observed bandgap bowing. This article therefore reviews experimental and theoretical studies of the atomic-scale structure of III-V and II-VI zincblende alloys and I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite alloys and explains the characteristic findings in terms of bond length and bond angle relaxation. Different approaches to describe and predict the bandgap bowing are presented and the correlation with local structural parameters is discussed in detail. The article further highlights both similarities and differences between the cubic zincblende alloys and the more complex chalcopyrite alloys and demonstrates that similar effects can also be expected for other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors of the adamantine structural family.

  13. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the "Bow-tie" Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, G; Dorogovtsev, S N; Mendes, J F F

    2016-01-01

    We reveal a hierarchical organization of finite directed components---tendrils---around the giant components represented by the celebrated "bow-tie" diagram for directed networks. We develop an efficient algorithm to find tendril layers. It is used together with the message passing technique, generalized to directed graphs, to find the structure and attack tolerance of complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. We introduce a generalized susceptibility characterizing the response of directed networks to damage.

  14. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  15. All-Optical WDM Buffer System Realized by NOLM and Feedback Loop Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seungwoo Yi; Kyeong-Mo Yoon; Yong-Gi Lee; Jinseob Eom

    2003-01-01

    We propose an all-optical WDM buffer for optical packet switching system, which consists of NOLM and feedback loop. The proposed structure provides more than 40 turn buffering and nice output of buffered data when selected by control signal.

  16. Design of buffer structure at core nodes in optical burst switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; ZHANG Min-gde; SUN Xiao-han

    2006-01-01

    Reasonable and effective buffer structures are proposed in core routers /nodes of optical burst switching.Based on the model of burst traffics and their contentions,the basic qualifications for the design of buffer structures are concluded.With these qualifications,buffer and switch integrated structures are proposed;and by conclusion and expansion,the classification rules of buffer structures are also proposed from different angles.The schemes to integrate structures are analyzed and simulated.

  17. Acceleration of solar wind ions to 1 MeV by electromagnetic structures upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Stasiewicz, K; Eliasson, B; Strumik, M; Yamauchi, M

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements from the ESA/NASA Cluster mission that show in situ acceleration of ions to energies of 1 MeV outside the bow shock. The observed heating can be associated with the presence of electromagnetic structures with strong spatial gradients of the electric field that lead to ion gyro-phase breaking and to the onset of chaos in ion trajectories. It results in rapid, stochastic acceleration of ions in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The electric potential of the structures can be compared to a field of moguls on a ski slope, capable of accelerating and ejecting the fast running skiers out of piste. This mechanism may represent the universal mechanism for perpendicular acceleration and heating of ions in the magnetosphere, the solar corona and in astrophysical plasmas. This is also a basic mechanism that can limit steepening of nonlinear electromagnetic structures at shocks and foreshocks in collisionless plasmas.

  18. Investigation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures on 200-mm silicon (111) substrates employing different buffer layer configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.-P.; Perozek, J.; Rosario, L. D.; Bayram, C.

    2016-11-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures are grown on 200-mm diameter Si(111) substrates by using three different buffer layer configurations: (a) Thick-GaN/3 × {AlxGa1‑xN}/AlN, (b) Thin-GaN/3 × {AlxGa1‑xN}/AlN, and (c) Thin-GaN/AlN, so as to have crack-free and low-bow (electrical properties of these AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures. The effects of buffer layer stacks (i.e. thickness and content) on defectivity, stress, and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and 2DEG concentration are reported. It is shown that 2DEG characteristics are heavily affected by the employed buffer layers between AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures and Si(111) substrates. Particularly, we report that in-plane stress in the GaN layer affects the 2DEG mobility and 2DEG carrier concentration significantly. Buffer layer engineering is shown to be essential for achieving high 2DEG mobility (>1800 cm2/V•s) and 2DEG carrier concentration (>1.0 × 1013 cm‑2) on Si(111) substrates.

  19. The Asian war bow

    CERN Document Server

    Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    The bow is one of the earliest complex machines, a prime example of the storage and transfer of energy. The physics of the bow illuminates compromises and design choices made in Asian military archery.

  20. Magnetic and Structural Properties in Co/Cu/Co Sandwiches with Ni and Cr Buffer Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic and structural properties in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches with Ni and Cr buffer layers were investigated. It was found that the coercivity in Ni layer buffered samples decreases with increasing Ni layer thickness, while that in Cr layer buffered ones increases with increasing Cr layer thickness, leading to a large difference in field sensitivity of their giant magnetoresistance (GMR) properties. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope images exhibited that there is a strong fcc (111) texture in the samples with Ni buffer layer. But there are only randomly oriented polycrystalline grains in Cr buffered sandwiches. According to atomic force microscope topography, the surface roughness of Cr buffered sandwiches is smaller than that of Ni buffered ones. It is demonstrated that buffer layer influences both magnetic and structural properties in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches as well as their GMR characteristics.

  1. Ship bow waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOBLESSE Francis; DELHOMMEAU Gerard; LIU Hua; WAN De-cheng; YANG Chi

    2013-01-01

    The bow wave generated by a ship hull that advances at constant speed in calm water is considered.The bow wave only depends on the shape of the ship bow (not on the hull geometry aft of the bow wave).This basic property makes it possible to determine the bow waves generated by a canonical family of ship bows defined in terms of relatively few parameters.Fast ships with fine bows generate overturning bow waves that consist of detached thin sheets of water,which are mostly steady until they hit the main free surface and undergo turbulent breaking up and diffusion.However,slow ships with blunt bows create highly unsteady and turbulent breaking bow waves.These two alternative flow regimes are due to a nonlinear constraint related to the Bernoulli relation at the free surface.Recent results about the overturning and breaking bow wave regimes,and the boundary that divides these two basic flow regimes,are reviewed.Questions and conjectures about the energy of breaking ship bow waves,and free-surface effects on flow circulation,are also noted.

  2. Band Gap Opening Induced by the Structural Periodicity in Epitaxial Graphene Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Nair, Maya; Palacio, Irene; Celis, Arlensiú; Zobelli, Alberto; Gloter, Alexandre; Kubsky, Stefan; Turmaud, Jean-Philippe; Conrad, Matthew; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walter; Conrad, Edward H; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-04-12

    The epitaxial graphene buffer layer on the Si face of hexagonal SiC shows a promising band gap, of which the precise origin remains to be understood. In this work, we correlate the electronic to the atomic structure of the buffer layer by combining angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). We show that the band structure in the buffer has an electronic periodicity related to the structural periodicity observed in STM images and published X-ray diffraction. Our HR-STEM measurements show the bonding of the buffer layer to the SiC at specific locations separated by 1.5 nm. This is consistent with the quasi 6 × 6 periodic corrugation observed in the STM images. The distance between buffer C and SiC is 1.9 Å in the bonded regions and up to 2.8 Å in the decoupled regions, corresponding to a 0.9 Å corrugation of the buffer layer. The decoupled regions are sp(2) hybridized. Density functional tight binding (DFTB) calculations demonstrate the presence of a gap at the Dirac point everywhere in the buffer layer, even in the decoupled regions where the buffer layer has an atomic structure close to that of graphene. The surface periodicity also promotes band in the superperiodic Brillouin zone edges as seen by photoemission and confirmed by our calculations.

  3. Design on Buffer Structure of Traction Running with a Constant Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Xianren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly aims to study buffer structure design on the traction transport system when the traction transport boundary conditions are given. With such conditions as the maximum impact force, traction speed, maximum speed of alluvium, the elasticity coefficient and the mass of buffer structure, a mathematical model was established and the solution of differential equations was solved. At last, a program was compiled with MATLAB language. With this program the elasticity coefficient and the maximum impact force which meet the requirements in impact process can be solved as long as the boundary conditions are input. This provides a quick design basis of buffer structure for most mechanical engineers.

  4. Fine structure of Langmuir waves observed upstream of the bow shock at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Bolton, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Highly structured Langmuir waves, also known as electron plasma oscillations, have been observed in the foreshock of Venus using the plasma wave experiment on the Galileo spacecraft during the gravity assist flyby on February 10, 1990. The Galileo wideband sampling system provides digital electric field waveform measurements at sampling rates up to 201,600 samples per second, much higher than any previous instrument of this type. The main Langmuir wave emission band occurs near the local electron plasma frequency, which was approximately 43 kHz. The Langmuir waves are observed to shift above and below the plasma frequency, sometimes by as much as 20 kHz. The shifts in frequency are closely correlated with the downstream distance from the tangent field line, implying that the shifts are controlled by the electron beam velocity. Considerable fine structure is also evident, with timescales as short as 0.15 ms, corresponding to spatial scales of a few tens of Debye lengths. The frequency spectrum often consists of beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 7 kHz, and in a few cases, isolated wave packets. The peak electric field strengths are approximately 1 mV/m. These field strengths are too small for strongly nonlinear processes to be important. The beat-type waveforms are suggestive of a parametric decay process.

  5. An Improved MAC Scheme of HORNET Based on Node Structure with Variable Optical Buffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Fang; Lutang Wang; Zhaoming Huang

    2003-01-01

    An improved unslotted CSMA/CA MAC scheme of HORNET based on the node structure with variable optical buffer is reported. It can be used for transmitting high effectively all variable IP packets in the WDM network.

  6. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Qijing; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3), consequently an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6*10^7 (1.36*10^5), at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. This dielectric bow-tie nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon source, thresholdless nanolaser, and cavity QED strong coupling experiments.

  7. Rotationnal and translational waves in a bowed string

    CERN Document Server

    Bavu, E; Placais, P Y; Smith, J; Wolfe, J; Bavu, Eric; Yew, Manfred; Placais, Pierre-Yves; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-01-01

    We measure and compare the rotational and transverse velocity of a bowed string. When bowed by an experienced player, the torsional motion is phase-locked to the transverse waves, producing highly periodic motion. The spectrum of the torsional motion includes the fundamental and harmonics of the transverse wave, with strong formants at the natural frequencies of the torsional standing waves in the whole string. Volunteers with no experience on bowed string instruments, however, often produced non-periodic motion. We present sound files of both the transverse and torsional velocity signals of well-bowed strings. The torsional signal has not only the pitch of the transverse signal, but it sounds recognisably like a bowed string, probably because of its rich harmonic structure and the transients and amplitude envelope produced by bowing.

  8. Remote sensing of local structure of the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock by using field-aligned beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Miao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned ion beams (FABs originate at the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock and constitute an important ion population in the foreshock region. The bulk velocity of these FABs depends significantly on the shock normal angle, which is the angle between shock normal and upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. This dependency may therefore be taken as an indicator of the local structure of the shock. Applying the direct reflection model to Cluster measurements, we have developed a method that uses proton FABs in the foreshock region for remote sensing of the local shock structure. The comparison of the model results with the multi-spacecraft observations of FAB events shows very good agreement in terms of wave amplitude and frequency of surface waves at the shock front.

  9. The sacred weapon: bow and arrow combat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the development of the bow and arrow, and its important role in the history of Iran. The bow always played an important role not only on the battlefield, but also in hunting. It was also considered as a sacred weapon and additionally a royal symbol. Bow and arrow were considered as a superior weapon in comparison with other types of weapons because one could fight with them at a safer distance as one offered by swords, maces and axes. The first part of the article presents a short history of the bow in Iran. Based on historical Persian manuscripts, the next part explains the structure of the composite bow and the materials used for making it. The third part describes some types of bows based on the material, place of production, the usage, and bow type based on the length of the bow and the arrows. The following part talks about different types of arrows based on morphology of arrowheads, the type of plume/feather, the material of the shaft, the material of the arrowhead, the length of arrows, the target of arrows, the place of production of arrowheads and terms for describing its different features of an arrowhead. Then, the article talks about different types of thumb rings, bowstrings, quivers and bow cases and arrow guides for shooting short arrows. The next part discusses different principles of archery as explained in Persian manuscripts. Finally the article describes different archery targets.

  10. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Friedlander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  11. Effect of magnetic structural processing on structure and texture of La2Zr2O7 buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibirova, F. Kh.; Kotina, G. V.; Bovina, E. A.; Tarasova, D. V.; Polisan, A. A.; Parkhomenko, Yu. N.

    2016-11-01

    Epitaxial CeO2 seed layer and La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers were deposited on biaxially-textured Ni-5 at.% W (NiW) tape substrate by liquid-phase polymer assisted nanoparticles deposition (PAND) method. LZO layers deposited by PAND have consistently shown tilting of the c-axis toward the direction of the sample’s surface normal. A new approach increasing the sharpening of the buffer texture by magnetic structural processing (MSP) of buffer layers was tested. The LZO layers, deposited on the seed and buffer layers after MSP, have dense and smooth surface structure, and more importantly, significantly improved out-of-plane texture, compared with the LZO layers that were deposited on a layer without MSP. Transmission electron microscopy study confirmed the c-axis tilting of CeO2 and LZO layers and revealed the absence of interfaces between LZO layers which have been grown on the layers after MSP. There are very small (2-4 nm) gated pores in the single-crystal structure of LZO layers that are not typical for structure of LZO layers obtained by liquid-phase methods. Thus the LZO buffer layers can serve as an effective metal-ion diffusion barrier.

  12. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  13. Effects of bulbous bow on cross-flow vortex structures around a streamlined submersible body at intermediate pitch maneuver: A numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Saeed; Dehghan, Ali Akbar; Saeidinezhad, Ali; Manshadi, Mojtaba Dehghan

    2016-03-01

    A flow field around a streamlined body at an intermediate angle of incidence is dominated by cross-flow separation and vortical flow fields. The separated flow leads to a pair of vortices on the leeside of the body; therefore, it is essential to accurately determine this pair and estimate its size and location. This study utilizes the element-based finite volume method based on RANS equations to compute a 3D axisymmetric flow around a SUBOFF bare submarined hull. Cross-flow vortex structures are then numerically simulated and compared for a submarine with SUBOFF and DRDC STR bows. Computed results of pressure and shear stress distribution on the hull surface and the strength and locations of the vortex structures are presented at an intermediate incidence angle of 20°. A wind tunnel experiment is also conducted to experimentally visualize the vortex structures and measure their core locations. These experimental results are compared with the numerical data, and a good agreement is found.

  14. Effects of Bulbous Bow on Cross-Flow Vortex Structures Around a Streamlined Submersible Body at Intermediate Pitch Maneuver:A Numerical Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Abedi; Ali Akbar Dehghan; Ali Saeidinezhad; Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-01-01

    A flow field around a streamlined body at an intermediate angle of incidence is dominated by cross-flow separation and vortical flow fields. The separated flow leads to a pair of vortices on the leeside of the body; therefore, it is essential to accurately determine this pair and estimate its size and location. This study utilizes the element-based finite volume method based on RANS equations to compute a 3D axisymmetric flow around a SUBOFF bare submarined hull. Cross-flow vortex structures are then numerically simulated and compared for a submarine with SUBOFF and DRDC STR bows. Computed results of pressure and shear stress distribution on the hull surface and the strength and locations of the vortex structures are presented at an intermediate incidence angle of 20°. A wind tunnel experiment is also conducted to experimentally visualize the vortex structures and measure their core locations. These experimental results are compared with the numerical data, and a good agreement is found.

  15. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults.

  16. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Mark [4665 Amblewood Drive, Victoria, BC V8Y 1C1 (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults.

  17. Strain compensation in a semiconducting device structure using an intentionally mismatched uniform buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of strain relaxation in semiconducting device heterostructures has important implications in the design of high electron mobility transistors, light-emitting diodes, and laser diodes, in which the residual strain affects the device characteristics. In this work, we develop the theoretical framework for understanding strain compensation in a semiconductor device layer using a uniform buffer layer which can be intentionally mismatched to the material above. Specifically, we determined the critical condition for complete strain compensation in the device layer by intentionally introducing a compositional mismatch at the device-buffer interface. We present minimum energy calculations and show that for a given device layer with fixed mismatch and layer thickness, the buffer layer may be designed with the appropriate combination of thickness and mismatch such that the device layer will have zero residual strain in equilibrium. Such a structure can be referred to as a completely strain-compensated design. In the more general case, there may be partial strain compensation, and we give a simple physics-based Gaussian-type function describing the residual strain in the device layer. We have applied this general framework to In x Ga1-x As/GaAs (001) heterostructures for the purpose of illustration, but the work is applicable to any diamond or zinc blende (001) heteroepitaxial material system.

  18. Bow shock data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  19. Dual-Frequency Operation of Bow-Tie Microstrip Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺时; 张需溥

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of a single-feed dual-frequency bow-tie microstrip antenna are studied. By using the variation method, simple formulas for resonant frequencies of the bow-tie microstrip antenna are derived. It is shown that the dual-frequency ratio can be controlled easily by choosing the parameters of the antenna. This design gives compact antenna size and simple antenna structure. Experimental results are presented, verifying the validity of the design.

  20. Energetics of nearby stellar bow shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The latest survey of stellar bow shocks (Peri et al. 2012) lists 28 candidates detected at IR wavelengths, associated with massive, early-type stars up to 3 kpc, along with the geometrical parameters of the structures found. I present here some considerations on the energetics involved, after the estimation of stellar wind power, infrared flux, stellar bolometric luminosity and radio flux limits for each source. The best candidates for relativistic particle acceleration are highlighted.

  1. Bow Ties in the Sky I: The Angular Structure of Inverse Compton Gamma-ray Halos in the Fermi Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Avery E; Shalaby, Mohamad; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Chang, Philip; Lamberts, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the up-scattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  2. Bow Ties in the Sky. I: The Angular Structure of Inverse Compton Gamma-Ray Halos in the Fermi Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Tiede, Paul; Shalaby, Mohamad; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Chang, Philip; Lamberts, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the upscattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  3. Comparison of structural diversity of tree-crop associations in Peripheral and Buffer zones of Gachabari Sal forest area, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M. Rahman; H. Vacik; F. Begum; A. Nishad; K.K. Islam

    2007-01-01

    The structural diversity of different tree-crop associations were studied at Gachabari Sal forest area of Madhupur Garh on Buffer and Peripheral Zone during 2006. The total density, basal area of trees in the Buffer and Peripheral Zone were 155.5 tree·hm-2,795.4 trees·bm-2 and 3.9 m2·hm-2, 5.8 m2·hm-2, respectively. No regeneration and natural trees were found in Peripheral Zone and the Zone is totally occupied by exotic species where the Buffer Zone comprised of both natural and exotic trees. The Peripheral Zone belonged to younger and smaller trees whereas the Buffer Zone belonged to mixture of smaller, taller, younger and mature trees simultaneously. For the practicing of different agroforestry systems both Zones have lost their original characters of Sal forest.

  4. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  5. Family structure and health, how companionship acts as a buffer against ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizuki Masashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health and well-being are the result of synergistic interactions among a variety of determinants. Family structure and composition are social determinants that may also affect health behaviours and outcomes. This study was performed to examine the associations between family structure and health and to determine the protective effects of support mechanisms to improve quality of health outcome. Methods Six hundred people, selected by multistage sampling to obtain a representative population of men and women aged 20–60 living in communities in Japan, were included in this study. Data regarding subjective views of one's own health, family structure, lifestyle and social support were collected through structured face-to-face interviews on home visits. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, height and weight were measured by trained examiners. The associations between family structure and health after controlling for demographics, lifestyle and social support were examined using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Subjects living alone were significantly more likely to be in ill health, as determined using the General Health Questionnaire, in comparison to those in extended families (OR = 3.14. Subjects living alone or as couples were significantly more likely to suffer from severe hypertension in comparison to those living in extended families (OR = 8.25, OR = 4.90. These associations remained after controlling for the influence of lifestyle. Subjects living only with spouse or in nuclear family had higher probabilities of mental ill health in the absence than in the presence of people showing concern for their well-being. Conclusion The results of this study infers that a support mechanism consisting of companionship and the presence of family or other people concerned for one's well being acts as a buffer against deleterious influence of living in small family that will lead to improved quality of health outcome.

  6. Graphene as a Buffer Layer for Silicon Carbide-on-Insulator Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Yasui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report an innovative technique for growing the silicon carbide-on-insulator (SiCOI structure by utilizing polycrystalline single layer graphene (SLG as a buffer layer. The epitaxial growth was carried out using a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (HM-CVD technique. Cubic SiC (3C-SiC thin film in (111 domain was realized at relatively low substrate temperature of 750 °C. 3C-SiC energy bandgap of 2.2 eV was confirmed. The Si-O absorption band observed in the grown film can be caused by the out-diffusion of the oxygen atom from SiO2 substrate or oxygen doping during the cleaning process. Further experimental works by optimizing the cleaning process, growth parameters of the present growth method, or by using other growth methods, as well, are expected to realize a high quality SiCOI structure, thereby opening up the way for a breakthrough in the development of advanced ULSIs with multifunctionalities.

  7. Buffer architecture for biaxially textured structures and method of fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, David P.; Park, Chan; Goyal, Amit

    2004-04-06

    The invention relates to an article with an improved buffer layer architecture comprising a substrate having a metal surface, and an epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The epitaxial buffer layer comprises at least one of the group consisting of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, and compounds having at least one of Ca and a rare earth element stabilizing cubic phases of ZrO.sub.2 and/or HfO.sub.2. The article can also include a superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. The article can also include an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article comprises providing a substrate with a metal surface, depositing on the metal surface an epitaxial buffer layer comprising at least one material selected from the group consisting of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, and compounds having at least one of Ca and a rare earth element stabilizing cubic phases of at least one of ZrO.sub.2 and HfO.sub.2. The epitaxial layer depositing step occurs in a vacuum with a background pressure of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-5 Torr. The method can further comprise depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  8. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study.

  9. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Adrian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs. This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins to target proteins (e.g., TFs is important, yet for many processes the signaling pathways remain unknown. Results Here, we present BowTieBuilder for inferring signal transduction pathways from multiple source and target proteins. Given protein-protein interaction (PPI data signaling pathways are assembled without knowledge of the intermediate signaling proteins while maximizing the overall probability of the pathway. To assess the inference quality, BowTieBuilder and three alternative heuristics are applied to several pathways, and the resulting pathways are compared to reference pathways taken from KEGG. In addition, BowTieBuilder is used to infer a signaling pathway of the innate immune response in humans and a signaling pathway that potentially regulates an underlying gene regulatory network. Conclusion We show that BowTieBuilder, given multiple source and/or target proteins, infers pathways with satisfactory recall and precision rates and detects the core proteins of each pathway.

  10. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  11. Far-UV bow shock nebula around PSR J0437-4715

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Durant, Martin; Bykov, Andrei M; Krassilchtchikov, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Pulsars traveling at supersonic speeds are often accompanied by cometary bow shocks seen in Halpha. We report on the first detection of a pulsar bow shock in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). We detected it in FUV images of the nearest millisecond pulsar J0437-4715 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The images reveal a bow-like structure positionally coincident with part of the previously detected Halpha bow shock, with an apex at 10'' ahead of the moving pulsar. Its FUV luminosity, L(1250-2000 A) ~ 5x10^28 erg/s, exceeds the Halpha luminosity from the same area by a factor of 10. The FUV emission could be produced by the shocked ISM matter or, less likely, by relativistic pulsar wind electrons confined by strong magnetic field fluctuations in the bow shock. In addition, in the FUV images we found a puzzling extended (~3'' in size) structure overlapping with the limb of the bow shock. If related to the bow shock, it could be produced by an inhomogeneity in the ambient medium or an instability in the bow shock...

  12. THE JET-DRIVEN BOW SHOCK IN OUTFLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQing; ZhengXingwu

    1999-01-01

    Recent high resolution observations show the high collimated bipolar molecular outflows from young stellar objects, such as NGC 2 264G and NGC 2 024. Existing models can not yet give complete interpretations of the structure and properties of the observed flow. Here, we propose a jet-driven bow

  13. School Leader Enactments of the Structure/Agency Dialectic via Buffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Julianne A.; Settlage, John

    2015-01-01

    Even though school administrators and their leadership practices are rarely explored within science education research, our recent efforts to understand organizational influences on achievement disparities induced an elevated regard for elementary school principals. In this paper, we report on policy buffering by principals at schools whose…

  14. Common data buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, F.

    1981-01-01

    Time-shared interface speeds data processing in distributed computer network. Two-level high-speed scanning approach routes information to buffer, portion of which is reserved for series of "first-in, first-out" memory stacks. Buffer address structure and memory are protected from noise or failed components by error correcting code. System is applicable to any computer or processing language.

  15. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

  16. Silver hollow optical fibers with acrylic silicone resin coating as buffer layer for sturdy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    For sturdy silver hollow optical fibers, acrylic silicone resin is newly used as a buffer layer between an inner silver layer and a silica capillary. This acrylic silicone resin film prevents the glass surface from chemical and mechanical micro damages during silver plating process, which deteriorate mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. In addition, it keeps high adhesion of the silver layer with the glass surface. We discuss improvement of mechanical strength of the hollow glass fibers without deterioration of optical properties.

  17. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; TAO Lin; YU Hong; LUO JianHua; GAO ZhiWei; LI YiXue

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for in vestigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed topological pattern helps to design more efficient algorithm specifically for metabolic networks. This coarsegrained graph also visualizes the vulnerable connections in the network, and thus could have important implication for disease studies and drug target identifications. In addition, analysis on the reciprocal links and main cores in the GSC part of bow-tie also reveals that the bow-tie structure of metabolic networks has its own intrinsic and significant features which are significantly different from those of random networks.

  18. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Lin, Naiguo; Wilber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  19. Bowing of marble panels: On-site damage analysis from the oeconomicum building at Goettingen (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Siegesmund, S.

    2003-04-01

    The use of natural stone panels or cladding material for building facades has led to some durability problems, especially with marble slabs. To examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on bowing a very detailed study was performed on the Oeconomicum Building at the University of Goettingen. In total 1556 panels from the whole building were measured with respect to the bowing using a bow-meter. The variation of bowing ranges from concave (up to 23 mm/m) to convex (up to -11 mm/m). The variation is not controlled by the position with respect to the geographical coordinates, height above ground, shadows, temperature etc.. On the north facade the different rock structures visible on the panel surfaces are a result of the marble slabs being cut in different directions. The different degree in bowing is associated with the structure of the marble since all other influencing factors are relatively constant (position, temperature, moisture content, building physics). Experimental data on the expansion behaviour under dry and/or wet conditions reveal a different degree in bowing with respect to the rock fabric and may help to explain the observed differences in bowing. The effect of the rock fabric especially of the lattice preferred orientation in this case clearly controls the deterioration of the marble and the degree of bowing. The bowing is also characterized by an increase in the porosity, decreasing values of ultrasonic wave velocities and flexural strength. The loss of cohesion in the strongly deteriorated panels is clearly visible in the microstructure by the open grain boundaries which are interconnected to intergranular microcracks.

  20. Effect of bovine serum albumin on the functionality and structure of catanionic surfactant at air-buffer interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Kajari; Bhattacharya, Subhash C.; Moulik, Satya P. [Centre for Surface Science, Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Panda, Amiya K., E-mail: akpanda1@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734 013 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the solvent spread monolayer of a catanionic surfactant, octadecyltrimethylammonium dodecylsulfate, (C{sub 18}TA{sup +}DS{sup -}) at the air-buffer interface was investigated by measuring the surface pressure with time and change in surface area. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was used as reference. Kinetics of BSA desorption from the interface to the buffer subphase, that of C{sub 18}TA{sup +}DS{sup -} and DPPC through their interaction with BSA, were also studied at different BSA concentrations (in the subphase) and surface pressures. Surface pressure ({pi})-area (A) isotherms (at pH = 5.4, {mu} = 0.01, T = 298 K) revealed that the coacervate/DPPC monolayer becomes expanded in the presence of BSA at low {pi} while their protein bound species are released into the subphase at high {pi}. Film morphology, studied by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), reveals that the sizes of the domains of both DPPC and coacervate decrease in the presence of BSA. Presence of BSA in the coacervate and DPPC monolayer was supported from AFM data analysis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of BSA on the functionality and structure of C{sub 18}TA{sup +}DS{sup -}/DPPC at the air-buffer interface was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BSA molecules coadsorb at lower surface pressure, while they abstract amphiphiles at higher surface pressure into the bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic studies of adsorption/desorption of BSA at/from the interface were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organized amphiphiles are perturbed in the presence of BSA.

  1. Impact of buffer layer and Pt thickness on the interface structure and magnetic properties in (Co/Pt) multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersweiler, M.; Dumesnil, K.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of Pt thickness on the interface structure (roughness / intermixing) and magnetic properties has been investigated for (Co / Pt) multilayers sputtered on a Pt or a thin oxide (MgO or AlO x ) buffer layer. When Pt thickness increases from 1.2 nm-2.2 nm, we observe that the effective anisotropy increases with the Pt thickness, simultaneously with the decrease of roughness, i.e. the occurrence of sharper interfaces. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is still achieved on the oxide buffer layers, but with a lower effective anisotropy correlated to more perturbed interfaces. The detailed analysis of the saturation magnetization shows that: (i) M s is significantly enhanced in the case of rough/intermixed interfaces, which is attributed to and discussed in the framework of Pt induced polarization, (ii) the change in volume dipolar anisotropy is the main factor responsible for the reduction of K eff for systems grown on oxides. Beyond the major role of volume dipolar contribution that reduces PMA, a supplemental positive contribution promoting PMA can be invoked for rough interfaces and large M s (deposit on oxide). This contribution is consistent with a dipolar surface anisotropy term and increases for rough interfaces, in contrast to the Néel surface anisotropy. These opposite variations may interestingly lead to an enhanced anisotropy in (Co / Pt) stackings grown on oxides compared to systems deposited on Pt, i.e. with sharper interfaces.

  2. Improved optical packet switching structure with recirculation buffer and feedback tunable wavelength converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Wu; Shilin Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The performance of an optical switching network is mainly determined by its core node structure.An improved optical packet switching(OPS)node structure based on recirculation optical fiber delay line(FDL)and feedback tunable wavelength converter(TWC),and a specific scheduling algorithm for the node structure are presented.This switching structure supports both point-to-point and point-to-multi-points broadcasting transmission with superior capacity expansion performance.Its superiority in packet loss probability is proved by simulation.

  3. Tunable All-Optical Filtering and Buffering in a Coupled Quantum Dot-Planar Photonic Crystal Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yong; QIAN Jun; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically investigate controlled tunable all-optical filtering and buffering of optical pulses in a hybrid nano-photonic structure,where a single quantum dot (QD) embedded in a photonic crystal nanocavity is sidecoupled between a bare nanocavity and a photonic crystal waveguide.We demonstrate that there is a sharp low-loss transmission peak in the transmission spectrum under even low QD-nanocavity coupling strength and the input optical pulses can be delayed up to several hundred piceseconds within the dephasing time of the QD.The filtering regime can be shifted readily by manipulating the detuning between the QD excitonic transition frequency and resonant frequency of the nanocavity mode,which can be explored in future for on-clup all-optical logic and signal processing.

  4. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  5. Control of diffuse P-pollutants by multiple buffer/detention structures by Yuqiao Reservoir, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xia-hui; YIN Cheng-qing; SHAN Bao-qing

    2004-01-01

    A case study on the transport process of agricultural diffuse P-pollutants was conducted in an experimental watershed locating in the north bank of Yuqiao Reservoir during 2001 and 2002. It was found that diversified artificial and natural buffer/detention landscape structures distributing along the ephemeral stream channel in this watershed played an important role of pollutants removal on downstream water quality, especially they have control effect on the diffuse P-pollutants transport process. Surface flow velocity was reduced sharply after passing through these structures. During continuous runoff events, the removal rate of TSS, TP, TDP, DRP by the whole system were 66.7%, 60.7%, 48.4%, and 43.3%, respectively. During discontinuous runoff events, removal rate of pollutants by the whole system was higher due to there was no or little surface water and pollutants exported from the watershed, of which removal rate of pollutants all exceeded 99%. The statistical analysis results of runoff events( n = 8) indicated that dry pond was the steadiest structure for controlling diffuse P-pollutants export.

  6. Kinetic buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which kinetically produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment.

  7. Effect of bow-type initial imperfection on the buckling load and mass of graphite-epoxy blade-stiffened panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Anderson, M. S.; Hennessy, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    A structural synthesis computer code which accounts for first order effects of an initial bow and which can be used for sizing stiffened composite panels having an arbitrary cross section is used to study graphite blade-stiffened panels. The effect of a small initial bow on both the load carrying ability of panels and on the mass of panels designed to carry a specified load is examined. Large reductions in the buckling load caused by a small initial bow emphasize the need for considering a bow when a panel is designed.

  8. Bow-arrow interaction in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, B W

    1998-11-01

    A mathematical model of the flight of the arrow during its discharge from a bow was proposed by Pekalski (1990). His description of the model was incomplete. In this paper, I give a full description of the model. Furthermore, I propose some improvements that make his model more consistent with reality. One achievement is the modelling of contact of the arrow and grip; the pressure button is modelled as a unilateral elastic support. The acceleration force acting upon the arrow during the launch is predicted by an advanced mathematical model of bow dynamics. There is a satisfactory conformity of the simulation and experimental results. The new model predicts that the arrow leaves the pressure button before it leaves the string, as reported previously. The ability to model arrow dynamics can be used to improve the adjustment of the bow-arrow system for optimal performance.

  9. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  10. Crystal structure and polarization hysteresis properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film capacitors on (Ba,Sr)TiO3-buffered substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hisashi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kutsuna, Kazutoshi; Matsuo, Hiroki; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Miyayama, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BT) thin-film capacitors with a buffer layer of (Ba1- x Sr x )TiO3 (BST) have been fabricated on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) single-crystal substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method, and the crystal structure and polarization hysteresis properties have been investigated. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping shows that the BST buffer effectively reduces the misfit strain relaxation of the BT films on SrRuO3 (SRO) electrodes. The BT capacitor with the SRO electrodes on the BST (x = 0.3) buffer exhibits a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a remanent polarization of 29 µC/cm2. The hysteresis loop displays a shift toward a specific field direction, which is suggested to stem from the flexoelectric coupling between the out-of-plane polarization and the strain gradient adjacent to the bottom interface.

  11. Effects of bonding structure from niobium carbide buffer layer on the field electric emission properties of a-C films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Wang, C.; Hu, C. Q.; Zhao, Z. D.; Yu, W. X.; Zheng, W. T.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the field electron emission for amorphous carbon (a-C) films deposited on Si (100) substrates through a niobium carbide buffer layer at different flow rate ratios of CH4/(CH4+Ar) in a CH4/Ar mixture discharge, and find that the composition and chemical bonding of the buffer layer can substantially affect the electron field emission properties of a-C films. The high ratio of Nb-C/Nb-Nb bonds in the buffer layer promotes the electron emission of a-C film. The first-principles calculated results show that the work function of NbC is lower than that of Nb, which is the reason why the high ratio of Nb-C/Nb-Nb bonds in the buffer layer favors the field emission of a-C film.

  12. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown chemically on sputtered GaN buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, R.; Joshi, Pranav [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh, Devendra; Mohanta, Pravanshu [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Major, S.S., E-mail: syed@iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-03-31

    ZnO nanorods were grown on 200 nm thick sputtered ZnO and GaN buffer layers on quartz substrates by chemical bath deposition. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer possess larger diameter and smaller lengths and are vertically misaligned, compared to those grown on ZnO buffer layer. These differences are attributed to lack of complete c-axis orientation of crystallites in GaN buffer layer, its lattice mismatch with that of ZnO and a hindered nucleation process of ZnO on GaN surface, owing to a finite nucleation barrier and limited surface diffusion. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer, however, exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge luminescence and drastically suppressed defect luminescence compared to the luminescence spectrum of the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. Deconvolution of the photoluminescence peaks and Raman studies indicate significant reduction of oxygen vacancies and gallium incorporation in the ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer. These observations suggest the possibility of exchange reaction mediated by the aqueous medium, particularly during the initial stages of growth. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on sputtered GaN buffer layer deposited on quartz. • ZnO nanorods on polycrystalline GaN show limited vertical alignment of c-axis. • ZnO nanorods on GaN show high band edge and negligible defect luminescence. • Raman and photoluminescence studies indicate solution mediated interface reaction.

  13. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310...; (3) Be clearly marked; (4) Be segregated from the cargo piping by a removable spool piece in...

  14. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buren, Dave; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Dgani, Ruth

    1995-12-01

    We searched the IRAS data for bow shock-like objects like those known around ζ Oph and α Cam near the positions of 188 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 μm emission we identify 58 candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well-resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with the proper motions of the stars indicate the two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  15. Polarization signatures of bow shocks: A diagnostic tool to constrain the properties of stellar winds and ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Nielson, Hilding R.; Ignace, Richard

    2017-01-01

    When a stellar wind traveling at supersonic speed interacts with almost stationary ISM, a bow shock shape is formed. By studying a bow shock, we can obtain information about the properties of the stellar wind as well as the surrounding ISM. Bow shocks are asymmetric structures, and thus produce net polarization even if they are unresolved. Hence, polarization studies of bow shocks can provide complementary constraints on their properties.We simulate the polarization signatures of circumstellar material with bow shock geometries using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code called SLIP. We use the analytic solution from Wilkin (1996) to define the geometry and mass surface density of the bow shock in our models. We present results from our simulations showing how changing CSM optical depth, CSM albedo, photon source, and scattering particles (electrons or different types of dust particles) affects the observed polarization in both resolved and unresolved cases. In the optically thin regime of the unresolved electron-scattering case, the polarization peaks at an inclination angle of 90°, in agreement with analytical single-scattering models. In optically thick cases, a second polarization peak appears near 130°, which we propose is due to multiple scattering. Given these results, an observed polarization value can constrain the inclination of an unresolved bow shock to two possible angles, which in turn constrain the motion of the star. In case of resolved bow shocks, our simulations produce polarization maps which we compare with observations.We also present results from our dust-scattering simulations, which show that multicolor broadband polarization observations can constrain the characteristics of the dust in a resolved or unresolved bow shock-shaped CSM configuration.

  16. Efficient red-emission InGaN/GaN multilayered structure on Si with surface-nitrified HfO{sub 2} film as buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehua; Hu, Fangren [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Peter Grunberg Research Center, Nanjing (China); Wang, Yongjin [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Peter Grunberg Research Center, Nanjing (China); Hane, K. [Tohoku University, Department of Nanomechanics, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A four-period InGaN/GaN (8 nm/48 nm) layered structure was deposited on a Si substrate with a surface-nitrified HfO{sub 2} film as a buffer layer (5 nm). A high In concentration of In{sub 0.36}Ga{sub 0.64}N was obtained in the InGaN layers. Red photoluminescence of 648 nm was observed from the layered structure. The internal quantum efficiency of the red emission from the InGaN layers on the surface-nitrified HfO{sub 2}/Si was 52 %, which was more than 18 times larger than that on the Si substrate without HfO{sub 2}. The surface-nitrified HfO{sub 2} provides another effective buffer layer to grow the InGaN/GaN layered structure on the Si substrate. (orig.)

  17. Application of high-turning bowed compressor stator to redesign of highly loaded fan stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaobin LI; Jiexian SU; Zhongqi WANG

    2008-01-01

    A redesign of a highly loaded fan stage by using high-turning bowed compressor stator was conducted. The original tandem stator was replaced by the highly loaded bowed stator which was applicable to highly sub-sonic flow conditions. 3D contouring technique and local modification of blade were applied to the design of the bowed blade in order to improve the aerodynamic per-formance and the matching of the rotor and stator blade rows. Performance curves at different rotating speeds and performances at different operating points for both the original fan stage and redesigned fan stage were obtained by numerical simulations. The results show that the highly loaded bowed stator can be used not only to improve the structure and the aerodynamic performances at various operating points of the compressor stage but also to pro-vide high performances at off-design conditions. It is believed that the highly loaded bowed stator can advance the design of high-performance compressor.

  18. Properties of bow-shock sources at the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Schödel, R.; Alberdi, A.; Muzić, K.; Hummel, C. A.; Pott, J.-U.

    2014-07-01

    Context. There exists an enigmatic population of massive stars around the Galactic center (GC) that were formed some Myr ago. A fraction of these stars has been found to orbit the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, in a projected clockwise disk-like structure, which suggests that they were formed in a formerly existing dense disk around Sgr A*. Aims: We focus on a subgroup of objects, the extended, near-infrared (NIR) bright sources IRS 1W, IRS 5, IRS 10W, and IRS 21, that have been suggested to be young, massive stars that form bow shocks through their interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Their nature has impeded accurate determinations of their orbital parameters. We aim at establishing their nature and kinematics to test whether they form part of the clockwise disk. Methods: We performed NIR multiwavelength imaging with NACO/VLT using direct adaptive optics (AO) and AO-assisted sparse aperture masking (SAM). We introduce a new method for self-calibration of the SAM point spread function in dense stellar fields. The emission mechanism, morphology, and kinematics of the targets were examined via 3D models, combined with existing models of the gas flow in the central parsec. Results: We confirm previous findings that IRS 21, IRS 1W, and IRS 5 are bow-shocks created by the interaction between mass-losing stars and the interstellar gas. The nature of IRS 10W remains unclear. Our modeling shows that the bow-shock emission is caused by thermal emission, while the scattering of stellar light does not play a significant role. IRS 1W shows a morphology that is consistent with a bow shock produced by an anisotropic stellar wind or by locally inhomogeneous ISM density. Our best-fit models provide estimates of the local proper motion of the ISM in the Northern Arm that agree with previously published models that were based on radio interferometry and NIR spectroscopy. Assuming that all of the sources are gravitationally tied to Sagittarius A*, their orbital planes

  19. Bow shock nebulae of hot massive stars in a magnetized medium

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, D M -A; Kuiper, R; Raga, A; Kley, W

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of OB-type, main-sequence massive stars are classified as runaway and move supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their strong stellar winds interact with their surroundings where the typical strength of the local ISM magnetic field is about 3.5-7 micro-G, which can result in the formation of bow shock nebulae. We investigate the effects of such magnetic fields, aligned with the motion of the flow, on the formation and emission properties of these circumstellar structures. Our axisymmetric, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling, heating and anisotropic thermal conduction show that the presence of the background ISM magnetic field affects the projected optical emission our bow shocks at Ha and [OIII] lambda 5007 which become fainter by about 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively. Radiative transfer calculations against dust opacity indicate that the magnetic field slightly diminishes their projected infrared emission and that our bow shoc...

  20. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...... on plate unit elements are employed in the analyses. The crushing forces and the total absorbed energy obtained by the simplified analyses are compared with those obtained from large-scale bulbous bow experiments. The accuracy and the applicability of these methods are discussed in detail....

  1. Capacitance-voltage and retention characteristics of Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/HfO2/Si structures with various buffer layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M. H.; Sun, Z. H.; Zhou, Y. C.; Sugiyama, Y.; Ishiwara, H.

    2009-05-01

    The metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure diodes with SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) as ferroelectric thin film and HfO2 as insulating buffer layer were fabricated. The electrical properties of MFIS structure were investigated for different HfO2 buffer layer thickness. The experimental results show that the memory window extended significantly as the HfO2 layer thickness increased from 6 to 10 nm. It is also observed that the leakage current was reduced to about 10-10 A at applied voltage of 4 V, and the high and low capacitances remained distinguishable for over 8 h even if we extrapolate the measured data to 10 years.

  2. Suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, A; Sergis, N; Stawarz, L; Fujimoto, M; Coates, A J; Dougherty, M K

    2016-01-01

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini. The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, 18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically onl...

  3. First Detection of a Pulsar Bow Shock Nebula in Far-UV: PSR J0437-4715

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Durant, Martin; Bykov, Andrei M.; Krassilchtchikov, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    Pulsars traveling at supersonic speeds are often accompanied by cometary bow shocks seen in Hα. We report on the first detection of a pulsar bow shock in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). We detected it in FUV images of the nearest millisecond pulsar J0437-4715 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The images reveal a bow-like structure positionally coincident with part of the previously detected Hα bow shock, with an apex at 10″ ahead of the moving pulsar. Its FUV luminosity, L(1250{--}2000 \\mathringA )≈ 5 × {10}28 erg s-1, exceeds the Hα luminosity from the same area by a factor of 10. The FUV emission could be produced by the shocked interstellar medium matter or, less likely, by relativistic pulsar wind electrons confined by strong magnetic field fluctuations in the bow shock. In addition, in the FUV images we found a puzzling extended (≃3″ in size) structure overlapping with the limb of the bow shock. If related to the bow shock, it could be produced by an inhomogeneity in the ambient medium or an instability in the bow shock. We also report on a previously undetected X-ray emission extending for about 5″ ahead of the pulsar, possibly a pulsar wind nebula created by shocked pulsar wind, with a luminosity L(0.5-8 keV) ˜ 3 × 1028 erg s-1. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO 12917 and GO 10568.

  4. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-06-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture.

  5. X-ray Emission Line Profiles from Wind Clump Bow Shocks in Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ignace, R; Cassinelli, J P

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of structured flows continue to be a pressing topic in relating spectral data to physical processes occurring in massive star winds. In a preceding paper, our group reported on hydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow past a rigid spherical clump to explore the structure of bow shocks that can form around wind clumps. Here we report on profiles of emission lines that arise from such bow shock morphologies. To compute emission line profiles, we adopt a two component flow structure of wind and clumps using two "beta" velocity laws. While individual bow shocks tend to generate double horned emission line profiles, a group of bow shocks can lead to line profiles with a range of shapes with blueshifted peak emission that depends on the degree of X-ray photoabsorption by the interclump wind medium, the number of clump structures in the flow, and the radial distribution of the clumps. Using the two beta law prescription, the theoretical emission measure and temperature distribution throughout the...

  6. Anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using double AlN buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-01-01

    We report the anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11-22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using a three-step growth method which consisted of a low temperature AlN buffer layer, followed by a high temperature AlN buffer layer and GaN growth. By introducing double AlN buffer layers, we substantially improve the crystal and optical qualities of semi-polar (11-22) GaN, and significantly reduce the density of stacking faults and dislocations. The high resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics of GaN layer are azimuthal dependent. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of dislocations in the GaN epitaxial layer grown on m-sapphire are the mixed-type and the orientation of GaN layer was rotated 58.4° against the substrate. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the PL intensity and wavelength have polarization dependence along parallel and perpendicular to the [1-100] axis (polarization degrees ~ 0.63). The realization of a high polarization semi-polar GaN would be useful to achieve III-nitride based lighting emission device for displays and backlighting.

  7. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 1., Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  8. Influence of vegetation structure on lidar-derived canopy height and fractional cover in forested riparian buffers during leaf-off and leaf-on conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available.

  9. Parallel log structured file system collective buffering to achieve a compact representation of scientific and/or dimensional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grider, Gary A.; Poole, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    Collective buffering and data pattern solutions are provided for storage, retrieval, and/or analysis of data in a collective parallel processing environment. For example, a method can be provided for data storage in a collective parallel processing environment. The method comprises receiving data to be written for a plurality of collective processes within a collective parallel processing environment, extracting a data pattern for the data to be written for the plurality of collective processes, generating a representation describing the data pattern, and saving the data and the representation.

  10. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering... firm worker group should read: Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering... workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, including...

  11. The structural transition from epitaxial Fe/Pt multilayers to an ordered FePt film using low energy ion beam sputtering deposition with no buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chih-Hao, E-mail: chlee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Sheng [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Liu, Li-Jung [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.C.A. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    An epitaxial L1{sub 0} FePt thin film grown from an [Fe(10 Å)/Pt(10 Å)]{sub 15} multilayer with the orientation of (001) was prepared by an ion beam sputtering deposition method without buffer layer. From the measurement data of X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity, the multilayer structure was totally disappeared and a uniform FePt alloy thin film was formed at temperatures higher than 600 °C. For the as-deposited thin film grown at 100 °C, the multilayer already possesses an epitaxial structure. The epitaxial relation is FePt(001)[100]//MgO(001)[100] and this epitaxial relation persists after sequential high temperature annealing. An epitaxial L1{sub 0} ordered FePt(001) film with order parameter of 0.95 was obtained when the annealing temperature reached 650 °C. The ordered FePt(001) thin film has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness of 0.95 ± 0.03 on the magnetic hysteresis loop. This experiment demonstrates that the low energy ion beam sputtering deposition will preserve the epitaxial relation with no buffer layer between multilayer and substrate. - Highlights: • The Fe/Pt films using ion sputtering deposition with no buffer layer is epitaxial. • Multilayer structure was totally disappeared at temperatures higher than 600 °C. • Order parameter reach 0.95 after annealing at 650 °C. • Interfacial epitaxial FePt alloy already formed at 100 °C.

  12. Design of the Buffer Structure of Traction Running with a Constant Speed%恒定速度牵引运行的缓冲结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜; 曾宪任

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly aimed to study buffer structure design on the traction transport system when the traction transport boundary conditions were given.With such conditions as the maximum impact force,traction speed,maximum speed of alluvium,the elasticity coefficient and the mass of buffer structure,a mathematical model was established and the solution of differential equations was solved.At last,a program was compiled with MATLAB language.With this program the elasticity coefficient and the maximum impact force which meet the requirements in impact process could be solved as long as the boundary conditions were input.This provided a quick design basis of buffer structure for most mechanical engineers.%主要研究牵引运输中的缓冲结构设计;通过对给定的牵引运输的边界条件:最大冲击作用力、牵引速度、冲击物最大速度、缓冲结构弹性系数及质量,建立数学模型,求解微分方程,得到问题的解;最后通过MATLAB语言对问题的求解过程进行了程序设计,只要将边界条件输入,就可以解出满足要求的缓冲结构的弹性系数及冲击过程的最大冲击力。给广大机械设计人员提供了快速的缓冲结构设计依据。

  13. Recent H-alpha Results on Pulsar B2224+65's Bow-Shock Nebula, the "Guitar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Timothy; Chatterjee, Shami; Clemens, Dan P.; Cordes, James M.; Cashmen, Lauren R.; Taylor, Brian W.

    2016-09-01

    We used the 4 m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) at Lowell observatory in 2014 to observe the Guitar Nebula, an Hα bow-shock nebula around the high-velocity radio pulsar B2224+65. Since the nebula's discovery in 1992, the structure of the bow-shock has undergone significant dynamical changes. We have observed the limb structure, targeting the “body” and “neck” of the guitar. Comparing the DCT observations to 1995 observations with the Palomar 200-inch Hale telescope, we found changes in both spatial structure and surface brightness in the tip, head, and body of the nebula.

  14. Suprathermal Electrons at Saturn's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, A.; Sulaiman, A. H.; Sergis, N.; Stawarz, L.; Fujimoto, M.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-07-01

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini. The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, 18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ˜1 MeV).

  15. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  16. Marble bowing: comparative studies of three different public building facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Ruedrich, J.; Koch, A.

    2008-12-01

    The veneer cladding of the Oeconomicum (OEC, Göttingen), the State Theatre of Darmstadt (STD, Darmstadt) and of the State and University Library (SUB, Göttingen) is characterised by pronounced bowing after a short time of exposure. Direct comparison of bowing data related to measurements from 2000 to 2003 at the SUB clearly show that the amplitude in bowing had significantly increased. The bowing is different in intensity and orientation (concave, convex). The cladding material (Peccia marble, Rosa Estremoz marble and Carrara marble) are different in lattice preferred orientation, grain size distribution and grain interlocking. Depending on the bowing, panels may show cracks mostly initiated at the dowels. The percentage of visible cracks and breakouts increases with the amplitude of bowing except for the STD. Repetitive heating-cooling under dry conditions leads to considerable inelastic residual strain only after the first or second thermal cycle. The residual strain continuously increases again if water is present, whereby the moisture content after a thermal cycle has a certain impact on the decay rate. The water-enhanced thermal dilatation strongly correlates with the deterioration rate obtained from the laboratory bow test. Detailed petrophysical investigations provide evidence that with increasing bowing a decrease of mechanical properties (flexural strength or breaking load at dowel hole) occur. Marble degradation is also connected with the increase in porosity and a general shift of the maximum pore radii to larger pore sizes. On-site damage analyses were combined with laboratory tests of the bowing potential to constrain factors that may influence the risk failure. The experimental bowing data clearly demonstrate that after 40 heating cycles combined with the effect of moisture a certain impact on the decay rate is observed. In the case of demounted panels the bowing tests show that already strongly deformed panels from the building exhibit a lower

  17. Study on GaN buffer leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown by ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K., E-mail: ERADHA@e.ntu.edu.sg; Ng, G. I. [NOVITAS-Nanoelectronics, Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Munawar Basha, S.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Manoj kumar, C. M.; Arulkumaran, S. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2015-06-28

    The effect of carbon doping on the structural and electrical properties of GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures has been studied. In the undoped HEMT structures, oxygen was identified as the dominant impurity using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In addition, a notable parallel conduction channel was identified in the GaN buffer at the interface. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer using a CBr{sub 4} beam equivalent pressure of 1.86 × 10{sup −7} mTorr showed a reduction in the buffer leakage current by two orders of magnitude. Carbon doped GaN buffers also exhibited a slight increase in the crystalline tilt with some pits on the growth surface. PL and Raman measurements indicated only a partial compensation of donor states with carbon acceptors. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer with 200 nm thick undoped GaN near the channel exhibited good 2DEG characteristics.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of metal ferroelectric insulator semiconductor structure of Al/SrBi2Ta2O9/HfO2/Si using HfO2 as buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Dhar, A.; Bhattacharya, D.; Ray, S. K.

    2008-05-01

    Ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) thin films have been deposited by the radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique on bare p-Si as well as on HfO2 insulating buffer p-Si. XRD patterns revealed the formation of a well-crystallized SBT perovskite thin film on the HfO2 buffer layer. The electrical properties of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure were characterized by varying thicknesses of the HfO2 layer. The MFIS structure exhibits a maximum clockwise C-V memory window of 1.60 V when the thickness of the HfO2 layer was 12 nm with a lower leakage current density of 6.20 × 10-7 A cm-2 at a positive applied voltage of 7 V. However, the memory window reaches a maximum value of 0.7 V at a bias voltage of ±5 and then decreases due to charge injection in the case of the insulating buffer layer thickness of 3 nm. The density of oxide trapped charges at/near the buffer layer-ferroelectric interface is studied by the voltage stress method. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and leakage current density (J-V) characteristics of the Al/SBT/HfO2/Si(1 0 0) capacitor indicate that the introduction of the HfO2 buffer layer prevents interfacial diffusion between the SBT thin film and the Si substrate effectively and improves the interface quality. Furthermore, the Al/SBT/HfO2/Si structures exhibit excellent retention characteristics, the high and low capacitance values clearly distinguishable for over 1 h and 30 min. This shows that the proposed Al/SrBi2Ta2O9/HfO2/Si structure is ideally suitable for high performance ferroelectric memories.

  19. Effect of process temperature on structure and magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized D022-Mn3Ge thin films on a Cr buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Mizukami, Shigemi

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effect of post-annealing on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant (Ku) and surface roughness (Ra) of Mn3Ge thin films grown at comparatively low temperatures (room temperature, 150, 200, and 250 °C) on Cr buffer layers. The films grown at ≥200 °C exhibit a D022-ordered crystal structure in an as-deposited state. The post-annealing process demonstrates differences in trends between the 200-°C-grown film and the 250-°C-grown film. The 200-°C-grown film displays significant degradation of Ku and an increase in Ra upon annealing at >300 °C because of its poor thermal durability, while the 250-°C-grown film is still intact even at 500 °C. The 250-°C-grown film post-annealed at 300 °C displays relatively high Ku while Ra remains low. It may be possible to grow D022-Mn3Ge with higher Ku and low Ra using a buffer-layer material with a lattice-matched crystal structure with D022-Mn3Ge and higher thermal durability than Cr.

  20. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton structur

  1. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  2. Diagnosis of the Thermal Bow of a Shaft in a Three Stage Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In practice many turbo-machines driven by motors are started up to operational speed within a very short time, i.e. in less than 20 seconds. For this type of machines the compatibility of thermal deformation of the rotor structure must be taken into account in the machine design, or the thermal deformation will be constrained and a huge resultant force can cause the shaft bending and consequently resulting in violent vibrations. In this paper, detection of thermal bow of a shaft in a three stage centrifugal compressor in a petrochemical plant is presented. The diagnostic results show that the thermal bow was induced by the incompatibility of axial thermal deformation of the rotor structure. A remedial action allowing free axial thermal expansion of the outer parts of the rotor is suggested.

  3. Dual-Frequency Operation of Bow-Tie Microstrip Antenna%蝶形微带天线的双频工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟顺时; 张需溥

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of a single-feed dual-frequency bow-tie microstrip antenna are studied. By using the variation method, simple formulas for resonant frequencies of the bow-tie microstrip antenna are derived. It is shown that the dual-frequency ratio can be controlled easily by choosing the parameters of the antenna. This design gives compact antenna size and simple antenna structure. Experimental results are presented, verifying the validity of the design.

  4. The static response of a bowed inclined hot wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The directional sensitivity of a bowed, inclined hot wire is investigated using a simple model for the convective heat transfer. The static response is analyzed for subsonic and supersonic flows. It is shown that the effects of both end conduction and wire bowing are greater in supersonic flow. Regardless of the Mach number, however, these two phenomena have distinctly different effects; end conduction appears to be responsible for reducing the nonlinearity of the response, whereas bowing increases the directional sensitivity. Comparison with the available data suggests that the analysis is useful for interpreting the experimental results.

  5. Buffer Bulbous Bows: A Measure to Reduce Oil Spill in Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira

    2007-01-01

    Formålet med denne afhandling at undersøge, hvor meget man ville kunne reducere olieudslip forårsaget af skibskollisioner ved at indføre mindre stærke bulbstævne på verdens skibe. Analysen omfatter såvel deterministiske som probabilistiske metoder. Afhandlingen består af et sammendrag og fem publ...

  6. Limiting Impact Force Due to Yielding and Buckling of the Plates and Internal Structural Frame at the Bow of a Barge during Its Head-on Impact with a Bullnose or Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Crushing damage of barge headlog ................................................................................. 37 Tables Table 3.1. Three design load...types of structures as the geometry of the contact area is the same for both.) The photograph on the cover of this report shows a badly damaged barge...structural concept can be explained as follows. Because of the elastoplastic and limiting strain material characteristics of steel combined with the

  7. Phenomenology of the earth's bow shock system - A summary description of experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    Observational data on the earth's bow shock system are classified and characterized. Foreshock components, midshock components, and aftershock components are discussed separately. Schematic representations of the field and plasma particle parameters are elaborated, with attention given to quasi-perpendicular geometry and quasi-parallel geometry. Magnetic pulsation structure is delineated. Schematic profiles of field, particle, and wave behavior through a representative quasi-perpendicular shock crossing are displayed.

  8. Cluster magnetic field observations at a quasi-parallel bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    Full Text Available We present four-point Cluster magnetic field data from a quasi-parallel shock crossing which allows us to probe the three-dimensional structure of this type of shock for the first time. We find that steepened ULF waves typically have a scale larger than the spacecraft separation ( ~ 400–1000 km, while SLAMS-like magnetic field enhancements have different signatures in | B | at the four spacecraft, suggesting that they have a smaller scale size. In the latter case, however, the angular variations of B are similar, consistent with the space-craft making different trajectories through the same structure. The field enhancements have different orientations relative to a model bow shock normal, which might arise from different degrees of deceleration and deflection of the surrounding solar wind plasma. The observed rotation of the magnetic field rising from a direction approximately parallel to the model bow shock normal to a direction more perpendicular to the model normal across the field enhancement is consistent with previously published results. Successive magnetic field enhancements or ULF waves, and the leading and trailing edges of the same structure, are found to have different orientations.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks

  9. 76 FR 12016 - MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: The MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Walden, Colorado. The... will be held at Parks Ranger District, 100 Main Street, Walden, Colorado. Written comments should...

  10. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells; Aplicacion del metodo de Bow Tie para la evaluacion de seguridad en la practica de perfilaje de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk.

  11. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Akman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years. Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°. On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP; instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P0 < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively. Combined correlation is perfect (R[2] = 1 as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component

  12. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21–84 years). Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78–102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect (R2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning

  13. Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    contain several bowing segments. These multiple segments could occur at the same time and be located within the same bow, such as the serial derecho ...Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342. Fovell, R. G., 2002: Upstream influence of numerically...Se- vere Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.6. Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos : Widespread con- vectively induced

  14. Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae Passing Through Density Discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Doosoo

    2016-01-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae are a subset of pulsar wind nebulae that form when the pulsar has high velocity due to the natal kick during the supernova explosion. The interaction between the relativistic wind from the fast-moving pulsar and the interstellar medium produces a bow-shock and a trail, which are detectable in H$_{\\alpha}$ emission. Among such bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae, the Guitar Nebula stands out for its peculiar morphology, which consists of a prominent bow-shock head and a series of bubbles further behind. We present a scenario in which multiple bubbles can be produced when the pulsar encounters a series of density discontinuities in the ISM. We tested the scenario using 2-D and 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. The shape of the guitar nebula can be reproduced if the pulsar traversed a region of declining low density. We also show that if a pulsar encounters an inclined density discontinuity, it produces an asymmetric bow-shock head, consistent with observations of the bow-shock of the millise...

  15. Deflection Reduction of GaN Wafer Bowing by Coating or Cutting Grooves in the Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tao; WANG Ming-Qing; SUN Yong-Jian; WANG Bo-Ping; ZHANG Guo-Yi; TONG Yu-Zhen; DUAN Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    @@ GaN films on sapphire substrates are obtained using the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth technique.We present two methods to reduce the GaN wafer bowing caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients(TECs)between the film and the substrate.The first method is to use coating materials on the back side of the substrate whose TECs are smaller than that of the GaN films.The second is to cut grooves on the back side of the sapphire substrate and filling the grooves with appropriate materials(e.g., tungsten, silicon nitride).For each method, we minimize wafer bowing and even reduce it to zero.Moreover, the two methods can reduce stress concentration and suppress the propagation of cracks in the GaN/sapphire structure.%GaN films on sapphire substrates are obtained using the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth technique. We present two methods to reduce the GaN wafer bowing caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) between the film and the substrate. The first method is to use coating materials on the back side of the substrate whose TECs are smaller than that of the GaN films. The second is to cut grooves on the back side of the sapphire substrate and filling the grooves with appropriate materials (e.g., tungsten, silicon nitride).For each method, we minimize wafer bowing and even reduce it to zero. Moreover, the two methods can reduce stress concentration and suppress the propagation of cracks in the GaN/sapphire structure.

  16. Hydroelastic Response of Surface-Effect Ship Bow Seals: Large-Scale Experiments and Post-Buckling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Andrew D.

    Bow seals are critical components on advanced marine vehicles that rely on aerostatic support to reduce drag. They consist of a series of open-ended fabric cylinders ("fingers") that contact the free surface and, when inflated, form a compliant pressure barrier. Bow seals are unique in that, unlike a majority of structures in civil and mechanical engineering, bow seals operate in a buckled state. The response characteristics of these structures are of practical interest due to unacceptable wear rates on seal components and difficulties in predicting seal performance. Despite this, the hydroelastic response of the seal system, particularly basic information on seal vibration modes and the mechanisms responsible for seal wear, remains largely unknown. Similarly, estimates of the hydrodynamic loads on the seal system are inaccurate and based on heuristic scaling of data from small-scale experiments, where similitude is challenging to maintain. Thus, a large-scale test system is necessary to obtain accurate estimates of bow seal response. The work is comprised of three parts. Part one presents detailed observations of bow seal response acquired using a large-scale test platform developed as part of the present study. These high-resolution observations, the first of their kind, show bow seal response to be characterized by complex post-buckling behavior. Part two proposes an analytical framework for interpreting the wide range of behavior observed at large scale. Using this framework, key parameters driving seal conformation and stability are identified. It is found that, due to their buckled state, bow seals are highly susceptible to a mode switching instability, which may be a potential mechanism responsible for the damaging vibrations. In part three, a benchtop experiment is used to demonstrate that the scalings identified in this study hold across a wide range of bending rigidities. This work has implications for improving drag and wear characteristics in future bow

  17. Bow-tie diagrams for risk management in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, M D; Merry, A F; Clarke, D M; Taraporewalla, K J; Gibbs, N M

    2016-11-01

    Bow-tie analysis is a risk analysis and management tool that has been readily adopted into routine practice in many high reliability industries such as engineering, aviation and emergency services. However, it has received little exposure so far in healthcare. Nevertheless, its simplicity, versatility, and pictorial display may have benefits for the analysis of a range of healthcare risks, including complex and multiple risks and their interactions. Bow-tie diagrams are a combination of a fault tree and an event tree, which when combined take the shape of a bow tie. Central to bow-tie methodology is the concept of an undesired or 'Top Event', which occurs if a hazard progresses past all prevention controls. Top Events may also occasionally occur idiosyncratically. Irrespective of the cause of a Top Event, mitigation and recovery controls may influence the outcome. Hence the relationship of hazard to outcome can be viewed in one diagram along with possible causal sequences or accident trajectories. Potential uses for bow-tie diagrams in anaesthesia risk management include improved understanding of anaesthesia hazards and risks, pre-emptive identification of absent or inadequate hazard controls, investigation of clinical incidents, teaching anaesthesia risk management, and demonstrating risk management strategies to third parties when required.

  18. Numerical simulations of Mach stem formation via intersecting bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.; Yirak, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of Hα emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter Hα emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index γ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and observational consequences of bow shock intersections including the formation of Mach stems.

  19. Social complexity and the bow in the Eastern Woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, John H; Porth, Erik S

    2013-01-01

    Bingham and Souza have presented an evolutionary theory that specifies a causal relationship between the advent of powerful projectile weapons such as the bow and radical rearrangements in social relations and histories. They propose that the acquisition of weapons that permitted humans to kill at ever-increasing distances provided the coercive means to suppress conflicts of interest among nonkin, self-interested individuals in social groups, thus paving the way for greater social complexity. An unprecedented reduction in projectile point size identifies the arrival of the bow ca. A.D. 300 in the Eastern Woodlands of North America, which initiated a causal chain of cultural changes. In the Midwest, the bow, combined with food production, precipitated the decline of Hopewell by conferring household autonomy and dispersal, which at first suppressed social complexity, but later created conditions favorable to maize intensification. In the lower Southeast, where food production was unimportant, populations aggregated at concentrated wild-food sources, and the bow did not confer household autonomy. The relationship between the bow and social complexity varied under different environmental, social, and historical conditions.

  20. Structural characterisation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on SrRuO{sub 3}/YSZ buffered silicon substrates and silicon microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colder, H.; Jorel, C., E-mail: corentin.jorel@unicaen.fr; Méchin, L. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Domengès, B. [LAMIPS, CRISMAT-NXP Semiconductors-Presto Engineering laboratory, CNRS-UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 2 rue de la Girafe, 14 000 Caen (France); Marie, P.; Boisserie, M. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, CEA, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Guillon, S.; Nicu, L. [LAAS, CNRS, Univ de Toulouse, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse (France); Galdi, A. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Department of Industrial Engineering, CNR-SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We report on the progress towards an all epitaxial oxide layer technology on silicon substrates for epitaxial piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems. (101)-oriented epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films were deposited at two different oxygen pressures, 5.10{sup −2} mbar and 5.10{sup −3} mbar, on SrRuO{sub 3}/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffered silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YSZ layer full (001) orientation allowed the further growth of a fully (110)-oriented conductive SrRuO{sub 3} electrode as shown by X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structure of the BTO films, which is a prerequisite for the piezoelectric effect, was identified by Raman spectroscopy. In the BTO film deposited at 5.10{sup −2} mbar strain was mostly localized inside the BTO grains whereas at 5.10{sup −3} mbar, it was localized at the grain boundaries. The BTO/SRO/YSZ layers were finally deposited on Si microcantilevers at an O{sub 2} pressure of 5.10{sup −3} mbar. The strain level was low enough to evaluate the BTO Young modulus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the epitaxial quality of the layers and their epitaxial relationship on plain silicon wafers as well as on released microcantilevers, thanks to Focused-Ion-Beam TEM lamella preparation.

  1. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  2. Foreshock ions observed behind the Martian bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, R. A.; Yamauchi, M.; Winningham, J. D.; Lundin, R.; Sharber, J. R.; Nilsson, H.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Express Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment contains ion and electron instruments for conducting plasma measurements. On January 23, 2012, during in-bound travel of Mars Express in the southern hemisphere of Mars from its dawn side toward periapsis at dusk, the plasma instruments measured foreshock-like ion beams extending from outside the bow shock and into the magnetosphere, continuing to a distance of about a proton gyroradius from the bow shock. These ion beams were mostly protons, were observed to have energies greater than solar wind protons, and were not gyrating, in agreement with reflections of the solar wind proton beam. Furthermore, in the foreshock region the ion energy gradually decreased toward the magnetosheath, in agreement with an acceleration by outward-directed electric field in the bowshock. The observations also suggest that this electric field exists even inside the magnetosheath within the distance of a proton gyroradius from the bow shock.

  3. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Christopher R; Morris, Melissa M

    2016-01-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo's eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adia...

  4. Featured Image: A Search for Stellar Bow Shock Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    These dynamic infrared images (click for the full view!) reveal what are known as bow shock nebulae nebulae that form at the interface between the interstellar medium and the stellar wind from a high-speed star zipping through the galaxy (the arrows show the direction of motion of the star). When the relative speed between the two is supersonic, an arc-shaped bow shock forms ahead of the star, like the six prototypical ones pictured here. A team of scientists led by Henry Kobulnicky (University of Wyoming) has recently searched through survey data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) to build a catalog of more than 700 such bow-shock nebula candidates, the vast majority of which are new discoveries. To find out more about their sample, check out the paper below!CitationHenry A. Kobulnicky et al 2016 ApJS 227 18. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/227/2/18

  5. Transport of Solar Wind Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Yang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S.; Canu, P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Observations have established that about 20% of the solar wind (SW) is reflected and 80% directly transmitted across Earth's bow shock (Skopke et al, Adv. Space Sci., 15, No. 8/9, 269, 1995). The transmitted SW is not immediately thermalized and the magnetosheath plasma distribution can remain non-Maxwellian for a long time. Cluster observations have further established that most of the magnetosheath bulk flow remains super-Alfvenic except in the polar altitudes near the cusp region (Longmore et al., Anna. Geophysicae, 23, 3351-3364, 2005). We have studied SW ion distributions before and after entering the bow shock to examine the details of the solar wind-bow shock interaction. Preliminary findings indicate that a typical SW H+ beam with thermal kT ~10 eV drifting at 400 km/s in front of the bow shock appears as ~12 eV beam drifting at 250 km/s after it penetrates the shock barrier. The small kT increase is possibly due to wave-particle interaction at the boundary. While the He++ ion beam kT behaves similarly as H+ ions, the drift velocities of He++ ions do not always slow down as H+ ions. These observations indicate the physics of SW-bow shock interaction is much more complicated than the models that explain SW slow down as resulting from an electrostatic potential at the shock that decelerates the SW. We have started PIC simulation of SW transport across the bow shock and the results will be presented together with observations.

  6. Minor-form/microform cleft lip repair: the importance of identification and utilization of Cupid bow peak on the lateral lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Saito, Akira; Yamamoto, Yuhei

    2014-01-01

    In minor-form or microform cleft lip, normal anatomical structures with slight displacement remain and should be used effectively to obtain symmetrical results. We treated 7 patients with minor-form or microform cleft lip between 2005 and 2009. In all patients, the peak of Cupid bow with a natural curve of the white roll was recognized on the lateral lip. We modified the incision line to maintain the natural curve and obtained a symmetrical and natural-looking Cupid bow. In this article, we emphasize the importance of preserving the remaining normal structure, particularly the curve of the white roll on the lateral lip, and suggest that the peak of the curve should be defined as Cupid bow peak of the cleft side. Details of our concept for the correction of minor-form or microform cleft lip are also introduced.

  7. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  8. A Study of Uranus' Bow Shock Motions Using Langmuir Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, S.; Cairns, I. H.; Smith, C. W.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, strong electron plasma oscillations (Langmuir waves) were detected by the plasma wave instrument in the 1.78-kHz channel on January 23-24, 1986, prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. Langmuir waves are excited by energetic electrons streaming away from the bow shock. The goal of this work is to estimate the location and motion of Uranus' bow shock using Langmuir wave data, together with the spacecraft positions and the measured interplanetary magnetic field. The following three remote sensing analyses were performed: the basic remote sensing method, the lag time method, and the trace-back method. Because the interplanetary magnetic field was highly variable, the first analysis encountered difficulties in obtaining a realistic estimation of Uranus' bow shock motion. In the lag time method developed here, time lags due to the solar wind's finite convection speed are taken into account when calculating the shock's standoff distance. In the new trace-back method, limits on the standoff distance are obtained as a function of time by reconstructing electron paths. Most of the results produced by the latter two analyses are consistent with predictions based on the standard theoretical model and the measured solar wind plasma parameters. Differences between our calculations and the theoretical model are discussed.

  9. Analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Bame, S.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Richardson, I.G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F.M.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Coplan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cometary bow wave of P/Giacobini-Zinner has been analyzed using the complete set of ICE field and particle observations to determine if it is a shock. Changes in the magnetic field and plasma flow velocities from upstream to downstream have been analyzed to determine the direction of the normal and the propagation velocity of the bow wave. The velocity has then been compared with the fast magnetosonic wave speed upstream to derive the Mach number and establish whether it is ''supersonic'', i.e., a shock, or ''subsonic,'' i.e., a large amplitude wave. The various measurements have also been compared with values derived from a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis. The results indicate that, inbound, the bow wave is a shock with M = 1.5. Outbound, a subsonic mach number is obtained, however, arguments are presented that the bow wave is also likely to be a shock at this location. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Modeling non-thermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, V; Miceli, M; Bonito, R; de Castro, E

    2016-01-01

    Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing throughout the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high energy photons by non-thermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. We apply our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life.From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high energy fl...

  11. Numerical Simulations of Mach Stem Formation via Intersecting Bow Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Edward C; Hartigan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of H$\\alpha$ emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter H$\\alpha$ emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index $\\gamma$ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and obse...

  12. Small Arms of the Scythians. On the Time of Sigmoid Bow Appearance in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyashko Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse archers well-known in the ancient world used composite sigmoid bows for shooting (archery, the specific constructive features of which have been studied by the researchers. This type of a bow was convergently formed in Eastern China in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. and in the North Caucasus in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. It gets transferred to the Northern Black Sea Region by the Scythians in the late 7th - early 6th centuries B.C. that resulted in the dramatic transformation of arrowheads’ types. The Greeks became aware of this weapon in the last third of the 6th century B.C. Bows can be divided into simple and complex ones. The simple bows are made from one solid bar, while the complex bows are made of several layers of different wood species. Composite bows are constructed from a few consequently connected bars. These types also include a reinforced bow – the bow springing qualities of which are reinforced by bone or tendon plates. Since the ancient masters combined different production methods, the definition of a composite reinforced bow can be found in the literature. European small arms development was focused on improving a simple bow. The strength of such bow was achieved by its size. However, massive bows are unsuitable for firing from a horse. Therefore, in cultures associated with the development of riding the search of methods of bow strength increase at the condition of reducing its size, was going on. In Asia, the focus was made on the material rather than shoulders design. As a result, complex composite bows appear in the East, which were made from several pieces of wood, connected with the central part of the handle at an angle. After the appearance of the Scythians in the middle East the angular design of bows was replaced by a sigmoid shape (scythicus acrus.

  13. Structural and morphological properties of GaN buffer layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrion, A. L.; Poblenz, C.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-05-01

    The impact of growth conditions on the surface morphology and structural properties of ammonia molecular beam epitaxy GaN buffers layers on SiC substrates was investigated. The threading dislocation (TD) density was found to decrease with decreasing NH3:Ga flux ratio, which corresponded to an increase in surface roughness and reduction in residual compressive lattice mismatch stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and compressive stress decreased for increasing buffer thickness. TD inclination was proposed to account for these observations. Optimized surface morphologies were realized at high NH3:Ga flux ratios and were characterized by monolayer-high steps, spiral hillocks, and pyramidal mounds, with rms roughness of ˜1.0 nm over 2×2 μm2 atomic force microscopy images. Smooth surface morphologies were realized over a large range of growth temperatures and fluxes, and growth rates of up to 1 μm/h were achieved. TD densities in the buffers as low as 3×109 cm-2 were demonstrated. These buffers were highly insulating and were used in recently reported AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with power densities of >11 W/mm at 4 and 10 GHz.

  14. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and

  15. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  16. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar medium. A fraction of interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of relativistic flow we find that if a relatively small density of neutral hydrogen, as low as $10^{-4}$ cm$^{-3}$, penetrate inside the pulsar wind, this is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  17. Face bow and articulator for planning orthognathic surgery: 2 articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Fraser; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Moos, Khursheed F; Barbenel, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Patients who require orthognathic surgery may have asymmetry of the position of the temporomandibular joints relative to the maxilla, which is impossible to reproduce on the current semiadjustable articulators used for surgical planning. We describe a highly-adjustable spirit level orthognathic face bow that allows records to be made of patients with asymmetrical maxillae. The orthognathic articulator also allows the position of the condylar components of the articulator to be adjusted in three dimensions. The use of the new face bow and articulator made it possible to mount the dental casts of asymmetrical faces to reproduce their clinical appearance. The devices were evaluated by comparing the measurements of anatomical variables obtained from cephalometric radiographs with equivalent values obtained from the orthognathic articulator and casts mounted on the articulator. Although the measurements showed significant intersubject variability, the angle between the horizontal and maxillary occlusal plane, occlusal cant angle, and intercondylar widths, were not significantly different.

  18. Breaking the BOWS Watermarking System: Key Guessing and Sensitivity Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comesaña Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From December 15, 2005 to June 15, 2006, the watermarking community was challenged to remove the watermark from 3 different 512×512 watermarked images while maximizing the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR measured by comparing the watermarked signals with their attacked counterparts. This challenge, which bore the inviting name of Break Our Watermarking System (BOWS, had as its main objective to enlarge the current knowledge on attacks to watermarking systems. In this paper, the main results obtained by the authors when attacking the BOWS system are presented and compared with strategies followed by other groups. Essentially, two different approaches have been followed: exhaustive search of the secret key and blind sensitivity attacks.

  19. Mass-loading of bow shock pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Vorster, M J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bow shock nebulae created by pulsars moving supersonically through a partially ionized interstellar. A fraction of interstellar neutrals penetrating into the tail region of a pulsar wind will undergo photo-ionization due to the UV light emitted by the nebula, with the resulting mass loading dramatically changing the flow dynamics of the light leptonic pulsar wind. Using a quasi 1-D hydrodynamic model of both non-relativistic and relativistic flow, and focusing on scales much larger than the stand-off distance, we find that a relatively small density of neutrals, as low as $n_{\\rm ISM}=10^{-4}\\,\\text{cm}^{-3}$, is sufficient to strongly affect the tail flow. Mass loading leads to the fast expansion of the pulsar wind tail, making the tail flow intrinsically non-stationary. The shapes predicted for the bow shock nebulae compare well with observations, both in H$\\alpha$ and X-rays.

  20. Threading dislocations in GaAs epitaxial layers on various thickness Ge buffers on 300 mm Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogumilowicz, Y.; Hartmann, J. M.; Rochat, N.; Salaun, A.; Martin, M.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; David, S.; Bao, X.-Y.; Sanchez, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have grown GaAs epitaxial layers on Ge buffers, themselves on Si (001) substrates, using an Applied Materials 300 mm metal organic chemical vapor deposition tool. We varied the Ge buffer thickness between 0.36 and 1.38 μm and studied the properties of a 0.27 μm thick GaAs layer on top. We found that increasing the Ge buffer thickness yielded smoother GaAs films with an rms surface roughness as low as 0.5 nm obtained on a 5×5 μm2 area. The bow of the substrate increased following a linear law with the epitaxial stack thickness up to 240 μm for a 1.65 μm stack. We have also characterized the threading dislocations present in the GaAs layers using X-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence. Increasing the Ge buffer thickness resulted in lower threading dislocation densities, enabling us to obtain anti-phase boundary - free GaAs films with a threading dislocation density as low as 3×107 cm-2. In addition, atomic force microscopy surface topology measurements showed the presence of pits in the GaAs layers whose density agreed well with other threading dislocation density assessments. It thus seems that threading dislocations can in certain cases induce some growth rate variations, making them visible in as-grown GaAs films. Using thicker Ge buffers results in smoother films with less threading dislocations, with the side effect of increasing the bow on the wafer. If bow is not an issue, this is a practical approach to improve the GaAs (on Ge buffer) on silicon quality.

  1. Arctic Bowyery – the Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  2. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  3. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2016-02-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s-1 are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  4. Buffers more than buffering agent: introducing a new class of stabilizers for the protein BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhupender S; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-14

    In this study, we have analyzed the influence of four biological buffers on the thermal stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The investigated buffers include 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-propanesulfonic acid (EPPS), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (HEPES-Na), and 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MOPS-Na). These buffers behave as a potential stabilizer for the native structure of BSA against thermal denaturation. The stabilization tendency follows the order of MOPS-Na > HEPES-Na > HEPES ≫ EPPS. To obtain an insight into the role of hydration layers and peptide backbone in the stabilization of BSA by these buffers, we have also explored the phase transition of a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM)), a model compound for protein, in aqueous solutions of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffers at different concentrations. It was found that the lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of PNIPAM in the aqueous buffer solutions substantially decrease with increase in buffer concentration. The mechanism of interactions between these buffers and protein BSA was probed by various techniques, including UV-visible, fluorescence, and FTIR. The results of this series of studies reveal that the interactions are mainly governed by the influence of the buffers on the hydration layers surrounding the protein. We have also explored the possible binding sites of BSA with these buffers using a molecular docking technique. Moreover, the activities of an industrially important enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) in 0.05 M, 0.5 M, and 1.0 M of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffer solutions were analyzed at pH = 8.0 and T = 25 °C. Interestingly, the activities of α-CT were found to be enhanced in the aqueous solutions of these investigated buffers. Based upon the Jones-Dole viscosity parameters, the

  5. Optical hydrogen absorption consistent with a thin bow shock leading the hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Cauley, P Wilson; Jensen, Adam G; Barman, Travis; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D

    2015-01-01

    Bow shocks are ubiquitous astrophysical phenomena resulting from the supersonic passage of an object through a gas. Recently, pre-transit absorption in UV metal transitions of the hot Jupiter exoplanets HD 189733b and WASP12-b have been interpreted as being caused by material compressed in a planetary bow shock. Here we present a robust detection of a time-resolved pre-transit, as well as in-transit, absorption signature around the hot Jupiter exoplanet HD 189733b using high spectral resolution observations of several hydrogen Balmer lines. The line shape of the pre-transit feature and the shape of the time series absorption provide the strongest constraints on the morphology and physical characteristics of extended structures around an exoplanet. The in-transit measurements confirm the previous exospheric H-alpha detection although the absorption depth measured here is ~50% lower. The pre-transit absorption feature occurs 125 minutes before the predicted optical transit, a projected linear distance from the ...

  6. Subcellular structural plasticity caused by the absence of the fast Ca2+ buffer calbindin D-28k in recurrent collaterals of cerebellar Purkinje neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eOrduz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purkinje cells (PC control spike timing of neighboring PC by their recurrent axon collaterals. These synapses underlie fast cerebellar oscillations and are characterized by a strong facilitation within a time window of <20 ms during paired-pulse protocols. PC express high levels of the fast Ca2+ buffer protein calbindin D-28k (CB. As expected from the absence of a fast Ca2+ buffer, presynaptic action potential-evoked [Ca2+]i transients were previously shown to be bigger in PC boutons of young (second postnatal week CB-/- mice, yet IPSC mean amplitudes remained unaltered in connected CB-/- PC. Since PC spine morphology is altered in adult CB-/- mice (longer necks, larger spine head volume, we summoned that morphological compensation/adaptation mechanisms might also be induced in CB-/- PC axon collaterals including boutons. In these mice, biocytin-filled PC reconstructions revealed that the number of axonal varicosities per PC axon collateral was augmented, mostly confined to the granule cell layer. Additionally, the volume of individual boutons was increased, evidenced from z-stacks of confocal images. EM analysis of PC-PC synapses revealed an enhancement in active zone (AZ length by approximately 23%, paralleled by a higher number of docked vesicles per AZ in CB-/- boutons. Moreover, synaptic cleft width was larger in CB-/- (23.8 ± 0.43 nm compared to wild type (21.17 ± 0.39 nm synapses. We propose that the morphological changes, i.e. the larger bouton volume, the enhanced AZ length and the higher number of docked vesicles, in combination with the increase in synaptic cleft width likely modifies the GABA release properties at this synapse in CB-/- mice. We view these changes as adaptation/homeostatic mechanisms to likely maintain (preserve characteristics of synaptic transmission in the absence of the fast Ca2+ buffer CB. Our study provides further evidence on the functioning of the Ca2+ homeostasome.

  7. Location Estimation of the Bow Shock and Theta angle (B, n) cuasiperpendicular magnetospheric, using data from 14 different events crossings shock recorded by THEMIS-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amazo-Gomez, Eliana; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian David; Calvo Mozo, Benjamin

    , density, temperature, shape, size, irregular structure and other characteristics of the phenomenon. Much of the qualitative description of bow shock is given a certain way. Now an analytical representation of the bow shock is not so simple, however there are methodologies that considering some approaches led us to reconstruct much of the phenomenon geometrically as a surface of discontinuity, the relationship between states on both sides of a shock wave a unidimensional flow could be described in terms of the magnetic field with the minimum variance method, where the related parameters such as the angle of incidence, the deflection angle of the flow, and mainly incident magnetic field.

  8. Interaction between an interplanetary magnetic cloud and the Earth's magnetosphere: Motions of the bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. J.; Chao, J. K.; Lepping, R. P.

    2000-06-01

    An interplanetary magnetic cloud (IMC) is an important solar-terrestrial connection event. It is an ideal object for the study of solar-terrestrial relations and space weather because the Earth's space environment can be affected considerably during an IMC passage. An IMC was observed to pass the Earth during October 18-20, 1995. Wind recorded its interplanetary characteristics at ~175RE upstream of the Earth's bow shock, and ~45 min later, Geotail, being near the nominal location of the dawn bow shock, detected IMC-related multiple bow shock crossings. Using simultaneous measurements from Wind and Geotail, we analyzed, with a semiempirical bow shock model with two parameters, the bow shock motion caused by the interaction of the IMC with the magnetosphere during the passage. We also compared the bow shock motion predicted by the model, and hence the predicted Geotail bow shock crossings, with Geotail observations of the actual crossings. The results showed that the observed multiple bow shock crossings, which were obviously due to temporal variations of the upstream solar wind, can be well explained by the model-predicted bow shock motion.

  9. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  10. Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H

    2014-01-14

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.

  11. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions.

  12. Analysis of Effects Resulted from Changing the Buffer Layer Material on Optimization of Cu (In 1-x,Gax Se2 Thin Filmsolar cell(CIGS and Simulation of Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Shams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due tothe present globalunderstandingabout utilization ofrenewable energysources as constantcleanones, PVpowerhas beenthefocused bymanyresearch centers. Research of developmentofPhotovoltaic Energyis generally done in tow fields:reducingcosts andincreasing efficiency. CIGS thin film solar cells are of particular importance among the other types of the same category, due to the flexibility and yields of about 20%.Thispaper examines theperformance ofnanostructuredCIGSsolarcellsare discussed. The impact of changing material in the buffer layer of cell structure on electrical properties and the overall performance is evaluated. The optimized efficiency is also determined using simulation tools.

  13. Tibial bowing in children - what is normal? A radiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, Isabella [University of Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Rutz, Erich [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Basel (Switzerland); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Magerkurth, Olaf [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To define osseous landmarks on tibia radiographs in order to establish age-related normal values characterizing physiological tibial bowing in children. Five hundred and twenty-six patients aged 0-17 years with normal radiographs of the lower legs were identified and retrospectively reviewed by two blinded radiologists. In anteroposterior (ap)/lateral (lat)-views, 3 lines defined tibial length and angulation. Line-A connecting proximal to distal corner of tibial metaphysic, lines B and C corresponding to corners of tibial metaphysis. Angle A/B defines proximal, A/C distal tibial-angulation. Tibial curvature is defined by distance of line-D parallel to A and tangential to tibial cortex. Normal values were calculated with linear-regression. Intra-/Interreader agreement were tested with a Bland-Altman-plot. Intrareader-agreement: Reader 1 showed a bias of -0.1, standard-deviation of bias was 1.9 and 95 %-limits-of-agreement -3.9- 3.7. Reader 2: -0.01, 2.4 and -4.7- 4.7. Interreader: 0.2, 1.6 and -2.9- 3.3. Angle-A/B ap was 80-100 , increasing with age (86.5-88); angle-AC ap was 82-107 (96.8-90.5), angle-AB lat was 81-107 (93.0-98.0); angle-AC lat was 76-102 (89.5-86.5); depth of curve ap was 0-11 % (8-3.5) and lat 2-13 %, (8.5-3.5). Age dependent tibial bowing can be assessed with this new measurement system and age-related normal-values characterizing physiological tibial bowing in children is established. (orig.)

  14. Modeling of the Archery Bow and Arrow Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zaniewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration processes in the compound and open kinematical chain with an external link, as a model of an archery bow and arrow system, are evaluated. A mechanical and mathematical model of bend oscillations of the system during accelerate motion of the external link is proposed. Correlation between longitudinal acceleration and natural frequencies is obtained. There are recommendations regarding determination of virtual forms to study arrow vibrations and buckling. The models and methods have been adapted for realization into the engineering method using well-known mathematical software packages.

  15. Power aspects of processes in the bow shock region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, Pavel

    Bow shock is a powerful transformer of the solar wind kinetic energy into the gas dynamic and electromagnetic energy. The solar wind energy also feeds the ion acceleration process, the generation of waves in the region of bow shock, and the energy necessary to build up the foreshock. A jump of the magnetic field tangential component at front crossing means that the front carries an electric current. The solar wind kinetic energy partly transforms to gas kinetic and electromagnetic energy during its passage through the bow shock front. The transition layer (magnetosheath) can use part of this energy for accelerating of plasma, but can conversely spend part its kinetic energy on the electric power generation, which afterwards may be used by the magnetosphere. Thereby, transition layer can be both consumer (sink) and generator (source) of electric power depending upon special conditions. The direction of the current behind the bow shock front depends on the sign of the IMF B _{z}-component. It is this electric current which sets convection of plasma in motion. The process of current penetration into the magnetosphere is two-step. First, a polarization field is formed that penetrates layer-by-layer into the magnetosphere. More exactly, a pulse corresponding to this field penetrates into the plasma. Then, if the system is inhomogeneous, the flow may redistribute the pressure so that gradients appearing in the plasma induce an electric current. In power terms, this electric current is required to maintain convection in the inhomogeneous system. Any change in the external current through the magnetosphere causes a convection restructuring within a time on the order of travel time of the magnetosonic wave from the magnetopause to the center of the system, because the restructuring wave comes from both flanks. Using the expressions obtained in this paper for normal components of the electric current, the flow of matter brought into the magnetosphere can be estimated. A

  16. Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from MESSENGER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Johnson, C. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Baker, D. N.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We establish the time-averaged shape and location of Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from orbital observations by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. We fit empirical models to the midpoints of boundary crossings as well as to probability density maps of the magnetopause and bow shock positions. The magnetopause is fit by two different surfaces: (1) a paraboloid, and (2) a surface for which the position R from the planetary dipole varies as [1+cos(θ)]-α, where θ is the angle between R and the dipole-Sun line, and α is a flaring parameter that governs whether the magnetotail is closed (α fit simultaneously both the dayside and nightside magnetopause crossings, but the second surface gives the best-fit overall shape to the observations with a subsolar stand-off distance, Rss, of 1.45 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius), and a flaring parameter α = 0.5. The average magnetopause shape and location were determined under a mean solar wind ram pressure, PRam, of 14.3 nPa. The best-fit bow shock shape established under an average Alfvén Mach number (MA ) of 6.6 is described by a hyperboloid having Rss = 1.96 RM and an eccentricity of 1.02. These boundaries move as PRam and MA vary, but their shape remains unchanged. The magnetopause Rss varies from 1.55 RM to 1.35 RM for PRam in the range 8.8 to 21.6 nPa. The bow shock Rss varies from 2.29 RM to 1.89 RM for MA in the range 4.12 to 11.8. To first order, the boundaries are well approximated by figures of revolution. Additional effects of the interplanetary magnetic field are masked by the large dynamic variability of these boundaries. Despite the moderate average magnetic shear conditions at Mercury, the magnetotail surface is nearly cylindrical, with a radius of ~2.7 RM at a distance 3 RM downstream of Mercury. By comparison, Earth's magnetotail flaring continues until a downstream distance of ~10 Rss. This result may indicate that reconnection in Mercury's magnetotail does not take place beyond ~3 RM downstream of the

  17. Characterization of Pt/Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12/HfO2/Si structure using a hafnium oxide as buffer layer for ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Luo, Yafeng; Han, Xueguang; Ren, Tianling; Liu, Litian

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) capacitors with Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12 (BNdT) thin film deposited on Si and hafnium oxide (HfO2)/Si substrates. Microstructural analysis reveals the formation of well-crystallized BNdT perovskite film and good interface between BNdT film and HfO2 buffer layer. Pt/BNdT/HfO2/Si structure exhibits a memory window of 1.12 V at an operation voltage of 3.5 V. The width of memory window for the MFIS structure varies with increasing thickness of HfO2 layer, and 4-nm-thickness is optimum. The results from the fatigue test indicate a slight degradation of the memory window after 1010 switching cycles. These properties are encouraging for the development of ferroelectric memory transistors.

  18. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit.

  19. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  20. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  1. Design and Analysis of the First BOWS Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barni M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The break our watermarking system (BOWS contest was launched in the framework of the activities carried out by the European Network of Excellence for Cryptology ECRYPT. The aim of the contest was to investigate how and when an image watermarking system can be broken while preserving the highest possible quality of the content, in the case the watermarking system is subject to a massive worldwide attack. The great number of participants and the echo that the contest has had in the watermarking community contributed to make BOWS a great success. From a scientific point of view, many insights into the problems attackers have to face with when operating in a practical scenario have been obtained, confirming the threat posed by the sensitivity attack, which turned out to be the most successful attack. At the same time, several interesting modifications of such an attack have been proposed to make it work in a real scenario under limited communication and time resources. This paper describes how the contest has been designed and analyzes the general progress of the attacks during the contest.

  2. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  3. Smashing the Guitar: An Evolving Neutron Star Bow Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, S

    2003-01-01

    The Guitar nebula is a spectacular example of an H-alpha bow shock nebula produced by the interaction of a neutron star with its environment. The radio pulsar B2224+65 is traveling at ~800--1600 km/s (for a distance of 1--2 kpc), placing it on the high-velocity tail of the pulsar velocity distribution. Here we report time evolution in the shape of the Guitar nebula, the first such observations for a bow shock nebula, as seen in H-alpha imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The morphology of the nebula provides no evidence for anisotropy in the pulsar wind, nor for fluctuations in the pulsar wind luminosity. The nebula shows morphological changes over two epochs spaced by seven years that imply the existence of significant gradients and inhomogeneities in the ambient interstellar medium. These observations offer astrophysically unique, in situ probes of length scales between 5E-4 pc and 0.012 pc. Model fitting suggests that the nebula axis -- and thus the three-dimensional velocity vector -- lies within 20 ...

  4. The bowing potential of granitic rocks: rock fabrics, thermal properties and residual strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Mosch, S.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Nikolayev, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    The bowing of natural stone panels is especially known for marble slabs. The bowing of granite is mainly known from tombstones in subtropical humid climate. Field inspections in combination with laboratory investigations with respect to the thermal expansion and the bowing potential was performed on two different granitoids (Cezlak granodiorite and Flossenbürg granite) which differ in the composition and rock fabrics. In addition, to describe and explain the effect of bowing of granitoid facade panels, neutron time-of-flight diffraction was applied to determine residual macro- and microstrain. The measurements were combined with investigations of the crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz and biotite. Both samples show a significant bowing as a function of panel thickness and destination temperature. In comparison to marbles the effect of bowing is more pronounced in granitoids at temperatures of 120°C. The bowing as well as the thermal expansion of the Cezlak sample is also anisotropic with respect to the rock fabrics. A quantitative estimate was performed based on the observed textures. The effect of the locked-in stresses may also have a control on the bowing together with the thermal stresses related to the different volume expansion of the rock-forming minerals.

  5. Bow Shock Leads the Way for a Speeding Hot Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    As hot Jupiters whip around their host stars, their speeds can exceed the speed of sound in the surrounding material, theoretically causing a shock to form ahead of them. Now, a study has reported the detection of such a shock ahead of transiting exoplanet HD 189733b, providing a potential indicator of the remarkably strong magnetic field of the planet.Rushing PlanetsDue to their proximity to their hosts, hot Jupiters move very quickly through the stellar wind and corona surrounding the star. When this motion is supersonic, the material ahead of the planet can be compressed by a bow shock and for a transiting hot Jupiter, this shock will cross the face of the host star in advance of the planets transit.In a recent study, a team of researchers by Wilson Cauley of Wesleyan University report evidence of just such a pre-transit. The teams target is exoplanet HD 189733b, one of the closest hot Jupiters to our solar system. When the authors examined high-resolution transmission spectra of this system, they found that prior to the optical transit of the planet, there was a large dip in the transmission of the first three hydrogen Balmer lines. This could well be the absorption of an optically-thick bow shock as it moves past the face of the star.Tremendous MagnetismOperating under this assumption, the authors create a model of the absorption expected from a hot Jupiter transiting with a bow shock ahead of it. Using this model, they show that a shock leading the planet at a distance of 12.75 times the planets radius reproduces the key features of the transmission spectrum.This stand-off distance is surprisingly large. Assuming that the location of the bow shock is set by the point where the planets magnetospheric pressure balances the pressure of the stellar wind or corona that it passes through, the planetary magnetic field would have to be at least 28 Gauss. This is seven times the strength of Jupiters magnetic field!Understanding the magnetic fields of exoplanets is

  6. Simulation of the oscillation regimes of bowed bars: a non-linear modal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Octávio; Henrique, Luís.; Antunes, José

    2003-06-01

    It is still a challenge to properly simulate the complex stick-slip behavior of multi-degree-of-freedom systems. In the present paper we investigate the self-excited non-linear responses of bowed bars, using a time-domain modal approach, coupled with an explicit model for the frictional forces, which is able to emulate stick-slip behavior. This computational approach can provide very detailed simulations and is well suited to deal with systems presenting a dispersive behavior. The effects of the bar supporting fixture are included in the model, as well as a velocity-dependent friction coefficient. We present the results of numerical simulations, for representative ranges of the bowing velocity and normal force. Computations have been performed for constant-section aluminum bars, as well as for real vibraphone bars, which display a central undercutting, intended to help tuning the first modes. Our results show limiting values for the normal force FN and bowing velocity ẏbow for which the "musical" self-sustained solutions exist. Beyond this "playability space", double period and even chaotic regimes were found for specific ranges of the input parameters FN and ẏbow. As also displayed by bowed strings, the vibration amplitudes of bowed bars also increase with the bow velocity. However, in contrast to string instruments, bowed bars "slip" during most of the motion cycle. Another important difference is that, in bowed bars, the self-excited motions are dominated by the system's first mode. Our numerical results are qualitatively supported by preliminary experimental results.

  7. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N.; Daniels, Edward J.; Krumdick, Greg K.

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  8. A Review of Density Holes Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock%A Review of Density Holes Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G K Parks; E Lee; N Lin; J B Cao; S Y Fu; J K Shi

    2011-01-01

    Larmor size transient structures with density depletions as large as 99% of ambient solar wind density levels occur commonly upstream of Earth's collisionless bow shock. These "density holes" have a mean duration of 17.9±10.4s but holes as short as 4 s have been observed. The average fractional density depletion (Sn/n) inside the holes is 0.68±0.14. The density of the upstream edge moving in the sunward direction can be enhanced by five or more times the solar wind density. Particle distributions show the steepened edge can behave like a shock, and measured local field geometries and Mach number support this view. Similarly shaped magnetic holes accompany the density holes indicating strong coupling between fields and particles. Current densities as large as 150 nA·m^-2 are observed at the leading compressed edge. The waves are elliptically polarized and rotating in the sense of ions (left hand) in the plasma frame. The waves appear to grow and steepen as the density holes convect with the solar wind toward the Earth. The transient nature of density holes suggests that the temporal features could represent the different stages of nonlinear evolutionary processes that produce a shock-like structure. The density holes are only observed with upstream particles, suggesting that back-streaming particles interacting with the solar wind are important. The significance of these observations is still being investigated.

  9. Anatomy of the internal bow shocks in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostellar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, M.; Su, Y.-N.; Shang, H.; Johnstone, D.; Zhang, Q.; Santiago-García, J.; Lee, C.-F.; Hirano, N.; Wang, L.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Highly collimated jets and wide-angle outflows are two related components of the mass-ejection activity associated with stellar birth. Despite decades of research, the relation between these two components remains poorly understood. Aims: We study the relation between the jet and the outflow in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostar. This Taurus protostar drives a molecular jet that contains multiple emission peaks symmetrically located from the central source. The protostar also drives a wide-angle outflow consisting of two conical shells. Methods: We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferometer to observe two fields along the IRAS 04166+2706 jet. The fields were centered on a pair of emission peaks that correspond to the same ejection event. The observations were carried out in CO(2-1), SiO(5-4), and SO(JN = 65-54). Results: Both ALMA fields present spatial distributions that are approximately elliptical and have their minor axes aligned with the jet direction. As the velocity increases, the emission in each field moves gradually across the elliptical region. This systematic pattern indicates that the emitting gas in each field lies in a disk-like structure that is perpendicular to the jet axis and whose gas is expanding away from the jet. A small degree of curvature in the first-moment maps indicates that the disks are slightly curved in the manner expected for bow shocks moving away from the IRAS source. A simple geometrical model confirms that this scenario fits the main emission features. Conclusions: The emission peaks in the IRAS 04166+2706 jet likely represent internal bow shocks where material is being ejected laterally away from the jet axis. While the linear momentum of the ejected gas is dominated by the component in the jet direction, the sideways component is not negligible, and can potentially affect the distribution of gas in the surrounding outflow and core.

  10. Effects of phosphate-buffered saline concentration and incubation time on the mechanical and structural properties of electrochemically aligned collagen threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uquillas, Jorge Alfredo; Kishore, Vipuil; Akkus, Ozan

    2011-06-01

    A key step during the synthesis of collagen constructs is the incubation of monomeric collagen in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) to promote fibrillogenesis in the collagen network. Optimal PBS-treatment conditions for monomeric collagen solutions to induce gelation are well established in the literature. Recently, a report in the literature (Cheng et al 2008 Biomaterials 29 3278-88) showed a novel method to fabricate highly oriented electrochemically aligned collagen (ELAC) threads which have orders of magnitude greater packing density than collagen gels. The optimal PBS-treatment conditions for induction of D-banding pattern in such a dense and anisotropic collagen network are unknown. This study aimed to optimize PBS treatment of ELAC threads by investigating the effect of phosphate ion concentration (0.5×, 1×, 5× and 10×) and incubation time (3, 12 and 96 h) on the mechanical strength and ultrastructural organization by monotonic mechanical testing, small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ELAC threads incubated in water (no PBS) served as the control. ELAC threads incubated in 1× PBS showed significantly higher extensibility compared to those in 0.5× or 10× PBS along with the presence of D-banded patterns with a periodicity of 63.83 nm. Incubation of ELAC threads in 1× PBS for 96 h resulted in significantly higher ultimate stress compared to 3 or 12 h. However, these threads lacked the D-banding pattern. TEM observations showed no significant differences in the microfibril diameter distribution of ELAC threads treated with or without PBS. This indicates that microfibrils lacked D-banding following electrochemical alignment and the subsequent PBS-treatment-induced D-banding by reorganization within microfibrils. It was concluded that incubation of aligned collagen in 1× PBS for 12 h results in mechanically competent, D-banded ELAC threads which can be used for the regeneration of load bearing tissues such as tendons and

  11. Effects of phosphate-buffered saline concentration and incubation time on the mechanical and structural properties of electrochemically aligned collagen threads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uquillas, Jorge Alfredo; Kishore, Vipuil; Akkus, Ozan, E-mail: vkishor@purdue.edu [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2032 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A key step during the synthesis of collagen constructs is the incubation of monomeric collagen in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) to promote fibrillogenesis in the collagen network. Optimal PBS-treatment conditions for monomeric collagen solutions to induce gelation are well established in the literature. Recently, a report in the literature (Cheng et al 2008 Biomaterials 29 3278-88) showed a novel method to fabricate highly oriented electrochemically aligned collagen (ELAC) threads which have orders of magnitude greater packing density than collagen gels. The optimal PBS-treatment conditions for induction of D-banding pattern in such a dense and anisotropic collagen network are unknown. This study aimed to optimize PBS treatment of ELAC threads by investigating the effect of phosphate ion concentration (0.5x, 1x, 5x and 10x) and incubation time (3, 12 and 96 h) on the mechanical strength and ultrastructural organization by monotonic mechanical testing, small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ELAC threads incubated in water (no PBS) served as the control. ELAC threads incubated in 1x PBS showed significantly higher extensibility compared to those in 0.5x or 10x PBS along with the presence of D-banded patterns with a periodicity of 63.83 nm. Incubation of ELAC threads in 1x PBS for 96 h resulted in significantly higher ultimate stress compared to 3 or 12 h. However, these threads lacked the D-banding pattern. TEM observations showed no significant differences in the microfibril diameter distribution of ELAC threads treated with or without PBS. This indicates that microfibrils lacked D-banding following electrochemical alignment and the subsequent PBS-treatment-induced D-banding by reorganization within microfibrils. It was concluded that incubation of aligned collagen in 1x PBS for 12 h results in mechanically competent, D-banded ELAC threads which can be used for the regeneration of load bearing tissues such as tendons and ligaments.

  12. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  13. Universal buffers for use in biochemistry and biophysical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Brooke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of buffers that mimic biological solutions is a foundation of biochemical and biophysical studies. However, buffering agents have both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins. Buffer molecules can induce changes in conformational equilibria, dynamic behavior, and catalytic properties merely by their presence in solution. This effect is of concern because many of the standard experiments used to investigate protein structure and function involve changing solution conditions such as pH and/or temperature. In experiments in which pH is varied, it is common practice to switch buffering agents so that the pH is within the working range of the weak acid and conjugate base. If multiple buffers are used, it is not always possible to decouple buffer induced change from pH or temperature induced change. We have developed a series of mixed biological buffers for protein analysis that can be used across a broad pH range, are compatible with biologically relevant metal ions, and avoid complications that may arise from changing the small molecule composition of buffers when pH is used as an experimental variable.

  14. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Richard [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  15. Violin Pedagogy and the Physics of the Bowed String

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Alexander Rhodes

    The paper describes the mechanics of violin tone production using non-specialist language, in order to present a scientific understanding of tone production accessible to a broad readership. As well as offering an objective understanding of tone production, this model provides a powerful tool for analyzing the technique of string playing. The interaction between the bow and the string is quite complex. Literature reviewed for this study reveals that scientific investigations have provided important insights into the mechanics of string playing, offering explanations for factors which both contribute to and limit the range of tone colours and dynamics that stringed instruments can produce. Also examined in the literature review are significant works of twentieth century violin pedagogy exploring tone production on the violin, based on the practical experience of generations of teachers and performers. Hermann von Helmholtz described the stick-slip cycle which drives the string in 1863, which replaced earlier ideas about the vibration of violin strings. Later, scientists such as John Schelleng and Lothar Cremer were able to demonstrate how the mechanics of the bow-string interaction can create different tone colours. Recent research by Anders Askenfelt, Knut Guettler, and Erwin Schoonderwaldt have continued to refine earlier research in this area. The writings of Lucien Capet, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Paul Rolland, Kato Havas, Ivan Galamian, and Simon Fischer are examined and analyzed. Each author describes a different approach to tone production on the violin, representing a different understanding of the underlying mechanism. Analyzing these writings within the context of a scientific understanding of tone production makes it possible to compare these approaches more consistently, and to synthesize different concepts drawn from the diverse sources evaluated.

  16. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  17. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  18. k(+)-buffer: An Efficient, Memory-Friendly and Dynamic k-buffer Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Andreas-Alexandros; Papaioannou, Georgios; Fudos, Ioannis

    2015-06-01

    Depth-sorted fragment determination is fundamental for a host of image-based techniques which simulates complex rendering effects. It is also a challenging task in terms of time and space required when rasterizing scenes with high depth complexity. When low graphics memory requirements are of utmost importance, k-buffer can objectively be considered as the most preferred framework which advantageously ensures the correct depth order on a subset of all generated fragments. Although various alternatives have been introduced to partially or completely alleviate the noticeable quality artifacts produced by the initial k-buffer algorithm in the expense of memory increase or performance downgrade, appropriate tools to automatically and dynamically compute the most suitable value of k are still missing. To this end, we introduce k(+)-buffer, a fast framework that accurately simulates the behavior of k-buffer in a single rendering pass. Two memory-bounded data structures: (i) the max-array and (ii) the max-heap are developed on the GPU to concurrently maintain the k-foremost fragments per pixel by exploring pixel synchronization and fragment culling. Memory-friendly strategies are further introduced to dynamically (a) lessen the wasteful memory allocation of individual pixels with low depth complexity frequencies, (b) minimize the allocated size of k-buffer according to different application goals and hardware limitations via a straightforward depth histogram analysis and (c) manage local GPU cache with a fixed-memory depth-sorting mechanism. Finally, an extensive experimental evaluation is provided demonstrating the advantages of our work over all prior k-buffer variants in terms of memory usage, performance cost and image quality.

  19. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  20. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  1. Prose recall and amnesia: more implications for the episodic buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P A; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R

    2005-01-01

    Baddeley and Wilson [Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, F. B. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia 40, 1737-1743.] have argued that their finding of a positive association between amnesics' immediate prose recall scores and their scores on measures of executive function and fluid intelligence supports the view that an episodic buffer exists. However, the pattern of data from amnesics tested in our laboratory presented some problems for this conceptualisation of the episodic buffer.

  2. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  3. Oxygen foreshock of Mars and its implication on ion acceleration in the bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Lundin, Rickard; Frahm, Rudy; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Holmstrom, Mats; Barabash, Stas

    2016-04-01

    Ion acceleration inside the bow shock is one of the poorly understood phenomena that has been observed for more than 30 years as the foreshock phenomena. While the Fermi-acceleration mechanism explains the diffuse component of foreshock ions, we still do not know the detailed mechanism that produces the discrete intense ions flowing along the local magnetic field direction (with and without gyration). One of the reasons for such difficulty is that majority of the bow shock study was performed for the Earth's case where Oxygen ions cannot be used to understand the acceleration mechanisms. The planetary oxygen ions that reach the Earth's bow shock have already been significantly accelerated, and are not adequate for such a study. In this sense the Martian bow shock is an ideal place to study the acceleration mechanisms leading to foreshock ions, although the nature of the bow shock is slightly different between the Earth and Mars (Yamauchi et al., 2011). On 21 September 2008, the Mars Express (MEX) Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) detected foreshock-like discrete distributions of oxygen ions at around 1 keV in the solar wind attached to the bow shock. This was the first time that a substantial amount of planetary oxygen was observed upstream of the bow shock. The oxygen energy increased from low energy (< 300 keV) inside the magnetosheath (or it should be called an extended bow shock) to nearly 2 keV at more than 2000 km from the bow shock. Foreshock-like protons are also observed but at a shifted location from the oxygen by about 1000 km, at a slightly higher energy, and flowing in a slightly different direction than the oxygen ions. Both protons and oxygen ions are flowing anti-sunward at different angles with respect to the solar wind direction. The observation is consistent with an electric potential barrier at the bow shock that simultaneously accelerates the planetary oxygen ions outward (to form the foreshock oxygen ions) and reflects a portion of the solar wind (to

  4. Defense Modernization Plans Through the 2020s: Addressing the Bow Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    45 p.m. Chair: Andrew Hunter, Senior Fellow in the International Security Program, Director of Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group , Center for...and has appeared on CNBC, CNN, NPR, Al Jazeera English, and Fox News. He has been a guest lecturer for organizations and teaches a class on the...their peak years of funding requirements at roughly the same time in the 2020s, creating a modernization bow wave. Just as a large bow wave slows a ship

  5. On the observability of bow shocks of Galactic runaway OB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; van Marle, A.-J.; Kuiper, R.; Kley, W.

    2016-06-01

    Massive stars that have been ejected from their parent cluster and supersonically sailing away through the interstellar medium (ISM) are classified as exiled. They generate circumstellar bow-shock nebulae that can be observed. We present two-dimensional, axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a representative sample of stellar wind bow shocks from Galactic OB stars in an ambient medium of densities ranging from nISM = 0.01 up to 10.0 cm- 3. Independently of their location in the Galaxy, we confirm that the infrared is the most appropriated waveband to search for bow shocks from massive stars. Their spectral energy distribution is the convenient tool to analyse them since their emission does not depend on the temporary effects which could affect unstable, thin-shelled bow shocks. Our numerical models of Galactic bow shocks generated by high-mass ( ≈ 40 M⊙) runaway stars yield H α fluxes which could be observed by facilities such as the SuperCOSMOS H-Alpha Survey. The brightest bow-shock nebulae are produced in the denser regions of the ISM. We predict that bow shocks in the field observed at H α by means of Rayleigh-sensitive facilities are formed around stars of initial mass larger than about 20 M⊙. Our models of bow shocks from OB stars have the emission maximum in the wavelength range 3 ≤ λ ≤ 50 μm which can be up to several orders of magnitude brighter than the runaway stars themselves, particularly for stars of initial mass larger than 20 M⊙.

  6. A hydrodynamic optimization design methodology for a ship bulbous bow under multiple operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Lu; Xin Chang; An-kang Hu

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe an innovative methodology for the hydrodynamic optimization of a ship bulbous bow which considers multiple operating conditions. The proposed method is more practical and effective than the traditional optimization process, which is only based on contractually specified design condition. Parametric form approaches are adopted by employing an F-spline curve in order to generate variants of the hull bulbous bow forms using form design parameters...

  7. Observations of Bow Shocks of Runaway Stars with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Klepser, S

    2016-01-01

    Runaway stars form bow shocks by sweeping up interstellar matter in their direction of motion. Theoretical models predict a spectrally wide non-thermal component reaching up to gamma-ray energies at a flux level detectable with current instruments. They were motivated by a detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD$+43^\\circ3654$ and a possible detection of non-thermal X-rays from AE Aurigae. A search in the high-energy regime using data from \\textit{Fermi}-LAT resulted in flux upper limits for 27 candidates listed in the first E-BOSS catalogue. We perform the first systematic search for TeV emission from bow shocks of runaway stars. Using all available archival H.E.S.S. I data we search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission at the positions of bow shock candidates listed in the second E-BOSS catalogue. This catalogue comprises 73 bow shock candidates, 32 of which have been observed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes. None of the observed bow shock candidates shows significant emission in th...

  8. On the observability of bow shocks of Galactic runaway OB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, D M -A; Kuiper, R; Kley, W

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars that have been ejected from their parent cluster and supersonically sailing away through the interstellar medium (ISM) are classified as exiled. They generate circumstellar bow shock nebulae that can be observed. We present two-dimensional, axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a representative sample of stellar wind bow shocks from Galactic OB stars in an ambient medium of densities ranging from n_ISM=0.01 up to 10.0/cm3. Independently of their location in the Galaxy, we confirm that the infrared is the most appropriated waveband to search for bow shocks from massive stars. Their spectral energy distribution is the convenient tool to analyze them since their emission does not depend on the temporary effects which could affect unstable, thin-shelled bow shocks. Our numerical models of Galactic bow shocks generated by high-mass (~40 Mo) runaway stars yield H$\\alpha$ fluxes which could be observed by facilities such as the SuperCOSMOS H-Alpha Survey. The brightest bow shock nebulae are produc...

  9. PENGARUH ANTI-SLAMMING BULBOUS BOW TERHADAP GERAKAN SLAMMING PADA KAPAL PERINTIS 200 DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisis seakeeping (kemampuan olah gerak kapal merupakan aspek penting dalam perancangan kapal. Berdasarkan analisis tersebut, dapat diketahui batas operasional dari sebuah kapal. Salah satunya adalah dapat mengetahui kemampuan kapal pada tinggi gelombang signifikan (Hs tertentu. Memodifikasi bentuk haluan kapal dengan membuat dasar dari haluan tersebut lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan dasar lambung kapal nya (dibawah garis baseline kapal dinamakan Anti-Slamming Bow. Pada penelitian ini, anti-slamming bow ditambahkan dengan ­bulbous bow yang dinamakan dengn Anti-Slamming Bulbous Bow (ASB. Panjang (lasb dan tinggi (hasb Anti-Slamming Bulbous Bow divariasikan untuk mendapatkan probabilitas dan intensitas slamming yang paling rendah. Metode untuk menghitung RAO menggunakan Metode Panel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai probabilitas pada kapal existing (model awal pada Hs = 4 m dan Tave = 5 s pada kecepatan 14 knot tidak memenuhi standar kriteria Nordforsk ’87 karena memiliki nilai probabilitas slamming sebesar 12,19%. Selain model awal, model 1, model 3 dan model 5 juga tidak memenuhi standar kriteria karena memiliki nilai probabilitas slamming sebesar 5,19%, 5,04% dan 5,10%. Parameter ukuran anti-slamming bulbous bow terbaik terdapat pada model 6 dimana rasio panjang ASB terhadap Lpp kapal sebesar 0,4 dan rasio tinggi ASB terhadap sarat kapal sebesar 0,4. Sedangkan bentuk Bulbous terbaik adalah Bulbous A yaitu bulbous tipe bentuk titik air tergantung. Model ini memiliki nilai  probabilas sebesar 1,95% dan memenuhi kriteria Nordforsk ’87.

  10. Bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae passing through density discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae are a subset of pulsar-wind nebulae that form when the pulsar has high velocity due to the natal kick during the supernova explosion. The interaction between the relativistic wind from the fast-moving pulsar and the interstellar medium produces a bow-shock and a trail, which are detectable in Hα emission. Among such bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae, the Guitar Nebula stands out for its peculiar morphology, which consists of a prominent bow-shock head and a series of bubbles further behind. We present a scenario in which multiple bubbles can be produced when the pulsar encounters a series of density discontinuities in the ISM. We tested the scenario using 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations. The shape of the Guitar Nebula can be reproduced if the pulsar traversed a region of declining low density. We also show that if a pulsar encounters an inclined density discontinuity, it produces an asymmetric bow-shock head, consistent with observations of the bow-shock of the millisecond pulsar J2124-3358.

  11. Global Explicit Particle-in-cell Simulations of the Nonstationary Bow Shock and Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongwei; Huang, Can; Liu, Ying D.; Parks, George K.; Wang, Rui; Lu, Quanming; Hu, Huidong

    2016-07-01

    We carry out two-dimensional global particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and a dipole field to study the formation of the bow shock and magnetosphere. A self-reforming bow shock ahead of a dipole field is presented by using relatively high temporal-spatial resolutions. We find that (1) the bow shock and the magnetosphere are formed and reach a quasi-stable state after several ion cyclotron periods, and (2) under the B z southward solar wind condition, the bow shock undergoes a self-reformation for low β i and high M A . Simultaneously, a magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail is found. For high β i and low M A , the shock becomes quasi-stationary, and the magnetotail reconnection disappears. In addition, (3) the magnetopause deflects the magnetosheath plasmas. The sheath particles injected at the quasi-perpendicular region of the bow shock can be convected downstream of an oblique shock region. A fraction of these sheath particles can leak out from the magnetosheath at the wings of the bow shock. Hence, the downstream situation is more complicated than that for a planar shock produced in local simulations.

  12. E-BOSS: an Extensive stellar BOw Shock Survey. I: Methods and First Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Peri, C S; Brookes, D P; Stevens, I R; Isequilla, N

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bow shocks are produced by many astrophysical objects where shock waves are present. Stellar bow-shocks, generated by runaway stars, have been previously detected in small numbers and well studied. Along with recent progress in model development and improved observing instruments, our knowledge of the emission produced by these objects and its origin can be better understood. AIMS: Our main goal is to produce a stellar bow-shock catalogue by applying uniform search criteria and a systematic search process. This catalogue is a starting point for statistical studies, and to address fundamental questions such as, for instance, which conditions make a stellar bow shock detectable. METHODS: By using the newest infrared data releases we carried out a search for bow shocks produced by early-type runaway stars. First, we explore whether the classical IRAS bow shock candidates of Noriega-Crespo et al. (1997) remain visible in the most recently available IR data, which has much better resolution and sensitivit...

  13. Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates in the Terrestrial Bow Shock. 2; Waves and Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Breneman, A. W.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first quantified measure of the energy dissipation rates, due to wave-particle interactions, in the transition region of the Earth's collision-less bow shock using data from the Time History of Events and Macro-Scale Interactions during Sub-Storms spacecraft. Our results show that wave-particle interactions can regulate the global structure and dominate the energy dissipation of collision-less shocks. In every bow shock crossing examined, we observed both low-frequency (less than 10 hertz) and high-frequency (approximately or greater than10 hertz) electromagnetic waves throughout the entire transition region and into the magnetosheath. The low-frequency waves were consistent with magnetosonic-whistler waves. The high-frequency waves were combinations of ion-acoustic waves, electron cyclotron drift instability driven waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and whistler mode waves. The high-frequency waves had the following: (1) peak amplitudes exceeding delta B approximately equal to 10 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 300 millivolts per meter, though more typical values were delta B approximately equal to 0.1-1.0 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 10-50 millivolts per meter (2) Poynting fluxes in excess of 2000 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter) (typical values were approximately 1-10 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter); (3) resistivities greater than 9000 omega meters; and (4) associated energy dissipation rates greater than 10 microWm(sup -3) (micro-waves per cubic meter). The dissipation rates due to wave-particle interactions exceeded rates necessary to explain the increase in entropy across the shock ramps for approximately 90 percent of the wave burst durations. For approximately 22 percent of these times, the wave-particle interactions needed to only be less than or equal to 0.1 percent efficient to balance the nonlinear wave steepening that produced the shock waves. These results show that wave

  14. Whistler wave bursts upstream of the Uranian bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Wong, Hung K.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of magnetic field wave bursts upstream of the Uranian bow shock are reported which were recorded prior to the inbound shock crossing. Three wave types are identified. One exhibits a broad spectral enhancement from a few millihertz to about 50 mHz and is seen from 17 to 10 hr prior to the inbound shock crossing. It is argued that these waves are whistler waves that have propagated upstream from the shock. A second wave type has a spacecraft frame frequency between 20 and 40 mHz, is seen only within or immediately upstream of the shock pedestal, is right-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, and has a typical burst duration of 90 s. The third wave type has a spacecraft frame frequency of about 0.15 Hz, is seen exclusively within the shock pedestal, is left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame, and has a burst duration lasting up to 4 min. It is argued that the low-frequency bursts are whistler waves with phase speed comparable to, but in excess of, the solar wind speed.

  15. Whistler waves associated with the Uranian bow shock - Outbound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Wong, Hung K.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field measurements from the first outbound crossing of the Uranian bowshock by the Voyager 2 spacecraft between January 27 and 30, 1986, are examined. Evidence is found of enhanced whistler wave activity in the vicinity of three shock crossings but little or no evidence of such activity elsewhere. Two wave events display two separate and simultaneous wave enhancements each. From an investigation of these events using high-resolution field data, it is concluded that they are analogous to those whistler waves upstream of the earth's bow shock that are driven by beams of electrons. An instability analysis is presented to show that a single electron beam with reasonable parameters can penetrate both of the upstream and downstream of a shock crossing. This event displays only one relatively broad spectral enhancement in the same frequency regime and is left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame. It is argued that this event is the result of a gyrating proton distribution associated with the oblique shock.

  16. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-11-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances—large-scale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (˜5 - 10 per day ) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M >40 ) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 ≤M events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  17. Band gap bowing in NixMg1-xO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Christian A.; Råsander, Mikael; Rhode, Sneha; Kachkanov, Vyacheslav; Zou, Bin; Alford, Neil; Moram, Michelle A.

    2016-08-01

    Epitaxial transparent oxide NixMg1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were grown on MgO(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate that the thin films are compositionally and structurally homogeneous, forming a completely miscible solid solution. Nevertheless, the composition dependence of the NixMg1-xO optical band gap shows a strong non-parabolic bowing with a discontinuity at dilute NiO concentrations of x band structure and the density of states demonstrate that deep Ni 3d levels are introduced into the MgO band gap, which significantly reduce the fundamental gap as confirmed by optical absorption spectra. These states broaden into a Ni 3d-derived conduction band for x > 0.074 and account for the anomalously large band gap narrowing in the NixMg1-xO solid solution system.

  18. Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

  19. Exploiting biomechanical degrees of freedom for fast and accurate changes in movement direction: coordination underlying quick bow reversals during continuous cello bowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius eVerrel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that accurate and efficient motor performance may be achieved by task-specific exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom. We investigate coordination of the right arm in a task requiring a sudden yet precisely controlled reversal of movement direction: bow reversals during continuous (legato tone production on a stringed instrument. Ten advanced or professional cello players (at least ten years of practice and ten age-matched novice players took part in the study. Kinematic data from the bow and the right arm were analyzed in terms of velocity and acceleration profiles, as well as temporal coordination along the arm. As expected, experts’ bow velocity and acceleration profiles differed markedly from those of novice participants, with higher peak accelerations and quicker direction changes. Importantly, experts achieved the change in movement direction with a single acceleration peak while novices tended to use multiple smaller acceleration peaks. Experts moreover showed a proximal-distal gradient in timing and amplitudes of acceleration peaks, with earlier and lower-amplitude reversals at more proximal joints. We suggest that this coordination pattern allows generating high accelerations at the end effector while reducing the required joint torques at the proximal joints. This may underlie experts’ ability to produce fast bow reversals efficiently and with high spatiotemporal accuracy. The findings are discussed in terms of motor control theory as well as potential implications for musicians’ performance and health.

  20. Structural study of ZnSe films grown on substrate with In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As and Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As buffer layers: strain, relaxation and lattice parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Ladron de Guevara, H.; Gaona-Couto, A.; Vidal, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion En Comunicacion Optica (IICO), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: mavidal@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Luyo Alvarado, J.; Melendez Lira, M.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2002-06-21

    ZnSe layers of various thickness were grown on (001) GaAs substrates, using In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As or Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As as buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy and were studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The principal structural characteristics of ZnSe layer and buffer layer were determined using several reflections, such as (004) and two pairs of coupled asymmetric reflections, namely (224), (-2-24) and (115) (-1-15). In order to evaluate their validity, the experimental data obtained from these reflections were handled by means of two known expressions found in the literature. We have found the relaxation process of ZnSe layers is well described by a geometrical model including the thermal strain and small strain due to work hardening. The relaxation process is faster for ZnSe grown on ternary buffer layers despite the fact that, some buffer layers are pseudomorphically grown to the substrate; therefore we conclude that not only the lattice mismatches have effect on the relaxation process but also the surface state of the buffer layer has an influence in this process. (author)

  1. Experimental demonstration of bow-shock instability and its numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Ohnishi, N.; Ohtani, K.

    2016-07-01

    An experimental demonstration was carried out in a ballistic range at high Mach numbers with the low specific heat ratio gas hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a to observe the unstable bow-shock wave generated in front of supersonic blunt objects. The shadowgraph images obtained from the experiments showed instability characteristics, in which the disturbances grow and flow downstream and the wake flow appears wavy because of the shock oscillation. Moreover, the influence of the body shape and specific heat ratio on the instability was investigated for various experimental conditions. Furthermore, the observed features, such as wave structure and disturbance amplitude, were captured by numerical simulations, and it was demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics could effectively simulate the physical instability. In addition, it was deduced that the shock instability is induced by sound emissions from the edge of the object. This inference supports the dependence of the instability on the specific heat ratio and Mach number because the shock stand-off distance is affected by these parameters and limits the sound wave propagation.

  2. Cell buffer with built-in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A cell buffer with built-in testing mechanism is provided. The cell buffer provides the ability to measure voltage provided by a power cell. The testing mechanism provides the ability to test whether the cell buffer is functioning properly and thus providing an accurate voltage measurement. The testing mechanism includes a test signal-provider to provide a test signal to the cell buffer. During normal operation, the test signal is disabled and the cell buffer operates normally. During testing, the test signal is enabled and changes the output of the cell buffer in a defined way. The change in the cell buffer output can then be monitored to determine if the cell buffer is functioning correctly. Specifically, if the voltage output of the cell buffer changes in a way that corresponds to the provided test signal, then the functioning of the cell buffer is confirmed. If the voltage output of the cell buffer does not change correctly, then the cell buffer is known not to be operating correctly. Thus, the built in testing mechanism provides the ability to quickly and accurately determine if the cell buffer is operating correctly. Furthermore, the testing mechanism provides this functionality without requiring excessive device size and complexity.

  3. CdS and Cd-Free Buffer Layers on Solution Phase Grown Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1- x)4 :Band Alignments and Electronic Structure Determined with Femtosecond Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Richard; Barkhouse, Aaron; Wang, Wei; Yu, Luo; Shao, Xiaoyan; Mitzi, David; Hiroi, Homare; Sugimoto, Hiroki

    2013-12-02

    The heterojunctions formed between solution phase grown Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1- x)4(CZTS,Se) and a number of important buffer materials including CdS, ZnS, ZnO, and In2S3, were studied using femtosecond ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (fs-UPS) and photovoltage spectroscopy. With this approach we extract the magnitude and direction of the CZTS,Se band bending, locate the Fermi level within the band gaps of absorber and buffer and measure the absorber/buffer band offsets under flatband conditions. We will also discuss two-color pump/probe experiments in which the band bending in the buffer layer can be independently determined. Finally, studies of the bare CZTS,Se surface will be discussed including our observation of mid-gap Fermi level pinning and its relation to Voc limitations and bulk defects.

  4. Effects of AlN buffer layers on the structural and the optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Heechang; Lee, Seungjoo; Kumar, Sunil; Kang, Taewon [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhyun; Kim, Taewhan [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    GaN epilayers on AlN buffer layers with various thicknesses were grown on sapphire substrates by using plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. The GaN epilayer with an AlN buffer layer was much smaller than the GaN epilayer without an AlN buffer layer. The crystal quality of the GaN active layer was improved by utilizing an AlN layer, which acted as a nucleation layer. The reduced defect density promoted GaN coalition. The double-crystal rocking curves and the photoluminescence spectra showed that the GaN epilayer grown on a 4-nm AlN buffer layer had the best quality among the several kinds of samples. The photoluminescence intensity of the GaN epilayer which is related to the density of the crystal defects was lower when an AlN buffer layer was used the thin AlN nucleation layer protected against stain propagation. These results indicate that GaN epilayers grown on AIN buffer layers hold promise for applications in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices.

  5. Global explicit particle-in-cell simulations of the nonstationary bow shock and magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhongwei; Liu, Ying D; Parks, George K; Wang, Rui; Lu, Quanming; Hu, Huidong

    2016-01-01

    We carry out two-dimensional global particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and a dipole field to study the formation of the bow shock and magnetosphere. A self-reforming bow shock ahead of a dipole field is presented by using relatively high temporal-spatial resolutions. We find that (1) the bow shock and the magnetosphere are formed and reach a quasi-stable state after several ion cyclotron periods, and (2) under the Bz southward solar wind condition the bow shock undergoes a self-reformation for low \\b{eta}i and high MA. Simultaneously, a magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail is found. For high \\b{eta}i and low MA, the shock becomes quasi-stationary, and the magnetotail reconnection disappears. In addition, (3) the magnetopause deflects the magnetosheath plasmas. The sheath particles injected at the quasi-perpendicular region of the bow shock can be convected to downstream of an oblique shock region. A fraction of these sheath particles can leak out from the magnetosheath ...

  6. Bow shock fragmentation driven by a thermal instability in laboratory-astrophysics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki-Vidal, F; Ciardi, A; Pickworth, L A; Rodriguez, R; Gil, J M; Espinosa, G; Hartigan, P; Swadling, G F; Skidmore, J; Hall, G N; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Burdiak, G; de Grouchy, P; Music, J; Suttle, L; Hansen, E; Frank, A

    2015-01-01

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counter-streaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling time-scale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale non-uniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with...

  7. The Milky Way Project: A Citizen Science Catalog of Infrared Bow Shock Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Don; Jayasinghe, Tharindu; Povich, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results from the first citizen-science search for infrared stellar-wind bow shock candidates. This search uses the Milky Way project, hosted by the Zooniverse, an online platform with over 1 million volunteer citizen scientists. Milky Way Project volunteers examine 77,000 randomly-distributed Spitzer image cutouts at varying zoom levels. Volunteers mark the infrared arc of potential bow shock candidates as well as the star likely driving the nebula. We produce lists of candidates from bow shocks flagged by multiple volunteers, which after merging and final visual review form the basis for our catalog. Comparing our new catalog to a recently-published catalog of 709 infrared bow shock candidates identified by a small team of (primarily undergraduate) researchers will allow us to assess the effectiveness of citizen science for this type of search and should yield a more complete catalog. Planned studies using these large catalogs will improve constraints on the mass-loss rates for the massive stars that create these bow shock nebulae. Mass-loss rates are highly uncertain but are a critical component of evolutionary models for massive stars. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CAREER-1454334, AST-1411851 (RUI) and AST-1412845.

  8. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  9. The dynamics of Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebula: Reconstruction of multi-bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) exhibit a characteristic cometary shape due to the supersonic motion of the pulsar interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM). One of the spectacular bow-shock is the Guitar Nebula, which is produced by the fast pulsar PSR B2224+65 (vpsr > 1000 km s-1 ), and consists of a bright head, a faint neck, a two larger bubbles. We present that the peculiar mophology arises from variations in the interstellar medium density. We perform 3-D hydrodynamic simulation to understand the evolution of the pulsar as its moves through the density discontinuity. We found that when the pulsar encounters the low-density medium, the pressure balance at the head of the bow shock begins to collapse, producing the second bubble. The expansion rate of the bubble is related to the properties of both the pulsar and the ambient medium. Assuming that the pulsar’s properties, including spin-down energy, are constant, we conclude that the ambient density around the second bubble should be 4.46 times larger than around the first bubble in the Guitar body. We further found that when the pulsar encounters the inclined density dicontinuity, it can produce the asymmetric shape of the bow shock observed in a subset of bow-shock PWNe including J2124-3358.

  10. Bow Shocks from Neutron Stars Scaling Laws and HST Observations of the Guitar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, S

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of high-velocity neutron stars with the interstellar medium produces bow shock nebulae, where the relativistic neutron star wind is confined by ram pressure. We present multi-wavelength observations of the Guitar Nebula, including narrow-band H-alpha imaging with HST/WFPC2, which resolves the head of the bow shock. The HST observations are used to fit for the inclination of the pulsar velocity vector to the line of sight, and to determine the combination of spindown energy loss, velocity, and ambient density that sets the scale of the bow shock. We find that the velocity vector is most likely in the plane of the sky. We use the Guitar Nebula and other observed neutron star bow shocks to test scaling laws for their size and H-alpha emission, discuss their prevalence, and present criteria for their detectability in targeted searches. The set of H-alpha bow shocks shows remarkable consistency, in spite of the expected variation in ambient densities and orientations. Together, they support the ass...

  11. Flow separation control by using bowed blade in highly loaded turbine cascades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAMAMOTO; Atsumasa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the serious flow separations and centralized vortices,there are high secondary losses in highly loaded turbines.It is imperative to find measures to control the flow separation and vortices hence improve the turbine performance.This paper reports our recent progress on flow separation and vor-tices control in highly loaded turbine cascades by using bowed blades.Two sets of highly loaded tur-bine cascades with the turning angles of 113° and 160°,and each with 7 bowed blade angles 0°(straight),±10°,±20° and ±30° were experimentally investigated.Both internal flow field measurement and flow visualization on the blade surfaces were conducted,and the effects of blade bowing on the flow topology,distribution of vorticity and the flow energy loss were discussed.The results show that,for the cascade with the turning angle of 113°,the appropriately positive bow angle could reduce the flow energy loss;whereas for the cascade with the turning angle of 160°,the well selected negative bow angle can give the better aerodynamic performance.

  12. Flow separation control by using bowed blade in highly loaded turbine cascades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN ChunQing; ZHANG HuaLiang; CHEN HaiSheng; DONG XueZhi; ZHAO HongLei; YAMAMOTO Atsumasa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the serious flow separations and centralized vortices, there are high secondary losses in highly loaded turbines. It is imperative to find measures to control the flow separation and vortices hence improve the turbine performance. This paper reports our recent progress on flow separation and vor-tices control in highly loaded turbine cascades by using bowed blades. Two sets of highly loaded tur-bine cascades with the turning angles of 113°and 160°, and each with 7 bowed blade angles 0°(straight),±10°, ±20° and ±30° were experimentally investigated. Both internal flow field measurement and flow visualization on the blade surfaces were conducted, and the effects of blade bowing on the flow topology, distribution of vorticity and the flow energy loss were discussed. The results show that, for the cascade with the turning angle of 113°, the appropriately positive bow angle could reduce the flow energy loss; whereas for the cascade with the turning angle of 160°, the well selected negative bow angle can give the better aerodynamic performance.

  13. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  14. Optimization design for the buffer and shock absorption structure of a data recorder under high load%高过载数据储存器缓冲隔振结构的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 贾宏光; 郝相宇; 周凌

    2012-01-01

    根据应力波理论设计储存器的缓冲隔振结构,同时兼顾缓冲与隔振、配置合理的广义阻抗比,从而设计出复合减振结构,解决了狭小空间的抗冲击问题.再应用Isight与Ls-dyna联合优化,不以降低过载加速度为指标,而选取最大动应力为目标,使被保护元件的最大动应力降低了约70.9%,储存器的质量下降了约300g,最终进行了炮击实验,成功回收数据.%According to the stress wave theory, the buffer and shock absorption structure of a data recorder was designed by considering the reasonable allocation of the generalized impedance ratio. The composite structure for shock absorption was designed to solve the problem of narrow space impact protection. And the optimization was carried out by combining Isight and Ls-dyna to reduce the dynamic stress of the protected component rather than the impact acceleration. As a result, the dynamic stress of the protected component decreases by about 70. 9% and the mass of the data recorder reduces 300 gram. In the end, the bombardment test was performed and the data were recovered successfully.

  15. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  16. Average observed properties of the Earth's quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Czaykowska, A; Treumann, R A; Baumjohann, W

    2000-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700) bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of plasma and magnetic field parameters as well as of low frequency magnetic power spectra some minutes upstream and downstream of the bow shock by dividing the events into categories depending on the angle between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field and on the plasma-beta, i.e., the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressure. Downstream of the quasi-perpendicular low-beta (beta 1.0) crossings mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

  17. Transport of Solar Wind H+ and He++ Ions across Earth’s Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Fu, S. Y.; Kim, H. E.; Ma, Y. Q.; Yang, Z. W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, N.; Hong, J.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Rème, H.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the dependence of mass, energy, and charge of solar wind (SW) transport across Earth’s bow shock. An examination of 111 crossings during quiet SW in both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shock regions shows that 64 crossings had various degrees of heating and thermalization of SW. We found 22 crossings where the SW speed was flat top distribution is ˜50 Volts. We find that the temperatures of H+ and He++ beams that penetrate the shock can sometimes be nearly the same in the upstream and downstream regions, indicating little or no heating had occurred crossing the bow shock. None of the models predict that the SW can cross the bow shock without heating. Our observations are important constraints for new models of collisionless shocks.

  18. Particles upstream of the pre-dawn bow shock - ISEE-3 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasawa, T.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F.M.; Gloeckler, G.; Sanderson, T.R.; Wenzel, K.P.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-06-01

    The first observations of energetic ions (equal to or greater than 30 keV) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn bow shock (X between 0 and -60 Re inclusively) are presented. The intensity in this region is controlled by the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and is maximized when the IMF is around the spiral direction. The particle distributions are highly anisotropic with the anisotropy directed perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the E x B frame this perpendicular anisotropy is conserved and it is argued that the distribution is pancake-like. This indicates that the energetic particles in the pre-dawn upstream region have their origin in the near-earth upstream region, from where they are convected by the solar wind perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is therefore concluded that acceleration occurs mainly near the nose of the bow shock, and particle acceleration at the distant bow shock is weak. 15 references.

  19. Active current sheets and hot flow anomalies in Mercury's bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Uritsky, V M; Boardsen, S A; Sundberg, T; Raines, J M; Gershman, D J; Collinson, G; Sibeck, D; Khazanov, G V; Anderson, B J; Korth, H

    2013-01-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) represent a subset of solar wind discontinuities interacting with collisionless bow shocks. They are typically formed when the normal component of motional (convective) electric field points toward the embedded current sheet on at least one of its sides. The core region of an HFA contains hot and highly deflected ion flows and rather low and turbulent magnetic field. In this paper, we report first observations of HFA-like events at Mercury identified over a course of two planetary years. Using data from the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, we identify a representative ensemble of active current sheets magnetically connected to Mercury's bow shock. We show that some of these events exhibit unambiguous magnetic and particle signatures of HFAs similar to those observed earlier at other planets, and present their key physical characteristics. Our analysis suggests that Mercury's bow shock does not only mediate the flo...

  20. An Analytical Method for Calculating the Satellite Bow Shock/Magnetopause Interception Positions and Times

    CERN Document Server

    Atanassov, Atanas Marinov

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a presentation of analytical solution of the problem of calculating the places and moments of intersection of satellite trajectories with elements of the Earth's magnetosphere (bow shock and magnetopause). The satellite motion is presented in a Kepler's approximation. Magnetopause and bow shock are described by second-order surfaces- elliptic paraboloides. These surfaces are employed as situational conditions for determining the points of intersection they have (if any) with the satellite trajectory. The situational condition is herein transformed into the plane of Kepler's orbit, thereafter it is reduced to a second-order plane curve- quadric (ellipse or parabola). The solution of this system, containing the equation of this curve and Kepler's ellipse equation, allows determining the places where orbits intersect with the magnetopause or the bow shock. The solution of this system is suggested to be given by reducing the system to a fourth-order equation.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Cormier-Daire, Valerie [Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Necker-Enfants-Malades Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  2. Evidence for a dynamically refracted primary bow in weakly bound $^9$Be rainbow scattering from $^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, S

    2016-01-01

    We present for the first time evidence for the existence of a dynamically refracted primary bow for $^{9}$Be+$^{16}$O scattering. This is demonstrated through the use of coupled channel calculations with an extended double folding potential derived from the density-dependent effective two-body force and precise microscopic cluster wave functions for $^{9}$Be. The calculations reproduce the experimental Airy structure in $^{9}$Be+$^{16}$O scattering well.It is found that coupling of a weakly bound $^{9}$Be nucleus to excited states plays the role of a booster lens, dynamically enhancing the refraction over the {\\it static} refraction due to the Luneburg lens mean field potential between the ground states of $^{9}$Be and $^{16}$O.

  3. Intervention of laser periphery iridectomy to posterior iris bowing in high myopic eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-tao; WANG Ning-li; LI Shu-ning

    2012-01-01

    Background For some high myopic patients with posterior iris bowing,laser periphery iridectomy should be performed pre-operation to prevent pupil block glaucoma if these patients would have phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct high myopia.So we had the opportunity to analysis the influence of laser iridectomy on posterior iris bowing.Methods Eighteen high myopic patients with posterior iris bowing (11 males and 7 females) were involved in the study in Beijing Tongren Eye Center from March 2008 to July 2008.Phakic intraocular lens were implanted to correct their ametropia.The mean age was (32±6) years (range,25-40 years).The center anterior chamber depth,the pupil diameter,the posterior iris bowing depth and the anterior chamber angle were measured with anterior segment coherence tomography (AS-OCT) under the normal condition,myosis condition induced by 2% pilocarpine,laser periphery iridectomy after myosis,and 2% pilocarpine eluting condition respectively.Results There was no significant difference of center anterior chamber depth under the four conditions (P=0.512).The pupil constricted after pilocarpine (P=0.001).After laser iridectomy performed and pilocarpine eluted,posterior iris bowing depth reduced more than that in normal condition (P=0.003).The anterior chamber angle reduced significantly after laser periphery iridectomy and pilocarpine eluted (P=0.012).Conclusion Laser periphery iridectomy can reduce the posterior iris bowing,which might be due to the change in aqueous circulate pathway.

  4. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey′s tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  5. Multispacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and magnetopause during extreme solar wind disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tátrallyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three events are discussed from the declining phase of the last solar cycle when the magnetopause and/or the bow shock were observed unusually close to the Earth due to major interplanetary disturbances. The observed extreme locations of the discontinuities are compared with the predictions of three magnetopause and four bow shock models which describe them in considerably different ways using statistical methods based on observations. A new 2-D magnetopause model is introduced (based on Verigin et al., 2009 which takes into account the pressure of the compressed magnetosheath field raised by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF component transverse to the solar wind flow. The observed magnetopause crossings could be predicted with a reasonable accuracy (0.1–0.2 RE by one of the presented models at least. For geosynchronous magnetopause crossings observed by the GOES satellites, (1 the new model provided the best predictions when the IMF was extremely large having a large negative Bz component, and (2 the predictions of the model of Shue et al. (1998 agreed best with the observations when the solar wind dynamic pressure was extremely large. The magnetopause crossings close to the cusp observed by the Cluster spacecraft were best predicted by the 3-D model of Lin et al. (2010. The applied empirical bow shock models and the 3-D semi-empiric bow shock model combined with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD solution proved to be insufficient for predicting the observed unusual bow shock locations during large interplanetary disturbances. The results of a global 3-D MHD model were in good agreement with the Cluster observations on 17 January 2005, but they did not predict the bow shock crossings on 31 October 2003.

  6. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths.Materials and Methods: Four 3D finite element method (FEM models of a cer- vical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Modelscontained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL, cancellous and cor- tical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with dif- ferences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was cal- culated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer.Results: The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N and distal (= 1.008 N forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm.Conclusion: As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. Clinical Relevance:A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be consi-dered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use.

  7. Buffered Communication Analysis in Distributed Multiparty Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Yoshida, Nobuko

    Many communication-centred systems today rely on asynchronous messaging among distributed peers to make efficient use of parallel execution and resource access. With such asynchrony, the communication buffers can happen to grow inconsiderately over time. This paper proposes a static verification methodology based on multiparty session types which can efficiently compute the upper bounds on buffer sizes. Our analysis relies on a uniform causality audit of the entire collaboration pattern - an examination that is not always possible from each end-point type. We extend this method to design algorithms that allocate communication channels in order to optimise the memory requirements of session executions. From these analyses, we propose two refinements methods which respect buffer bounds: a global protocol refinement that automatically inserts confirmation messages to guarantee stipulated buffer sizes and a local protocol refinement to optimise asynchronous messaging without buffer overflow. Finally our work is applied to overcome a buffer overflow problem of the multi-buffering algorithm.

  8. Electron - whistler interaction at the Earth`s bow shock: 2. Electron pitch angle diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P.; Zimbardo, G. [Universita della Calabria, Cosenza (Italy)

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the authors further examine the interactions of whistler waves with electrons in the bow shock, simulating a crossing made on Nov 7, 1977. The authors consider the effects of whistler waves and electrostatic noise on the electron distribution function, using a Monte Carlo technique. Their simulations are able to reproduce the moments of the distribution function, including spatial and velocity profiles. They conclude that the fields in the bow shock accelerate electrons, creating asymmetric distributions, which are filled in due to diffusion caused by the electrostatic noise, and which have the velocity distributions balanced due to pitch angle scattering of parallel electrons from whistler waves.

  9. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  10. ON OPTIMAL LOCAL BUFFER ALLOCATION IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    An optimal design problem of local buffer allocation in the FMS is discussed in order to maximize a reward earned from processed jobs at all workstations. Structural properties of the optimal design problem are analyzed for the model with two job routing policies. Based on these properties, approaches to optimal solutions are given.

  11. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  12. Influence of atomic kinetics in the simulation of plasma microscopic properties and thermal instabilities for radiative bow shock experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G.; Rodríguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ciardi, A.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.

    2017-03-01

    Numerical simulations of laboratory astrophysics experiments on plasma flows require plasma microscopic properties that are obtained by means of an atomic kinetic model. This fact implies a careful choice of the most suitable model for the experiment under analysis. Otherwise, the calculations could lead to inaccurate results and inappropriate conclusions. First, a study of the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the calculation of the average ionization, mean radiative properties, and cooling times of argon plasmas in a range of plasma conditions of interest in laboratory astrophysics experiments on radiative shocks is performed in this work. In the second part, we have made an analysis of the influence of the atomic kinetic model used to calculate plasma microscopic properties of experiments carried out on magpie on radiative bow shocks propagating in argon. The models considered were developed assuming both local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium and, for the latter situation, we have considered in the kinetic model different effects such as external radiation field and plasma mixture. The microscopic properties studied were the average ionization, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, the Planck mean opacity, and the radiative power loss. The microscopic study was made as a postprocess of a radiative-hydrodynamic simulation of the experiment. We have also performed a theoretical analysis of the influence of these atomic kinetic models in the criteria for the onset possibility of thermal instabilities due to radiative cooling in those experiments in which small structures were experimentally observed in the bow shock that could be due to this kind of instability.

  13. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  14. Modeling and numerical investigation of the inlet circumferential fluctuations of swept and bowed blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingzhi; Jin, Donghai; Gui, Xingmin

    2017-02-01

    The circumferential fluctuation (CF) source terms induced by the inviscid blade force can affect the inlet distribution of flow parameters and radial equilibrium of swept and bowed blades. However, these phenomena cannot be adequately described by throughflow methods based on the axisymmetric assumption. A transport model for the CF stresses is proposed and correlated to the distribution of circulation to reflect the effect of the inviscid blade force. To investigate the effect of the inlet CFs on swept and bowed blades, the model is integrated into a throughflow model and applied to a series of cascades with different sweep and bow angles. For swept cascades, the CF source terms change the distributions of incidence angles, as well as the radial equilibrium at the inlet of the blade passage. And the influence is enhanced as the absolute value of the sweep angle increases. For bowed cascades, the distributions of incidence angles are also altered. For both cases, the model can offer a good prediction of the inlet CF source terms, and prove to exert a better prediction of blade design key parameters such as flow angles.

  15. Further evidence for a dynamically generated secondary bow in $^{13}$C+$^{12}$C rainbow scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, S; Ogloblin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a secondary bow is confirmed for 13C+12C nuclear rainbow scattering in addition to the 16O+12C system. This is found by studying the experimental angular distribution of 13C+12C scattering at the incident 13C energy $E_L$=250 MeV with an extended double folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic wave functions for 12C using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The Airy minimum at \\theta$ $\\approx$70$^\\circ$, which is not reproduced by a conventional folding potential, is revealed to be a secondary bow generated dynamically by a coupling to the excited state 2+ (4.44 MeV) of 12C. The essential importance of the quadruple {\\it Y2} term (reorientation term) of potential of the excited state 2+ of 12C for the emergence of a secondary bow is found. The mechanism of the secondary bow is intuitively explained by showing how the trajectories are refracted dynamically into the classically forbidden angular region beyond t...

  16. Observed Foreshock Ions which are Actually Behind the Martian Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Rudy A.; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Winningham, J. David; Lundin, Rickard; Sharber, James R.; Nilsson, Hans; Coates, Andrew J.; Mukherjee, Joey

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Express (MEx) Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment contains ion and electron instruments for conducting plasma measurements. On January 23, 2012, during in-bound travel of MEx in the southern hemisphere of Mars traveling from its dawn side toward periapsis at dusk, the plasma instruments measured foreshock-like ion beams extending from outside the bow shock and into the magnetosphere, continuing to a distance of about a proton gyroradius from the bow shock. These ion beams were mostly protons, were observed to have energies greater than solar wind protons, and were not gyrating, in agreement with reflections of the solar wind proton beam. Furthermore, in the foreshock region, the ion energy gradually decreased toward the magnetosheath, in agreement with an acceleration by an outward-directed electric field in the bow shock. The observations also suggest that this electric field exists even inside the magnetosheath, within the distance of a proton gyroradius from the bow shock.

  17. A three-dimensional analysis of finger and bow string movements during the release in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsak, Brian; Heller, Mario

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine finger and bow string movements during archery by investigating a top Austrian athlete (FITA score = 1233) under laboratory conditions. Maximum lateral bow string deflection and angular displacements for index, third, and ring fingers between the full draw position and the end of the release were quantified using a motion tracking system. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether bow string deflection and finger movements are predictive for scoring. Joint ranges of motion during the shot itself were large in the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, and much smaller in the metacarpophalangeal joints. Contrary to our expectations, greater deflection leads to higher scores (R2 = .18, p < .001) and the distal interphalangeal joint of the third finger weakly predicts the deflection (R2 = .11, p < .014). More variability in the joint angles of the third finger was found in bad shots than in good shots. Findings in this study let presume that maximum lateral bow string deflection does not adversely affect the archer's performance.

  18. Cherkis bow varieties and Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2016-01-01

    We show that Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$ are Cherkis bow varieties, which have been introduced as ADHM type description of moduli space of instantons on the Taub-NUT space equivariant under a cyclic group action.

  19. Exoplanet Transit Variability: Bow Shocks and Winds Around HD 189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Llama, J; Jardine, M; Wood, K; Fares, R; Gombosi, T I

    2013-01-01

    By analogy with the solar system, it is believed that stellar winds will form bow shocks around exoplanets. For hot Jupiters the bow shock will not form directly between the planet and the star, causing an asymmetric distribution of mass around the exoplanet and hence an asymmetric transit. As the planet orbits thorough varying wind conditions, the strength and geometry of its bow shock will change, thus producing transits of varying shape. We model this process using magnetic maps of HD 189733 taken one year apart, coupled with a 3D stellar wind model, to determine the local stellar wind conditions throughout the orbital path of the planet. We predict the time-varying geometry and density of the bow shock that forms around the magnetosphere of the planet and simulate transit light curves. Depending on the nature of the stellar magnetic field, and hence its wind, we find that both the transit duration and ingress time can vary when compared to optical light curves. We conclude that consecutive near-UV transit...

  20. Extended Red Objects and Stellar Wind Bow Shocks in the Carina Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Remington O; Smith, Nathan; Babler, Brian L; Meade, Marilyn R; Rudolph, Alexander L

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of infrared photometry on 39 extended red objects (EROs) in the Carina Nebula, observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most EROs are identified by bright, extended 8.0 um emission, which ranges from 10'' to 40'' in size, but our sample also includes 4 EROs identified by extended 24 um emission. Of particular interest are nine EROs associated with late O or early B-type stars and characterized by arc-shaped morphology, suggesting dusty, stellar-wind bow shocks. These objects are preferentially oriented towards the central regions of the Carina Nebula, suggesting that these bow shocks are generally produced by the interactions of OB winds with the bulk expansion of the H II region rather than high proper motion. We identify preferred regions of mid-infrared color space occupied by our bow shock candidates, which also contain bow shock candidates in M17 and RCW 49 but are well-separated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or circumstellar discs. Color cuts identify an additiona...

  1. Double bow shocks around young, runaway red supergiants: application to Betelgeuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Jonathan; Neilson, Hilding R; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M -A

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM), either due to disruption of a binary system or ejection from their parent star cluster. The interaction of their wind with the ISM produces a bow shock. In late evolutionary stages these stars may undergo rapid transitions from red to blue and vice versa on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with accompanying rapid changes to their stellar winds and bow shocks. Recent 3D simulations of the bow shock produced by the nearby runaway red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse, under the assumption of a constant wind, indicate that the bow shock is very young (<30000 years old), hence Betelgeuse may have only recently become a RSG. To test this possibility, we have calculated stellar evolution models for single stars which match the observed properties of Betelgeuse in the RSG phase. The resulting evolving stellar wind is incorporated into 2D hydrodynamic simulations in which we model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) as i...

  2. "Heaven Starts at Your Parents' Feet": Adolescent Bowing to Parents and Associated Spiritual Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    In a quantitative survey of religious attitudes and practices in a multi-religious sample of 369 school pupils aged between 13 and 15 in London, the practice of bowing to parents was found widespread in 22% of adolescents spanning several religious affiliations and ethnicities--especially Buddhists, Hindus and those of Indian, African and…

  3. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  4. Giant magnetoresistance effect in Ni buffered Co/Cu/Co sandwich

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Tie(李铁)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Ni buffer layer on the giant magnetoresistance structure of Co/Cu/Co sandwich are investigated systematically in this paper.It is found that Ni buffer layer can induce the crystallization of the lower Ni/Co layer and produce small coercivity,thus enlarging the difference in the magnetic behavior between the two magnetic layers in the sandwich.Moreover,the use of the Ni buffer layer can also improve the interface flatness in the sandwich.All these factors enhance the sensitivity of the Ni buffered sandwich.``

  5. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  6. The Maintenance of Cross-Domain Associations in the Episodic Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerock, Naomi; Vergauwe, Evie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The episodic buffer has been described as a structure of working memory capable of maintaining multimodal information in an integrated format. Although the role of the episodic buffer in binding features into objects has received considerable attention, several of its characteristics have remained rather underexplored. This is the case for its…

  7. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  8. A comparative analysis of 3D flow fields between straight and bowed blades in a steam turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.HASSANVAND; WANG Zhong-qi 王仲奇; WANG Song-tao 王松涛

    2004-01-01

    A commercial Navier-Stokes flow solver has been employed tor simulating steady subsonic flow characteristics and analyzing the comparative features of flow fields between straight and bowed blades applied to the stator of a high pressure steam turbine. For comparison, we have studied the effects of bowed blades on the wakes of stator trailing edge and horse shoe vortex in the rotor. It was found that the position of wakes for bowed blades is shifted toward the blade suction side. Also, we have discussed and compared the entropy generation and energy loss caused by dissipation mechanism within the boundary layers on the hub and shroud; and temperature gradient in meridional plane.

  9. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.

  11. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  12. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  13. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-28

    A cumulative buffer may be defined for an interference domain in a wireless mesh network and distributed among nodes in the network to maintain or improve capacity utilization of network resources in the interference domain without increasing packet queuing delay times. When an interference domain having communications links sharing resources in a network is identified, a cumulative buffer size is calculated. The cumulative buffer may be distributed among buffers in each node of the interference domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed when the network conditions change.

  14. Optimization of protein buffer cocktails using Thermofluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Linda; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Geerlof, Arie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S

    2013-02-01

    The stability and homogeneity of a protein sample is strongly influenced by the composition of the buffer that the protein is in. A quick and easy approach to identify a buffer composition which increases the stability and possibly the conformational homogeneity of a protein sample is the fluorescence-based thermal-shift assay (Thermofluor). Here, a novel 96-condition screen for Thermofluor experiments is presented which consists of buffer and additive parts. The buffer screen comprises 23 different buffers and the additive screen includes small-molecule additives such as salts and nucleotide analogues. The utilization of small-molecule components which increase the thermal stability of a protein sample frequently results in a protein preparation of higher quality and quantity and ultimately also increases the chances of the protein crystallizing.

  15. [Mechanical buffering characteristics of feline paw pads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jialing; Yu, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In the long time of natural evolution, the bodies of some animals, such as feline, that live in the wild and complicate surroundings have evolved to possess outstanding buffering characteristics, which make the animals adapt to the environment perfectly. These animals generally have well-developed paw pads under their soles to play an important role in attenuating the intensity of impact when they land on the ground. Investigating the buffering characteristics of these animals' paw pads could help us to design "bionic" buffering and energy-absorption devices. In this paper, based on observations of animal jumping test, a simple mass-spring-buffer model was proposed to explore the buffering characteristics of the animals' paw pads. By analytically solving the differential equations of this model, the parameters concerned with paw pads functions were discussed and some significant results were obtained.

  16. Buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; Laitat, Kim; Moulin, Laure; Catarino, Ana I; Grosjean, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic activity results in an acidification of the surface waters of the oceans. The impact of these chemical changes depends on the considered organisms. In particular, it depends on the ability of the organism to control the pH of its inner fluids. Among echinoderms, this ability seems to differ significantly according to species or taxa. In the present paper, we investigated the buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in different echinoderm taxa as well as factors modifying this capacity. Euechinoidea (sea urchins except Cidaroidea) present a very high buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid (from 0.8 to 1.8mmolkg(-1) SW above that of seawater), while Cidaroidea (other sea urchins), starfish and holothurians have a significantly lower one (from -0.1 to 0.4mmolkg(-1) SW compared to seawater). We hypothesize that this is linked to the more efficient gas exchange structures present in the three last taxa, whereas Euechinoidea evolved specific buffer systems to compensate lower gas exchange abilities. The constituents of the buffer capacity and the factors influencing it were investigated in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Asterias rubens. Buffer capacity is primarily due to the bicarbonate buffer system of seawater (representing about 63% for sea urchins and 92% for starfish). It is also partly due to coelomocytes present in the coelomic fluid (around 8% for both) and, in P. lividus only, a compound of an apparent size larger than 3kDa is involved (about 15%). Feeding increased the buffer capacity in P. lividus (to a difference with seawater of about 2.3mmolkg(-1) SW compared to unfed ones who showed a difference of about 0.5mmolkg(-1) SW) but not in A. rubens (difference with seawater of about 0.2 for both conditions). In P. lividus, decreased seawater pH induced an increase of the buffer capacity of individuals maintained at pH7.7 to about twice that of the control individuals and, for those at pH7

  17. Dynamic External Hashing: The Limit of Buffering

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are one of the most fundamental data structures in computer science, in both theory and practice. They are especially useful in external memory, where their query performance approaches the ideal cost of just one disk access. Knuth gave an elegant analysis showing that with some simple collision resolution strategies such as linear probing or chaining, the expected average number of disk I/Os of a lookup is merely $1+1/2^{\\Omega(b)}$, where each I/O can read a disk block containing $b$ items. Inserting a new item into the hash table also costs $1+1/2^{\\Omega(b)}$ I/Os, which is again almost the best one can do if the hash table is entirely stored on disk. However, this assumption is unrealistic since any algorithm operating on an external hash table must have some internal memory (at least $\\Omega(1)$ blocks) to work with. The availability of a small internal memory buffer can dramatically reduce the amortized insertion cost to $o(1)$ I/Os for many external memory data structures. In this paper we...

  18. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  19. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  20. COMBINATIONS OF BUFFER-STOCKS AND BUFFER-FUNDS FOR WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Brian; Piggott, Roley R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary analysis is presented of a combined buffer-fund and buffer-stock as an alternative to a pure buffer-fund or a pure buffer stock for stabilising wool prices. The alternatives analysed are designed so that each provides the same prices to producers as did the Reserve Price Scheme over the period of analysis. Least-cost combinations of policy instruments are derived. The results show that there is considerable potential for cost savings to be made by combining buffer-...

  1. Are buffers boring? Uniqueness and asymptotical stability of traveling wave fronts in the buffered bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James

    2007-04-01

    Traveling waves of calcium are widely observed under the condition that the free cytosolic calcium is buffered. Thus it is of physiological interest to determine how buffers affect the properties of calcium waves. Here we summarise and extend previous results on the existence, uniqueness and stability of traveling wave solutions of the buffered bistable equation, which is the simplest possible model of the upstroke of a calcium wave. Taken together, the results show that immobile buffers do not change the existence, uniqueness or stability of the traveling wave, while mobile buffers can eliminate a traveling wave. However, if a wave exists in the latter case, it remains unique and stable.

  2. Attenuation Distance of Low Frequency Waves Upstream of the Pre-Dawn Bow Shock: GEOTAIL snd ISEE-3 Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock using both GEOTAIL and ISEE-3 magnetometer data.

  3. Buffer-regulated biocorrosion of pure magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Nicholas T; Waterman, Jay; Birbilis, Nick; Dias, George; Woodfield, Tim B F; Hartshorn, Richard M; Staiger, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are being actively investigated as potential load-bearing orthopaedic implant materials due to their biodegradability in vivo. With Mg biomaterials at an early stage in their development, the screening of alloy compositions for their biodegradation rate, and hence biocompatibility, is reliant on cost-effective in vitro methods. The use of a buffer to control pH during in vitro biodegradation is recognised as critically important as this seeks to mimic pH control as it occurs naturally in vivo. The two different types of in vitro buffer system available are based on either (i) zwitterionic organic compounds or (ii) carbonate buffers within a partial-CO(2) atmosphere. This study investigated the influence of the buffering system itself on the in vitro corrosion of Mg. It was found that the less realistic zwitterion-based buffer did not form the same corrosion layers as the carbonate buffer, and was potentially affecting the behaviour of the hydrated oxide layer that forms on Mg in all aqueous environments. Consequently it was recommended that Mg in vitro experiments use the more biorealistic carbonate buffering system when possible.

  4. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  5. Half-bow sliding knot: modified suture technique for scleral fixation using the corneoscleral pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2011-09-01

    A modified suture technique for precise knot placement in the Hoffman corneoscleral pocket technique of scleral fixation is described. Both loops of the polypropylene suture passing from the intraocular device through the sclera and conjunctiva are retrieved from the pocket. A loop of suture is pulled through 3 suture throws made using the second suture loop, forming a half bow. Centration of the intraocular lens (IOL)-capsular bag is checked. If the suture tension is too tight, the surgeon can easily undo the knot of the half-bow knot by pulling it free and can then retie the sliding knot. When the IOL-capsular bag is centered, the suture loop is cut and the free end removed. The second suture end is retrieved from the pocket, and knot tying is completed without further adjustment to the tension. Posterior pressure on the intraocular device centers it and settles the knot within the sclera at the fixation point.

  6. In situ plume radiance measurements from the bow shock ultraviolet 2 rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Peter W.; Zipf, Edward C.; Espy, Patrick; Howlett, Carl; Christou, Carol; Levin, Deborah A.; Collins, Robert J.; Candler, Graham V.

    1993-10-01

    The ultraviolet spectrum (200-400 nm) of the plumes generated by the second- and third-stage engines of a Strypi XI rocket and of the Mach 17 re-entry bow shock were obtained by a sounding rocket experiment launched from the Barking Sands Research Range (Kauai, Hawaii) on February 18, 1991 at 14:30 GMT. The re-entry optical data were obtained as the payload descended from 120 to 65 km with a vehicle velocity of 5.1 km/s. The intensities of the vacuum ultraviolet resonance radiation emitted by atomic oxygen and hydrogen in the bow shock at 130.4 and 121.5 nm, respectively, were also measured. Complementary Langmuir probe measurements provided data on the total plasma density and electron temperature in the boundary layer.

  7. The Effect of Metallic TPS Panel Bowing on the Surface Heating of the X-33 Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant; Kontinos, Dean; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The thermal protection system of the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle consists of metallic honeycomb sandwich panels. Thermal gradients experienced during the descent phase of the trajectory result in a different rate of thermal expansion between the inner and outer face sheets of the metallic panels. This causes the panels to bow outward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is larger than that of the inner face sheet and inward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is less than that of he inner face sheet. This results in a quilted-type body surface. Using computational fluid dynamic analysis, this study will determine the effect the metallic TPS panel bowing has on the surface heating.

  8. Nonthermal ions and associated magnetic field behavior at a quasi-parallel earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, W. P.; Pardaens, A. K.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burgess, D.; Luehr, H.; Kessel, R. L.; Dunlop, M.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to ion and magnetic field measurements at the earth's bow shock from the AMPTE-UKS and -IRM spacecraft, which were examined in high time resolution during a 45-min interval when the field remained closely aligned with the model bow shock normal. Dense ion beams were detected almost exclusively in the midst of short-duration periods of turbulent magnetic field wave activity. Many examples of propagation at large elevation angles relative to the ecliptic plane, which is inconsistent with reflection in the standard model shock configuration, were discovered. The associated waves are elliptically polarized and are preferentially left-handed in the observer's frame of reference, but are less confined to the maximum variance plane than other previously studied foreshock waves. The association of the wave activity with the ion beams suggests that the former may be triggered by an ion-driven instability, and possible candidates are discussed.

  9. Dissecting a Molecular Shock: Spatially Resolved H2 Line Ratios Across the HH7 Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Rosemary E.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Burton, Michael G.; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Brand, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the physics of molecular shocks using Gemini NIFS (Near-Infrared Field Spectrometer) K-band spectra of a 3.'2 x 2.'9 region near the tip of the HH7 bow shock. The IFU data have an angular resolution of 0.3", much higher resolution then in any previous study of a molecular shock, and a velocity resolution of 60 km/s. We have detected 20 H2 emission lines with upper state energies as high as 28,000 K, and 6 additional unidentified lines which share the same bow shock morphology as the H2. We use excitation temperatures derived from line pairs measured in 0.15' x 0.15' bins to attempt to constrain the shock type and distinguish between low velocity jump shocks, continuous shocks, and dissociative shocks in which the H2 line emission arises from newly reformed H2.

  10. Modelling multi-wavelength observational characteristics of bow shocks from runaway early type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Acreman, David M; Harries, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    We assess the multi-wavelength observable properties of the bow shock around a runaway early type star using a combination of hydrodynamical modelling, radiative transfer calculations and synthetic imaging. Instabilities associated with the forward shock produce dense knots of material which are warm, ionised and contain dust. These knots of material are responsible for the majority of emission at far infra-red, H alpha and radio wavelengths. The large scale bow shock morphology is very similar and differences are primarily due to variations in the assumed spatial resolution. However infra-red intensity slices (at 22 microns and 12 microns) show that the effects of a temperature gradient can be resolved at a realistic spatial resolution for an object at a distance of 1 kpc.

  11. Characterization of Saturn's bow shock: Magnetic field observations of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks vary drastically from terrestrial to astrophysical regimes resulting in radically different characteristics. This poses two complexities. Firstly, separating the influences of these parameters on physical mechanisms such as energy dissipation. Secondly, correlating observations of shock waves over a wide range of each parameter, enough to span across different regimes. Investigating the latter has been restricted since the majority of studies on shocks at exotic regimes (such as supernova remnants) have been achieved either remotely or via simulations, but rarely by means of in-situ observations. Here we present the parameter space of MA bow shock crossings from 2004-2014 as observed by the Cassini spacecraft. We find that Saturn's bow shock exhibits characteristics akin to both terrestrial and astrophysical regimes (MA of order 100), which is principally controlled by the upstream magnetic field strength. Moreover, we determined the {\\theta}Bn of each crossing to show that Saturn's (days...

  12. FAILURES AND DEFECTS IN THE BUILDING PROCESS – APPLYING THE BOW-TIE APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. A Danish research project focusing on failures and defects in building processes has been carried out over the last 2 years. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction...... site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed. The methodological approach used in this analysis was the bow-tie model from the area of safety research. It combines critical-event analysis for both causes and effects...... with event-tree analysis. The paper describes this analytical approach as an introduction to a new concept for understanding failures and defects in construction. Analysing the many critical events in the building process with the bow-tie model visualises the complexity of causes. This visualisation offers...

  13. Studies on CFD simulation of hydrodynamic phenomena with vortex flow around the bow of a blunt ship

    OpenAIRE

    上浦, 鉄平

    2014-01-01

    In the present studies, hydrodynamic phenomena with vortex flow around the bow of a blunt ship are simulated by using various CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. In the conventional experimental studies, some flow properties in front of the bow beneath the free surface have been found out and reported; for example, a necklace vortex based on the wave breaking phenomena is the typical one. In CFD simulations, however, reliable results have not been obtained yet.In this study, the authors...

  14. Contribution from the Earth's Bow Shock to Region 1 Current under Low Alfvén Mach Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zhong; HU You-Qiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Using global MHD simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere--ionosphere system, we investigate the depen-dence of the contribution from the Earth's bow shock (I1bs) to ionospheric region I field aligned current (FAC) (I1). It is found that I1bs increases with increasing southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength Bs, if the Alfven Mach number MA of the solar wind exceeds 2, a similar result as obtained by previous authors. However, if MA becomes close to or falls below 2, I1bs will decrease with B8 in both magnitude and percentage (i.e., I1bs/I1) because of the resultant reduction of the bow shock strength. Both the surface current density Jbs at the nose of the bow shock and the total bow shock current lb, share nearly the same relationship with MA, and vary non-monotonically with MA or Bs. The maximum point is found to be located at MA = 2.7. Three conclusions are then made as follows: (1) The surface current density at the nose, which is much easier to be evaluated, may be used to largely describe the behaviour of the bow shock instead of the total bow shock current. (2) The peak of the total bow shock current is reached at about MA = 2.7 when only Bs is adjusted. (3) The non-monotonic variation of the bow shock current with MA causes a similar variation of its contribution to region 1 FAC. The turning point for such contribution is found to be nearly MA= 2. The implication of these conclusions to the saturation of the ionospheric transpolar potential is briefly discussed.

  15. [A drill-bow in Horace, Odes 3.6.7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter

    2004-01-01

    With the short poem Odes 3.26 Horaces says--ostensibly--farewell to the subject of love. A symbol of his retreat is the order given to his followers: they ought to lay in the Temple of Venus the three objects which he has used in his night escapades struggling for the girls' love: lucida funalia (torches), vectis (jemmies), and arcus. The last words has been puzzling the scholars for centuries. Many took offence at the transmitted text and offered conjectures of their own. Some, however, defended arcus using different arguemtns, for instance that arcus refers to bows and arrows as weapons of the lascivious night-reveller. Also the author of this article retains arcus in the text. The context and grammatical construction let assume that also this noun denotes a tool of a burglar, preferably a drill driven by a fiddle-bow. Such instruments were use by carpenters, joiners, and surgeons. Apart from this, gigantic drill-bows were known among military machines. These were frequently applied in sieges. Horace might have seen descriptions and drawings of them in military handbooks which he presumably read in order to prepare himself for his short and rather inglorious career as an officer in the army of Caesar's murderers. For Romans without military experience who suddenly obtained a high rank at war this was a typical way of making good their shortcomings. The parallel between the siege of a town and the attack upon the beloved girl's house must be regarded as a poetic exaggeration; the reader should be amused by an impracticable idea. Furthermore, a possible connection between Horace's poem and the Heracles of Euripides is pointed out here for the first time. In Heracles 942-6 the hero, driven insane by Lyssa's work, asks for his bow, his arrows and siege instruments to take Mycenae, the fortress of his tormentor Eurystheus. In fact he brakes into his own bedroom and kills his spouse and his son.

  16. PENGARUH ANTI-SLAMMING BULBOUS BOW TERHADAP GERAKAN SLAMMING PADA KAPAL PERINTIS 200 DWT

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Iqbal; Good Rindo

    2016-01-01

    Analisis seakeeping (kemampuan olah gerak kapal) merupakan aspek penting dalam perancangan kapal. Berdasarkan analisis tersebut, dapat diketahui batas operasional dari sebuah kapal. Salah satunya adalah dapat mengetahui kemampuan kapal pada tinggi gelombang signifikan (Hs) tertentu. Memodifikasi bentuk haluan kapal dengan membuat dasar dari haluan tersebut lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan dasar lambung kapal nya (dibawah garis baseline kapal) dinamakan Anti-Slamming Bow. Pada penelitian ini, ...

  17. Laboratory studies of stagnating plasma flows with applications to inner solar system and stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    Supercritical magnetized collisionless shocks are thought to play a dominant role in the overall partition of energy throughout the universe by converting flow kinetic energy to other forms such as thermal and supra-thermal populations, magnetic field enhancement, turbulence, and energetic particles. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL creates conditions similar to those of inner solar system and stellar bow shocks by accelerating hot (100s of eV during translation) dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids to 100s of km/s; resulting in β 1, collisionless plasma flows with Msonic and MAlfvén 10. The drifting FRC can be made to impinge upon a variety of static obstacles including: a strong mirror or cusp magnetic field (mimicking magnetically excited shocks such as the Earth's bow shock), plasma pileup from a solid obstacle (similar to the bow shocks of Mercury and the Moon), and a neural gas puff (bow shocks of Venus or the comets). Characteristic shock length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment, enabling study of the complex interplay of kinetic and fluid processes that mediate cosmic shocks and can generate non-thermal distributions, produce density and magnetic field enhancements much greater than predicted by fluid theory, and accelerate particles. An overview of the experimental program will be presented, including recent results. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  18. Increase The Absorptive Capacity Of Light Of The Photocells By Embedded In Bow-tie Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Chenguang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China); Lang Peilin [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (BUPT), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang Ru, E-mail: napolles@sohu.com

    2011-02-01

    The application of silicon photocells has been widely used in biological and energy field, how to improve the efficiency of silicon photocells has become the research hot spots. The light absorption efficiency is not ideal, only 10% to 20% of solar energy can be transformed into electricity, the paper embeds metal bow-tie antenna in the crystals of silicon, by the field enhancement of the surface plasma, it highly increase the absorptive capacity of light of the silicon photocells.

  19. Variation of the ratio of specific heats across a detached bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Equations are derived which allow the ratio of specific heats behind the earth's bow shock to be evaluated if several pre-shock parameters (the specific-heat ratio, the Alfvenic Mach number, the sonic Mach number, and the angle between the shock normal at the stagnation point and the magnetic field) and the density jump across the shock are known. Numerical examples show that the dependence of the post-shock ratio on the pre-shock ratio is weak.

  20. Venus Express Observations of Electromagnetic Waves at the Bow Shock and Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Russell, C.; Hart, R. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between the solar wind and the ionosphere of Venus forms an induced magnetosphere around the planet, which consists of regions near the planet and in its wake where magnetic pressure dominates the other pressure contributions. This induced magnetosphere and the ionosphere of Venus act as a barrier to the solar wind, leading to a bow shock with standoff distance very close the planet. Upstream of the bow shock, there is abundant wave activity generated by the shock or by the back-streaming ions and electrons from the shock. Previous studies found upstream waves with 1 Hz or lower frequencies, but Venus Express occasionally provides 128 Hz data that cover the regions up to the bow shock and allow us the search for and analyze higher frequency waves. Inside the magnetosheath and at the Venus ionopause, there are lightning-associated whistler waves detected from the 128 Hz data, which generally propagate along the magnetic field lines. Besides, there is another type of waves at such high frequencies which propagate quasi-perpendicular to the magnetic field and strongly associated with current sheets near the ionopause. They either occur at the center of a sharp current, or at the edge of a current. These waves may be generated from the free energy of currents at the ionopause and could lead to dissipation of those currents. In this paper, we perform statistical studies on the current-associated waves and examine their effects on current dissipation and on plasma heating. We examine waves at the bow shock in this higher frequency range.

  1. Coordination of degrees of freedom and stabilization of task variables in a complex motor skill: expertise-related differences in cello bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrel, Julius; Pologe, Steven; Manselle, Wayne; Lindenberger, Ulman; Woollacott, Marjorie

    2013-02-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex sensorimotor skill, involving fine regulation of bow orientation and motion relative to the string. In this study, we characterize this skill in terms of stabilization of specific bow parameters as well as the underlying use and coordination of the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the right bowing arm. Age-matched samples of 10 advanced cellists and 10 cello novices took part in the study. Kinematic bow movement data were analyzed with respect to task variables suggested by the cello teaching literature: position and orientation of the bow relative to the string, bow velocity, and timing. Joint motion of the bowing arm was analyzed in terms of movement amplitude and inter-joint coordination (principal component analysis). As expected, novices showed poorer control of bowing parameters. In addition, novices differed markedly from advanced players in the use and coordination of the DOF of the bowing arm, with the elbow and wrist showing less overall movement and a reduced proportion of variance explained by the first principal component (PC1). In contrast, larger amounts of shoulder variance were explained by PC1 in novices compared to experts. Our findings support Bernstein's theory of graded skill acquisition, according to which early stages of motor skill learning are characterized by a "freezing" of movement DOF, while later learning stages exploit the DOF, possibly following a proximal-to-distal sequence, for improved task performance.

  2. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimelius, Hans (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving

  3. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  4. AKARI/FIS Mapping of the ISM-Wind Bow Shock around Alpha Ori

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, Toshiya; Yamamura, Issei; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Fukushi, Hinako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We present 10' x 50' scan maps around an M supergiant Alpha Ori at 65, 90, 140 and 160 microns obtained with the AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite. Higher spatial resolution data with the exact analytic solution permit us to fit the de-projected shape of the stellar wind bow shock around Alpha Ori to have the stand-off distance of 4.8', position angle of 55 degrees and inclination angle of 56 degrees. The shape of the bow shock suggests that the peculiar velocity of Alpha Ori with respect to the local medium is v_* = 40 (n_H)^(-1/2), where n_H is the hydrogen nucleus density at Alpha Ori. We find that the local medium is of n_H = 1.5 to 1.9 cm^(-3) and the velocity of the local flow is at 11 km s^(-1) by using the most recent astrometric solutions for Alpha Ori under the assumption that the local medium is moving away from the Orion OB 1 association. AKARI images may also reveal a vortex ring due to instabilities on the surface of the bow shock as demonstrated by numerical models. This research exemplifies t...

  5. Recoil and Vibration in an Archery Bow Equipped with a Multi-Rod Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Zaniewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to create a mechanical and mathematical model of a multi-rod stabilizer for the sport archery bow and to analyze its capability to damp disagreeable recoil and vibration of the bow during internal ballistic motion. The research methods are based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory of beam bending, Lagrange equations of the second kind, the Cauchy problem, and the Runge-Kutta method. A mathematical software package was used to analyze the problem. The approach to the problem of sport-bow stabilization in the vertical plane that is proposed in this paper addresses the practical needs both of applied engineering mechanics and of the sport of archery. Numerical results from computer simulation are presented in both tabular and graphical form. The common motion of the string and arrow (internal ballistic motion is accompanied by intense vibration which is caused by disruption of the static force balance at the moment of string release.

  6. Exploring Astrophysically Relevant Bow Shocks Using MIFEDS and the OMEGA Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Joseph; Kuranz, Carolyn; Young, Rachel; Fiksel, Gennady; Manuel, Mario; Trantham, Matthew; Klein, Sallee; Hartigan, Patrick; Liao, Andy; Li, Chikang

    2016-10-01

    We present current experiments using the Omega Laser Facility and their magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system (MIFEDS) to observe the effect of magnetic pressure on bow shock dynamics in an astrophysically relevant regime. Astrophysical bow shocks are an interesting phenomenon in which a shock forms when incident supersonic flow encounters a sufficiently magnetized medium surrounding an object. The most well-known example of this phenomena is the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field, which creates our magnetosphere. In our experiment the magnetosphere will be emulated by a current flowing through a curved wire to create an azimuthal magnetic field. To create the analogous solar wind, lasers rear-irradiate two opposing graphite targets so the plasma outflows collide and then expand along the collision plane toward the magnetized wires. We use the UV Thomson scattering diagnostic technique to determine plasma parameters along with optical imaging and proton radiography to characterize the plasma flow and the bow shock that forms. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, through NNSA Grants DE-NA0002956 (SSAA) and DE-NA0002719 (NLUF), by the LLE under DE-NA0001944, and by the LLNL under subcontract B614207 to DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  8. Astrophysical bow shocks: An analytical solution for the hypersonic blunt body problem in the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Schulreich, Michael Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Bow shock waves are a common feature of groups and clusters of galaxies since they are generated as a result of supersonic motion of galaxies through the intergalactic medium. The goal of this work is to present an analytical solution technique for such astrophysical hypersonic blunt body problems. Methods: A method, developed by Schneider (1968, JFM, 31, 397) in the context of aeronautics, allows calculation of the galaxy's shape as long as the shape of the bow shock wave is known (so-called inverse method). In contrast to other analytical models, the solution is valid in the whole flow region (from the stagnation point up to the bow shock wings) and in particular takes into account velocity gradients along the streamlines. We compare our analytical results with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations carried out with an extended version of the VH-1 hydrocode which is based on the piecewise parabolic method with a Lagrangian remap. Results: It is shown that the applied method accurately predicts the...

  9. Numerical Simulation of Star Formation by the Bow Shock of the Centaurus A Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Carl L; Scannapieco, Evan; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2016-01-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the extragalactic radio source Centaurus A (Cen A) display a young stellar population around the southwest tip of the inner filament 8.5 kpc from the Cen A galactic center, with ages in the range of 1-3 Myr. Crockett et al. (2012) argue that the transverse bow shock of the Cen A jet triggered this star formation as it impacted dense molecular cores of clouds in the filament. To test this hypothesis, we perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of induced star formation by the jet bow shock in the inner filament of Cen A, using a positivity preserving WENO method to solve the equations of gas dynamics with radiative cooling. We find that star clusters form inside a bow-shocked molecular cloud when the maximum initial density of the cloud is > 40 H2 molecules/cm^3. In a typical molecular cloud of mass 10^6 M_sun and diameter 200 pc, approximately 20 star clusters of mass 10^3 M_sun are formed, matching the HST images.

  10. A search for systemic mass loss in Algols with bow shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Andreas; Jorissen, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Various studies indicate that interacting binary stars of Algol type evolve non-conservatively. However, direct detection of systemic mass loss in Algols has been scarce so far. We aim at studying the systemic mass loss in Algols by looking for the presence of infrared excesses originating from the thermal emission of dust grains, which is linked to the presence of a stellar wind. Methods. In contrast to previous studies, we make use of the fact that stellar and interstellar material is piled up at the edge of the asterosphere where the stellar wind interacts with the interstellar medium. We analyse WISE W3 $12\\,\\mu$m and WISE W4 $22\\,\\mu$m data of Algol-type binary Be and B[e] stars and the properties of their bow shocks. From the stand-off distance of the bow shock we are able to determine the mass loss rate of the binary system. Results. Although the velocities of the stars with respect to the interstellar medium are quite low, we find bow shocks to be present in two systems, namely $\\pi$ Aqr, and $\\...

  11. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  12. Anomalous flow deflection at planetary bow shocks in the low Alfven Mach number regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Fujimoto, Masaki; Tai, Phan-Duc; Mukai, Toshifumi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Kuznetsova, Masha M.; Rastaetter, Lutz

    A planetary magnetosphere is an obstacle to the super-sonic solar wind and the bow shock is formed in the front-side of it. In ordinary hydro-dynamics, the flow decelerated at the shock is diverted around the obstacle symmetrically about the planet-Sun line, which is indeed observed in the magnetosheath most of the time. Here we show a case under a very low density solar wind in which duskward flow was observed in the dawnside magnetosheath of the Earth's magnetosphere. A Rankine-Hugoniot test across the bow shock shows that the magnetic effect is crucial for this "wrong flow" to appear. A full three-dimensional Magneto- Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) simulation of the situation in this previously unexplored parameter regime is also performed. It is illustrated that in addition to the "wrong flow" feature, various peculiar characteristics appear in the global picture of the MHD flow interaction with the obstacle. The magnetic effect at the bow shock should become more conspicuously around the Mercury's magnetosphere, because stronger interplanetary magnetic field and slower solar wind around the Mercury let the Alfven Mach number low. Resultant strong deformation of the magnetosphere induced by the "wrong flow" will cause more complex interaction between the solar wind and the Mercury.

  13. Formation of Cosmic Crystals in Highly-Supersaturated Silicate Vapor Produced by Planetesimal Bow Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, H; Yamamoto, T; Nakamoto, T; Yamada, J; Tsukamoto, K; Nozawa, J

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of $\\mu$m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {\\mu}m-sized particles evaporated almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; the cooling rate is estimated, for instance, to be as high as 2000 K s$^{-1}$ for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures muc...

  14. The propagation and growth of whistler mode waves generated by electron beams in earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the propagation and growth of whistler mode waves generated by electron beams within earth's bow shock is investigated using a planar model for the bow shock and a model electron distribution function. Within the shock, the model electron distribution function possesses a field-aligned T greater than T beam that is directed toward the magnetosheath. Waves with frequencies between about 1 and 100 Hz with a wide range of wave normal angles are generated by the beam via Landau and anomalous cyclotron resonances. However, because the growth rate is small and because the wave packets traverse the shock quickly, these waves do not attain large amplitudes. Waves with frequencies between about 30 and 150 Hz with a wide range of wave normal angles are generated by the beam via the normal cyclotron resonance. The ray paths for most of these waves are directed toward the solar wind although some wave packets, due to plasma convection travel transverse to the shock normal. These wave packets grow to large amplitudes because they spend a long time in the growth region. The results suggest that whistler mode noise within the shock should increase in amplitude with increasing upstream theta sub Bn. The study provides an explanation for the origin of much of the whistler mode turbulence observed at the bow shock.

  15. Comparative Study of Electromagnetic Waves at the Bow Shocks of Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hanying; Russell, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Zhang, Tielong

    2016-04-01

    Although the solar interactions with Venus and Earth are quite different in many ways, they both have bow shocks formed upstream of the planet where the solar wind decelerates from a super- to sub- magnetosonic flow. In the upstream foreshock region, there is abundant wave activity generated by the shock or by the back-streaming ions and electrons from the shock. In the downstream magnetosheath region, there is also abundant wave activity either locally generated by the heated electrons or ions from the shock or transported from the shock or foreshock regions by the solar wind. The magnetometers of Venus Express and Magnetospheric Multiscale missions both occasionally record 128 Hz data during their shock crossing, which allow us the search for and analyze waves at such high frequencies. We have found short-duration wave bursts around both Venus and Earth bow shocks, with certain similarities. These waves are mostly quasi-perpendicular propagating and have amplitude and occurrence rate decreasing with distance from the bow shock. In this paper we perform statistical and comparative studies on wave properties to understand their generation mechanisms and their effects to the shock or magnetosheath plasmas.

  16. A Novel Photoproduct of Uracil in Phosphate-Buffered Saline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The photolysis of uracil in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 8.0) under the irradiation of medium pressure mercury lamp (MPML) leads to the production of a novel compound C4H5N2O6P. The composition and structure of the compound has been identified by elemental analysis, EI-MS, UV, IR, 1H, 13C, 31P-NMR.

  17. Ethylene glycol-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of bow-tie-like lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian-Zahmatkesh, Hossein; Javanbakht, Mehran; Ghaemi, Mehdi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a novel binary solvent of ethylene glycol/water medium (W/EG 50:50) that play an important role in the formation of the hierarchical meso-structures of bow-tie-like composition units composed of self-assembly lithium iron phosphate (LFP) nano-sheets. Citric acid uses as inorganic carbon source and no other surfactant or template agent is applied. Results show that the crystallinity and the size of the particles depend on the nature of the solvent used. TEM results show that the sample prepared in ethylene glycol (EG-LFP/C) consists of well-distributed nanoparticles of size approximately 50 nm in diameter, which is uniformly embedded in thin carbon layers. The EG-LFP/C composite delivers the first discharge capacity of 166 mAh g-1, i.e. 97.6% of the theoretical capacity, when tested under a discharge rate of 0.1C. This material shows specific discharge capacities as high as 114 mAh g-1 at 10C rates and exhibits a long-term cycling stability with a capacity loss of only 1.4% after 100 cycles. The high rate performance could be attributed to the amount and/or the quality of the thin carbon coating, improved crystallinity as well as high specific surface area and porosity induced by the special bow-tie-like mesostructures.

  18. Buffering agents modify the hydration landscape at charged interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, William; Livesey, Duncan; Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2016-03-07

    Buffering agents are widely used to stabilise the pH of solutions in soft matter and biological sciences. They are typically composed of weak acids and bases mixed in an aqueous solution, and can interact electrostatically with charged surfaces such as biomembranes. Buffers can induce protein aggregation and structural modification of soft interfaces, but a molecular-level picture is still lacking. Here we use high-resolution atomic force microscopy to investigate the effect of five commonly used buffers, namely 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), monosodium phosphate, saline sodium citrate (SSC) and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) on the hydration landscape of Muscovite mica in solution. Mica is an ideal model substrate due to its negative surface charge and identical lattice parameter when compared with gel-phase lipid bilayers. We show that buffer molecules can produce cohesive aggregates spanning over tens of nanometres of the interface. SSC, Tris and monosodium phosphate tend to create an amorphous mesh layer several molecules thick and with no preferential ordering. In contrast, MES and HEPES adopt epitaxial arrangements commensurate with the underlying mica lattice, suggesting that they offer the most suitable solution for high-resolution studies. To confirm that this effect persisted in biologically-relevant interfaces, the experiments were repeated on a silica-supported lipid bilayer. Similar trends were observed for this system using atomic force microscopy as well as ellipsometry. The effect of the buffering agents can be mitigated by the inclusion of salt which helps displace them from the interface.

  19. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact...... of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  20. Capture effeciency of a vegetative environmental buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  1. New MBE buffer for micron- and quarter-micron-gateGaAs MESFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A new buffer layer has been developed that eliminates backgating in GaAs MESFETs and substantially reduces short-channel effects in GaAs MESFETs with 0.27-micron-long gates. The new buffer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at a substrate temperature of 200 C using Ga and As sub 4 beam fluxes. The buffer is crystalline, highly resistive, optically inactive, and can be overgrown with high quality GaAs. GaAs MESFETs with a gate length of 0.27 microns that incorporate the new buffer show improved dc and RF properties in comparison with a similar MESFET with a thin undoped GaAs buffer. To demonstrate the backgating performance improvement afforded by the new buffer, MESFETs were fabricated using a number of different buffer layers and structures. A schematic cross section of the MESFET structure used in this study is shown. The measured gate length, gate width, and source-drain spacing of this device are 2,98, and 5.5 microns, respectively. An ohmic contact, isolated from the MESFET by mesa etching, served as the sidegate. The MESFETs were fabricated in MBE n-GaAs layers grown on the new buffer and also in MBE n-GaAs layers grown on buffer layers of undoped GaAs, AlGaAs, and GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices. All the buffer layers were grown by MBE and are 2 microns thick. The active layer is doped to approximately 2 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm with silicon and is 0.3 microns thick.

  2. Buffer Effects in the Solubility, Nucleation and Growth of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ursula J.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals is important for determination of their three-dimensional structure, which relates to their biochemical functions and to the practical goal of designing pharmaceuticals to modify that function. While many proteins have been successfully crystallized by a variety of methods, there is still limited understanding of the process of nucleation and growth of even the simplest proteins. Chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) is readily crystallized under a variety of conditions, and studies underway at MSFC are designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which the crystals nucleate and grow. We have investigated the effect of buffer choice on the solubility, nucleation and growth of CEWL. CEWL was purified by dialysis against a .05M phosphate buffer and chromatographic separation from contaminants in a sepharose column. Solubility studies were made as a function of buffer concentration for phosphate and formate buffers, and the nucleation and growth of crystals at 10 C was studied as a function of pH for oxalate, succinate, formate, butyrate, carbonate, phosphate and acetate buffer solutions. The solubility data support the conclusion that there is a solubility minimum as a function of buffer concentration for amphiphilic molecules, while no minimum is observed for a phosphate buffer. Nucleation is suppressed at pH greater than pKa for all buffers except phosphate. The aspect ratio of the (110) faces is shown to be a function of crystal size, rather than pH.

  3. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  4. Messenger Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, M.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14.2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER'S Magnetometer (MAG) (2.3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury.

  5. Structure and Preparation Methods of Buffer Layer in REBCO Superconducting Tape%REBCO高温超导带材缓冲层的结构及制备方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王醒东

    2014-01-01

    二代高温超导(REBCO)带材是材料学领域重点发展的方向之一,其发展程度将直接影响超导技术的应用程度。缓冲层作为REBCO超导带材的重要组成部分,其质量将直接影响超导带材的性能。本文在国内外相关文献的基础上,介绍了常见的缓冲层材料及性能,并对主流制备方法进行了介绍,重点阐述了离子束辅助沉积法(IBAD)、倾斜基底沉积技术(ISD)、表面氧化外延(SOE)、脉冲激光沉积法(PLD)、溅射法(Sputtering)、金属有机物沉积法(MOD)和蒸发法(Evaporation)带材及薄膜,最后指出了REBCO超导带材用缓冲层未来的发展方向。%The second generation of high temperature superconducting(REBCO) tapes is one of the most important development directions in the field of material science, which will directly determine the application of superconducting technology. As an important component, the buffer layer affects the performance of REBCO tapes. The performance and the main preparation methods of the common buffer layer materials are introduced on the basis of related literature at home and abroad. The article is focused on tapes and films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), inclines substrate deposition(ISD), surface oxidation epitaxy(SOE), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), sputtering, metal organic deposition(MOD) and evaporation method. Finally the development direction of buffer layer in the future is pointed out.

  6. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  7. Temperature Buffer Test. Measurements of water content and density of the excavated buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydromechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test was carried out at the - 420 m level in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.76 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX-80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. The bentonite around upper heater was removed during the period October - December 2009 and the buffer around the lower heater was removed during January - Mars 2010. During dismantling of the buffer, samples were taken on which analyses were made. This report describes the work with the deteroemoeination of the water content and the density of the taken samples. Most of the samples were taken from the buffer by core drilling from the upper surface of each installed bentonite block. The cores had a diameter of about 50 mm and a maximum length equal to the original height of the bentonite blocks (about 500 mm). The water content of the buffer was determined by drying a sample at a temperature of 105 deg C for 24 h and the bulk density was determined by weighing a sample both in the air and immerged in paraffin oil with known density. The water content, dry density, degree of saturation and void ratio of the buffer were then plotted. The plots show that all parts of the buffer had taken up water and the degree of saturation of the buffer varied between 90 - 100%. Large variation in the dry density of the buffer was also observed.

  8. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  9. Restriction endonucleases digesting DNA in PCR buffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-dong; ZHENG Dong; ZHOU Yan-na; MAO Wei-wei; MA Jian-zhang

    2005-01-01

    Six commonly used restriction endonucleases (Res) (Acc I, Ban II, EcoR I, Hind III, Sac I, Sca I) were tested for their ability to directly digest DNA completely in the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) buffers. The results showed that: with the requirement for additional magnesium supplemented as activator, Res, except EcoR I appeared star activity, completely digested unmethylated lambda DNA after overnight incubation in PCR buffer and functioned as equally well as in recommended Restriction Enzyme Buffer provided with each enzyme; all Res tested completely digested PCR products in PCR buffer, it implied digestion of PCR products may often be performed directly in the PCR tube without the requirement for any precipitation or purification steps; and the concentration of MgCl2 from 2.5 mmol·L-1 to 10 mmol·L-1 did not significantly affect activity of Res in PCR buffer. This simplified method for RE digestion of PCR products could have applications in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of large PCR products. However, usage of this procedure for cloning applications needs further data.

  10. Buffer layers for coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Liliana; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2011-08-23

    A composite structure is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, and a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material. Additionally, an article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and a thick film upon the cubic metal oxide material. Finally, a superconducting article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and an yttrium barium copper oxide material upon the cubic metal oxide material.

  11. Macroscopic polarization and bowing constant of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pansari, A.; Gedam, V.; Sahoo, B.K., E-mail: bksahoo.phy@nitrr.ac.in

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have theoretically investigated the effect of macroscopic polarization (sum of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization) on various thermal parameters of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloy. The macroscopic polarization contributes to the effective elastic constant of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloy. This contribution modifies the phonon group velocity, Debye temperature and Debye frequency of the alloy. The revised values of these thermal parameters have been estimated as a function of Al composition. Our calculation shows that these thermal parameters are enhanced and vary non-linearly with Al composition i.e., they show bowing. The cause of this bowing is the non linear dependence of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization on Al composition. The bowing constant of above thermal parameters (with and without polarization) has been theoretically predicted by method of best fit. The results show that polarization mechanism not only enhances the parameters but also contribute significantly to bowing constant. The macroscopic polarization contributes around 48% to bowing constant of above thermal parameters. The obtained result will be useful for simulation of nitride optoelectronics devices to predict the effect of polarization mechanism on thermoelectric properties of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloy.

  12. Effect of an isotropic outflow from the Galactic centre on the bow-shock evolution along the orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Kunneriath, Devaky; Shahzamanian, Banafsheh; Sabha, Nadeen; Muzic, Koraljka; Valencia-Schneider, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the observations of several infrared-excess bow-shock sources and proplyd-like objects near the Galactic centre, we analyse the effect of a potential outflow from the centre on bow shock properties. We show that due to the non-negligible isotropic central outflow the bow-shock evolution along the orbit becomes asymmetric between the pre-peribothron and post-peribothron phases. This is demonstrated by the calculation of the bow-shock size evolution, the velocity along the shocked layer, the surface density of the bow-shock, and by emission-measure maps close to the peribothron passage. Within the ambient velocity range of $\\lesssim 2000\\,{\\rm km\\, s^{-1}}$ the asymmetry is profound and the changes are considerable for different outflow velocities. As a case study we perform model calculations for the Dusty S-cluster Object (DSO/G2) as a potential young stellar object that is currently being monitored and has passed the pericentre at $\\sim 2000$ Schwarzschild radii from the supermassive black hole ...

  13. Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

    2008-01-01

    Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

  14. Discovering Massive Runaway Stars with Infrared Bow Shock Nebulae: Four OB Stars Found in WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernke, Heather N.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Povich, Matthew S.; Andrews, Julian E.; Chick, William T.; Munari, Stephan; Olivier, Grace M.; Schurhammer, Danielle; Sorber, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Supernovae, pulsars, and gamma-ray bursts are examples of the result of the death of massive (late-O and early-B type) stars. Determining stellar mass loss rates can help us predict the type of death the star will endure. We focus on stars that are located at the center of an infrared bow shock nebula, indicating that the star was flung from its birthplace at supersonic speed. Observing these massive, high-velocity, runaway stars with bow shock nebulae to determine their spectral type will help in the measurements of their stellar mass loss rates. The spectra of four OB stars driving bow shock candidates are presented. These four candidates were found by searching through the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Data Release and were the most visible in the WISE 21µm band. The spectrum for each star was obtained with the Longslit Spectrograph at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO). The spectral types of G077.3617+01.16 (HD 229159), G079.8219+00.096 ([CPR2002]A10), G092.7265+00.18, and G076.0752-02.2044 (TYC 2697-1046-1) were found to be B1.0I, O9.0V, B0.0V, and B0.0V respectively. As predicted, the candidates are all either late-O or early-B type stars. Now that the spectral types of these stars are known, further analysis can be done to determine the velocities, temperatures, masses, and stellar mass loss rates.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  15. Nonlinear spelling in graphemic buffer deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of nonlinear spelling and its implications for theories of the graphemic buffer. C.T.J., an individual with an acquired deficit of the graphemic buffer, often wrote the letters of his responses in a nonlinear temporal order when writing to dictation. The spatial ordering of the letters was maintained: Letters in the later positions of the words were written towards the right side of the response, even when written before letters in earlier positions. This unusual phenomenon has been briefly reported in three prior cases but this study provides the most detailed analysis of the phenomenon to date. We specifically contend that the decoupling of the temporal and spatial aspects of spelling is difficult to reconcile with competitive queuing accounts of the graphemic buffer.

  16. Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Frederick B; Pollack, Gerald H

    2003-01-01

    Labview VIs based upon the calculator programs of Fabiato and Fabiato (J. Physiol. Paris 75 (1979) 463) are presented. The VIs comprise the necessary computations for the accurate preparation of multiple-metal buffers, for the back-calculation of buffer composition given known free metal concentrations and stability constants used, for the determination of free concentrations from a given buffer composition, and for the determination of apparent stability constants from absolute constants. As implemented, the VIs can concurrently account for up to three divalent metals, two monovalent metals and four ligands thereof, and the modular design of the VIs facilitates further extension of their capacity. As Labview VIs are inherently graphical, these VIs may serve as useful templates for those wishing to adapt this software to other platforms.

  17. A Better Reduction Theorem for Store Buffers

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Ernie

    2009-01-01

    When verifying a concurrent program, it is usual to assume that memory is sequentially consistent. However, most modern multiprocessors depend on store buffering for efficiency, and provide native sequential consistency only at a substantial performance penalty. To regain sequential consistency, a programmer has to follow an appropriate programming discipline. However, na\\"ive disciplines, such as protecting all shared accesses with locks, are not flexible enough for building high-performance multiprocessor software. We present a new discipline for concurrent programming under TSO (total store order, with store buffer forwarding). It does not depend on concurrency primitives, such as locks. Instead, threads use ghost operations to acquire and release ownership of memory addresses. A thread can write to an address only if no other thread owns it, and can read from an address only if it owns it or it is shared and the thread has flushed its store buffer since it last wrote to an address it did not own. This dis...

  18. Buffer Overflow Detection on Binary Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan-fei; LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Most solutions for detecting buffer overflow are based on source code. But the requirement for source code is not always practical especially for business software. A new approach was presented to detect statically the potential buffer overflow vulnerabilities in the binary code of software. The binary code was translated into assembly code without the lose of the information of string operation functions. The feature code abstract graph was constructed to generate more accurate constraint statements, and analyze the assembly code using the method of integer range constraint. After getting the elementary report on suspicious code where buffer overflows possibly happen, the control flow sensitive analysis using program dependence graph was done to decrease the rate of false positive. A prototype was implemented which demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach.

  19. Buffer management optimization strategy for satellite ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    ECTD (erroneous cell tail drop), a buffer management optimization strategy is suggested which can improve the utilization of buffer resources in satellite ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. The strategy, in which erroneous cells caused by satellite channel and the following cells that belong to the same PDU (protocol data Unit) are discarded, concerns non-real-time data services that use higher layer protocol for retransmission. Based on EPD (early packet drop) policy, mathematical models are established with and without ECTD. The numerical results show that ECTD would optimize buffer management and improve effective throughput (goodput), and the increment of goodput is relative to the CER (cell error ratio) and the PDU length. The higher their values are, the greater the increment. For example,when the average PDU length values are 30 and 90, the improvement of goodput are respectively about 4% and 10%.

  20. Study of the Combination of FTA, ETA and Bow-tie Evaluation Methods and Its Application%基于FTA、ETA、Bow-tie三种评价方法的结合及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 赵姚峰

    2013-01-01

    在FTA与ETA分析方法结合的基础上引入蝴蝶结分析法(Bow-tie法)能很好的克服FTA和ETA的局限性。本文将ETA、FTA及Bow-tie法进行结合并将其应用到燃气管道泄漏的安全评价及分析中。%Introducing Bow-tie analytical method into the combination of FTA and ETA can well overcome the limitation of FTA and ETA. This article combines ETA, FTA and Bon-tie method and apply it into the safety evaluation and analysis of gas pipeline leakage.

  1. Electron - whistler interaction at the Earth`s bow shock: 1. Whistler instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P.; Zimbardo, G. [Universita della Calabria, Cosenza (Italy)

    1993-08-01

    The authors model the interaction of whistler waves with the quasi-perpendicular bow shock observed on Nov 7, 1977. Using a Monte Carlo technique they are able to construct the resulting electron distribution function. This distribution function is asymmetric, and includes a loss cone which the data supports. This distribution function asymmetry is able to drive instabilites which couple to generate additional whister energy. A significant amount of the whistler energy is observed to originate from the region where the loss cone is observed.

  2. Primary task-specific bowing tremor: an entity of its own?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, André; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-12-01

    A professional violinist in his early 60s, playing in a prestigious German orchestra for more than 20 years, presented to our institute because of a task-induced tremor in his right arm when playing the violin. We describe the phenomenology of this tremor and its treatment options and compare it to findings in primary writing tremor (PWT). We then discuss whether primary bowing tremor is an entity of its own (similar to PWT) and propose hypotheses that would derive from such a definition.

  3. Printed Modified Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna for DVB/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A printed modified bow-tie dipole antenna which consists of asymmetric-feed and inserted slots is presented to apply to the DVB and WLAN systems. This antenna combines omnidirectional radiation pattern, broad bandwidth, and band rejection in an easy way to fabricate. Experimental results of the constructed prototype indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieve 166.7%, 28.57%, and 23.63% at 660 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively.

  4. Heavy Solar Wind Ion Dynamics at and Downstream from the Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Virginia M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a contract under the NASA Supporting Research and Technology Program for the analysis and interpretation of the scientific data from the Plasma Composition Experiment on the International Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) spacecraft and the Fast Plasma Experiment on the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft. These combined data sets will be used in a comprehensive study of the heavy solar wind ion dynamics at and downstream from the Earth's bow shock. The report summarizes activities during the above period and outlines expected activities during the forthcoming quarter.

  5. Asymptotic Steady State Solution to a Bow Shock with an Infinite Mach Number

    CERN Document Server

    Yalinewich, Almog

    2015-01-01

    The problem of a cold gas flowing past a stationary object is considered. It is shown that at large distances from the obstacle the shock front forms a parabolic solid of revolution. The interior of the shock front is obtained by solution of the hydrodynamic equations in parabolic coordinates. The results are verified with a hydrodynamic simulation. The drag force and expected spectra are calculated for such shock, both in case of an optically thin and thick media. Finally, relations to astrophysical bow shocks and other analytic works on oblique shocks are discussed.

  6. Homotopy method for inverse design of the bulbous bow of a container ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-jia; Feng, Bai-wei; Hou, Guo-xiang; Gao, Liang; Xiao, Mi

    2017-03-01

    The homotopy method is utilized in the present inverse hull design problem to minimize the wave-making coefficient of a 1300 TEU container ship with a bulbous bow. Moreover, in order to improve the computational efficiency of the algorithm, a properly smooth function is employed to update the homotopy parameter during iteration. Numerical results show that the homotopy method has been successfully applied in the inverse design of the ship hull. This method has an advantage of high performance on convergence and it is credible and valuable for engineering practice.

  7. Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Javad N [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Eisler, Hans-Juergen [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pohl, Dieter W [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pavius, Michael [Center of MicroNanoTechnology (CMI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Flueckiger, Philippe [Center of MicroNanoTechnology (CMI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gasser, Philippe [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Electronics/Metrology Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hecht, Bert [Nano-Optics Group, National Center of Competence for Research in Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-28

    A method for the fabrication of bow-tie optical antennas at the apex of pyramidal Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} atomic force microscopy tips is described. We demonstrate that these novel optical probes are capable of sub-wavelength imaging of single quantum dots at room temperature. The enhanced and confined optical near-field at the antenna feed gap leads to locally enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum dots. Photoluminescence quenching due to the proximity of metal is found to be insignificant. The method holds promise for single quantum emitter imaging and spectroscopy at spatial resolution limited by the engineered antenna gap width exclusively.

  8. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-06-29

    An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected IC's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  9. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  10. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-07-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  11. Comparison of theory with atomic oxygen 130.4 nm radiation data from the Bow Shock ultraviolet 2 rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Deborah A.; Candler, Graham V.; Collins, Robert J.; Howlett, Carl L.; Espy, Patrick; Whiting, Ellis; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    Comparison is made between the results obtained from a state-of-the-art flow and radiative model and bow shock vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) data obtained the recent Bow Shock 2 Flight Experiment. An extensive data set was obtained from onboard rocket measurements at a reentry speed of 5 km/sec between the altitudes of approximately 65-85 km. A description of the NO photoionization cell used, the data, and the interpretation of the data will be presented. The primary purpose of the analyses is to assess the utility of the data and to propose a radiation model appropriate to the flight conditions of Bow Shock 2. Theoretical predictions based on flow modeling discussed in earlier work and a new radiation model are compared with data.

  12. Archery by the Apaches – implications of using the bow and arrow in hunter-gatherer communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Šmit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the technical and social details of production, training, and use of archery equipment by a Native American tribe, the Apaches. The study aims to understand the use of the bow in the Mesolithic and Early and Middle Neolithic societies of the Old World. The paper further describes arrow ballistics. An arrow and bow with similar dimensions and materials to those used by the Apaches was reconstructed and used in ballistic experiments. Shooting and the subsequent model calculation showed that the effective range of arrows made of reed and projected by a bow of medium strength (16–18kg was not more than approx. 20m. Due to the initial flat part of the ballistic trajectory, such arrows were quite efficient in close-range contests. Within the model calculation, a regression procedure was introduced to determine the arrow air-drag parameters from an ensemble of shots.

  13. Finite-element procedure for calculating the three-dimensional inelastic bowing of fuel rods (AWBA development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S E

    1982-05-01

    An incremental finite element procedure is developed for calculating the in-pile lateral bowing of nuclear fuel rods. The fuel rod is modeled as a viscoelastic beam whose material properties are derived as perturbations of the results of an axisymmetric stress analysis of the fuel rod. The effects which are taken into account in calculating the rod's lateral bowing include: (a) lateral, axial, and rotational motions and forces at the rod supports, (b) transverse gradients of temperature, fast-neutron flux, and fissioning rate, and (c) cladding circumferential wall thickness variation. The procedure developed in this report could be used to form the basis for a computer program to calculate the time-dependent bowing as a function of the fuel rod's operational and environmental history.

  14. Low-Frequency Noise Properties of GaN Schottky Barriers Deposited on Intermediate Temperature Buffer Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.; H.; Leung; W.; K.; Fong; C.; Surya; L.; W.; Lu; W.; K.; Ge

    2003-01-01

    Flicker noise and deep level transient spectroscopy were used to characterize defect properties of GaN films with different buffer structures. Results indicate improved properties with the use of intermediate temperature buffer layers due to the relaxation of residue strain in the films.

  15. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  16. Changes of integral indexes of skilled shooters from a bow under the influence of experimental program of perfection of technical preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov S.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of the directed development of co-ordinating capabilities of shooters are considered from a bow. In pedagogical experiment were attracted 45 sportsmen (24 boys, 21 girls. Experiment was lasted by 1 year and included 2 preparatory period of macrocycles. They contained for 20 week's microcycle which were incorporated in four mesocycle. It is set that the substantial increase of effectiveness in control exercises is possible at the correction of orientation of training process on development of co-ordinating capabilities. Trainings facilities of pedagogical direction are selected in relation to development of physical qualities in combination with co-ordinating capabilities. Diminishing of accents of development of the special displays of maximal force is recommended relatively speed-power to endurance. Directions of forming adequate structure of shot technique are set taking into account the specific feelings of competition activity.

  17. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  18. Analysis and Study of Buffer Overflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Sidong; Zen TaoYu; Yongquan

    2009-01-01

    Buffer overflow attack is one of the most threatening attack types and it jeopardizes security a lot. According to the principle of the attack, this paper demonstrates how it works, and emphasizes the importance of writing code that does not permit such attacks.

  19. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  20. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew G.

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  1. A hydrodynamic optimization design methodology for a ship bulbous bow under multiple operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to describe an innovative methodology for the hydrodynamic optimization of a ship bulbous bow which considers multiple operating conditions. The proposed method is more practical and effective than the traditional optimization process, which is only based on contractually specified design condition. Parametric form approaches are adopted by employing an F-spline curve in order to generate variants of the hull bulbous bow forms using form design parameters modified, resulting in an optimization system based on improved genetic algorithms. The Rankine source panel method is used for the hydrodynamic evaluation, wherein non-linear free surface conditions and the trim and sinkage of the ship are taken into consideration. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed methodology for a large container ship is investigated by comparing the computational results with experimental data, which demonstrates that the proposed methodology can engage well in the automation process and improve hydrodynamic performance during actual ship design practices.

  2. Modeling plasma glow discharges in Air near a Mach 3 bow shock with KRONOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassou, Sebastien; Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Elias, Paul-Quentin

    2016-09-01

    In this work, plasma glow discharge in Air is modeled near a Mach 3 bow shock. Numerical simulations are performed using the coupling KRONOS which have been developed at ONERA. The flow field is modeled using the code CFD: CEDRE from ONERA and the electrical and plasma part by the EDF open-source code CODE_SATURNE. The plasma kinetic modeling consists on a two-term Boltzmann equation solver and a chemical reaction solver depending of the electric field. The coupling KRONOS is fully parallelized and run on ONERA supercomputers. The shock wave is formed by the propagation of a supersonic flow (M = 3) through a truncated conical model mounted with a central spike. Depending on the spike's voltage value, corona, glow or arc regime could be obtained in a steady flow. The parameters for the supersonic flow and the spike configurations are chosen to be in glow discharge regime and to reproduce the experimental setup. In our simulations, 12 species and 80 reactions (ionization, electronic or vibrational excitation, attachment etc ...) are considered to properly model the glow discharge and the afterglow. In a stationary flow, glow discharge is observed only at the upstream of the shock wave near the high voltage spike. Behind the bow shock, in the afterglow, negative ions are provided by electrons attachment with O2. The negative ions flow convection ensures the electrical conduction and the establishment of the glow discharge.

  3. The excitation conditions of magnetospheric convection by the electric current generated in the bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, P. A.; Ponomarev, E. A.

    The solar wind undergoes the greatest change of its parameters during the passage through the bow shock front Its density in this case increases by the factor of four and gas and magnetic pressure increase more than by an order of magnitude In this paper we re-examine the consequences of the fact of electric current generation at the bow shock front that we considered at an earlier date and the dependence of the direction of this current on the sign of IMF Bz-component The first consequence is the closure of the aforementioned current through the magnetosphere It was found that this process is a two-stage one Initially the electric field penetrates and establishes in the medium a new convective regime After that depending on the degree of flow inhomogeneity a plasma density distribution can be established which corresponds to the electric current equal to the external current The new steady state to which the new convection velocity field and the new plasma pressure field correspond is established within the time of the order of the transit time taken by the magnetosonic wave to propagate through the entire system Also a linkage between the power dissipated inside the magnetosphere and the parameters of plasma convection existing therein is shown

  4. The properties of bow-shock sources at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J; Alberdi, A; Muzic, K; Hummel, C A; Pott, J -U

    2014-01-01

    There are an enigmatic population of massive stars around the Galactic Center (GC) that were formed some Ma ago. A fraction of these stars has been found to orbit the supermassive black hole, SgrA*, in a projected clockwise disk, which suggests that they were formed in a formerly existing dense disk around SgrA*. We focus on the extended, near-infrared (NIR) sources IRS1W, IRS5, IRS10W, and IRS21 that have been suggested to be young, massive stars that form bow-shocks through their interaction with the ISM. Their nature has impeded accurate determination of their orbital parameters. We aim at establishing their nature and kinematics to test whether they form part of the clockwise disk. We performed NIR multi-wavelength imaging using adaptive optics (AO) and sparse aperture masking (SAM). We introduce a new method for self-calibration of the SAM PSF in dense stellar fields. The emission mechanism, morphology and kinematics of the targets were examined via 3D bow-shock models. We confirm previous findings that ...

  5. Reconstructing the Guitar: Blowing Bubbles with a Pulsar Bow Shock Back Flow

    CERN Document Server

    van Kerkwijk, Marten H

    2008-01-01

    The Guitar Nebula is an H-alpha nebula produced by the interaction of the relativistic wind of a very fast pulsar, PSR B2224+65, with the interstellar medium. It consists of a ram-pressure confined bow shock near its head and a series of semi-circular bubbles further behind, the two largest of which form the body of the Guitar. We present a scenario in which this peculiar morphology is due to instabilities in the back flow from the pulsar bow shock. From simulations, these back flows appear similar to jets and their kinetic energy is a large fraction of the total energy in the pulsar's relativistic wind. We suggest that, like jets, these flows become unstable some distance down-stream, leading to rapid dissipation of the kinetic energy into heat, and the formation of an expanding bubble. We show that in this scenario the sizes, velocities, and surface brightnesses of the bubbles depend mostly on observables, and that they match roughly what is seen for the Guitar. Similar instabilities may account for feature...

  6. Numerical modeling of a glow discharge through a supersonic bow shock in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassou, S.; Packan, D.; Elias, P.-Q.; Tholin, F.; Chemartin, L.; Labaune, J.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction between a glow discharge and the bow shock of a Mach 3 air flow around a truncated conical model with a central spike is modeled, and comparison is made with prior experimental results. The KRONOS workflow for plasma modeling in flow fields, which has recently been developed at ONERA, was used for the modeling. Based on the quasi-neutral approximation, it couples hypersonic and reactive flow fields with electron chemistry, including the effect of non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function. The model used for the discharge involves 12 species and 82 reactions, including ionization, electronic and vibrational excitation, and attachment. The simulations reproduce the main features of the discharge observed experimentally well, in particular, the very recognizable topology of the discharge. It was found from the simulations that behind the bow shock, in the afterglow, the negative ion flow ensures the electrical conduction and the establishment of the glow discharge. The influence of kinetic rates on the voltage-current characteristics is discussed.

  7. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  8. Elastic analysis of thermal gradient bowing in rod-type fuel elements subjected to axial thrust (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    Thermal radient bowing of rod type fuel elements can be analyzed in terms of the deflections of a precurved beam. The fundamental aspects of an analysis of axially compressed multispan beams are given. Elasticity of supports in both axial and transverse directions is considered; the technique is applicable to problems in which the axial thrust depends on the transverse deflection as well as problems with prescribed axial thrust. The formulas presented constitute the theory for a computer program of broad applicability, not only in the analysis of fuel rod bowing, but also to almost any multispan beam, particularly when the effects of axial loads cannot be neglected. 17 references. (NSA 22: 22866)

  9. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide.

  10. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  11. Empirical analysis of Brazilian banks' capital buffers during the period 2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Cintra Belém

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International literature indicates that the capital buffers held by banks result notably from the trade-off that exists between the cost of holding capital, adjustment costs, and bankruptcy costs, which all have a direct impact on banks' capital structures. The aim of this paper is to study the degree of sensitivity of Brazilian banks' capital buffers to the determining factors established in the literature, by using a sample of 121 banks, covering the period from 2001 to 2011. The empirical analysis that was carried out found that there was a significant cost of adjusting capital buffers for the Brazilian banks. At the same time, bankruptcy cost indicated a positive relationship between risk profile and capital buffers, while the cost of holding capital did not exhibit statistical significance in the analysis.

  12. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  13. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sheraz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001 substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm. The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR. By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA. We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer, in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  14. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Sheraz; He, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Jin; Gul, Qeemat; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001) substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm). The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED), magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer) one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA). We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer) to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer), in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  15. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-12-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  16. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-02-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  17. A buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing timing optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2006-01-01

    A path-based timing optimization algorithm for buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing is proposed.Firstly, candidate buffer insertion location and buffer size for each branch in a given routing path were obtained via localized timing optimization. Then, through evaluating each potential insertion against design objectives, potential optimal buffer insertion locations and sizes for the whole routing tree were determined. At last, by removing redundant buffer insertion operations which do not maximize S ( so ), given timing requirements are finally fulfilled through minimum number of buffers.

  18. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Interaction Between Single-Pulse Laser-Induced Plasma and Bow Shock in a Supersonic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Juan; HONG Yanji; LI Qian

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of laser-induced plasma and bow shock over a blunt body is inves- tigated numerically in an M∞ =6.5 supersonic flow. A ray-tracing method is used for simulating the process of laser focusing. The gas located at the focused zone is ionized and broken down and transformed into plasma. In a supersonic flow the plasma moves downstream and begins to interact with the bow shock when it approaches the surface of the blunt body. The parameters of flowfield and blunt body surface are changed due to the interaction. By analyzing phenomena occurring in the complex unsteady flowfield during the interaction in detail, we can better under- stand the change of pressure on the blunt body surface and the mechanism of drag reduction by laser energy deposition. The results show that the bow shock is changed into an oblique shock due to the interaction of the laser-induced low-density zone with the bow shock, so the wave drag of the blunt body is reduced.

  20. Is "Bow" for an Arrow or for Hair? A Classroom Demonstration on Gender Differences in Interpreting Ambiguous Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa-Kaji, Naomi; Nguyen, Linda; Hebl, Mikki; Skorinko, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    This article details a classroom demonstration of how gender differences in cognitive schemas can result in men and women differentially interpreting the same information. Students heard a series of six homonyms (e.g., bow and nail) spoken aloud and wrote down the first word with which they free-associated each homonym. When hearing the words…

  1. 76 FR 78234 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County, WY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County..., LLC to vacate and relocate portions of Campbell County Road 69, Mackey Road, onto National Forest... Sections 29-31 of T. 43 N., R. 69 W., 6th Principal Meridian, Campbell County, Wyoming. DATES:...

  2. Role of In-segregation in anomalously large band-gap bowings of (In,Al,Ga)N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyka, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede;

    2011-01-01

    Large bowings of the band gap and its pressure coefficient in In-containing nitride semiconductor alloys are observed. Photoluminescence measurements for InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN combined with other experimental data show large scatter of the results. A comparison with ab-initio calculations sugge...

  3. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  4. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  5. Wintering bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of wintering birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. Wintering bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through winter will likely provide better habitat for wintering birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  6. Identification of the nonlinear excitation force acting on a bowed string using the dynamical responses at remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debut, V.; Antunes, J. [ITN, ADL, P-2686 Sacavem Codex (Portugal); Delaune, X. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, Lab Etud Dynam, F-01101 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    For achieving realistic numerical simulations of bowed string instruments, based on physical modeling, a good understanding of the actual friction interaction phenomena is of great importance. Most work published in the field including our own has assumed that bow/string frictional forces behave according to the classical Coulomb stick-slip model, with an empirical velocity-dependent sliding friction coefficient. Indeed, the basic self-excited string motions (such as the Helmholtz regime) are well captured using such friction model. However, recent work has shown that the tribological behavior of the bow/string rosin interface is rather complex, therefore the basic velocity-dependent Coulomb model may be an over-simplistic representation of the friction force. More specifically, it was suggested that a more accurate model of the interaction force can be achieved by coupling the system dynamical equations with a thermal model which encapsulates the complex interface phenomena. In spite of the interesting work performed by Askenfelt, a direct measurement of the actual dynamical friction forces without disturbing the string motion is quite difficult. Therefore, in this work we develop a modal-based identification technique making use of inverse methods and optimization techniques, which enables the identification of the interface force, as well as the string self-excited motion, from the dynamical reactions measured at the string end supports. The method gives convincing results using simulated data originated from nonlinear computations of a bowed string. Furthermore, in cases where the force identifications are very sensitive to errors in the transfer function modal parameters, we suggest a method to improve the modal frequencies used for the identifications. Preliminary experimental results obtained using a basic bowing device, by which the string is excited with the stick of the bow, are then presented. Our identifications, from the two dynamical string reactions

  7. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the Bow-Tie Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timár, G.; Goltsev, A. V.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2017-02-01

    We reveal a hierarchical, multilayer organization of finite components—i.e., tendrils and tubes—around the giant connected components in directed networks and propose efficient algorithms allowing one to uncover the entire organization of key real-world directed networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. With increasing damage, the giant components decrease in size while the number and size of tendril layers increase, enhancing the susceptibility of the networks to damage.

  8. Morphology and wettability of ZnO nanostructures prepared by hydrothermal method on various buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Zhou, Ming; Ren, Nai-fei

    2013-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were prepared by hydrothermal method on glass substrates with various buffer layers: Ag, Al, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The structure, morphology and wettability of the ZnO nanostructured surfaces were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle (WCA) analysis methods, respectively. All the nanostructures grown on glass with various buffer layers exhibited strong growth orientation along the (1 0 1) plane. The nature of the buffer layer was found to have remarkable effect on the morphology and wettability of the ZnO nanostructures. Whether the buffer layers were hydrophilic or low hydrophobic, all the ZnO nanostructures grown on the various buffer layers showed high hydrophobic property, and that grown on the AZO buffer layer even exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151.1°. This work may provide a scientific basis for self-cleaning ZnO-based optoelectronic device applications.

  9. On the origin of hot diamagnetic cavities near the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Quest, K. B.; Russell, C. T.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of hot diamagnetic cavities (HDCs) observed occasionally upstream from the earth's bow shock is investigated by examining the results of November 16, 1977, observation, when four of these events occurred on a single day, as well as plasma and field data from that day. The results suggest that HDCs may form as a result of an unusually strong interaction between shock-reflected ions and the incoming solar wind. It is proposed that this interaction stems from a temporary and localized reflection of a larger-than-normal fraction of the incident ions, which is stimulated by sudden changes in the upstream field orientation; the consequences of such a temporary overreflection are found to be consistent with many of the observed features of HDCs, including the strong slowing, deflection, and heating of the flow, as well as the localization, internal recoveries, and occasional formation upstream from the shock itself.

  10. Observational evidence on the origin of ions upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematic formalism described by Schwartz et al. (1983) is used to quantitatively compare the zeroth order predicted energies for four different source hypotheses for ions detected upstream of the earth's bow shock with previously published observations of upstream field-aligned beams and gyrating ion events. Specular reflection of a fraction of the incident solar wind is found to be the most credible explanation of gyrating ion events observed upstream of shocks ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular. The recent hypothesis that field-aligned beams are the result of leakage from the magnetosheath of ions which were originally specularly reflected at quasi-perpendicular portions of the shock provides good agreement with observed energies of many field-aligned beams. Only magnetic moment conserving reflection of solar wind ions is capable of accounting for two very energetic beam events.

  11. Quantitative spectroscopy on individual wire, slot, bow-tie, rectangular, and square-shaped optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin

    2013-11-15

    By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna.

  12. Method for measuring violin sound radiation based on bowed glissandi and its application to sound synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Carrillo, Alfonso; Bonada, Jordi; Patynen, Jukka; Valimaki, Vesa

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a method for measuring and computing violin-body directional frequency responses, which are used for violin sound synthesis. The approach is based on a frame-weighted deconvolution of excitation and response signals. The excitation, consisting of bowed glissandi, is measured with piezoelectric transducers built into the bridge. Radiation responses are recorded in an anechoic chamber with multiple microphones placed at different angles around the violin. The proposed deconvolution algorithm computes impulse responses that, when convolved with any source signal (captured with the same transducer), produce a highly realistic violin sound very similar to that of a microphone recording. The use of motion sensors allows for tracking violin movements. Combining this information with the directional responses and using a dynamic convolution algorithm, helps to improve the listening experience by incorporating the violinist motion effect in stereo.

  13. Band gap bowing and electron localization of (GaxIn1-x)N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-09

    The band gap bowing and the electron localization ofGaxIn1-xN are calculated using both the local density approximation (LDA)and screened-exchange local density functional (sX-LDA) methods. Thecalculated sX-LDA band gaps are in good agreement with the experimentallyobserved values, with errors of -0.26 and 0.09 eV for bulk GaN and InN,respectively. The LDA band gap errors are 1.33 and 0.81 eV for GaN andInN, in order. In contrast to the gap itself, the band gap bowingparameter is found to be very similar in sX-LDA and LDA. We identify thelocalization of hole states in GaxIn1-xN alloys along In-N-In chains. Thepredicted localizationis stronger in sX-LDA.

  14. Multispacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and magnetopause during extreme solar wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Erdos, G.; Nemeth, Z.

    2012-01-01

    by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component transverse to the solar wind flow. The observed magnetopause crossings could be predicted with a reasonable accuracy (0.1-0.2 RE) by one of the presented models at least. For geosynchronous magnetopause crossings observed by the GOES satellites, (1) the new model...... provided the best predictions when the IMF was extremely large having a large negative Bz component, and (2) the predictions of the model of Shue et al. (1998) agreed best with the observations when the solar wind dynamic pressure was extremely large. The magnetopause crossings close to the cusp observed......Three events are discussed from the declining phase of the last solar cycle when the magnetopause and/or the bow shock were observed unusually close to the Earth due to major interplanetary disturbances. The observed extreme locations of the discontinuities are compared with the predictions...

  15. On the proper Mach number and ratio of specific heats for modeling the Venus bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Observational data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are used to investigate the physical characteristics of the Venus bow shock, and to explore some general issues in the numerical simulation of collisionless shocks. It is found that since equations from gas-dynamic (GD) models of the Venus shock cannot in general replace MHD equations, it is not immediately obvious what the optimum way is to describe the desired MHD situation with a GD code. Test case analysis shows that for quasi-perpendicular shocks it is safest to use the magnetospheric Mach number as an input to the GD code. It is also shown that when comparing GD predicted temperatures with MHD predicted temperatures total energy should be compared since the magnetic energy density provides a significant fraction of the internal energy of the MHD fluid for typical solar wind parameters. Some conclusions are also offered on the properties of the terrestrial shock.

  16. Large parallel and perpendicular electric fields on electron spatial scales in the terrestrial bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Bale, S D

    2007-01-01

    Large parallel ($\\leq$ 100 mV/m) and perpendicular ($\\leq$ 600 mV/m) electric fields were measured in the Earth's bow shock by the vector electric field experiment on the Polar satellite. These are the first reported direct measurements of parallel electric fields in a collisionless shock. These fields exist on spatial scales comparable to or less than the electron skin depth (a few kilometers) and correspond to magnetic field-aligned potentials of tens of volts and perpendicular potentials up to a kilovolt. The perpendicular fields are amongst the largest ever measured in space, with energy densities of $\\epsilon_0 E^2/ n k_b T_e$ of order 10%. The measured parallel electric field implies that the electrons can be demagnetized, which may result in stochastic (rather than coherent) electron heating.

  17. STEREO measurements of electron acceleration beyond fast Fermi at the bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Pulupa, Marc; Opitz, Andrea; Fedorov, Andrei; Lin, Robert P; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind electrons are accelerated and reflected upstream by the terrestrial bow shock into a region known as the electron foreshock. Previously observed electron spectra at low energies are consistent with a fast Fermi mechanism, based on the adiabatic conservation of the magnetic moment ({\\mu}) of the accelerated electrons. At higher energies, suprathermal power law tails are observed beyond the level predicted by fast Fermi. The SWEA and STE electron detectors on STEREO enable measurements of foreshock electrons with good energy resolution and sensitivity over the entire foreshock beam. We investigate the electron acceleration mechanism by comparing observed STEREO electron spectra with predictions based on a Liouville mapping of upstream electrons through a shock encounter. The foreshock electron beam extends up to several tens of keV, energies for which the Larmor radii of electrons is tens of km or greater. These radii are comparable to the scale sizes of the shock, and {\\mu} conservation no longer ap...

  18. Dynamics of bow-tie shaped bursting: Forced pendulum with dynamic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongray, Thotreithem; Balakrishnan, Janaki

    2016-12-01

    A detailed study is performed on the parameter space of the mechanical system of a driven pendulum with damping and constant torque under feedback control. We report an interesting bow-tie shaped bursting oscillatory behaviour, which is exhibited for small driving frequencies, in a certain parameter regime, which has not been reported earlier in this forced system with dynamic feedback. We show that the bursting oscillations are caused because of a transition of the quiescent state to the spiking state by a saddle-focus bifurcation, and because of another saddle-focus bifurcation, which leads to cessation of spiking, bringing the system back to the quiescent state. The resting period between two successive bursts (Trest) is estimated analytically.

  19. Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: Examining indirect band gap bowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkikh, Alexander A. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, Nizhniy Novgorod (Russian Federation); Eisenschmidt, Christian; Schmidt, Georg [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3 D-01620, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Talalaev, Vadim G. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); ZIK SiLi-Nano, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Str. 3 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Zakharov, Nikolay D.; Werner, Peter [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schilling, Joerg [ZIK SiLi-Nano, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Str. 3 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    A study of the bandgap character of compressively strained GeSn{sub 0.060-0.091}/Ge(001) quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The built-in strain in GeSn wells leads to an increased separation between L and {Gamma} conduction band minima. The prevalent indirect interband transitions in GeSn were probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. As a result we could simulate the L-valley bowing parameter in GeSn alloys, b{sub L} = 0.80 {+-} 0.06 eV at 10 K. From this we conclude that even compressively strained GeSn/Ge(001) alloys could become direct band gap semiconductors at the Sn-fraction higher than 17.0 at. %.

  20. Determination of main rational biomechanical characteristics in shooting from a bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adashevskiy V.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to build rational parameters of technical actions of sportsman in shooting from a bow. It is worked out and decided mathematical model and the task of dynamics. Influence on having a special purpose exactness of corners of flight of arrow with an account and without the account of force of resistance of air environment is certain. It is distinguished the basic technical run-time errors of sportsman exercises. It is set that for successful realization of descriptions of target exactness and minimum values of deviations from an aim on different distances of shooting, sportsman must provide: maintenance of scene and rational pose, implementation of rational technical actions. It is shown directions of choice of necessary biomechanics descriptions that a sportsman can realize for providing target exactness and minimum values of deviations from aim on different distances of shooting.

  1. Treatment of pseudo Class III malocclusion by modified Hawleys appliance with inverted labial bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Negi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anterior crossbite with functional forward mandibular displacement. Various appliances have been devised for early treatment of a pseudo Class III. The aim of this article is to highlight the method of construction and use a simple removable appliance termed as "Modified Hawleys appliance with inverted labial bow" to treat psuedo class III malocclusion in the mixed dentition period. It also emphasizes the importance of differentiating between true Class III and pseudo Class III. This appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of a dental malocclusion in a few months and therapeutic stability of a mesially positioned mandible encouraging favorable skeletal growth.

  2. Non-E x B ordered ion beams upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Parks, G. K.; Mauk, B. H.; Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.; Lin, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The unexpected appearance of spin modulations in the fixed voltage electrostatic analyzer detectors on ISEE 1 and 2 has made it possible to study the plasma properties of the upstream ions in high time resolution. Using an isotropic flowing Maxwellian distribution to model the count rate modulations, estimates have been obtained of the local plasma temperature and three-dimensional flow velocity of the observed upstream ion population. It is found that in almost all of the observations of upstream particles there exist beam-like ions with temperatures in the range 5-80 eV. Their flow velocities cannot be ordered by E x B. This last point separates these observations from the previously reported reflected and diffuse populations of upstream ions. Mechanisms that can gyrophase bunch the ions reflected at the bow shock are discussed as a method of explaining the data.

  3. From Bows to Sound-Chests: Tracing the Ancestry of the Violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle R. Finley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ancestry of the violin is a subject that has been studied, researched, debated, and written about in great detail. However, despite all of the research and study, the ancestry of the violin is still not certain. This paper presents two schools of thought that propose different theories as to how the ancestry of the violin should be determined and what instruments should be included in the ancestry of the violin. The first school of thought proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the bow. The second theory proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the sound-chest of the violin. This paper also presents the different arguments for and against each theory, the importance of this topic, and the paper’s position on this topic. Research for this paper was accomplished through the use of scholarly books on the subject of the history of the violin.

  4. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  5. Lateralization of horizontal semicircular canal canalolithiasis and cupulopathy using bow and lean test and head-roll test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Hee; Kim, Yong Gyu; Shin, Jung Eun; Yang, Young Soo; Im, Donghyuk

    2016-10-01

    Accurate lateralization is important to improve treatment outcomes in horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). To determine the involved side in HSCC-BPPV, the intensity of nystagmus has been compared in a head-roll test (HRT) and the direction of nystagmus was evaluated in a bow and lean test (BLT). The aim of this study is to compare the results of a BLT with those of a HRT for lateralization of HSCC-canalolithiasis and cupulopathy (heavy cupula and light cupula), and evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with HSCC-canalolithiasis. We conducted retrospective case reviews in 66 patients with HSCC-canalolithiasis and 63 patients with HSCC-cupulopathy. The affected side was identified as the direction of bowing nystagmus on BLT in 55 % (36 of 66) of patients with canalolithiasis, which was concordant with the HRT result in 67 % (24 of 36) of cases (concordant group). Lateralization was determined by comparison of nystagmus intensity during HRT in 30 patients who did not show bowing or leaning nystagmus. The remission rate after the first treatment was 71 % (17 of 24) in the concordant group and 45 % (5 of 11) in the discordant group. Both bowing and leaning nystagmus were observed in all patients with cupulopathy, and the side of the null plane was identified as the affected side. In conclusion, bowing and/or leaning nystagmus were observed in only 55 % of patients with HSCC-canalolithiasis, and the first treatment based on the result of BLT alone was effective in only 45 % of the patients in whom the BLT and HRT were discordant, which may suggest that the usefulness of BLT in lateralizing the HSCC-canalolithiasis may be limited.

  6. Effect of direct and indirect face-bow transfer on the horizontal condylar guidance values: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of direct and indirect face-bow transfer on the horizontal condylar guidance (HCG values obtained on the semi-adjustable articulator. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 subjects of age 20-30 years, of either sex were selected. Two sets of maxillary and mandibular casts were obtained. A single arbitrary face-bow record was used for mounting the maxillary casts by direct and indirect transfer for each subject. The mandibular casts were mounted using maximum intercuspation record. Protrusive records were made in Alu wax and used to program the directly and indirectly transferred casts. HCG values obtained from cephalometric records were taken as control. The data was subjected to ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Mean values of HCG obtained in direct face-bow transfer were 24.93°, indirect transfer −27.66°, and cephalometric analysis −32.73°. One-way ANOVA test indicated that there was a significant difference between all the groups (P < 0.05. Tukey′s test with Bonferroni′s correction (P < 0.01 was significant for direct and indirect transfer (P = 0.008, and direct transfer and cephalometric readings (P = 0.0046. A nonsignificant difference was found between indirect transfer and cephalometric readings (P = 0.047. Conclusion : There is a statistically significant difference in HCG values obtained from direct and indirect face-bow transfer records. Lateral cephalograms gave higher mean HCG values than those obtained from protrusive records. Mean HCG values obtained from indirect face-bow transfers are significantly more than those obtained from direct transfers and are also closer to the values obtained from the lateral cephalograms.

  7. On nonstationarity and rippling of the quasiperpendicular zone of the Earth bow shock: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lobzin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method for remote sensing of the quasiperpendicular part of the bow shock surface is presented. The method is based on analysis of high frequency electric field fluctuations corresponding to Langmuir, upshifted, and downshifted oscillations in the electron foreshock. Langmuir waves usually have maximum intensity at the upstream boundary of this region. All these waves are generated by energetic electrons accelerated by quasiperpendicular zone of the shock front. Nonstationary behavior of the shock, in particular due to rippling, should result in modulation of energetic electron fluxes, thereby giving rise to variations of Langmuir waves intensity. For upshifted and downshifted oscillations, the variations of both intensity and central frequency can be observed. For the present study, WHISPER measurements of electric field spectra obtained aboard Cluster spacecraft are used to choose 48 crossings of the electron foreshock boundary with dominating Langmuir waves and to perform for the first time a statistical analysis of nonstationary behavior of quasiperpendicular zone of the Earth's bow shock. Analysis of hidden periodicities in plasma wave energy reveals shock front nonstationarity in the frequency range 0.33 fBiBi, where fBi is the proton gyrofrequency upstream of the shock, and shows that the probability to observe such a nonstationarity increases with Mach number. The profiles observed aboard different spacecraft and the dominating frequencies of the periodicities are usually different. Hence nonstationarity and/or rippling seem to be rather irregular both in space and time rather than resembling a quasiregular wave propagating on the shock surface.

  8. ION ACCELERATION AT THE QUASI-PARALLEL BOW SHOCK: DECODING THE SIGNATURE OF INJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Haynes, Christopher T.; Burgess, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Mazelle, Christian X. [IRAP, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III-CNRS, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2016-03-20

    Collisionless shocks are efficient particle accelerators. At Earth, ions with energies exceeding 100 keV are seen upstream of the bow shock when the magnetic geometry is quasi-parallel, and large-scale supernova remnant shocks can accelerate ions into cosmic-ray energies. This energization is attributed to diffusive shock acceleration; however, for this process to become active, the ions must first be sufficiently energized. How and where this initial acceleration takes place has been one of the key unresolved issues in shock acceleration theory. Using Cluster spacecraft observations, we study the signatures of ion reflection events in the turbulent transition layer upstream of the terrestrial bow shock, and with the support of a hybrid simulation of the shock, we show that these reflection signatures are characteristic of the first step in the ion injection process. These reflection events develop in particular in the region where the trailing edge of large-amplitude upstream waves intercept the local shock ramp and the upstream magnetic field changes from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel. The dispersed ion velocity signature observed can be attributed to a rapid succession of ion reflections at this wave boundary. After the ions’ initial interaction with the shock, they flow upstream along the quasi-parallel magnetic field. Each subsequent wavefront in the upstream region will sweep the ions back toward the shock, where they gain energy with each transition between the upstream and the shock wave frames. Within three to five gyroperiods, some ions have gained enough parallel velocity to escape upstream, thus completing the injection process.

  9. Impact of Physical Stress on Salivary Buffering Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Nakashima; Emi Nagata; Takahiko Oho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Saliva has many properties and the buffering capacity is important for the neutralization of oral fluids. It is unclear whether stressful conditions directly affect salivary buffering capacity, and we investigated the impact of physical stress on salivary buffering capacity. Methods: Twelve participants were subjected to the physical stress of jogging and running. The salivary buffering capacity and flow rate of the participants were measured before and after exposure to stressful...

  10. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad J.

    2016-01-19

    Buffer sizing is an important network configuration parameter that impacts the quality of data traffic. Falling memory cost and the fallacy that ‘more is better’ lead to over provisioning network devices with large buffers. Over-buffering or the so called ‘bufferbloat’ phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delay in today’s networks. On the other hand, under-buffering results in frequent packet loss and subsequent under-utilization of network resources. The buffer sizing problem has been studied extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two novel buffer sizing schemes. The first scheme targets buffer sizing in wireless multi-hop networks where the radio spectral resource is shared among a set of con- tending nodes. Hence, it sizes the buffer collectively and distributes it over a set of interfering devices. The second buffer sizing scheme is designed to cope up with recent Wi-Fi enhancements. It adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Also, it enforces limits on the buffer size to maximize frame aggregation benefits. Both mechanisms are evaluated using simulation as well as testbed implementation over half-duplex and full-duplex wireless networks. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposal reduces latency by an order of magnitude.

  11. Managing Multiuser Database Buffers Using Data Mining Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Lu, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-mining-based approach to public buffer management for a multiuser database system, where database buffers are organized into two areas – public and private. While the private buffer areas contain pages to be updated by particular users, the public buffe

  12. The distribution of saliva buffer values in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, S; Moum, I

    1986-01-01

    Buffer capacity of stimulated saliva was estimated by Dentobuff in 1596 7-15 years old schoolchildren. 39.7% of the children had a high, 39.9% a low and 20.4% an intermediate buffer capacity. No significant differences between the distributions in different ages were recorded and the mean buffer values did not differ significantly between the age-groups.

  13. Studies on the Properties of Organic Photovoltaic Cells Using TiOx and DMDCNQI as Double Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu Min; Han, Seong Hun; Oh, Se Young

    2015-02-01

    Various types of n-type buffer layers have been used in organic electronic devices. These buffer layers turned out to expedite carrier injection and reduce series resistance, leading to good performance of organic electronic devices. In our current work, we have fabricated organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells consisting of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/TiOx/DMDCNQI/AI which were fabricated in the presence of air. To incorporate the individual advantages of each n-type buffer layer, a DMDCNQI and TiOx layers were inserted to act as n-type double buffer layers. This leads to an increase of short-circuit current (JSC) and fill factor (FF) with good stability, in comparison to P3HT:PCBM based conventional cells. The results imply that the structures of double buffer layers can provide possible alternative to achieving high performance and air durability.

  14. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3 EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH 7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6 h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: The processes of endotoxins adsorbed from HLC. - Highlights: • TA buffer is a mild buffer system for endotoxins removal of HLC. • TA buffer may facilitate endotoxins adsorbed on the

  15. Control of stress and threading dislocation density in the thick GaN/AlN buffer layers grown on Si (111) substrates by low- temperature MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, D.; Nechaev, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Ratnikov, V.; Rouvimov, S.; Jmerik, V.; Ivanov, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report on successful growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a Si(111) substrate crack-free GaN/AlN buffer layers with a thickness more than 1 μm. The layers fabricated at relatively low growth temperature of 780°C have at room temperature the residual compressive stress of -97 MPa. Intrinsic stress evolution during the GaN growth was monitored in situ with a multi-beam optical system. Strong dependence of a stress relaxation ratio in the growing layer vs growth temperature was observed. The best-quality crack-free layers with TDs density of ∼⃒109 cm-2 and roughly zero bowing were obtained in the sample with sharp 2D-GaN/2D-AlN interface.

  16. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  17. Buffer for a gamma-insensitive optical sensor with gas and a buffer assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Hans W.

    1994-01-01

    A buffer assembly for a gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array operating in the ultra-violet/visible/infrared energy wavelengths and using a photocathode and an avalanche gas located in a gap between an anode and the photocathode. The buffer assembly functions to eliminate chemical compatibility between the gas composition and the materials of the photocathode. The buffer assembly in the described embodiment is composed of two sections, a first section constructed of glass honeycomb under vacuum and a second section defining a thin barrier film or membrane constructed, for example, of Al and Be, which is attached to and supported by the honeycomb. The honeycomb section, in turn, is supported by and adjacent to the photocathode.

  18. The W-W02 Oxygen Fugacity Buffer at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for f02 Buffering and Metal-silicate Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) controls multivalent phase equilibria and partitioning of redox-sensitive elements, and it is important to understand this thermodynamic parameter in experimental and natural systems. The coexistence of a metal and its oxide at equilibrium constitutes an oxygen buffer which can be used to control or calculate fO2 in high pressure experiments. Application of 1-bar buffers to high pressure conditions can lead to inaccuracies in fO2 calculations because of unconstrained pressure dependencies. Extending fO2 buffers to pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's deep interior requires precise determinations of the difference in volume (Delta) V) between the buffer phases. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction data were obtained using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and a multi anvil press (MAP) to measure unit cell volumes of W and WO2 at pressures and temperatures up to 70 GPa and 2300 K. These data were fitted to Birch-Murnaghan 3rd-order thermal equations of state using a thermal pressure approach; parameters for W are KT = 306 GPa, KT' = 4.06, and aKT = 0.00417 GPa K-1. Two structural phase transitions were observed for WO2 at 4 and 32 GPa with structures in P21/c, Pnma and C2/c space groups. Equations of state were fitted for these phases over their respective pressure ranges yielding the parameters KT = 190, 213, 300 GPa, KT' = 4.24, 5.17, 4 (fixed), and aKT = 0.00506, 0.00419, 0.00467 GPa K-1 for the P21/c, Pnma and C2/c phases, respectively. The W-WO2 buffer (WWO) was extended to high pressure by inverting the W and WO2 equations of state to obtain phase volumes at discrete pressures (1-bar to 100 GPa, 1 GPa increments) along isotherms (300 to 3000K, 100 K increments). The slope of the absolute fO2 of the WWO buffer is positive with increasing temperature up to approximately 70 GPa and is negative above this pressure. The slope is positive along isotherms from 1000 to 3000K with increasing pressure up to at least 100 GPa. The WWO buffer is at

  19. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  20. Competitive Buffer Management with Class Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bawani, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new model for buffer management of network switches with Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and give a tight analysis. Specifically, each network packet is associated with a numerical value, called Class of Service (CoS), which represents its priority. We are furthermore given a network switch with $m$ queues that have individual capacities. Each queue stores packets of a certain CoS, only. A stream of packets arrives over time at the switch and an online algorithm has to decide on the admission and transmission of packets. The objective is to maximize the total CoS-value of the transmitted packets. Our main contribution is a natural online $\\GREEDY$ algorithm, which accepts any arriving packet, if the corresponding CoS-queue is not full. It always sends a buffered packet with highest value. We show that this algorithm is 2-competitive. This result is essentially best-possible since we also show a lower bound of $2 - v_m / (\\sum_{i=1}^m v_i)$ on the competitiveness of any deterministic onlin...

  1. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica S Veysey; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools). Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding populations of pool

  2. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Veysey Powell

    Full Text Available Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools. Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding

  3. Structural Response Prediction: Full-field, Dynamic Pressure and Displacement Measurements of a Panel Excited by Shock Boundary-layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    interaction (SBLI) on the local response of outer mold line (OML) vehicle panel -structure. Vehicle bow -shocks and shocks emanating from vehicle corners...line (OML) vehicle panel -structure. Vehicle bow -shocks and shocks emanating from vehicle corners, protuberances, compression ramps and control...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0046 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE PREDICTION: FULL-FIELD, DYNAMIC PRESSURE AND DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS OF A PANEL EXCITED BY

  4. Bowing and expansion of natural stone panels: marble and limestone testing and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelk, Bent

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural stone has been used as a building material for centuries. In the past, load bearing members were made of entirely of stone, but in the last 50 years new processing techniques have made the production and use of thin facade cladding a profitable venture. Unfortunately however, marble facades on buildings in Europe and elsewhere have undergone severe deterioration. The EC-financed TEAM project (2000-2005 studied the bowing observed on marble facades in both cold and warm climates. TEAM’s main objectives were to understand and explain the expansion, bowing, and strength loss mechanisms governing the decay of marble- and limestone-clad facades, and to draft new European standards to prevent the use of marble and limestone poorly suited to outdoor cladding. A survey of some 200 buildings afforded a clear picture of the geographical, geological and climatic scope of the problem. Detailed case studies of six buildings resulted in a facade assessment methodology that included a monitoring system and risk assessment. Both laboratory and field research was conducted on almost 100 different types of stone from different countries and in place in different climates. The outcome was the determination of the decay mechanisms and critical factors. Two test methods and respective precision statements, one for bowing and the other for irreversible thermal expansion in high humidity conditions, were prepared for submission to CEN TC 246.La piedra natural se ha empleado como material de construcción durante siglos. En el pasado, se solía utilizar en elementos de carga, pero en los últimos 50 años las nuevas técnicas de procesamiento han permitido que sea comercialmente rentable producir y utilizar revestimientos para fachadas de espesor reducido. Desafortunadamente, numerosas fachadas de mármol de edificios tanto en Europa como fuera de ella han sufrido graves problemas derivados del deterioro de la piedra. El proyecto TEAM (2000

  5. Buffer allocation in an ATM switch with output buffer and speed constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Georganas, N. D.

    A synchronous nonblocking N times N switch for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks or high speed packet switching networks transporting fixed length packets called cells is considered. Such a switch with output queuing achieves the optimal performance, however it requires the switch fabric to work at the speed of N. In practice the switch may operate L times faster than the input/output trunk. It is assumed that queues at each output port have a limited buffer space and whenever an output queue is full, the back-pressure is applied and the packets are retained at the head of the input queues. The upper bound on the packet loss probability at the input queues in such a switch are computed. To achieve a given packet loss rate, the switch with L equals 2 requires almost the same amount of input and output buffers as with L equals 4 up to 70 percent input load, but as the load increases beyond 70 percent the switch with L equals 4 would require more output buffers and less input buffers in comparison with a switch operating at L equals 2. The performance of a switch with L equals 3 is very similar to that for L equals 4 and is not considered.

  6. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of season, vegetation, and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  7. A Novel Photoproduct of 1, 3-Dimethyluracil in Phosphate Buffered-saline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1, 3-Dimethyluracil (DMU) in phosphate buffered-saline (PBS, pH=8) was irradiated by a medium pressure mercury lamp (MPML) and produced a novel compound C6H9N2O6P. The composition and structure of the compound has been identified by elemental analysis, EIMS, UV,IR, 1H and 31p-NMR.

  8. A Buffer Model of Memory Encoding and Temporal Correlations in Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Malmberg, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) dual-store model of memory includes structural aspects of memory along with control processes. The rehearsal buffer is a process by which items are kept in mind and long-term episodic traces are formed. The model has been both influential and controversial. Here, we describe a novel variant of Atkinson and Shiffrin's…

  9. A Novel Photoproduct of Thymine in Phosphate-buffered Saline under Far UV Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LIN; Qing Ling MA

    2003-01-01

    The photolysis of thymine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 8.0) under the irradiation of medium pressure mercury lamp (MPML) produces a novel compound C5H7N2O6P. The composition and structure of the compound have been identified by elemental analysis, EI-MS, UV, IR, 1H, 13C, 31P-NMR.

  10. Dispersion of low frequency plasma waves upstream of the quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency waves in the foot of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock front have been observed since the very early in situ observations of the terrestrial bow shock (Guha et al., 1972. The great attention that has been devoted to these type of waves since the first observations is explained by the key role attributed to them in the processes of energy redistribution in the shock front by various theoretical models. In some models, these waves play the role of the intermediator between the ions and electrons. It is assumed that they are generated by plasma instability that exist due to the counter-streaming flows of incident and reflected ions. In the second type of models, these waves result from the evolution of the shock front itself in the quasi-periodic process of steepening and overturning of the magnetic ramp. However, the range of the observed frequencies in the spacecraft frame are not enough to distinguish the origin of the observed waves. It also requires the determination of the wave vectors and the plasma frame frequencies. Multipoint measurements within the wave coherence length are needed for an ambiguous determination of the wave vectors. In the main multi-point missions such as ISEE, AMPTE, Cluster and THEMIS, the spacecraft separation is too large for such a wave vector determination and therefore only very few case studies are published (mainly for AMPTE UKS AMPTE IRM pair. Here we present the observations of upstream low frequency waves by the Cluster spacecraft which took place on 19 February 2002. The spacecraft separation during the crossing of the bow shock was small enough to determine the wave vectors and allowed the identification of the plasma wave dispersion relation for the observed waves. Presented results are compared with whistler wave dispersion and it is shown that contrary to previous studies based on the AMPTE data, the phase velocity in the shock frame is directed downstream. The consequences of this

  11. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  12. ROLE OF FCA WELDING PROCESS PARAMETERS ON BEAD PROFILE, ANGULAR AND BOWING DISTORTION OF FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL SHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATESAN M. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flux cored arc welding (FCAW process parameters such as welding current, travel speed, voltage and CO2 shielding gas flow rate on bead profile, bowing distortion and angular distortion of 409 M ferritic stainless steel sheets of 2 mm thickness. The bowing and angular distortions of the welded plates were measured using a simple device called profile tracer and Vernier bevel protractor respectively. The study revealed that the FCAW process parameters have significant effect on bead profile, and distortion. The relationship between bead profile and distortions were analyzed. Most favorable process parameters that give uniform bead profile and minimum distortion for the weld are recommended for fabrication.

  13. Attenuation distance of low frequency waves upstream of the pre-dawn bow shock: GEOTAIL and ISEE 3 comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    We have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves (approx. 0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock (-50 Re less than X less than 15 Re) using both GEOTAIL and international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) magnetometer data. We have found that the wave amplitude dependence on D and X(sub s), where D is the distance from the bow shock and X(sub s) the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp (X(sub s)/L(sub X)-D/L(sub D), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L(sub X) = 62 +/- 12 Re and L(sub D) = 59 +/- 38 Re.

  14. Attenuation distance of low frequency waves upstream of the pre-dawn bow shock: GEOTAIL and ISEE comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H. [Univ. of Tokoyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-01-15

    The authors have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves ({approximately}0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock ({minus}50 Rebow shock and X{sub s} the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp(X{sub s}/L{sub X}-D/L{sub D}), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L{sub X}=62{plus_minus}12 Re and L{sub D} = 59 {plus_minus} 38 Re. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. X-ray Observations of Bow Shocks around Runaway O Stars. The case of $\\zeta$ Oph and BD+433654

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, J A; González-Gaán, A; Guerrero, M A; Ignace, R; Pohl, M

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal radiation has been predicted within bow shocks around runaway stars by recent theoretical works. We present X-ray observations towards the runaway stars $\\zeta$ Oph (Chandra and Suzaku) and BD+433654 (XMM-Newton) to search for the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission. We found no evidence of non-thermal emission spatially coincident with the bow shocks, nonetheless, diffuse emission is detected in the vicinity of $\\zeta$ Oph. After a careful analysis of its spectral characteristics we conclude that this emission has a thermal nature with a plasma temperature of $T \\approx 2 \\times10^{6}$ K. The cometary shape of this emission seems to be in line with recent predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic models of runaway stars. The case of BD+433654 is puzzling as non-thermal emission has been reported in a previous work for this source.

  16. Non-thermal X-rays from bow shock runaways: a legacy programme for XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Massive stars ejected from their birth place, the so-called runaway massive stars, are likely to produce strong bow shocks through the interaction of the their stellar winds with the interstellar medium. Such shocks have been proven to be efficient at accelerating particles, as revealed by the identification of non-thermal radiation in a couple of objects. This large programme aims at obtaining measurements of the non-thermal X-ray flux of a carefully selected sample of bow shock runaways (BSRs), to quantify their capability to accelerate particles, in relation with their potential contribution to the production of Galactic cosmic-rays. Such an unprecedented collection of data is aimed at constituting some kind of legacy programme for XMM-Newton, before the advent of future generation X-ray observatories.

  17. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Eom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  18. The properties of CdTe solar cells with ZnTe/ZnTe: Cu buffer layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Huijin; Zheng Jiagui; Feng Lianghuan; Yan Qiang; Lei Zhi; Wu Lili; Zhang Jingquan; Li Wei; Li Bing

    2008-01-01

    CdS/CdTe solar cells with ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu buffer layers were fabricated and studied. The energy band structure of it was analyzed. The C-V, I-V characteristics and the spectral response show that the ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu buffer layers improve the back contact characteristic properties, the diode characteristics of the forward junction and the short-wave spectral response of the CdTe solar cells. The ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu buffer layers affect the solar cell conversion efficiency and its fill factor.

  19. Investigation of CeO2 Buffer Layer Effects on the Voltage Response of YBCO Transition-Edge Bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Nazifi, Rana; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the thermal parameters of superconducting transition-edge bolometers produced on a single crystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrate with and without a CeO2 buffer layer was investigated. Metal-organic deposition was used to deposit the 20-nm CeO2 buffer layer, whereas RF magnetron sputtering...... responses, and the results were compared with that of simulations conducted by applying a one-dimensional thermophysical model. It was observed that adding the buffer layer to the structure of the bolometer results in an increased response at higher modulation frequencies. Results from simulations made...

  20. A buffer gas cooled beam of barium monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Geoffrey; Tarallo, Marco; Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in direct laser cooling of diatomic molecules have opened up a wide array of molecular species to precision studies spanning many-body physics, quantum collisions and ultracold dissociation. We present a cryogenic beam source of barium monohydride (BaH), and study laser ablation of solid precursor targets as well as helium buffer gas cooling dynamics. Additionally, we cover progress towards a molecular magneto-optical trap, with spectroscopic studies of relevant cooling transitions in the B2 Σ molecules, including resolution of hyperfine structure and precision measurements of the vibrational Frank-Condon factors. Finally, we examine the feasibility of photo dissociation of trapped BaH molecules to yield optically accessible samples of ultracold hydrogen.

  1. Buffer Sizing in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for TCP flows in 802.11-based Wireless Mesh Networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. The problem is complicated by the time-varying capacity of the wireless channel as well as the random access mechanism of 802.11 MAC protocol. While arbitrarily large buffers can maintain high network utilization, this results in large queueing delays. Such delays may affect TCP stability characteristics, and also increase queueing delays for other flows (including real-time flows) sharing the buffer. In this paper we propose sizing link buffers collectively for a set of nodes within mutual interference range called the \\'collision domain\\'. We aim to provide a buffer just large enough to saturate the available capacity of the bottleneck collision domain that limits the carrying capacity of the network. This neighborhood buffer is distributed over multiple nodes that constitute the network bottleneck; a transmission by any of these nodes fully utilizes the available spectral resource for the duration of the transmission. We show that sizing routing buffers collectively for this bottleneck allows us to have small buffers (as low as 2 - 3 packets) at individual nodes without any significant loss in network utilization. We propose heuristics to determine these buffer sizes in WMNs. Our results show that we can reduce the end-to-end delays by 6× to 10× at the cost of losing roughly 5% of the network capacity achievable with large buffers.

  2. Investigation on Ring/Split-Ring Loaded Bow-Tie Antenna for Compactness and Notched-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Xie, Ji-yang; Jiang, Xing; Li, Si-min

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a Bow-tie antenna with size reduction, impedance matching and radiation pattern improvement characteristics is designed with an encircling ring. Moreover, further size reduction is achieved by utilizing two symmetric split rings with more frequency tuning flexibility. Research found the ring loaded Bow-tie antenna (RLBA) shows better performance than the referenced Bow-tie antenna (RBA), and the mechanisms of performance improvements are also investigated and found to be the loading ring acts as two symmetric dipoles in the direction of the antenna's polarization. Then, using two symmetric split rings on the opposite side of the substrate as replacement of the encircling ring will prolong the length of the dipoles, and achieves further size reduction. The antenna is denoted as dual split ring loaded Bow-tie antenna (DSRBA). The low cutoff frequencies of RBA, RLBA and DSRBA with identical antenna size are 2.65 GHz, 2.27 GHz and 2.06 GHz, respectively. Then, the corresponding diameters of the antennas are 0.353 λc, 0.303 λc, and 0.275 λc, where λc are their corresponding wavelength of the lower cutoff frequencies. Furthermore, a notched-band is generated as a byproduct of the split rings, and it is owing to the new resonance of the overlap areas of the split rings. The notch can be used to alleviate interference of WiMAX band by carefully choosing the split rings' size. Radiation patterns of RLBA and DSRBA are also improved as current distributions of the high frequencies are trained in order by the ring/split-rings. Measurements are performed to verify the designs.

  3. Quasiparticle self-consistent GW theory of III-V nitride semiconductors: Bands, gap bowing, and effective masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede; Gorczyca, I.

    2010-01-01

    on the basis of the local approximation to density functional theory, although generally overestimated by 0.2–0.3 eV in comparison with experimental gap values. Details of the electronic energies and the effective masses including their pressure dependence are compared with available experimental information....... The band gap of InGaN2 is considerably smaller than what would be expected by linear interpolation implying a significant band gap bowing in InGaN alloys....

  4. Influence of EPS Geofoam Buffers on the Static Behavior of Cantilever Earth-Retaining Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür L. Ertuğrul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of expanded polystyrene (EPS buffers on lateral stresses and deflections of model retaining walls with various flexibility values were investigated. For this purpose, 0.7 m high model walls were instrumented and 1-g model tests were performed in laboratory environment. In the first group of tests, the wall models retain only granular cohesionless backfill whereas in the second and third group of tests, EPS deformable buffers of two different thicknesses were installed between the wall and granular backfill. Tests were repeated for four different wall thicknesses and results were discussed comparatively. As wall flexibility increases, there is a decrease in the load reduction pattern of the buffer. On the other hand, utilization of geofoam buffers with flexible cantilever walls still provides substantial decrease in wall thrust and deflections thus leading to more economical retaining structure design. The lateral earth pressure coefficients determined through model tests were compared to those calculated from Coulomb's theory for active lateral earth stresses. A graph is provided for the estimation of lateral earth pressure coefficients for various combinations of wall flexibilities and buffer characteristics.

  5. Optical resilient packet ring (O-RPR) based on all-optical buffering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xingzhi; Fu, Songnian; Wei, Bin; Li, Yajie; Liu, Aiming

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of the 863 high-technology project of China "Optical Resilient Packet Ring (O-RPR) Based on All-optical Buffering Techniques". In this ring network, for the packet through an intermediate node the conversion of O/E/O is not needed in order to overcome the bottleneck of O/E/O. In all-optical node a Dual Loop Optical Buffer (DLOB) is used to revolve the collision between the packet, which pass through the node, and add packet from local user to ring. The principle of DLOB is introduced. The bit-rate of head of optical frame is lower than the bit-rate of payload in a packet, in order to increase the efficiency of transmission link. This paper will introduce the network topology, layers and the structure of optical node. It includes an optical splitter, optical delay line as input buffer, a SOA as optical switch, which switch the packet dropping down form the ring or pass through the node, a DLOB and an electric buffer. An ARM is used for regulation of different buffers. The experiment results of a demonstrate network including 3 nodes are given.

  6. A Unified Buffering Management with Set Divisible Cache for PCM Main Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ying Bian; Su-Kyung Yoon; Jeong-Geun Kim; Sangjae Nam; Shin-Dug Kim

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a phase-change memory (PCM) based main memory system with an effective combi-nation of a superblock-based adaptive buffering structure and its associated set divisible last-level cache (LLC). To achieve high performance similar to that of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) based main memory, the superblock-based adaptive buffer (SABU) is comprised of dual DRAM buffers, i.e., an aggressive superblock-based pre-fetching buffer (SBPB) and an adaptive sub-block reusing buffer (SBRB), and a set divisible LLC based on a cache space optimization scheme. According to our experiment, the longer PCM access latency can typically be hidden using our proposed SABU, which can significantly reduce the number of writes over the PCM main memory by 26.44%. The SABU approach can reduce PCM access latency up to 0.43 times, compared with conventional DRAM main memory. Meanwhile, the average memory energy consumption can be reduced by 19.7%.

  7. Buffering capability and limitations in low dispersion photonic crystal waveguides with elliptical airholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fang; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng

    2010-09-01

    A low dispersion photonic crystal waveguide with triangular lattice elliptical airholes is proposed for compact, high-performance optical buffering applications. In the proposed structure, we obtain a negligible-dispersion bandwidth with constant group velocity ranging from c/41 to c/256, by optimizing the major and minor axes of bulk elliptical holes and adjusting the position and the hole size of the first row adjacent to the defect. In addition, the limitations of buffer performance in a dispersion engineering waveguide are well studied. The maximum buffer capacity and the maximum data rate can reach as high as 262bits and 515 Gbits/s, respectively. The corresponding delay time is about 255.4ps.

  8. Deceleration of the solar wind upstream from the earth's bow shock and the origin of diffuse upstream ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Paschmann, G.; Skopke, N.

    1980-01-01

    Observations with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory/Max-Planck-Institut crossed-fan solar wind ion experiment on ISEE I reveal that the solar wind is decelerated and deflected away from the direction of the earth's bow shock as it enters that portion of the upstream region populated by diffuse bow shock ions and long-period (10-60 s) waves. Typically, the average directed velocity vector changes by 7-10 km/s as it enters the wave region. At times, average speed changes as large as 25-40 km/s are observed. Superposed upon these changes in average flow speed are large amplitude (+ or - 15) fluctuations in flow speed associated with the waves themselves. The observations suggest that the solar wind deceleration is the result of momentum transfer from reflected bow shock ions to the wind via the long-period waves as the reflected ion beams go unstable. The broad angular distributions of the diffuse ions thus appear to be produced as a consequence of the disruption of reflected ion beams.

  9. ISEE-3 observations of the earth's radio continuum through the bow shock and magnetosheath and in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J.-L.; Hoang, S.; Lacombe, C.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    On October 1 1983, ISEE-3 crossed the earth's bow shock several times and entered the magnetosphere while continuously recording the nonthermal continuum (NTC) radio emission which is generated inside the magnetosphere. The effects of the solar wind, the bow shock, the magnetosheath, and the magnetopause on the propagation of the NTC are studied. On that day it is found that: (1) the relative values of the NTC low frequency cut-off in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath is due to an unusually high density overshoot in the bow shock, 7 to 11 times the solar wind density; (2) refraction at the interface between the magnetosheath and the solar wind can explain most of the decrease in the source angular size when the observer travels away from the earth; (3) plasma density irregularities in the magnetosheath cause considerable scattering of the NTC, and this effect gives a large apparent size to the NTC source when observed from inside the magnetosheath; and (4) the apparent source is also relatively large inside the magnetosphere, probably due to an approach to ray isotropy caused by oblique reflections from the magnetopause.

  10. IR-excesses around nearby Lambda Boo stars are caused by debris disks rather than ISM bow waves

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Zachary H; Kennedy, Grant M; Wyatt, Mark C; Venn, Kim A; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Lambda Boo stars are predominately A-type stars with solar abundant C, N, O, and S, but up to 2 dex underabundances of refractory elements. The stars' unusual surface abundances could be due to a selective accretion of volatile gas over dust. It has been proposed that there is a correlation between the Lambda Boo phenomenon and IR-excesses which are the result of a debris disk or interstellar medium (ISM) interaction providing the accreting material. We observe 70 or 100 and 160 $\\mu$m excess emission around 9 confirmed Lambda Boo stars with the Herschel Space Observatory, to differentiate whether the dust emission is from a debris disk or an ISM bow wave. We find that 3/9 stars observed host well resolved debris disks. While the remaining 6/9 are not resolved, they are inconsistent with an ISM bow wave based on the dust emission being more compact for its temperature and predicted bow wave models produce hotter emission than what is observed. We find the incidence of bright IR-excesses around Lambda Boo star...

  11. Search for Diffuse X-rays from the Bow Shock Region of Runaway Star BD+43$^\\circ$3654 with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, Yukikatsu; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo; Kouzu, Tomomi; Koyama, Shu; Seta, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    The bow shocks of runaway stars with strong stellar winds of over 2000 km s$^{-1}$ can serve as particle acceleration sites. The conversion from stellar wind luminosity into particle acceleration power has an efficiency of the same order of magnitude as those in supernova remnants, based on the radio emission from the bow shock region of runaway star BD+43$^\\circ$3654 \\citep{Benaglia10}.If this object exhibits typical characteristics, then runaway star systems can contribute a non-negligible fraction of Galactic cosmic-ray electrons. To constrain the maximum energy of accelerated particles from measurements of possible non-thermal emissions in the X-ray band, Suzaku observed BD+43$^\\circ$3654 in April 2011 with an exposure of 99 ks. Because the onboard instruments have a stable and low background level, Suzaku detected a possible enhancement over the background of $7.6\\pm 3.4$ cnt arcmin$^{-2}$ at the bow shock region, where the error represents the 3 sigma statistics only. However, the excess is not signific...

  12. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  13. Surface Treatments of Nb by Buffered Electropolishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Andy T. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Manus, Robert L. [JLAb; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Williams, J. S. [JLAB; Eozénou, F. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette; Jin, S. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lin, L. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lu, X.Y. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Wang, E. [BNL

    2009-11-01

    Buffered electropolishing (BEP) is a Nb surface treatment technique developed at Jefferson Lab1. Experimental results obtained from flat Nb samples show2-4 that BEP can produce a surface finish much smoother than that produced by the conventional electropolishing (EP), while Nb removal rate can be as high as 4.67 μm/min. This new technique has been applied to the treatments of Nb SRF single cell cavity employing a vertical polishing system5 constructed at JLab as well as a horizontal polishing system at CEA Saclay. Preliminary results show that the accelerating gradient can reach 32 MV/m for a large grain cavity and 26.7 MV/m for a regular grain cavity. In this presentation, the latest progresses from the international collaboration between Peking University, CEA Saclay, and JLab on BEP will be summarized.

  14. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on the possibilities of utilizing the absorptive ability of porous materials to create passive control of humidity variations in the indoor air. These variations result in peaks in the indoor air humidity due to moisture production, or in the exterior building envelope...... due to the diurnal variations of outdoor air temperature and humidity. A passive control of the humidity of the indoor air - particularly together with passive thermal control - may lead to smaller energy use for climatization of buildings. For exterior envelopes, the choice of right materials can...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...

  15. Biofiltration with bicarbonate as dialysate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzelli, S; Alfonso, L; Corlianò, C; Patruno, P; Sozzo, E; Mastrangelo, F

    1986-12-01

    The biofiltration with bicarbonate as dialysate buffer (BiBF) was used in 10 patients on RDT: the patients were treated for 10 months on standard BF and for 10 months on BiBF. The amount of fluid infused varied between 3 and 5 liters and Na-bicarbonate (100 mEq/h) was infused during BF. The dialytic protocol was 3 hours every other day. Cardiovascular stability, waste molecules and acid-base balance were investigated. No differences in vascular stability and no significant changes in the waste-molecules concentrations were found. Both protocols correct the metabolic acidosis; however, in standard BF 50% of patients showed acute hypocapnia at the end of dialysis.

  16. Natriuretic peptides buffer renin-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Theo; Staffel, Janina; Schreiber, Andrea; Valletta, Daniela; Schweda, Frank

    2014-06-15

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cardiac natriuretic peptides [atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)] are opposing control mechanisms for arterial blood pressure. Accordingly, an inverse relationship between plasma renin concentration (PRC) and ANP exists in most circumstances. However, PRC and ANP levels are both elevated in renovascular hypertension. Because ANP can directly suppress renin release, we used ANP knockout (ANP(-/-)) mice to investigate whether high ANP levels attenuate the increase in PRC in response to renal hypoperfusion, thus buffering renovascular hypertension. ANP(-/-) mice were hypertensive and had reduced PRC compared with that in wild-type ANP(+/+) mice under control conditions. Unilateral renal artery stenosis (2-kidney, 1-clip) for 1 wk induced similar increases in blood pressure and PRC in both genotypes. Unexpectedly, plasma BNP concentrations in ANP(-/-) mice significantly increased in response to two-kidney, one-clip treatment, potentially compensating for the lack of ANP. In fact, in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A(-/-) mice), which is the common receptor for both ANP and BNP, renovascular hypertension was markedly augmented compared with that in wild-type GC-A(+/+) mice. However, the higher blood pressure in GC-A(-/-) mice was not caused by disinhibition of the renin system because PRC and renal renin synthesis were significantly lower in GC-A(-/-) mice than in GC-A(+/+) mice. Thus, natriuretic peptides buffer renal vascular hypertension via renin-independent effects, such as vasorelaxation. The latter possibility is supported by experiments in isolated perfused mouse kidneys, in which physiological concentrations of ANP and BNP elicited renal vasodilatation and attenuated renal vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II.

  17. Hydrological heterogeneity in agricultural riparian buffer strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Larocque, Marie; Perron, Rachel; Wiseman, Natalie; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Riparian buffer strips (RBS) may protect surface water and groundwater in agricultural settings, although their effectiveness, observed in field-scale studies, may not extend to a watershed scale. Hydrologically-controlled leaching plots have often shown RBS to be effective at buffering nutrients and pesticides, but uncontrolled field studies have sometimes suggested limited effectiveness. The limited RBS effectiveness may be explained by the spatiotemporal hydrological heterogeneity near non-irrigated fields. This hypothesis was tested in conventional corn and soy fields in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec (Canada), where spring melt brings heavy and rapid runoff, while summer months are hot and dry. One field with a mineral soil (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan) and another with an organic-rich soil (Boisbriand) were equipped with passive runoff collectors, suction cup lysimeters, and piezometers placed before and after a 3 m-wide RBS, and monitored from 2011 to 2014. Soil topography of the RBS was mapped to a 1 cm vertical precision and a 50 cm sampling grid. On average, surface runoff intersects the RBS perpendicularly, but is subject to substantial local heterogeneity. Groundwater saturates the root zones, but flows little at the time of snowmelt. Groundwater flow is not consistently perpendicular to the RBS, and may reverse, flowing from stream to field under low water flow regimes with stream-aquifer connectivity, thus affecting RBS effectiveness calculations. Groundwater flow direction can be influenced by stratigraphy, local soil hydraulic properties, and historical modification of the agricultural stream beds. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface and groundwater flows is essential to correctly assess the effectiveness of RBS in intercepting agro-chemical pollution. The implicit assumption that water flows across vegetated RBS, from the field to the stream, should always be verified.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics based bulbous bow optimization using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Huang, Debo

    2012-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship. With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software, CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry. In this paper, the hull form of a ship was optimized for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an optimization tool. CFD based optimization consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters, automatic generation of mesh, automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function, and finally an optimization tool to evaluate the cost for optimization. In this paper, integration of a genetic algorithm program, written in MATLAB, was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT. Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters. These design variables were optimized to achieve a minimum cost function of "total resistance". Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form optimization.

  19. Experimental Study on Behavior of Bow-tie Tree Generation by Using Heavy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

    Bow-tie tree (BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void in insulator is a significant deterioration factor of XLPE power cable. However, essential role of water in generation and progress of BTT is not yet sufficiently cleared. In order to investigate the role of water we paid attention to difference in chemical properties of light water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O), moreover we evaluated influence of isotopic effect due to hydrogen and deuterium on behavior of BTT generation. In accelerated aging test the number of BTT in XLPE sample, in which copper powder of 500ppm was contaminated as BTT cores, dipped in heavy water (D2O:100wt%) decreased to one third compared with light water(D2O:0wt%). Furthermore, the maximum length of BTT decreased with increase in concentration of heavy water. The experimental results show that heavy water exerted a depression effect on generation and progress of BTT. We considered that the depression effect due to hydrogen isotope appeared by inhibiting ionization and elution of BTT cores, because salt-solubility and ionic mobility of heavy water are about 15 to 20% smaller than those of light water. Therefore, the essential role of water seemed to be production and transport of ions in XLPE.

  20. Influence of Water and Ion Diffusion on Generation and Progress of Bow-tie Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

    Bow-tie tree(BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void is a deterioration factor of XLPE cable. In particular, BTT in contact with inner or outer semi-conductive shield could significantly lower residual AC breakdown voltage of HV power cable. To evaluate influence of water and ion diffusion on generation and progress of BTT, we investigated relationship between water content of XLPE and the generation of BTT by various accelerated aging. The number of BTT in XLPE samples with accelerated aging under open condition, involving evaporation of water in which samples were immersed, was very large compared with closed condition. Furthermore, when samples were intermittently immersed in water, the number of BTT in samples was large compared with samples immersed continuously. In these experiments the generation of BTT seemed to have nothing to do with changes in water content before and after accelerated aging. Therefore, it was suggested that diffusion of ions rather than water in XLPE played an important role in the generation of BTT.

  1. Non-thermal Electrons at the Earth's Bow Shock: A `Gradual' Event

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, M; Fujimoto, M; Matsui, H; Kasaba, Y; Saitô, Y; Kojima, H; Matsumoto, H; Mukai, T

    2008-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is known to produce non-thermal electrons which are generally observed as a `spike' in their flux profile. Here, in this paper, we present an analysis of electron and whistler wave properties for a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing that is supercritical, but subcritical to the so-called whistler critical Mach number, M$^w_{\\rm crit}$, above which whistler waves cannot propagate upstream. We have found that the amplitudes of whistler waves increased exponentially as a function of time prior to the shock encounter, while the suprathermal ($>$ 2 keV) electron flux similarly increased with time, although with differing $e$-folding time scales. Comparison of the electron energy spectrum measured within the ramp with predictions from diffusive shock acceleration theory was poor, but the variation of pitch angle distribution showed scattering of non-thermal electrons in the upstream region. While not finding a specific mechanism to account for the electron diffusion, we suggest that the whistlers ...

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Bulbous Bow Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Mahmood; Debo Huang

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship.With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software,CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry.In this paper,the hull form of a ship was optimized for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an optimization tool.CFD based optimization consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters,automatic generation of mesh,automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function,and finally an optimization tool to evaluate the cost for optimization.In this paper,integration of a genetic algorithm program,written in MATLAB,was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT.Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters.These design variables were optimized to achieve a minimum cost function of “total resistance”.Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form optimization.

  3. Postural stability, clicker reaction time and bow draw force predict performance in elite recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratford, Wayne; Campbell, Rhiannon

    2017-02-14

    Recurve archery is an Olympic sport that requires extreme precision, upper body strength and endurance. The purpose of this research was to quantify how postural stability variables both pre- and post-arrow release, draw force, flight time, arrow length and clicker reaction time, collectively, impacted on the performance or scoring outcomes in elite recurve archery athletes. Thirty-nine elite-level recurve archers (23 male and 16 female; mean age = 24.7 ± 7.3 years) from four different countries volunteered to participate in this study prior to competing at a World Cup event. An AMTI force platform (1000Hz) was used to obtain centre of pressure (COP) measurements 1s prior to arrow release and 0.5s post-arrow release. High-speed footage (200Hz) allowed for calculation of arrow flight time and score. Results identified clicker reaction time, draw force and maximum sway speed as the variables that best predicted shot performance. Specifically, reduced clicker reaction time, greater bow draw force and reduced postural sway speed post-arrow release were predictors of higher scoring shots. It is suggested that future research should focus on investigating shoulder muscle tremors at full draw in relation to clicker reaction time, and the effect of upper body strength interventions (specifically targeting the musculature around the shoulder girdle) on performance in recurve archers.

  4. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results. PMID:28114354

  5. Postglacial palaeoenvironments of the upper Bow Valley, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Mel A.; Huber, Ulrike M.

    1999-03-01

    Crowfoot Lake sediments provide a sensitive 11,300 14C year record of glacial activity and vegetation change in the central Canadian Rocky Mountains. Bow Valley ice had receded from the Crowfoot Lake basin shortly before ca. 11,330 14C yr BP. Inorganic sediments associated with an expansion of alpine glaciers (Crowfoot Advance) were deposited in the basin during the Younger Dryas Chron. Prior to ca. 10,100 14C yr BP, the local vegetation was a sparse shrub-herb community dominated by Artemisia and Poaceae. Dramatic changes in the palaeobotanical record concomitant with the abrupt onset of organic sedimentation reflect the establishment of an open Pinus-dominated forest at ca. 10,100 14C yr BP. Fires may have accentuated the effects of climate in maintaining an open forest between ca. 9000 and 4160 14C yr BP. After ca. 4160 14C yr BP, Picea and Abies were dominant components of the local closed forest and subordinate xerophytic taxa were in decline. The consistent presence of mesophytic taxa after ca. 4160 14C yr BP indicate increases in precipitation associated with the onset of Neoglacial conditions. Sharp declines in local arboreal taxa occurred at ca. 900 14C yr BP along with increases in several taxa common to modern alpine tundra and subalpine meadows. These changes probably reflect expansions of valley floor meadows and descending alpine timberline in the drainage and are coincident with renewed glaciogenic sedimentation in the basin.

  6. A Spectacular Bow Shock in the 11 keV Galaxy Cluster Around 3C 438

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, Deanna L; Kraft, Ralph P; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Forman, William R; Hardcastle, Martin J; Jones, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We present results of deep 153 ks Chandra observations of the hot, 11 keV, galaxy cluster associated with the radio galaxy 3C 438. By mapping the morphology of the hot gas and analyzing its surface brightness and temperature distributions, we demonstrate the presence of a merger bow shock. We identify the presence of two jumps in surface brightness and in density located at $\\sim$400 kpc and $\\sim$800 kpc from the cluster's core. At the position of the inner jump, we detect a factor of $2.3\\pm 0.2$ density jump, while at the location of the outer jump, we detect a density drop of a factor of $3.5 \\pm 0.7$. Combining this with the temperature distribution within the cluster, we establish that the pressure of the hot gas is continuous at the 400 kpc jump, while there is a factor of $6.2 \\pm 2.8$ pressure discontinuity at 800 kpc jump. From the magnitude of the outer pressure discontinuity, using the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions, we determine that the sub-cluster is moving at $M = 2.3\\pm 0.5$, or approximate...

  7. Cherchez la Femme en The Ox-Bow Incident de Wellman: analizando fractales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una definición sucinta de conceptos generales provenientes de la Teoría del Caos, empleados particularmente en termodinámica: fractal, autosimilaridad, bifurcación (Mandelbrot y se describe brevemente el principio de Poincaré en torno a la Teoría de los Tres cuerpos. Un método similar con las correspondientes variantes ha sido aplicado por varios estudiosos de las Humanidades, con el fin de demostrar que se puede atravesar un puente entre ideas de éstas y las demás ciencias. Segundo, se aplicó el método para estudiar los personajes femeninos del filme The Ox-Bow Incident de William Wellman, que ganara el Óscar por la mejor película en el mismo año de su producción. Por último, se argumenta que la Geometría Fractal de la Naturaleza conduce a descentralizar el rol de los cowboys que llevan a cabo el linchamiento, mientras que se centra el papel de las mujeres, y, en especial, a visualizar dos personajes femeninos virtuales, gesto que rompe con la aparente linearidad de la trama.

  8. Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates: Electromagnetic Wave Observations in the Terrestrial Bow Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, L B; Breneman, A W; Contel, O Le; Cully, C; Turner, D L; Angelopoulos, V

    2013-01-01

    We present the first quantified measure of the rate of energy dissipated per unit volume by high frequency electromagnetic waves in the transition region of the Earth's collisionless bow shock using data from the THEMIS spacecraft. Every THEMIS shock crossing examined with available wave burst data showed both low frequency ( 10 Hz) electromagnetic and electrostatic waves throughout the entire transition region and into the magnetosheath. The waves in both frequency ranges had large amplitudes, but the higher frequency waves, which are the focus of this study, showed larger contributions to both the Poynting flux and the energy dissipation rates. The higher frequency waves were identified as combinations of ion-acoustic waves, electron cyclotron drift instability driven waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and whistler mode waves. These waves were found to have: (1) amplitudes capable of exceeding dB ~ 10 nT and dE ~ 300 mV/m, though more typical values were dB ~ 0.1-1.0 nT and dE ~ 10-50 mV/m; (2) energy flu...

  9. Application of Single Spacecraft Methods to Study the Motion of the Venusian Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagkiozis, Stefanos; Pope, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Collisionless shockwaves are associated with a plethora of processes throughout the universe. Supernova remnant shocks are considered one of the main mechanisms that are capable to accelerate particles at high enough energies as the ones observed in cosmic rays. It is still unknown how these shocks accelerate particle to such high energies. By studying shocks in the heliosphere in order to define as much as possible of their parameter space, we could find the answer to this question. One important collisionless shock parameter is the velocity that the shock is travelling. This velocity can be used to define the spatial scales of the shock. The spatial scale in turn is closely related to the processes that govern the energy dissipation and in turn the nature of the shock. The use of multi-spacecraft measurements are the most reliable method to determine the shock velocity. However single spacecraft measurements are often only available, particularly for planetary missions. In a previous study we examined the accuracy of some of the single spacecraft methods that have been developed. Here we apply these approaches to a series of observations of the Venusian bow shock at different locations using Venus Express magnetic field data.

  10. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, M M; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Wan Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results.

  11. ANALISA PENGARUH BENTUK LAMBUNG AXE BOW PADA KAPAL HIGH SPEED CRAFT TERHADAP HAMBATAN TOTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romadhoni Oni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hambatan merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang mempengaruhi proses perancangan sebuah kapal. Kapal dengan bentuk lambung yang baik akan menghasilkan hambatan yang efisiensi sehingga operasional kapal dan pergerakan kapal lebih baik. Pada ini penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan kapal high speed craft tipe Crew boat panjang 38 meter, lebar 7.6 meter, tinggi 3.65 meter dan draft 1.89 meter. Selanjutnya diselidiki model lambung kapal yang menghasilkan hambatan total paling kecil menggunakan pendekatan studi numerik software (maxsuft hullspeed metode savitsky dan holtrop dan software Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan analisa numerik (Maxsuft –Hullspeed dan CFD menujukkan pada kecepatan sevice bentuk lambung model AXE Bow memiliki nilai hambatan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan model kapal planing hull chine (HPC dan rounded hull (RH. Hasil perhitungan numerik dan CFD memiliki nilai yang hampir sama pada setiap variasi model. Hasil komparisi yang dilakukan didapatkan selisih total hambatan pada kecepatan 25 knot yaitu  model HPC 1.8 kN, model HPCAB 5.2 kN, model RH 4.8 kN dan model 5.1 kN. Dari perbandingan kedua metode tersebut memiliki selisih cukup kecil yaitu  kurang dari 5%. Selain mendapatkan nilai hambatan Software CFD akan menghasilkan nilai  perbandingan gaya angkat (lift force, dan total pressure yang terdistribusi  pada permukaan model setiap variasi kecepatan.

  12. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials.

  13. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  14. Development of buffers for fast semidry transfer of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garić, Dušan; Humbert, Laure; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Korah, Juliana; Zarfabian, Yasaman; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2013-10-15

    Western blot is an extensively used method for protein detection in cell biology. To optimize this procedure, here we examined a panel of buffers for their ability to efficiently transfer proteins from SDS-polyacrylamide gels onto nitrocellulose membranes in a short 12-min period, designated here as fast semidry transfer. Our results show for the first time that HEPES- and HEPPS/EPPS-based buffers represent the most efficient buffers for fast semidry transfer.

  15. A study on manufacturing and construction method of buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    As an engineered barrier system in the geological disposal of high-level waste, multibarrier system is considered. Multibarrier system consists of the vitrified waste, the overpack and the buffer. Bentonite is one of the potential material as the buffer because of its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. In order to evaluate the functions of buffer, a lot of experiments has been conducted. The evaluations of these functions are based on the assumption that the buffer is emplaced or constructed in the disposal tunnel (or disposal pit) properly. Therefore, it is necessary to study on the manufacturing / construction method of buffer. As the manufacturing / construction technology of the buffer, the block installation method and in-situ compaction method, etc, are being investigated. The block installation method is to emplace the buffer blocks manufactured in advance at the ground facility, and construction processes of the block installation method at the underground will be simplified compared with the in-situ compaction method. On the other hand, the in-situ compaction method is to introduce the buffer material with specified water content into the disposal tunnel and to make the buffer with high density at the site using a compaction machine. In regard to the in-situ compaction method, it is necessary to investigate the optimum finished thickness of one layer because it is impossible to construct the buffer at one time. This report describes the results of compaction property test and the summary of the past investigation results in connection with the manufacturing / construction method. Then this report shows the construction method that will be feasible in the actual disposal site. (J.P.N.)

  16. Analysis and Implementation of Traffic Buffering in EOS Chip Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bo; LIU Hao; YIN Yan-fen

    2005-01-01

    The traffic buffering problems in the ethernet over synchronous digital hierarchy(EOS) are introduced and analyzed. Different solutionsare also presented in detail. Synchronous DRAM(SDRAM) is used as off-chip buffer to store-and-retransmission ethernet frames. A new and easy control design is introduced here. The buffer area size on chip is greatly reduced and the power dissipation is lowed at the same time.

  17. Buffering Implications for the Design Space of Streaming MEMS Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Mohammed G.; Abelmann, Leon; Preas, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnology-based systems encounter new non-functional requirements. This work addresses MEMS storage, an emerging technology that promises ultrahigh density and energy-efficient storage devices. We study the buffering requirement of MEMS storage in streaming applications. We show that capacity and lifetime of a MEMS device dictate the buffer size most of the time. Our study shows that trading off 10% of the optimal energy saving of a MEMS device reduces its buffer capacity by up ...

  18. Performance improvement for optical packet switch with shared buffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Yang; Qingji Zeng; Jie Li; Tong Ye; Guolong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this paper, an inner wavelength method is proposed to enlarge buffering capacity of shared fiber delay line buffers. In addition, an optical packet switch called extended shared buffer type optical packet switch(extended SB-OPS) is proposed to realize the inner wavelength method. In order to further improve performance of extended SB-OPS, a greedy algorithm based on inner wavelength method is introduced.The performance of extended SB-OPS is evaluated by simulation experiments.

  19. Ks- and Lp-band polarimetry on stellar and bow-shock sources in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, R. M.; Witzel, G.; Schödel, R.; Eckart, A.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Infrared observations of the Galactic center (GC) provide a unique opportunity to study stellar and bow-shock polarization effects in a dusty environment. Aims: The goals of this work are to present new Ks- and Lp-band polarimetry on an unprecedented number of sources in the central parsec of the GC, thereby expanding our previous results in the H- and Ks-bands. Methods: We use AO-assisted Ks- and Lp-band observations, obtained at the ESO VLT. High precision photometry and the new polarimetric calibration method for NACO allow us to map the polarization in a region of 8'' × 25'' (Ks) resp. 26'' × 28'' (Lp). These are the first polarimetric observations of the GC in the Lp-band in 30 years, with vastly improved spatial resolution compared to previous results. This allows resolved polarimetry on bright bow-shock sources in this area for the first time at this wavelength. Results: We find foreground polarization to be largely parallel to the Galactic plane (Ks-band: 6.1% at 20°, Lp-band: 4.5% at 20°), in good agreement with our previous findings and with older results. The previously described Lp-band excess in the foregound polarization towards the GC could be confirmed here for a much larger number of sources. The bow-shock sources contained in the FOV seem to show a different relation between the polarization in the observed wavelength bands than what was determined for the foreground. This points to the different relevant polarization mechanisms. The resolved polarization patterns of IRS 5 and 10W match the findings we presented earlier for IRS 1W. Additionally, intrinsic Lp-band polarization was measured for IRS 1W and 21, as well as for other, less prominent mid-infrared-excess sources (IRS 2S, 2L, 5NE). The new data offer support for the presumed bow-shock nature of several of these sources (1W, 5, 5NE, 10W, 21) and for the model of bow-shock polarization presented in our last work. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http

  20. Near-Term Effects of Repeated-Thinning with Riparian Buffers on Headwater Stream Vertebrates and Habitats in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna H. Olson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of a second-thinning harvest with alternative riparian buffer management approaches on headwater stream habitats and associated vertebrates in western Oregon, USA. Our analyses showed that stream reaches were generally distinguished primarily by average width and depth, along with the percentage of the dry reach length, and secondarily, by the volume of down wood. In the first year post-harvest, we observed no effects of buffer treatment on stream habitat attributes after moderate levels of thinning. One of two “thin-through” riparian treatments showed stronger trends for enlarged stream channels, likely due to harvest disturbances. The effects of buffer treatments on salamanders varied among species and with habitat structure. Densities of Plethodon dunni and Rhyacotriton species increased post-harvest in the moderate-density thinning with no-entry buffers in wider streams with more pools and narrower streams with more down wood, respectively. However, Rhyacotriton densities decreased along streams with the narrowest buffer, 6 m, and P. dunni and Dicamptodon tenebrosus densities decreased in thin-through buffers. Our study supports the use of a 15-m or wider buffer to retain sensitive headwater stream amphibians.

  1. Dynamic Buffering Performance of the Honeycomb Paperboard Filled with Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; XIE Weihong; CHEN Li

    2014-01-01

    A new kind of composite buffering material was made by filling the voids of honeycomb paperboard with polyurethane. Drop tests were performed to evaluate the dynamic energy absorption capacity of the material. Based on the tests results, we analyzed the mechanical behaviors of the material under different conditions and obtained the inherent influencing laws of some factors on the material’s dynamic buffering performance. It was shown that the dynamic buffering performance varied directly with impact velocity, and inversely with the void diameter, thickness and buffering area of the composite material.

  2. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xiang; Hu Mao-Bin; Ding Jian-Xun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity.Two node buffer settings are considered.The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability.The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys.Rev.E 74 046106 (2006)].In the diagrams of flux-density relationships,it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic.

  3. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  4. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  5. Performance Implications of Buffer overflow as a key (Disturbing) Element in the Flow Control of a Job/Flow Shop Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2002-01-01

    to temporary buffer overflow situations. This paper will investigate the impact of buffer overflow on several key performance measures of relevance to the overall operation of a job/flow shop facility. Several simple job/flow shop structures will be considered in this paper including re-entrant system set...

  6. New buffer layer materials for CIGS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, Thomas; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Kieven, David [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The compound semiconductor CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}Se{sub 2} (CIGSE) are used as absorber material in thin-film photovoltaic cells. In conventional CIGSE based solar cells a thin CdS layer (buffer) significantly improves the photovoltaic performance and efficiencies up to 19.9% have been realized. Since Cd is a toxic heavy metal there is a demand for suitable substitute materials. The first requirements for these materials are an adequate band gap, a crystal structure compatible to that of CIGSE, and an n-type conductivity. An interesting class of materials are half-Heuslers, which are ternary compounds with a C1b MgAgAs structure. For many half-Heusler compounds the crystal structure matches well with the layer of the tetragonal CIGS unit cell. Using ab initio calculations based on B3LYP hybrid functionals, we have studied electronic properties of the most promising half-Heusler materials. Our results affirm the band gap rule for 8-electron half- Heuslers presented.

  7. Phosphate and HEPES buffers potently affect the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of Alzheimer's A{beta} peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, Megan; Tepper, Katharina [Max-Planck-Forschungsstelle fuer Enzymologie der Proteinfaltung, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Haupt, Caroline [Institute fuer Physik, Biophysik, Martin-Luther Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Betty-Heimann-Str. 7, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Knuepfer, Uwe [Leibniz-Institute for Infection Biology and Natural Product Research, Beutenbergstr. 11a, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Klement, Karolin; Meinhardt, Jessica [Leibniz-Institute for Age Research (FLI), Beutenbergstr. 11, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Horn, Uwe [Leibniz-Institute for Infection Biology and Natural Product Research, Beutenbergstr. 11a, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Balbach, Jochen [Institute fuer Physik, Biophysik, Martin-Luther Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Betty-Heimann-Str. 7, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Faendrich, Marcus, E-mail: fandrich@enzyme-halle.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Forschungsstelle fuer Enzymologie der Proteinfaltung, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Bio zentrum, Martin-Luther Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Sodium phosphate buffer accelerated A{beta}(1-40) nucleation relative to HEPES. {yields} A{beta}(1-40) fibrils formed in the two buffers show only minor structural differences. {yields} NMR revealed that A{beta}(1-40) histidine residues mediate buffer dependent changes. -- Abstract: The oligomerization of A{beta} peptide into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Due to its biological relevance, phosphate is the most commonly used buffer system for studying the formation of A{beta} and other amyloid fibrils. Investigation into the characteristics and formation of amyloid fibrils frequently relies upon material formed in vitro, predominantly in phosphate buffers. Herein, we examine the effects on the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of A{beta} peptide that occur due solely to the influence of phosphate buffer. We reveal that significant differences in amyloid fibrillation are observed due to fibrillation being initiated in phosphate or HEPES buffer (at physiological pH and temperature). Except for the differing buffer ions, all experimental parameters were kept constant. Fibril formation was assessed using fluorescently monitored kinetic studies, microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Based on this set up, we herein reveal profound effects on the mechanism and speed of A{beta} fibrillation. The three histidine residues at positions 6, 13 and 14 of A{beta}(1-40) are instrumental in these mechanistic changes. We conclude that buffer plays a more significant role in fibril formation than has been generally acknowledged.

  8. Buffer Insertion for Bridges and Optimal Buffer Sizing for Communication Sub-System of Systems-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kallakuri, Sankalp S; Feinberg, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    We have presented an optimal buffer sizing and buffer insertion methodology which uses stochastic models of the architecture and Continuous Time Markov Decision Processes CTMDPs. Such a methodology is useful in managing the scarce buffer resources available on chip as compared to network based data communication which can have large buffer space. The modeling of this problem in terms of a CT-MDP framework lead to a nonlinear formulation due to usage of bridges in the bus architecture. We present a methodology to split the problem into several smaller though linear systems and we then solve these subsystems.

  9. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The association between neighborhood built environment and cycling has received considerable attention in health literature over the last two decades, but different neighborhood definitions have been used and it is unclear which one is most appropriate. Administrative or fixed residential spatial units (e.g., home-buffer-based neighborhoods) are not necessarily representative for environmental exposure. An increased understanding of appropriate neighborhoods is needed. GPS cycling tracks from 78 participants for 7 days form the basis for the development and testing of different neighborhood buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show that GPS tracks can help us understand where people go and stay during the day, which can help us link built environment with cycling. Analysis showed that the further people live from the city center, the more elongated are their GPS tracks, and the better an ellipse-shaped directional buffer captured transport cycling behavior. In conclusion, we argue that in order to be able to link built environment factors with different forms of physical activity, we must study the most likely area people use. In this particular study, to capture transport cycling, with its relatively large radius of action, city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers yielded better results than traditional home-based network buffer types. The ellipse-shaped buffer types could therefore be considered an alternative to more traditional buffers or administrative units in future studies of transport cycling behavior.

  10. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  11. Buffer layer selection for CuIn1 - x Ga x Se2 based thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sarita; Singh Verma, Ajay

    2014-03-01

    In this work, device modeling and simulation studies have been carried out with a variety of buffer layers over CIGS absorption layer. The band diagram, electric field variation and I/V curves are analyzed and device performance parameters i.e. efficiency, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, quantum efficiency are calculated. The efficiency of CIGS solar cell with ZnSe buffer layer is found comparable with that of CdS layer. The highest short circuit current is found for solar cell with ZnSe buffer layer, whereas the ZnS/CIGS heterojunction provides the highest quantum efficiency in the structures considered. The device physics is discussed and the effect of thickness of buffer layers and absorption layer is studied in order to find a more efficient and stable solar cell.

  12. The Influence of Surface Morphology of Buffer Layer on the Critical Current Density in YBCO Coated Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 μm-thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO films were grown on the Y2O3/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ/CeO2 buffer layers with different surface morphologies using direct-current sputtering. The critical current density (Jc value of YBCO was 1.1 MA/cm2 when the root mean square surface roughness (Rrms of the buffer layer was 2.5 nm. As the Rrms of the buffer layer increased to 15 nm, the Jc decreased to 0.3 MA/cm2. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed the strong relevance of the evolution of the structure and surface morphologies of YBCO films with the buffer layer of different Rrms. A model was proposed to explain the influence of surface morphology on the superconducting properties of YBCO films.

  13. H2S in the L1157-B1 bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdship, Jonathan; Viti, Serena; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lefloch, Bertrand; Codella, Claudio; Podio, Linda; Benedettini, Milena; Fontani, Francesco; Bachiller, Rafael; Tafalla, Mario; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-11-01

    Sulphur-bearing molecules are highly reactive in the gas phase of the interstellar medium. However, the form in which most of the sulphur is locked on to interstellar dust grains is unknown. By taking advantage of the short time-scales of shocks in young molecular outflows, one could track back the main form of sulphur in the ices. In this paper, six transitions of H2S and its isotopologues in the L1157-B1 bow shock have been detected using data from the Herschel-Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions survey and the IRAM-30m Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM large programme. These detections are used to calculate the properties of H2S gas in L1157-B1 through use of a rotation diagram and to explore the possible carriers of sulphur on the grains. The isotopologue detections allow the first calculation of the H2S deuteration fraction in an outflow from a low-mass protostar. The fractional abundance of H2S in the region is found to be 6.0 × 10-7 and the deuteration fraction is 2 × 10-2. In order to investigate the form of sulphur on the grains, a chemical model is run with four different networks, each with different branching ratios for the freeze out of sulphur-bearing species into molecules such as OCS and H2S. It is found that the model best fits the data when at least half of each sulphur-bearing species hydrogenates when freezing. We therefore conclude that a significant fraction of sulphur in L1157-B1 is likely to be locked in H2S on the grains.

  14. Magnetic Field Orientation Effects on the Standoff Distance of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Lyon, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional, global MHD simulations of solar wind flow onto a prescribed magnetopause obstacle are used to show that a bow shock's nose location a(sub s), and the relative subsolar magnetosheath thickness Delta(sub ms)/a(sub mp) are strong functions of the IMF cone angle theta (between v(sub sw) and B(sub sw)) and the Alfven Mach number M(sub A). For a given M(sub A) the shock is more distant for higher theta (restricted to the interval 0-90deg by symmetries), while a(sub s)/a(sub mp) and Delta(sub ms/a(sub mp) increase with decreasing M(sub A) for theta greater than or approximately 20deg but decrease with decreasing M(sub A) for theta approximately Odeg. Large differences in Delta(sub ms/a(sub mp) are predicted between theta = Odeg and 90deg at low M(sub A), with smaller differences remaining even at M(sub A) approximately 10. The theta = Odeg results confirm and extend the previous work of Spreiter and Rizzi [1974]. The simulations show that successful models for the subsolar shock location cannot subsume the dependences on M(sub A) and theta into a sole dependence on M(ms). Instead, they confirm a recent prediction [Cairns and Grabbe, 1994] that a(sub s)/a(sub mp) and Delta(sub ms)/a(sub mp) should depend strongly on theta and M(sub A) for M(sub A) less than or approximately 10 (as well as on other MHD variables). Detailed comparisons between theory and data remain to be done. However, preliminary comparisons show good agreement, with distant shock locations found for low M(sub A) and large theta greater than or approximately 45deg and closer locations found for theta less than or approximately 20deg even at M/A approximately 8.

  15. The location of planetary bow shocks: A critical overview of theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    A bow shock (BS has been observed in the collisionless solar wind upstream of every planet except Pluto, which has yet to be visited by a spacecraft. They are all of similar character, but their size relative to the planet varies widely, e.g., the planeto-centric distance to the BS nose ranges from about 1.4 R(sub V) for Venus to 88 R(sub J) or more for Jupiter. Comparisons are reviewed that show its location may be represented satisfactorily by a gasdynamic (GD) model, provided the properties of the solar wind and planetary magnetic field and ionosphere are known and used as input in the application. Factors that determine the location are discussed, and examples are presented to illustrate effects of their variation, including which part of a BS is influenced by a local variation of the magneto/ionopause (MIP) shape. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has no influence on the BS location in the GD model, but is shown to have a small effect in corresponding solutions of the basic MHD model from which the GD model is derived as the limit for weak IMF. Nearly all GD and MHD solutions are for steady flow, but a solution for unsteady flow associated with the passage of an interplanetary shock is also presented. It shows that the BS moves rapidly from its initial to final location, e.g., in about minute for the earth. Since many changes in the solar wind occur over longer intervals, these results help explain the success of quasi-stationary solutions in modeling the BS in time-varying solar wind flows.

  16. Single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons of bow-tie cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongle; Li, Mingxing; Yan, Guangyou; Deng, Li; Liu, Yuanan; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line (TL) of periodical grooved bow-tie cells is proposed. The complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance of the SSPPs TLs and microstrip lines (MLs) are extracted using the analytical method of generalized lossy TL theory. The properties of the SSPPs TLs with different substrates and the same geometrical configuration are experimented. Then, for comparison, two ML counterparts are also experimented, which shows that the SSPPs TL is less sensitive to the thickness, dielectric constant and loss tangent of the chosen substrate below the cutoff frequency, compared with the ML ones. The single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on this SSPPs TL is presented in microwave frequencies. For experimental validation, the 0-dB, 2-dB, and 5-dB power dividers are designed, fabricated, and measured. Both simulated and measured results verify that the unequal power divider is a flexible option, which offers massive advantages including single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry structures, wide-band operation, and convenient implementations of different power-dividing ratios. Hence, it can be expected that the proposed unequal power dividers will inspire further researches on SSPPs for future design of novel planar passive and active microwave components, circuits and systems.

  17. Single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons of bow-tie cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs transmission line (TL of periodical grooved bow-tie cells is proposed. The complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance of the SSPPs TLs and microstrip lines (MLs are extracted using the analytical method of generalized lossy TL theory. The properties of the SSPPs TLs with different substrates and the same geometrical configuration are experimented. Then, for comparison, two ML counterparts are also experimented, which shows that the SSPPs TL is less sensitive to the thickness, dielectric constant and loss tangent of the chosen substrate below the cutoff frequency, compared with the ML ones. The single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on this SSPPs TL is presented in microwave frequencies. For experimental validation, the 0-dB, 2-dB, and 5-dB power dividers are designed, fabricated, and measured. Both simulated and measured results verify that the unequal power divider is a flexible option, which offers massive advantages including single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry structures, wide-band operation, and convenient implementations of different power-dividing ratios. Hence, it can be expected that the proposed unequal power dividers will inspire further researches on SSPPs for future design of novel planar passive and active microwave components, circuits and systems.

  18. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  19. Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

  20. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  1. Impact of Physical Stress on Salivary Buffering Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Nakashima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva has many properties and the buffering capacity is important for the neutralization of oral fluids. It is unclear whether stressful conditions directly affect salivary buffering capacity, and we investigated the impact of physical stress on salivary buffering capacity. Methods: Twelve participants were subjected to the physical stress of jogging and running. The salivary buffering capacity and flow rate of the participants were measured before and after exposure to stressful conditions. Salivary α-amylase activity was measured as a quantitative index of stress. Results: No change in buffering capacity was detected among each time point during the whole course under physically stressful conditions. Next, we examined the change in buffering capacity after jogging compared to baseline. Six participants showed an increase in buffering capacity (Group A, while the other six participants showed a decrease or no change (Group B after jogging. Group B showed a decrease in flow rate and increases in α-amylase activity and protein level after jogging, whereas Group A showed no changes in these properties. Conclusions: The results suggest that salivary buffering capacity changes following exposure to physically stressful conditions, and that the changes are dependent on the stress susceptibility of individuals.

  2. Reduction of buffering requirements: Another advantage of cooperative transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Yet another advent of cooperative transmission is exposed in this letter. It is shown that cooperation lends itself to the reduction of buffer sizes of wireless sensor nodes. It is less likely to find the channel busy when cooperative transmission is employed in the network. Otherwise, in the lack of cooperation, the probability of build up of packet queues in transmission buffers increases.

  3. Mitigating TCP Degradation over Intermittent Link Failures using Intermediate Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    buffering strategy, retransmission strategy, TCP state management, intermediate ac- knowledgment, custody considerations, and leader election considerations...availability are all ripe for research in strategic buffering. One final custodial area open for pursuit is a leader election protocol. Along a route with

  4. Thickness-Dependent Properties of YBCO Films Grown on GZO/CLO-Buffered NiW Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Yue, Zhao;

    2017-01-01

    To study the role of novel Gd2Zr2O7/Ce0.9La0.1O2 buffer layer structure on a biaxially textured NiW substrate, a set of YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Interface imperfections as well as thickness-dependent structural properties...... were observed in the YBCO thin films. The structure is also reflected into the improved superconducting properties with the highest critical current densities in films with intermediate thicknesses. Therefore,it can be concluded that the existing buffer layers need more optimization before they can...

  5. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  6. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Cernohous, Bob R.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  7. Lyophilization-induced protein denaturation in phosphate buffer systems: monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikal-Cleland, K A; Carpenter, J F

    2001-09-01

    During freezing in phosphate buffers, selective precipitation of a less soluble buffer component and subsequent pH shifts may induce protein denaturation. Previous reports indicate significantly more inactivation and secondary structural perturbation of monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) during freeze-thawing in sodium phosphate (NaP) buffer as compared with potassium phosphate (KP) buffer. This observation was attributed to the significant pH shifts (from 7.0 to as low as 3.8) observed during freezing in the NaP buffer (1). In the current study, we investigated the impact of the additional stress of dehydration after freezing on the recovery of active protein on reconstitution and the retention of the native structure in the dried state. Freeze-drying monomeric and tetrameric beta-gal in either NaP or KP buffer resulted in significant secondary structural perturbations, which were greatest for the NaP samples. However, similar recoveries of active monomeric protein were observed after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, indicating that most dehydration-induced unfolding was reversible on reconstitution of the freeze-dried protein. In contrast, the tetrameric protein was more susceptible to dehydration-induced denaturation as seen by the greater loss in activity after reconstitution of the freeze-dried samples relative to that measured after freeze-thawing. To ensure optimal protein stability during freeze-drying, the protein must be protected from both freezing and dehydration stresses. Although poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran are preferentially excluded solutes and should confer protection during freezing, they were unable to prevent lyophilization-induced denaturation. In addition, Tween did not foster maintenance of native protein during freeze-drying. However, sucrose, which hydrogen bonds to dried protein in the place of lost water, greatly reduced freezing- and drying-induced denaturation, as observed by the high retention of native

  8. Analysis of linear force open bow archery athlete%射箭运动员开弓直线力的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志坚

    2014-01-01

    射箭运动是一项借助弓的弹力,在规定范围内,准确瞄准目标发射的一项体育锻炼项目,对射击运动员开弓直线力的要求较高。文章主要通过查阅大量有关韩国高水平射手的开弓动作技术特征,从理论上进行分析,以揭示开弓动作及具相关技术的潜在规律,旨在有效提高设计运动员的开弓质量和实际比赛水平。%With archery bow is a stretch, within the specified range, accurate targeting of a physical exercise program launch .Higher on the open bow shooters linear force requirements, the article by referring to a large number of high-level technical features of the Korean action shooter open bow, theoretically analyzed to reveal potentially open bow action and laws related technologies. Aims to improve the quality and the actual game open bow design level athletes.

  9. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  10. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  11. Visualization of Buffer Capacity with 3-D "Topo" Surfaces: Buffer Ridges, Equivalence Point Canyons and Dilution Ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2016-01-01

    BufCap TOPOS is free software that generates 3-D topographical surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. It portrays pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. Topo surfaces are created by plotting computed pH and buffer capacity values above a composition grid with volume of NaOH as the x axis…

  12. Áreas prioritárias ao restabelecimento da conectividade estrutural entre fragmentos florestais da Zona de Amortecimento da Estação Ecológica de Ribeirão Preto. Priority areas to restoration of structural connectivity between forest fragments of Buffer Zone of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Mouro VARANDA

    2015-06-01

    . In order to subsidize the forest restoration actions, a map of priority areas was generated for the reestablishment of the connectivity between the fragments of BF. The considered criteria for the production of the map were: the structure and configuration of the landscape, the conservation status of the remnant and the Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrate the urgency to achieve actions to restore the connectivity of Buffer Zone in EERP, demonstrating the high degree of fragmentation and degradation of this area. The methodology used to determine the areas of priority for the connectivity was comprehensive and resulted in a reliable and realistic map. The generated map indicates that the actions of forest restoration in BZ of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station should be focused on two strategies: forest corridors and enrichment of the fragments, prioritizing the restoration of riparian forests. These procedures would act as facilitators for the structural connectivity between the green areas nearby the streams present in BF and so minimizing the impact of the edge effects. The generated result has the approval of all those directly or indirectly involved with the management of the protected area and its BF, it is also an excellent tool to assist management and should be used in future projects of restoration in partnership with the landowners.

  13. Significance of the 'bow and lean test' for the diagnosis of benign horizontal semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CHEN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and assess the positive rate and accuracy of 'bow and lean test' in the horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HSC-BPPV. Methods Ninety-two HSC-BPPV patients who were diagnosed by head roll test (HRT were enrolled, and then further tested with 'bow and lean test' (BLT between Oct 1, 2010 and Sep 30, 2011. They were treated by Barbecue maneuver or Brandt-Daroff exercise on the basis of HRT and BLT tests. The positive rate of BLT test was analyzed, and its accuracy for diagnosis and success rate for treatment of HSC-BPPV were compared between HRT and BLT. Results Among the 92 patients, 83(90.2% of them showed BLT nystagmus. Fifty-seven of 83 (68.7% patients showed both bowing nystagmus and leaning nystagmus, and 18(21.7% and 8(9.6% respectively showed bowing nystagmus alone or leaning nystagmus alone. Among 92 patients, 74(80.4% of them the affected side could be determined by HRT with 69 BLT positive and 5 BLT negative. Among the 69 BLT-positive patients, 60 patients showed the same result of HRT, and successful result was achieved by manipulation. 9 patients showed different result between BLT and HRT, in whom manipulation failed according to the result of HRT, but succeeded when manipulation was performed according to BLT. In 18 patients(19.6% it was not able to determine the affected side by HRT, but in 14 patients manipulation was successful when BLT result was applied. In 4 patients BLT failed to evoke nystagmus, but after practicing Brandt-Daroff exercise, vertigo and HRT nystagmus disappeared 3 days later. Among the 92 patients, 65(70.7% were cured according to HRT, while 83(90.2% got successful result according to BLT(P < 0.05. Conclusion The positive rate and accuracy for HSC-BPPV by BLT are high. It is a useful method for determining the affected side in HSC-BPPV, and to provide the basis for selecting effective manipulation treatment.

  14. Direct measurement of the cross-shock electric potential at low plasma $\\beta$, quasi-perpendicular bow shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.S.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    We use the Cluster EFW experiment to measure the cross-shock electric field at ten low $\\beta$, quasi-perpendicular supercritical bow shock crossings on March 31, 2001. The electric field data are Lorentz-tranformed to a Normal Incidence frame (NIF), in which the incoming solar wind velocity is aligned with the shock normal. In a boundary normal coordinate system, the cross-shock (normal) electric field is integrated to obtain the cross shock potential. Using this technique, we measure the cr...

  15. Early treatment of class III malocclusion with modified tandem traction bow appliance and a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akhilesh; Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Hegde, Amitha M; Shetty, Rajmohan

    2014-09-01

    The accurate diagnosis and clinical management of class III malocclusion continues to be a challenging task for the pediatric dentist due to the poor compliance of patient and high rate of relapse. Two cases of early treatment of class III malocclusion are presented which were treated by modified tandem traction bow appliance. The correction in the cross bite was achieved in six to seven months. Children's compliance and acceptance for the appliance was good. Follow up of two years and one years showed no relapse.

  16. A hierarchical updating method for finite element model of airbag buffer system under landing impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huan; Chen Zhe; He Cheng; Ni Lei; Chen Guoping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an impact finite element (FE) model for an airbag landing buf-fer system. First, an impact FE model has been formulated for a typical airbag landing buffer sys-tem. We use the independence of the structure FE model from the full impact FE model to develop a hierarchical updating scheme for the recovery module FE model and the airbag system FE model. Second, we define impact responses at key points to compare the computational and experimental results to resolve the inconsistency between the experimental data sampling frequency and experi-mental triggering. To determine the typical characteristics of the impact dynamics response of the airbag landing buffer system, we present the impact response confidence factors (IRCFs) to evalu-ate how consistent the computational and experiment results are. An error function is defined between the experimental and computational results at key points of the impact response (KPIR) to serve as a modified objective function. A radial basis function (RBF) is introduced to construct updating variables for a surrogate model for updating the objective function, thereby converting the FE model updating problem to a soluble optimization problem. Finally, the developed method has been validated using an experimental and computational study on the impact dynamics of a classic airbag landing buffer system.

  17. A hierarchical updating method for finite element model of airbag buffer system under landing impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an impact finite element (FE model for an airbag landing buffer system. First, an impact FE model has been formulated for a typical airbag landing buffer system. We use the independence of the structure FE model from the full impact FE model to develop a hierarchical updating scheme for the recovery module FE model and the airbag system FE model. Second, we define impact responses at key points to compare the computational and experimental results to resolve the inconsistency between the experimental data sampling frequency and experimental triggering. To determine the typical characteristics of the impact dynamics response of the airbag landing buffer system, we present the impact response confidence factors (IRCFs to evaluate how consistent the computational and experiment results are. An error function is defined between the experimental and computational results at key points of the impact response (KPIR to serve as a modified objective function. A radial basis function (RBF is introduced to construct updating variables for a surrogate model for updating the objective function, thereby converting the FE model updating problem to a soluble optimization problem. Finally, the developed method has been validated using an experimental and computational study on the impact dynamics of a classic airbag landing buffer system.

  18. Frustum-Traced Irregular Z-Buffers: Fast, Sub-pixel Accurate Hard Shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Chris; Hoetzlein, Rama; Lefohn, Aaron

    2016-05-25

    We further describe and analyze a real-time system for rendering antialiased hard shadows using irregular z-buffers (IZBs) that we first presented in Wyman et al. [1]. We focus on identifying bottlenecks, exploring these from an algorithmic complexity standpoint, and presenting techniques to improve performance. Our system remains interactive on a variety of game assets and CAD models while running at resolutions 1920 1080 and above and imposes no constraints on light, camera or geometry, allowing fully dynamic scenes without precomputation. We render sub-pixel accurate, 32 sample per pixel hard shadows at roughly twice the cost of a single sample per pixel. This allows us to smoothly animate even subpixel shadows from grass or wires without introducing spatial or temporal aliasing. Prior algorithms for irregular z-buffer shadows rely heavily on the GPU's compute pipeline. Instead we leverage the standard rasterization-based graphics pipeline, including hardware conservative raster and early-z culling. Our key observation is noting a duality between irregular z-buffer performance and shadow map quality; irregular z-buffering is most costly exactly where shadow maps exhibit the worst aliasing. This allows us to use common shadow map algorithms, which typically improve aliasing, to instead reduce our cost. Compared to state of the art ray tracers, we spawn similar numbers of triangle intersections per pixel yet completely rebuild our data structure in under 1 ms per frame.

  19. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    The stress experienced by an animal is ameliorated when the animal is exposed to distressing stimuli along with a conspecific animal(s). This is known as social buffering. Previously, we found that the presence of an unfamiliar male rat induced social buffering and ameliorated conditioned fear responses of a male rat subjected to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, because our knowledge of social buffering is highly biased towards findings in male subjects, analyses using female subjects are crucial for comprehensively understanding the social buffering phenomenon. In the present studies, we assessed social buffering of conditioned fear responses in female rats. We found that the estrus cycle did not affect the intensity of the rats' fear responses to the CS or their degree of vigilance due to the presence of a conspecific animal. Based on these findings, we then assessed whether social buffering ameliorated conditioned fear responses in female rats without taking into account their estrus cycles. When fear conditioned female rats were exposed to the CS without the presence of a conspecific, they exhibited behavioral responses, including freezing, and elevated corticosterone levels. By contrast, the presence of an unfamiliar female rat suppressed these responses. Based on these findings, we conclude that social buffering can ameliorate conditioned fear responses in female rats.

  20. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.