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Sample records for buffel grass cenchrus

  1. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

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    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  2. Morphogenetical, structural and access to productive buffel grass

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    José Armando de Sousa Moreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the buffel grass is so important to the productive systems in the semiarid Brazilian studies with this forage are still scarce and diffused, so this experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphogenesis, structural and productive six accessions of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. belonging to the active germplasm bank (BAG Embrapa semiarid. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Technology and Social Sciences (DTCS University of Bahia (UNEB, from December 2008 to January 2009. The experimental design was completely randomized with six accessions of buffel grass (Tanzania, Pusa Giant, Aridus, Buchuma, Iran and Biloela and five replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Regarding the results, the accessions differed significantly in most variables, especially in morphogenetic and structural variables. It was observed that the buffel grass provides a mean rate of appearance of one sheet every four days in each tiller, with a lifetime of sheet 17 days, keeping ten per tiller. Although they found morphogenetic and structural differences between accessions of buffel grass they did not affect the production parameters.

  3. Rrespuesta fisiológica del pasto buffel (cenchrus ciliaris l.) a diferentes alturas de defoliación

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    Sergio Beltrán López; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Edmundo García Moya; José G. Herrera Haro

    2002-01-01

    El conocimiento de la capacidad de las especies forrajeras para recuperarse después de una defoliación, es esencial para un mejor manejo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta del pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) a cuatro alturas de defoliación: 5, 10 y 20 cm y un testigo (sin corte) en invernadero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: rendimiento acumulado de materia seca (MS), densidad de tallos, crecimiento fol...

  4. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

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    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  5. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

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    Roberta Machado Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth chambers at three temperatures (day/night: 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf lifespan (LL and senescence rate (SR, whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM, root mass (RM, shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  6. In vitro studies of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of the Indian grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus

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    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were evaluated against some medically important pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The dried and powdered stems were successively extracted with hexane, toluene, isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol using soxhlet assembly. The antimicrobial activity assay was done by both disc diffusion and serial dilution methods. Isopropyl alcohol extract of Cenchrus setigerus showed highest activity against Escherichia coli. The test pathogens were more sensitive to the isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol extracts than to the hexane and toluene extracts except against Bacillus subtilis. Result reveals that the most bioactive compound was cycloleucolenol-9,19-cycloergost-24 (28-en-3-ol, 4, 14-dimethyl acetate in both the species of Cenchrus grass, (19.15% in isopropanol extract of Cenchrus setigerus whereas, (14.03% in acetone extract of Cenchrus ciliaris.

  7. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region.

  8. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

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    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4 ± 4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics.

  9. Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass Doses de concentrado para cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel

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    Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages of lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight. Forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ± 2.0 kg of initial body weight, distributed in four groups. Experimental design was a completely randomized with ten replicates. Concentrate levels did not influence the final body weight, the average daily gain, total weight gain and cold and hot carcass weights. However, the increase of concentrate levels promoted higher cold and hot carcass yields.O uso de concentrados para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-bufel pode melhorar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça dos mesmos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total além dos parâmetros de carcaça (pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria de ovinos mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel recebendo doses crescentes de suplemento concentrado (0; 0,33; 0,66 e 1,0% na matéria seca do suplemento em relação ao peso corporal dos animais. Foram utilizados 40 ovinos machos, dez animais por tratamento, com peso corporal inicial médio de 16,5 ± 2,0 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. As doses de concentrado não influenciaram o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de total, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria. Entretanto, o aumento nas doses de concentrado proporcionaram maiores rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria.

  10. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus and evaluation of their bioactivity

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    Premlata Singariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%, δ4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.31%, fagarsterol (lupeol (1.25% and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%. Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  11. Field evaluation of seven grasses for use in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Mott, J.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    Pasture-based systems, dominated by the tussock forming Cenchrus cilliaris cv. Biloela (buffel grass) and the stoloniferous Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (rhodes grass), are commonly used in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland. Although able to establish quickly under favourable conditions, neither species has proven entirely suitable for use in this situation, particularly in providing effective ground cover for erosion control on the re-contoured post-mining landscape. The aim of this study was to evaluate a range of new pasture grasses, with the objective of identifying accessions better adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas requiring revegetation.

  12. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

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    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  13. Avaliação de um modelo físico de produção de bovinos no semi-árido integrando caatinga, capim-buffel e leucena.: I. fase de cria A physical model evaluation of a caatinga/buffel grass/leucaena integrated system for cattle production in the semi-arid region.: I. cow-calf operation

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    Clovis Guimarães Filho

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar um modelo físico do sistema de cria de bovinos para as áreas mais secas do Semi-Árido brasileiro, associando a pastagem natural com pastos cultivados tolerantes à seca. A caatinga foi pastejada no período verde, e o capim buffel no restante do ano. A suplementação com leucena ocorreu no período seco, sob pastejo direto e feno no cocho. Parâmetros de desempenho, monitorados de novembro de 1991 a outubro de 1995, mostraram uma taxa média de parição da ordem de 72,8% ao ano e taxas de mortalidade praticamente nulas. O peso vivo médio dos bezerros aos 205 dias de idade foi de 153,4 kg e a produ- ção de bezerros desmamados foi de 109,5 kg/matriz exposta/ano e de 25,5 kg/hectare/ano. Os resultados são considerados bastante expressivos, considerando-se que mais da metade da área era ocupada com pastagens nativas de caatinga e que a oferta de leucena foi limitada pela ocorrência de uma forte estiagem.The study was designed to evaluate a physical model performance of a cow-calf operation system for the semi-arid region, in Brazil. Native pastures (caatinga were grazed during the rainy season and buffel grass pastures over the rest of the year. Leucaena supplementation, under rotational grazing and as hay, was provided during the dry season. Performance parameters, monitored from November 1991 to October 1995, showed a 72.8% annual calving rate and a very low mortality rate. Weaning weights of calves averaged 153.4 kg at 205 days. Production of calf weaned was 109.5 kg/cow run/year and 25.5 kg/ha/year. Performance data can be concluded to be very promising if considered that above half the total area was covered by native pastures and that leucaena hay supplementation was strongly limited by occurrence of a severe drought period.

  14. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

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    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  15. Caracterización de producción de etanol a partir de zacate buffel y sus implicaciones ambientales

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    Kareen Krizzan Encinas Soto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se caracterizó el potencial para la obtención de etanol a partir de la planta silvestre Cenchrus ciliaris, también conocida como zacate buffel. A partir de estudios experimentales a nivel laboratorio, se determinaron los rendimientos técnicos y requerimientos energéticos de las etapas de pretratamiento ácido, hidrólisis enzimática y fermentación. Los valores obtenidos fueron comparados con los reportados en la literatura para otros procesos de producción de combustibles. Los resultados del presente trabajo indican que el procesamiento de Cenchrus ciliaris consume la tercera parte de la energía requerida para procesar gasolina por 1 MJ de etanol producido. Asimismo, mediante este proceso es factible la reducción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero por 1 MJ de energía de etanol producido en aproximadamente 40 % su valor actual.

  16. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

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    JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the

  17. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

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    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  18. Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; Nyangito, M.M.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Kaufmann, Von R.; Verhagen, J.; Muiri, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used ex

  19. Meiotic chromosome behaviour in Cenchrus ciliaris

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    N. C. Visser

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic chromosome number of x = 9 has been confirmed for Cenchrus ciliaris L. Polyploidy is common and levels vary from tetraploid to hexaploid. Aneuploidv is reported for a single specimen, where two chromosomes of a single genome were lost. Various meiotic irregularities were observed. The highest incidence of meiotic abnormalities was observed in the pentaploid specimens. This was attributed to their uneven polyploid level All specimens varied from segmental alloploid to alloploid.

  20. A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular research has confirmed that Cenchrus and Pennisetum (Gramineae) should be united. For nomenclatural, not practical, reasons, Cenchrus is accepted as the correct name. In Malesia there are 16 species. A key, descriptions, and notes are provided. Observations on the nomenclature are g

  1. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

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    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  2. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)

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    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  3. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L.

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    Al-Dakheel, Abdullah J; Hussain, M Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005). The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m(-1)). The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW) were in the range from 122.5 to 148.9 g/pot in control; 96.4-133.8 g/pot at 10 dS m(-1); 65.6-80.4 g/pot at 15 dS m(-1), and 55.4-65.6 g/pot at 20 dS m(-1). The highest DW (148.9 g/pot) was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8% of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal lands to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  4. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  5. Discriminating tropical grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) canopies grown under different nitrogen treatment using spectroradiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Techniques for estimating and mapping pasture quality are critical for a better understanding of wildlife and livestock grazing patterns. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements that determine quality in plants. We assessed the potential to discriminate differences in nitrogen concentration u

  6. CAMBIOS EN EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE NITRÓGENO Y AGUA EN EL SUELO DE UN MATORRAL DESÉRTICO TRANSFORMADO A SABANA DE BUFFEL (Pennisetum ciliare (L. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Celaya Michel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores de la degradación de los ecosistemas naturales, al modificar los procesos de transferencia de nitrógeno y agua reduciendo su productividad. En el presente trabajo, se describe cómo la transformación de matorrales desérticos a sabanas de zacate buffel en la región central de Sonora (RCS afecta dichos almacenes de recursos del suelo. Para entenderlo, se seleccionaron parcelas en el matorral bajo el dosel de árboles de Olneya tesota (NA y espacios abiertos sin cobertura vegetal aparente (NI, y en la sabana de buffel, bajo la misma especie de árbol (SA, inter-espacio (SI y bajo el pasto buffel (SB. Se analizó el nitrógeno total y las formas disponibles de este nutrimento en el suelo, así como contenido de agua en el suelo a diferentes profundidades durante cuatro años (2010 al 2013. Se encontró una pérdida anual de 12.5 kg N ha-1 debido a la transformación del ecosistema natural dominado por árboles y arbustos que generan islas de fertilidad e inter-espacios, a una sabana dominada por buffel e inter-espacios a sabana. La humedad del suelo indica que en la parte superficial del suelo, los espacios abiertos tienen más humedad, pero en la parte profunda de 150 a 200 cm la cubierta vegetal de los árboles y buffel almacenan más agua. Los resultados sugieren que el cambio de matorrales a sabanas de buffel ha disminuido los reservorios de nitrógeno y agua, e impactado las propiedades físicas del suelo, la fertilidad, y los reservorios hídricos del suelo. El estudio sugiere que los cambios espaciales y temporales en nitrógeno y agua en el suelo repercutirán de manera importante en el balance hidrológico y funcionamiento del ecosistema transformado.

  7. Effect of Four Kinds of Environment Factors on Seed Germination of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth%4种环境因子对少花蒺藜草(Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.)种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 朱明星; 王巍; 韩志松; 吕林有; 李天来

    2011-01-01

    本试验以少花蒺藜草种子为研究材料,通过设定不同的温度、土壤湿度、土壤基质和光照等条件研究环境因子对少花蒺藜草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:少花蒺藜草种子萌发最适温度为25℃,萌发最低温度为20℃,萌发最高温度为30℃;光照对少花蒺藜草种子萌发有一定影响,光照促进种子萌发;土壤湿度对其萌发有影响,最适萌发湿度为20%,最低萌发湿度为6%;少花蒺藜草种子萌发对土壤基质要求不严格,于沙土及草炭土中均可萌发.%With Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth. seed as material to study the effect of different emperature, soil moisture, soil substrate and illumination on seed germination. The result showed that temperature had great influence on seed germination of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth, and the lowest germination at 20 ℃, and the highest germination rate at 30 ℃ ,and the best suitable germination temperature was 25 ℃. Light could improve seed germination. Soil moisture had great influence on seed germination, the best humidity was 20%, the minimum humidity was 6%. Soil substrate had little effect on seed germination, and seed could germination in sand and turfy soil.

  8. Analysis of reproductive isolation between pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.) and P. ramosum, P. schweinfurthii, P. squamulatum, Cenchrus ciliaris

    OpenAIRE

    Marchais, Louis; TOSTAIN, Serge

    1997-01-01

    Crosses between pearl millet lines and #Pennisetum ramosum$, #P. schweinfurthii$, #P. squamulatum$ or #Cenchrus ciliaris$ were observed for the frequency and development of zygotes, the possibility of embryo rescue, and the fertility of F1 hybrids obtained. Eight per cent of the ovules from diploid millet x #P. ramosum$ crosses showed small embryos which could not be rescued. However, 59% of the ovules from tetraploid millet x #P. ramosum$ crosses showed well-developed embryos that were easy ...

  9. Ecophysiology of the invader Pennisetum setaceum and three native grasses in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Agueda M. a.; Baruch, Zdravko; Palomo, Debora; Cruz-Trujillo, Gilberto; Jiménez, M. a. Soledad; Morales, Domingo

    2010-03-01

    Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) is an aggressive invader in the arid and semi-arid habitats of the tropics and subtropics. In the last twenty years the spread of fountain grass in the Canary Islands has been very rapid. We compared its ecophysiological, architectural and reproductive traits with those of three native grasses ( Hyparrhenia hirta, Cenchrus ciliaris and Aristida adscensionis) in two habitats of Tenerife Island which differ in rainfall. The detection of traits that differ between native and invader grasses may provide information for the improved control and eradication of the latter contributing to protect the native plant diversity. P. setaceum and the native grasses differed in all measured traits and in their response to water availability which is more restricted in the southern site. Specific leaf area was lower in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. Although this reduces carbon assimilation per unit area, it also reduces transpiration, increasing water use efficiency and contributes to the maintenance of high relative water content. Leaf N in P. setaceum was lower than in the native grasses indicating higher nitrogen use efficiency. The activity of photosystem II was higher and lasted longer in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. The ecophysiological traits of P. setaceum support its large size, extensive canopy and shorter leaf senescence period. They confer considerable competitive advantage to the invader and partially explain its success in the Canary Islands. The differences between the invader and the native grasses were maintained in both sites revealing a good adaptation of P. setaceum to the low resource local habitats in the Canary Islands and confirms its large plasticity. The large invasive potential of P. setaceum, in concert with the projected global changes, forecast eventual risks for the conservation of the endemic flora and remaining native communities in the Canary Islands.

  10. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Dan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicações em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1, combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas.Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. This work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 , combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide

  11. Grass Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  12. Low-cost grass restoration using erosion barriers in a degraded African rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiti, David W; Riginos, Corinna; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland degradation, typified by extensive bare ground and soil erosion, is a serious problem around the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland degradation threatens the food security of millions of people who depend on livestock and the region's large mammalian wildlife diversity. We tested the ability of five simple, low-cost erosion barriers to promote grass and forb establishment in a bare ground-dominated rangeland in Kenya. These treatments were: (1) trenches with small berms; (2) bundles of branches; and bundles of branches with (3) elephant dung balls, (4) burlap sacking, or (5) nylon mesh sacking inside them. We also tested whether barrier performance depended on (1) supplemental seeding with the grass Cenchrus ciliaris and (2) whether a barrier was located next to existing vegetation patches versus in the open. Within months, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had accumulated 20–50% more sediment than other treatments and had greater grass and forb seedling establishment. Seeding with Cenchrusresulted in higher herbaceous cover but was not necessary for other grasses to establish. After 3 years, the trench and nylon mesh barriers had created patches of new vegetation averaging 18–63% larger than patches created by the other treatments. Barriers that were initially adjacent to existing vegetation had created new vegetation patches averaging 65% larger than those created by solitary barriers. Results suggest that all barrier types increase grass cover but that trenches—especially if placed next to existing vegetation patches—are a particularly cost-effective way to reduce bare ground and erosion in degraded rangelands.

  13. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Pests in ornamental grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  15. Herbicidal Control of Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash; Srinivasan Ramanujam

    1980-01-01

    Necessity of the herbicidal application for controlling undesirable grasses, by the Defence Services, Military farms and Inter Service Organisations is highlighted. Control of grasses by herbicidal chemicals, registered under the Insecticides Act 1968 in this country, is reviewed apart from a mention of non-chemical methods.

  16. Comparison of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots and Rhizosphere of Invasive Cenchrus incertus and Native Plant in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan XIANG; Baodong CHEN; Huan LI; Ruojuan LI; Xin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Plant invasions could significantly alter arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities, but the effect may vary with plant species and local environments. Identifying changes in the AM fungal community due to plant invasion could improve our understanding of the invasion processes. Here, we examined the AM fungal community composition both in roots and rhizo-sphere soils of the invasive plant Cenchrus incertus and the dominant native plant Setaria viridis in a typical steppe in Inner Mongolia by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP). The results showed that AM fungal abundance in the rhizosphere soils of C. incertus was significantly lower than that of S. viridis. The AM fungal community com-position in the rhizosphere soils of the two plant species also largely differed. In general, AM fungal community structures in roots corresponded very wel to that in rhizosphere soils for both plant species. The dominant AM fungal type both in invasive and native plants was T-RFLP 524bp, which represents Glomus sp. (Virtual taxa 109 and 287). Three specific T-RF types (280, 190 and 141bp) were significantly more abundant in C. incertus, representing three clusters in Glomus which also named as VT (virtual taxa) 287, 64 and 214, Rhizophagus intraradices (VT 113) and Diversispora sp. (VT 60). While the specific T-RF types, 189 and 279bp, for S. viridis, only existed in Glomus cluster 1 (VT 156), were significantly less abundant in C. incertus. These results indicated that AM fungi might play an important role in the invasion process of C. incertus, which stil remains to be fur-ther investigated.

  17. Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    David Andert; Jan Frydrych; Ilona Gerndtová

    2012-01-01

    As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the...

  18. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  19. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  20. Identification of some Malaysian grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1935-01-01

    When BUSE gave an enumeration of the grasses collected by JUNGHUHN in Java and Sumatra, he mentioned under Paspalum a species, described by RETZIUS in the year 1781 as Paspalum hirsutum. BUSE identified a grass from Sumatra as being the species of RETZIUS, on account of the description, having certa

  1. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  2. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...... drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes...... maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticide application in meadow-grass every year....

  3. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Araújo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus, orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii, feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris; os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1 comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes.Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to

  4. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion

  5. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Frid, Leonardo; Olsson, Aaryn D.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris) at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA). Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most

  6. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  7. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  8. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  9. Faster Rubisco Is the Key to Superior Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in NADP-Malic Enzyme Relative to NAD-Malic Enzyme C4 Grasses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R.; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T. John; Conroy, Jann P.; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (kcat; 3.8 versus 5.7 s−1 at 25°C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)−1 in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster kcat. PMID:15665246

  10. Faster Rubisco is the key to superior nitrogen-use efficiency in NADP-malic enzyme relative to NAD-malic enzyme C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T John; Conroy, Jann P; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2005-02-01

    In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (k(cat); 3.8 versus 5.7 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)(-1) in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster k(cat).

  11. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  12. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  13. Grass Roots War on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  14. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    production into grass production. Grasses and legumes have higher contents of protein with better quality (high lysine and methionine contents) than grain and seed crops. Thus, substituting imported soya bean protein with protein extracted from perennial grasses is an interesting option....

  15. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  16. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  17. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2014-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  18. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  19. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  20. SOD FORM OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of turf and sod, specificity of formation of kidneys for regeneration, types of shoots, vegetative mobility and specificity of growth in certain conditions, turf grasses are divided into loosely-and tightly-turf characterized, by specific features of environmental, biological characteristics; forming turf from generative rosettes, elongated and shortened vegetative, side ground shoots, differing specificity of morphological, biochemical and fitocoenotic...

  1. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  2. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  3. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  4. Comparative genetics in the grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Michael D.; Devos, Katrien M.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mapping of wheat, maize, and rice and other grass species with common DNA probes has revealed remarkable conservation of gene content and gene order over the 60 million years of radiation of Poaceae. The linear organization of genes in some nine different genomes differing in basic chromosome number from 5 to 12 and nuclear DNA amount from 400 to 6,000 Mb, can be described in terms of only 25 “rice linkage blocks.” The extent to which this intergenomic coli...

  5. Effect of individual grass species and grass species mixtures on soil quality as related to root biomass and grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Bos, M.; Wit, de J.; Keidel, H.; Bloem, J.

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of feeding value, drought resistance and nitrogen utilization, other grasses (e.g. Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata) than the currently widely used perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) are introduced in dairy farming, either as a monoculture or in a mixture. To study the ef

  6. Complete Genome of Bacillus subtilis Myophage Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stanton Y.; Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Perl, Abbey L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive model organism. Here, we describe the complete genome of B. subtilus myophage Grass. Aside from genes encoding core proteins pertinent to the life cycle of the phage, Grass has several interesting features, including an FtsK/SpoIIIE protein.

  7. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  8. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  9. Alkaloid toxins in endophyte-infected grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R G; Petroski, R J

    1992-01-01

    Grasses infected with clavicipitaceous fungi have been associated with a variety of diseases including classical ergotism in humans and animals, fescue foot and summer syndrome in cattle, and rye-grass staggers in sheep. During the last decade it has been recognized that many of these fungal infections are endophytic; a fungal endophyte is a fungus that grows entirely within the host plant. Inspection of field collections and herbarium specimens has revealed that such infections are widespread in grasses. The chemistry associated with these grass-fungal interactions has proved to be interesting and complex, as each grass-fungal pair results in a unique "fingerprint" of various alkaloids, of which some are highly toxic to herbivores. In many cases the presence of an endophyte appears to benefit the plant by increasing drought resistance, or by increasing resistance to attack by insects, thus improving the overall survivability of the grass. This review will focus on alkaloids that have been reported in endophyte-infected grasses.

  10. Grasses and Grasslike Plants of Utah, A Field Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    This guide is meant to serve as a help in identifying many of the grasses and grass-like plants common to the rangelands, forests, and farmlands of Utah. It is not an exhaustive guide to the plants contained herein, nor is it a comprehensive summary of all the grasses and grass-like plants in Utah.

  11. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  12. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation

  13. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  14. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  15. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  16. Minimum energy design using grassed spillways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B. [FIE Aust, Melbourne (Australia)

    2004-09-01

    Small dams for rural communities in Australia often fail due to the Spillway or bywash, because it receives insufficient attention during the design, construction and maintenance processes. More thorough investigation and improved standards of design and construction are needed in order to resolve problems. This paper described some of the reasons for adopting grass spillways on farm dams. It compared grass and earth spillways and also discussed spillway design factors such as site conditions, peak flow estimation, and design spillway size. The factors affecting selection of spillway type and design include safety requirements, hydrological conditions, geological and site topographical conditions, and type of dam. Factors involved in grass selection in spillway design were also identified. These include climate, soils, land systems, and quality and duration of discharge, growth characteristics, hydraulic behaviour, and maintenance. It was concluded that additional research is needed regarding methods of establishing grass cover to inlets and outlet spillway. In particular, there is a need to evaluate the growth of grasses through plastic meshes and geotextiles, which could provide protection against erosion while the grass is becoming established. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics.

  18. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  19. Afforestation of degraded grass land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basappa, B.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

  20. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  1. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil fo

  2. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included....... CONCLUSION: Therefore, the SQ grass SLIT-tablet has an indication as a disease-modifying therapy in Europe, and a sustained effect is recognized in the United States....

  3. Molecular aspects of flower development in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffi, Mario; Paolacci, Anna Rita; Tanzarella, Oronzo Antonio; Porceddu, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    The grass family (Poaceae) of the monocotyledons includes about 10,000 species and represents one of the most important taxa among angiosperms. Their flower morphology is remarkably different from those of other monocotyledons and higher eudicots. The peculiar floral structure of grasses is the floret, which contains carpels and stamens, like eudicots, but lacks petals and sepals. The reproductive organs are surrounded by two lodicules, which correspond to eudicot petals, and by a palea and lemma, whose correspondence to eudicot organs remains controversial. The molecular and genetic analysis of floral morphogenesis and organ specification, primarily performed in eudicot model species, led to the ABCDE model of flower development. Several genes required for floral development in grasses correspond to class A, B, C, D, and E genes of eudicots, but others appear to have unique and diversified functions. In this paper, we outline the present knowledge on the evolution and diversification of grass genes encoding MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors, based on information derived from studies in rice, maize, and wheat. Moreover, we review recent advances in studying the genes involved in the control of flower development and the extent of structural and functional conservation of these genes between grasses and eudicots.

  4. Evolution of Centromeric Retrotransposons in Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupma; Presting, Gernot G.

    2014-01-01

    Centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) constitute a family of plant retroelements, some of which have the ability to target their insertion almost exclusively to the functional centromeres. Our exhaustive analysis of CR family members in four grass genomes revealed not only horizontal transfer (HT) of CR elements between the oryzoid and panicoid grass lineages but also their subsequent recombination with endogenous elements that in some cases created prolific recombinants in foxtail millet and sorghum. HT events are easily identifiable only in cases where host genome divergence significantly predates HT, thus documented HT events likely represent only a fraction of the total. If the more difficult to detect ancient HT events occurred at frequencies similar to those observable in present day grasses, the extant long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent the mosaic products of HT and recombination that are optimized for retrotransposition in their host genomes. This complicates not only phylogenetic analysis but also the establishment of a meaningful retrotransposon nomenclature, which we have nevertheless attempted to implement here. In contrast to the plant-centric naming convention used currently for CR elements, we classify elements primarily based on their phylogenetic relationships regardless of host plant, using the exhaustively studied maize elements assigned to six different subfamilies as a standard. The CR2 subfamily is the most widely distributed of the six CR subfamilies discovered in grass genomes to date and thus the most likely to play a functional role at grass centromeres. PMID:24814286

  5. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FORAGE GRASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Łukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  6. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-03-26

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines.

  7. EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    1996-01-01

    Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative importance, respectively, of horizontal transmission of sexual spores versus vertical clonal transmission in healthy grass seeds. At least seven sexual Epichloë species are identifiable by mating tests, and many asexual genotypes are interspecific hybrids. Benefits conferred by the symbionts on host plants include protection from biotic factors and abiotic stresses such as drought. Four classes of beneficial alkaloids are associated with the symbionts: ergot alkaloids, indolediterpenes (lolitrems), peramine, and saturated aminopyrrolizidines (lolines). These alkaloids protect host plants from insect and vertebrate herbivores, including livestock. Genetic engineering of the fungal symbionts as more suitable biological protectants for forage grasses requires identification of fungal genes for alkaloid biosynthesis, and DNA-mediated transformation of the fungi.

  8. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  9. MoDest GrassUp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    The Technology The technology is one of a kind, as there is no such mathematical model estimating animal feed uptake available today. The estimation of grass uptake, is based on real time wireless sensor data, cow merit and climate data. Relevant cow behaviour data (such as location, movement...... velocity of the cows while grazing and head frequency movements) are measured using wireless sensors (e.g. accelerometers, magnetometers) and collected by a wireless network. Grass length and density are  measured by NIR spectroscopy.   Intellectual Property Rights All intellectual property rights owned...

  10. Technology Optimization of Enzymolysis of Burmuda Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose can be degraded by enzyme to glucose, which provide carbon source for ethanol fermentation. This study, taking Burmuda grass as material, analyzed effects of temperature, time, pH, PBS dosage and ratio of enzyme on reducing sugar. It came to the conclusion that the best conditions of the enzymolysis of Burmuda grass are as follows: 50°C for temperature, 32 h for time, 4.20 for pH, 2 mL for PBS dosage, 4:3 for the ratio of xylanase and cellulase, the yield of reducing sugar reached 78.63%.

  11. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass... grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a) Cereals: Agrotricum, barley, oat, rye, mountain rye, wheat,...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  14. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  15. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  16. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The o

  17. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  18. The Prairie Life: The Sea of Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that explores the importance of the environment for 19th-century frontier settlers and the conflict between ranchers and small farmers over appropriate land use. Students watch a video movie, "The Sea of Grass"; read selections from "O Pioneers!"; and write a compare/contrast essay. (MJP)

  19. Boston: Community Schools from the Grass Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, William F.

    1974-01-01

    In Boston, grass roots citizen pressure led to the formation of community schools to replace elementary schools. The community schools are operated by the Boston School Committee during the regular school day and by the Department of Public Facilities in the extended day and evening. (Author/DN)

  20. Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

    1998-04-01

    Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

  1. Fast growing trees and energy grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.

    1993-12-31

    According to both the United States Department of Energy and the Department of Natural Resources Canada, the best way to produce biomass plantations is an agro-forestry system in which fast growing trees are used as a windbreak for fields of energy grasses. (TEC). 1 fig.

  2. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1940-01-01

    For the incorporation of various grasses in the herbaria of our institutes, we are constantly looking for the correct names to accept, according to the priority. The study of the existing names, as they are given in the Index Kewensis, is therefore indispensable. Working in various genera of the gra

  3. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  4. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  5. A REVIEW ON LEMON GRASS: AGRICULTURAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lemongrass (Cymbopogan flexuosus and Cymbopogan Citraus is regarded as one of the grass which is commonly available in India and abroad. It is widely used in different conditions of pain and discomfort. The oil (Lemongrass oil obtained from the grass has diverse medicinal value. It also produces semi-synthetic Vitamin A that reduces the risk of Xerophthalmia and Night blindness. The grass has great benefits to mankind as it revitalizes the body and mind, helps with infections and act as muscle and skin toner. This review will explore the plant / grass and also suggest for more cultivation of the grass because of its medicinal importance.

  6. Analysis of Invasive Potential of Cenchrus calyculatus Cav.in Sandy Habitats%基于外来入侵植物光梗蒺藜草的发生分布特点的潜在入侵生境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺俊英; 王志新; 哈斯巴根

    2014-01-01

    The invasive potential of Cenchrus calyculatus Cav.in the fixed sand, mobile sand, semi -fixed sand and semi-shifting sand was studied.C.calyculatus was the dominant species in the semi -fixed sand, with a relative coverage and importance value higher than the obtained in the other three types .Based on Shannon diversity indices C. calyculatus led to a reduced species diversity in semi -fixed sand .Further research should pay more attention to the inva-siveness of C.calyculatus in the semi-fixed sand.%通过对光梗蒺藜草在固定沙地、流动沙地、半固定沙地、半流动沙地4种沙地类型中作用的分析,表明光梗蒺藜草为半固定沙地上的优势种,其相对盖度和重要值均高于其他3种样地类型,占主导地位;通过Shannon多样性指数分析表明光梗蒺藜草有导致半固定沙地物种多样性减弱的趋势。进一步的研究应更注重光梗蒺藜草在半固定沙地的入侵趋势。

  7. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

  8. Sensor Comparison for Grass Growth Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Md. Shaha Nur; Chung, Sun–Ok; Kim, Yong–Joo; Lee, Geung–Joo; Yu, Seung–Hwa; Lee, Kyeong–Hwan; Okayasu, Takashi; Inoue, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Precision agriculture has been implemented in various cultivation operations for various crops. Recently, autonomous mower tractor with variable rate fertilization has been tried. Variable rate fertilization requires quantification of grass growth level. Objective of this study was to compare the performance of potential sensors under different growth levels and sensor operation conditions. A CCD camera, an ultrasonic module, and an optical reflectance sensor (i.e., Crop Circle) were tested a...

  9. Invasive warm-season grasses reduce mycorrhizal root colonization and biomass production of native prairie grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gail W T; Hickman, Karen R; Williamson, Melinda M

    2012-07-01

    Soil organisms play important roles in regulating ecosystem-level processes and the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with a plant species can be a central force shaping plant species' ecology. Understanding how mycorrhizal associations are affected by plant invasions may be a critical aspect of the conservation and restoration of native ecosystems. We examined the competitive ability of old world bluestem, a non-native grass (Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii]), and the influence of B. bladhii competition on AM root colonization of native warm-season prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii or Schizachyrium scoparium), using a substitutive design greenhouse competition experiment. Competition by the non-native resulted in significantly reduced biomass production and AM colonization of the native grasses. To assess plant-soil feedbacks of B. bladhii and Bothriochloa ischaemum, we conducted a second greenhouse study which examined soil alterations indirectly by assessing biomass production and AM colonization of native warm-season grasses planted into soil collected beneath Bothriochloa spp. This study was conducted using soil from four replicate prairie sites throughout Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. Our results indicate that a major mechanism in plant growth suppression following invasion by Bothriochloa spp. is the alteration in soil microbial communities. Plant growth was tightly correlated with AM root colonization demonstrating that mycorrhizae play an important role in the invasion of these systems by Bothriochloa spp. and indicating that the restoration of native AM fungal communities may be a fundamental consideration for the successful establishment of native grasses into invaded sites.

  10. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  11. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Camara, Paulo E A S; Rudall, Paula J; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T; Whipple, Clinton J; Doust, Andrew N

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear "front" and "back;" this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  12. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  13. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation.

  14. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  15. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  16. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELDS OF GRASSES GROWN IN SALINE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Purbajanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of saline condition to crop physiology, growth andforages yield. A factorial completed random design was used in this study. The first factor was type ofgrass, these were king grass (Pennisetum hybrid, napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum, panicum grass(Panicum maximum, setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata and star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus. Thesecond factor was salt solution (NaCl with concentration 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM. Parameters of thisexperiment were the percentage of chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, number of tiller, biomass and drymatter yield. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s multiple range testwhen there were significant effects of the treatment. Panicum grass had the highest chlorophyll content(1.85 mg/g of leaf. Photosynthesis rate of setaria grass was the lowest. The increasing of NaClconcentration up to 300 mM NaCl reduced chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis, tiller number,biomass yield and dry matter yield. Responses of leaf area, biomass and dry matter yield to salinitywere linear for king, napier, panicum and setaria grasses. In tar grass, the response of leaf area andbiomass ware linear, but those of dry matter yield was quadratic. The response of tiller number tosalinity was linear for all species.

  17. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  18. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  19. Sean Grass. Charles Dickens’s

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Le livre qui fait l’objet du présent compte rendu mérite de retenir toute l’attention du lecteur, ne serait-ce que parce que son auteur, Sean Grass, a travaillé en terrain relativement vierge, ce qui, concernant un auteur du statut de Dickens, constitue un rare privilège. En raison de la place particulière qu’occupe Our Mutual Friend dans l’imposant corpus dickensien (il s’agit du dernier roman complet de Dickens, livré en feuilletons mensuels de mai 1864 à novembre 1865), on pourrait suppose...

  20. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  1. Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Warner, D.; Hatew, Bayissa; Klop, G.; Podesta, S.C.; Lingen, van H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and determined whether recent prediction equations for methane, based on a wide variety of diets, are applicable to grass- and grass silage-based diets. Dat

  2. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  3. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  4. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  5. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  6. An updated conspectus of grasses of Punjab (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh Soodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poaceae is the fourth largest family of the flowering plants. It includes about 700-800 genera and 11000-13000 species distributed worldwide. The family has unmatched ecological and economic importance. With its origin in the early cretaceous and major diversification in the mid Cenozoic, the family at present covers nearly a fifth of land surface and occurs in nearly all the habitats of the world. With a sub tropical ecology and an agrarian economy of Punjab, grasses comprise the most significant group in the region. Despite an overwhelming significance, taxonomic studies in grasses have not received sufficient attention in the region. It is only in the work of Sharma and Khosla (1989 that grass species have been classified into subfamilies and tribes. However, after the establishment of the Grass Phylogeny Working Group (GPWG the world has witnessed a renaissance in grass systematics. But, India remains an ‘undercollected’ country as far as grass diversity is concerned. Our work on the exploration and systematics of the grass flora of the region is an effort to consolidate and update the information on the diversity of grasses of the studied area. The present studies have brought the cumulative species number to 192 including seven new reports. The species representation of subfamilies is: Aristidoideae (5 Arundinoideae (5 Bambusoideae (4, Centothecoideae (1, Chloridoideae (55 Erhartoideae (3, Panicoideae (98 and Pooideae (21.

  7. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  8. Host preference and suitability of grasses for Oebalus pugnax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, GA; Gore, J; Cook, D; Bond, JA; Musser, FR; Adams, CA

    2014-01-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Carpocorini), though graminaceous, discriminates among its numerous host grass species. This could represent a feeding preference, it could be related to host suitability for growth and development. To clarify the role of host grass discrimination, two laboratory studies were conducted: (1) free-choice tests to evaluate preferences of O. pugnax among 11 wild host grass species found in three rice-producing counties of the central Mississippi Delta (MS, USA), and (2) no-choice tests to evaluate the impact of rice (Oryza sativa L.), junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], and dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) (all Poaceae), on the development of O. pugnax from second instar to adult. In the free-choice test, four experiments were conducted, each with four sets of host grass species and observed 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 h after release in cages. Approximately 4 h was necessary for O. pugnax to settle on preferred host grasses. Oebalus pugnax showed a feeding preference for junglerice over all 10 other grass species. Bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum Flueggé, was the least preferred. The no-choice tests showed significant effect of host grass species on O. pugnax mean development time of nymphal survival to adults. Survival of nymphs was lower and mean development time was longer on dallisgrass compared to rice and junglerice. Knowledge of O. pugnax rate of growth and development on host grasses could be useful in the future development of rice integrated pest management strategies. PMID:25635144

  9. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  10. Criteria of response of lawn grass to the environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Likholat

    2005-01-01

    Growth, physiological and biochemical criteria of reaction of the lawn grass on heavy metals influence are ascertained. Connection between levels of the heavy metals accumulation and changes of morphological parameters and activity of antioxidative protection enzymes of the plants is shown. Revealed specific features of lawn grasses stability to separate pollutants (heavy metals) action will be used for gardening industrial sites.

  11. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  12. A comparative view of the evolution of grasses under domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glémin, Sylvain; Bataillon, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Crop grasses were among the first plants to be domesticated c. 12,000 yr ago, and they still represent the main staple crops for humans. During domestication, as did many other crops, grasses went through dramatic genetic and phenotypic changes. The recent massive increase in genomic data has provided new tools to investigate the genetic basis and consequences of domestication. Beyond the genetics of domestication, many aspects of grass biology, including their phylogeny and developmental biology, are also increasingly well studied, offering a unique opportunity to analyse the domestication process in a comparative way. Taking such a comparative point of view, we review the history of domesticated grasses and how domestication affected their phenotypic and genomic diversity. Considering recent theoretical developments and the accumulation of genetic data, we revisit more specifically the role of mating systems in the domestication process. We close by suggesting future directions for the study of domestication in grasses.

  13. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different types of grasses available in Denmark using a GIS (Geographical Information System) based approach and to supplement these with biofuel potential maps based on HtL conversion. Biomass yields (t/ha) and biofuel energy equivalent (GJ....../ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor......-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject...

  14. Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanhueza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane flux measurements from the soil-grass system were made during the wet season in unperturbed plots and plots where standing dry and green Trachypogon sp. grasses were clipped to just above the soil surface. Results support the surprising discovery that vegetation emits methane. The results of this work allows to infer that the savanna dry/green mixture of grasses produce methane at a rate of ~10 ng m−2 s−1, which is in agreement with early published soil-grass system fluxes. An extrapolation of this flux to the global savanna produces an annual emission much lower than the CH4 production recently suggested in the literature. On the other hand, during the wet season savanna soil consume CH4 at a rate of ~4.7 ng m−2 s−1. Therefore, the tropical savanna soil-grass system would make a modest contribution to the global budget of methane.

  15. Symbiotically modified organisms: nontoxic fungal endophytes in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Pedro E; Pérez, Luis I; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2013-08-01

    We propose that symbiotically modified organisms (SMOs) should be taken into account in sustainable agriculture. In this opinion article, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the literature, with a particular focus on the potential of SMOs in forage and turf grass production, to determine the impact of endophytes in grasses on livestock, the grassland ecosystems, and associated environments. SMOs can be incorporated into breeding programs to improve grass yield, resistance to pests and weeds, and forage quality for livestock by decreasing the level of toxic alkaloids. However, the benefits of these selected grass-endophyte symbiota appear to be highly dependent on grass cultivar, fungal strain, and environmental conditions, requiring a comprehensive understanding of the genetic bases and phenotypic plasticity of the traits of the plant-microbe unit in different environments.

  16. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  17. Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Teskera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

  18. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF THE EXCLUSION OF JOHNSON GRASS BY TALL GRASS PRAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A. Semtner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, plant distribution typically has been studied with the purpose of learning why a species grows and survives where it does; but why a species does not survive in a particular habitat has rarely been studied, although it may be just as important. According to the US Department of Agriculture, Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.; formerly Johnson grass] is listed as an agricultural pest in most states south of the 42nd parallel. Control of Johnsongrass inagricultural fields involves various labor intensive cultural, mechanical, and chemical means. Release of a bio-control agent has not been suitable for intensively cropped areas. An agriculturally important weed and prominent member of early stage secondary succession, Johnsongrass is not present in later stages of prairie succession. Various environmental factors (biotic and abiotic that might be involved in restricting Johnsongrass survival were examined in this research. In two sites in Oklahoma, soil conditions were found to be more favorable for survival and growth of Johnsongrass in undisturbed prairie than in the disturbed areas in which Johnsongrass was found vigorously growing. However, even when its rhizomes were introduced into mature prairie, Johnsongrass did not thrive. In laboratory and field trials, presence of the living dominant prairie grasses or leachate from living or dead leaf blades seemed to influence growth and survival of Johnsongrass rhizomes. The prairie grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx. Nash] and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L. Nash], seem to play a similarallelopathic role in restricting the growth of Johnsongrass to outside of the prairies. Looking at this past study might lead to new methods for the future. (Semtner 2012

  19. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  20. N-nitrosamines in grass silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Broekhoven, L W; Davies, J A

    1982-01-01

    During the fermentation of silages from nitrate-rich grass, the conditions are suitable for the formation of N-nitrosamines. Earlier investigations had shown that only low concentrations of volatile N-nitrosamines were formed. The first ten days of ensilage were investigated. The formation of nitrite was accompanied by the formation of volatile N-nitrosamines. NDMA and NDEA were detected in concentrations of up to about 2 micrograms/kg. After stabilisation of the silage, these concentrations dropped to about 0.6 microgram/kg. Preliminary results are presented concerning the presence of non-volatile N-nitroso compounds. The method of Walters et al. (1980) indicates that non-volatile N-nitroso compounds were present in amounts equivalent to 85 mg NPIP/kg sample.

  1. Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Spiering, Martin J

    2004-01-01

    Grasses (family Poaceae) and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae have a long history of symbiosis ranging in a continuum from mutualisms to antagonisms. This continuum is particularly evident among symbioses involving the fungal genus Epichloe (asexual forms = Neotyphodium spp.). In the more mutualistic symbiota, the epichloe endophytes are vertically transmitted via host seeds, and in the more antagonistic symbiota they spread contagiously and suppress host seed set. The endophytes gain shelter, nutrition, and dissemination via host propagules, and can contribute an array of host fitness enhancements including protection against insect and vertebrate herbivores and root nematodes, enhancements of drought tolerance and nutrient status, and improved growth particularly of the root. In some systems, such as the tall fescue N. coenophialum symbioses, the plant may depend on the endophyte under many natural conditions. Recent advances in endophyte molecular biology promise to shed light on the mechanisms of the symbioses and host benefits.

  2. Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

  3. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  4. Chemical ecology mediated by fungal endophytes in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo

    2013-07-01

    Defensive mutualism is widely accepted as providing the best framework for understanding how seed-transmitted, alkaloid producing fungal endophytes of grasses are maintained in many host populations. Here, we first briefly review current knowledge of bioactive alkaloids produced by systemic grass-endophytes. New findings suggest that chemotypic diversity of the endophyte-grass symbiotum is far more complex, involving multifaceted signaling and chemical cross-talk between endophyte and host cells (e.g., reactive oxygen species and antioxidants) or between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies (e.g., volatile organic compounds, and salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways). Accumulating evidence also suggests that the tight relationship between the systemic endophyte and the host grass can lead to the loss of grass traits when the lost functions, such as plant defense to herbivores, are compensated for by an interactive endophytic fungal partner. Furthermore, chemotypic diversity of a symbiotum appears to depend on the endophyte and the host plant life histories, as well as on fungal and plant genotypes, abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, and their interactions. Thus, joint approaches of (bio)chemists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, and ecologists are urgently needed to fully understand the endophyte-grass symbiosis, its coevolutionary history, and ecological importance. We propose that endophyte-grass symbiosis provides an excellent model to study microbially mediated multirophic interactions from molecular mechanisms to ecology.

  5. Convection-driven pattern formation in lawn grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; Daniels, Karen

    2009-11-01

    Spatial patterns of 'dead' lawn grass have often been ascribed to Turing-type reaction-diffusion processes related to water scarcity. We present an alternative hypothesis: that the air within the grass canopy is unstable to a convective instability, such that chill damage caused by falling cold air is responsible for the creation of brown and green bands of grass. This hypothesis is consistent with several features of small-scale vegetation patterns, including their length scale, rapid onset and transient nature. We find that the predictions of a porous medium convection model based are consistent with measurements made for a particular instance of lawn-patterning in North Carolina.

  6. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  7. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: II - disponibilidade de N, P e K no solo ao longo do ciclo de cultivo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: II - soil N, P, and K availability throughout the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    . During 2003, these treatments were repeated and the decomposition dynamics evaluated in samples contained in 0.5 mm-mesh nylon decomposition bags with organic materials buried at 20 cm soil depth. Soil nutrient availability was also evaluated in soil samples (0-20 cm during the growing season. In the green-house, buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. was grown for 300 days in pots containing soil from the field plots and submitted to successive cuts of the shoots. Dry matter and nutrient losses from the incorporated material in the decomposition bags peaked in the first 30 days in all treatments. At the end of the growing season, dry matter and nutrient losses were lower for the treatments with manure, compared to treatments C and T. Manure incorporation increased soil P and K levels throughout the study period, but led to net N immobilization during the first few weeks after incorporation. Treatment C increased soil mineral N concentration shortly after incorporation, but decreased later in the growing season. Soil P and K levels remained unchanged. In the green-house study, 35 days after planting the biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake by buffel grass was the highest in treatment CE. In the following harvests, treatment E led to a greater biomass and nutrient uptake by buffel grass, indicating that N immobilization after manure incorporation limited plant growth in the first weeks. These results show that planting and incorporation of crotalaria coupled with the application of only half the usual manure rate was enough to avoid soil net N immobilization and increased soil P and K levels. The combined application of animal and green manure leads to availability of soil nutrients more synchronized with the plant demand.

  8. Prescribed Burn Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1998 Switch Grass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fire management plan is for Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge on a 3.5 acre segment of the refuge that is almost entirely switch grass. The plan specifies the...

  9. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  10. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  11. An Ecofeminist Approach to The Grass Is Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜

    2014-01-01

    The article intends to interpret The Grass Is Singing from the perspective of ecofeminism and analyze the unequal rela-tionships between man and nature, man and woman, the white race and the black race.

  12. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  13. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  14. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  15. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values).

  16. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  17. Grassed swales for stormwater pollution control during rain and snowmelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, M

    2003-01-01

    The retention of suspended solids, particles and heavy metals in different grassed swales during rain events and snowmelt is discussed. The experimental results derived from investigations performed in existing grassed swales in the Luleå region, Northern Sweden. During high pollutant loading rates, grassed swales retain significant amounts of pollutants, mainly due to sedimentation of particulate matter. Low to moderate removal efficiencies could be expected for heavy metals, especially metals in solution (i.e. the dissolved phase). When grassed swales receive urban runoff with low pollutant concentrations, they may release rather than retain pollutants. Swales are important snow deposit areas in the city and particle bound pollutants do to a large extent remain in the swale after snowmelt. However, dissolved pollutants (i.e. dissolved heavy metals) are likely to escape the swale with the melt water. Grassed swales may be regarded as facilities that even out the peaks in pollutant loads without being capable of producing consistent high removal rates. This suggests that swales should be considered as primary treatment devices. Possible design parameters for grassed swales are mean hydraulic detention time, surface loading rate or specific swale area.

  18. Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel L; Hesterberg, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants is a phytoremediation process that depends on interactions among plants, microbes, and soils. Trees and grasses are commonly used for phytoremediation, with trees typically being chosen for remediation of BTEX while grasses are more commonly used for remediation of PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of hydrocarbons and address the advantages of each vegetation type. Grasses were more heavily represented in the literature and therefore demonstrated a wider range of effectiveness. However, the greater biomass and depth of tree roots may have greater potential for promoting environmental conditions that can improve rhizoremediation, such as increased metabolizable organic carbon, oxygen, and water. Overall, we found little difference between grasses and trees with respect to average reduction of hydrocarbons for studies that compared planted treatments with a control. Additional detailed investigations into plant attributes that most influence hydrocarbon degradation rates should provide data needed to determine the potential for rhizoremediation with trees or grasses for a given site and identify which plant characteristics are most important.

  19. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  20. Leaf Length Variation in Perennial Forage Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Barre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf length is a key factor in the economic value of different grass species and cultivars in forage production. It is also important for the survival of individual plants within a sward. The objective of this paper is to discuss the basis of within-species variation in leaf length. Selection for leaf length has been highly efficient, with moderate to high narrow sense heritability. Nevertheless, the genetic regulation of leaf length is complex because it involves many genes with small individual effects. This could explain the low stability of QTL found in different studies. Leaf length has a strong response to environmental conditions. However, when significant genotype × environment interactions have been identified, their effects have been smaller than the main effects. Recent modelling-based research suggests that many of the reported environmental effects on leaf length and genotype × environment interactions could be biased. Indeed, it has been shown that leaf length is an emergent property strongly affected by the architectural state of the plant during significant periods prior to leaf emergence. This approach could lead to improved understanding of the factors affecting leaf length, as well as better estimates of the main genetic effects.

  1. Biogas potential in Grasses from Wetlands; Biogaspotential hos vaatmarksgraes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marvin

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass. The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called 'hotspots'. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds. There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0,21 Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas

  2. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  3. VAM populations in relation to grass invasion associated with forest decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosatka, M; Cudlin, P; Mejstrik, V

    1991-01-01

    Spruce stands in Northern Bohemia forests, damaged to various degrees by industrial pollution, have shown establishment of grass cover following tree defoliation. Populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were studied under this grass cover in four permanent plots with spruce under different levels of pollution stress. Soil and root samples were collected in April and June within each plot as follows: (1) sites without grass, (2) sites with initial stages of grass invasion, and (3) sites with fully developed grass cover. In all plots, the highest number of propagules were recovered from samples taken from sites having full grass cover. Mycorrhizal infection of grass was highest in the plot with the severest pollution damage and lowest in the least damaged plot. The development of grass cover and VAM infection of grass increased with tree defoliation caused by air pollution.

  4. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  5. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the shady history of C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erika J; Smith, Stephen A

    2010-02-09

    Grasslands cover more than 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, and their rise to dominance is one of the most dramatic events of biome evolution in Earth history. Grasses possess two main photosynthetic pathways: the C(3) pathway that is typical of most plants and a specialized C(4) pathway that minimizes photorespiration and thus increases photosynthetic performance in high-temperature and/or low-CO(2) environments. C(4) grasses dominate tropical and subtropical grasslands and savannas, and C(3) grasses dominate the world's cooler temperate grassland regions. This striking pattern has been attributed to C(4) physiology, with the implication that the evolution of the pathway enabled C(4) grasses to persist in warmer climates than their C(3) relatives. We combined geospatial and molecular sequence data from two public archives to produce a 1,230-taxon phylogeny of the grasses with accompanying climate data for all species, extracted from more than 1.1 million herbarium specimens. Here we show that grasses are ancestrally a warm-adapted clade and that C(4) evolution was not correlated with shifts between temperate and tropical biomes. Instead, 18 of 20 inferred C(4) origins were correlated with marked reductions in mean annual precipitation. These changes are consistent with a shift out of tropical forest environments and into tropical woodland/savanna systems. We conclude that C(4) evolution in grasses coincided largely with migration out of the understory and into open-canopy environments. Furthermore, we argue that the evolution of cold tolerance in certain C(3) lineages is an overlooked innovation that has profoundly influenced the patterning of grassland communities across the globe.

  6. Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

  7. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  8. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  9. CONTROL OF GULLY EROSION USING STIFF GRASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. D. SHIELDS, Jr.; S. M. DABNEY; E. J. LANGENDOEN; D. M. TEMPLE

    2005-01-01

    Concentrated flow can cause gully formation on sloping lands and in riparian zones. Current practice for riparian gully erosion control involves blocking the gully with a structure comprised of an earthen embankment and a metal or plastic pipe. Measures involving native vegetation would be more attractive for habitat recovery and economic reasons. To test the hypothesis that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) hedges planted at 0.5-m vertical intervals within a gully would control erosion,a series of hedges was established in four concentrated flow channels. Two of the channels were previously eroded trapezoidal channels cut into compacted fill in an outdoor laboratory. The other two channels were natural gullies located at the edge of floodplain fields adjacent to an incised stream.While vegetation was dormant, artificial runoff events were created in the two laboratory gullies and one of the natural gullies using synthetic trapezoidal-shaped hydrographs with peak discharge rates of approximately 0.03, 0.07, and 0.16 m3/s. During these tests flow depth, velocity, turbidity, and soil pore water pressures were monitored. The fourth gully was subjected to a series of natural runoff events over a five-month period with peaks up to 0.09 m3/s. Flow depths in all tests were generally < 0.3 m, and flow velocities varied spatially and exceeded 2.0 m/s at the steepest points of the gullies.Erosion rates were negligible for controlled flow experiments, but natural flows in the fourth gully resulted in 1 m of thalweg degradation, destroying the central portions of the grass hedges, most likely due to the highly erodible nature of the soils at this site. Geotechnical modeling of soil steps reinforced with switchgrass roots showed factors of safety > 1 for step heights < 0.5 m, but instability was indicated for step heights > 1 m, consistent with the experimental observations.

  10. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  11. Performance of West African dwarf goats fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture, N-fertilized and unfertilized Guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamikole, M A.; Ezenwa, I; Akinsoyinu, A O.; Arigbede, M O.; Babayemi, O J.

    2001-02-01

    The supplementary values of Verano stylo in a mixed Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Ntchisi)-Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) diet from a sown grass-legume mixture and N fertilized grass were compared in West African dwarf (WAD) goats. Liveweight (LW) gain, feed intake, digestibility and N utilization were determined using 15 goats in two trials lasting for 98 days. Goats were fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture (GSM), N-fertilized (NFG) and unfertilized grass (UFG). The goats were divided into three groups of five animals each and randomly allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Total DM and OM intakes of the goats did not vary significantly among the forage diets and averaged 55.1 and 50.4gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day, respectively. CP intake (gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day) was highest with NFG (5.6) followed by GSM (4.8) and the UFG (3.5). Total N excreted followed the same trend as the CP intake. There was no significant difference between N-retention of GSM and NFG (28.5 and 26.7%), but goats on UFG had a negative N balance (-9.16%). Animals on GSM had significantly higher liveweight gain (31.9g per day) than those of NFG (25.1g per day) and UFG (21.9g per day) which also differed significantly. The digestibilities of total DM, OM, CP, NDF were higher with GSM than NFG or UFG. It is concluded that growing Verano stylo in mixture with Guinea grass is a better option for improving the feed quality of forage diets for goats than direct application of inorganic fertilizer at 200kgNha(-1) to the pure grass.

  12. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  13. Salt tolerance evolves more frequently in C4 grass lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, L; Bennett, T H

    2014-03-01

    Salt tolerance has evolved many times in the grass family, and yet few cereal crops are salt tolerant. Why has it been so difficult to develop crops tolerant of saline soils when salt tolerance has evolved so frequently in nature? One possible explanation is that some grass lineages have traits that predispose them to developing salt tolerance and that without these background traits, salt tolerance is harder to achieve. One candidate background trait is photosynthetic pathway, which has also been remarkably labile in grasses. At least 22 independent origins of the C4 photosynthetic pathway have been suggested to occur within the grass family. It is possible that the evolution of C4 photosynthesis aids exploitation of saline environments, because it reduces transpiration, increases water-use efficiency and limits the uptake of toxic ions. But the observed link between the evolution of C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance could simply be due to biases in phylogenetic distribution of halophytes or C4 species. Here, we use a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the association between photosynthetic pathway and salt tolerance in the grass family Poaceae. We find that salt tolerance is significantly more likely to occur in lineages with C4 photosynthesis than in C3 lineages. We discuss the possible links between C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance and consider the limitations of inferring the direction of causality of this relationship.

  14. The Building of Grass-roots Agricultural Technology Extension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YANG; Jian; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 154 farmers in Guiyang City, we analyze the basic situation of building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City. Then we point out some problems in the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City: the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center weakens; the content of agricultural technology extension is difficult to adapt to farmers’ needs for technology; the extension mode of agricultural technology departments does not adapt to the needs of modern agriculture. In order to perfect the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system, the countermeasures and recommendations are put forth as follows: strengthening the input of funds, and ensuring that the basic work of public welfare agricultural technology extension is smoothly carried out; innovating upon the system, and improving the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center; implementing management on agricultural technology extension personnel’s performance, and promoting the extension efficiency; strengthening the building of extension team in rural areas, and cultivating high-quality agricultural technology extension personnel; exploring the advanced service mode to meet farmers’ needs.

  15. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics.

  16. Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka

    2014-01-05

    Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue.

  17. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  18. Protective roles of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx isoforms against grass carp reovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myxovirus resistance (Mx proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3 were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%, and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN

  19. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out...... during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out...... in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens...

  20. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  1. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  2. Hydraulic performance of grass swales for managing highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allen P; Stagge, James H; Jamil, Eliea; Kim, Hunho

    2012-12-15

    The hydraulic performance of grass swales as a highway stormwater control measure was evaluated in a field-scale study adjacent to a Maryland highway. Two common swale design alternatives, pretreatment grass filter strips and vegetated check dams, were compared during 52 storm events over 4.5 years. Swale performance is described via three regimes, dependent on the relative size of the rainfall event. Overall, half of the events were small enough that the entire flow was stored, infiltrated, and evapotranspirated by the swales, resulting in no net swale discharge. Swales significantly reduced total volume and flow magnitudes generally during events with rainfall less than 3 cm. While the majority of improvement can be attributed to the swales, inclusion of check dams increases swale effectiveness. Pretreatment grass filter strips produced mixed effects. The swales demonstrated essentially no volumetric reduction during large storm events, functioning instead as conveyance, and smoothing fluctuations in flow.

  3. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  4. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance.

  5. EGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUDANESE GRASSES AND GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Idris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the different plant species in the gas volume. The potential gas volume reflected the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Gas production from the ingredients indicated that sorghum grain recorded the highest gas production volume. The gas production at different time intervals showed increased degradability in the grasses, diets and the ingredients. Eragrostis tremula could be used as reference forage in evaluating the organic matter digestibility and energy density of grasses and Farsefia longisiliqua as a reference for crude protein.

  6. FEEDING VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES BASED ON DRY MATTER CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Total of 477 grass silage samples of different origin and quality were analysed by NIR spectroscopy to determine crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, digestible organic matter (OM in the dry matter (DM (D-value, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value and the ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N. According to DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample, the samples were divided into 8 classes: (1> 228; (2 229-313; (3 314-398; (4 399-483; (5 484-568; (6 569-653; (7i 654-738; (8 0.005 in NDF and pH value. It was concluded that increased DM concentration in silage samples was not a result of –grass wilting before ensiling but of advanced grass maturity at harvest.

  7. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

  8. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  9. St. Augustine grass germplasm resistant to Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Katharine M; Milla-Lewis, Susana R; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2014-08-01

    St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze) is an economically important turfgrass in the southeastern United States. However, this turf species is prone to southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber (Heteroptera: Blissidae) outbreaks. This insect is the most destructive pest of St. Augustine grass wherever this turf grass is grown. Host plant resistance has historically been an effective management tool for southern chinch bug. Since 1973, the 'Floratam' St. Augustine grass cultivar effectively controlled southern chinch bug in the southeast. However, southern chinch bug populations from Florida and Texas have now circumvented this resistance, through mechanisms still unknown. Therefore, identifying and deploying new cultivars with resistance to the southern chinch bug is imperative to combat this pest in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. Currently, the number of cultivars with resistance against southern chinch bug is limited, and their efficacy, climatic adaptability, and aesthetic characters are variable. Hence, the main focus of this study is the identification of alternative sources of resistance to southern chinch bugs in previously uncharacterized St. Augustine grass plant introductions (PIs) and its closely related, crossbreeding species, Pembagrass (Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongniart). The PIs exhibited a wide range of responses to southern chinch bug feeding, as indicated by damage ratings. Damage ratings for seven PIs grouped with our resistant reference cultivars. Moreover, nine PIs exhibited antibiosis, based on poor development of southern chinch bug neonates, when compared with our susceptible reference cultivars. Altogether our study has produced strong support to indicate these materials are good candidates for future southern chinch bug resistance breeding in St. Augustine grass.

  10. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon; Kunn Kangvansaichol; Vorakan Burapatana; Ratanavalee Inochanon; Pakorn Winayanuwattikun; Tikamporn Yongvanich; Warawut Chulalaksananukul

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification....

  11. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  12. Native grasses for reclaiming mine sites in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darroch, B.A.; Woosaree, J.; James, B.T. [Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    A research project to select, test, and develop varieties of four native grass species for revegetating mine sites at high elevations in the Rocky Mountains and foothills is described. Multi-location trials show that lines of alpine bluegrass and slender wheatgrass perform much better than check varieties at mountain sites, and in some cases are better at lower elevations. Three varieties of these grasses have been developed for reclamation uses, and more will be released later. Several more years of research are needed to develop varieties of Rocky Mountain fescue and spike trisetum. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Growth and use of energy grasses as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This summary outlines the main conclusions of the project which aims to provide information on the growth, yields, and combustion characteristics of Miscanthus, switchgrass, Spartina, rye, and reed canary grass. Details are given of the small-plot trials of the non-wood biomass fuels, the planting, pests and diseases, the falling over of crops, the time of harvest, moisture content, yields, combustion trials, fuel and ash characterisation, and costs/income. Tables are provided illustrating the cumulative yield, the costs of the different species of energy grasses, and the annual mean gross margins over 5, 10, 15, and 20 years.

  14. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...

  15. Effect of fire and grazing on invasive species in northern mixed grass prairie

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plants pose a threat to pristine and natural mixed grass prairie so managers seek to control them. On the basis of experience in the tall grass prairie,...

  16. Maximum Simplified Dynamic Model of Grass Field Ecosystem With Two Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆存; 卢佩生; 曾晓东

    1994-01-01

    Based on general consideration and analysis, a maximum simplified dynamic model of grass field ecosystem with a single species is developed. The model consists of two variables: grass biomass of grass field per unit area and soil wetness, and is suitable for describing their mutual interaction. Other factors such as physical-chemical characteristics of soil, precipitation, irrigation, sunlight, temperature and consumers, are taken into account as parameters in the dynamical system. Qualitative analysis of the model shows that grass biomass of a possible ecological regime is determined by the stable equilibrium state of the dynamical system. For the grass species interacting weakly with soil wetness the grass biomass continuously depends on the precipitation. While, for a species interacting strongly with soil wetness, grass biomass is abundant if precipitation is larger than some critical value; otherwise, it becomes a desertification regime with very little or even zero grass biomass. The model also sh

  17. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  18. From the Lab Bench: Differences in annual and perennial grasses in meeting cattle production goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written that provided the advantages and disadvantages of annual warm- and cool-season grasses. Warm-season annual grasses can increase the supply of forage during the summer slump in cool-season perennial grass growth. Utilization of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures can ...

  19. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products present in the

  20. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  1. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 differ...

  2. Sediment transport in grassed swales during simulated runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, M

    2002-01-01

    Particle trapping in nine different grassed swales was measured successfully with a standardised runoff event simulation procedure. The percentage of total suspended solids removed ranged from 79 to 98%. It was found that sedimentation processes, rather than grass filtration governed the overall particle trapping efficiency. The highest particle trapping efficiency was observed in the field swales with dense, fully developed turf. A high infiltration rate was beneficial for the particle trapping and an increased swale length made it possible for smaller particles to be captured. A densely vegetated, ten metre long swale, receiving a stormwater flow of 1.0 litres per second, may capture a majority of the waterborne particles with settling velocities larger than 0.1 metres per hour. A simple model of particle trapping efficiency in grassed swales was developed and tested. It was found that mean swale residence time could be used as a design parameter for particle removal in grassed swales. The suggested exponential relationship between mean swale residence time and particle settling velocity associated with a certain trapping efficiency is so far only valid for a limited range of swale designs and residence times.

  3. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown t

  4. Grass invasion into switchgrass managed for biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season perennial grass and is the model herbaceous perennial bioenergy feedstock. Although it is indigenous to North American grasslands east of the Rocky Mountains and has been planted for forage and conservation purposes for more than 75 years, there is con...

  5. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  6. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  7. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed slopes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Simulator was applied to test the resistance against wave overtopping of grass covered dike slopes in Viet Nam. Observation and measurement during destructive tests were performed to investigate the development process of damage induced by overtopping flow. Damages were likely to be initiated at

  8. Theoretical versus Grass-Roots Development of a Community Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandon, Socorro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine Bracht, Kingbury, and Rissel's five-stage community development model as applied to a grass-roots community action group. The sample consisted of low-income, predominantly Hispanic women in a community action group in a Southwestern barrio, some of whom were experiencing domestic violence. The…

  9. Ecophysiological responses of Chihuahuan desert grasses to fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of fire in the Chihuahuan desert, gas exchange characteristics of two dominant grass species, Bouteloua eriopoda and Aristida purpurea, and soil nitrogen availability were studied in response to prescribed fire at the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico...

  10. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate deleterious effects of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetla...

  11. Simulating diverse native C4 perennial grasses with varying rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall is recognized as a major factor affecting the rate of plant growth development. The impact of changes in amount and variability of rainfall on growth and production of different forage grasses needs to be quantified to determine how climate change can impact rangelands. Growth and product...

  12. Grass Valley Venom FlashPak录像机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thomson新推出的Grass Valley Venom FIashPak录像机,可配合草谷VIPER Film Stream数字电影摄像机使用。Venom FlashPak是一款灵巧可靠的台式系统,可以记录VIPER摄影机输出的未压缩视频。

  13. Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

  14. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial co

  15. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial co

  16. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Magura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge effect on the studied carabid communities: the Shannon diversity increased significantly along the transects from the forest towards the grass. The diversity of the carabids were significantly higher in the forest edge and in the grass than in the forest interior. The carabids of the forest, the forest edge and the grass are separated from each other by principal coordinates analysis and by indicator species analysis (IndVal, suggesting that each of the three habitats has a distinct species assemblages. There were 5 distinctive groups of carabids: 1 habitat generalists, 2 forest generalists, 3 species of the open area, 4 forest edge species, and 5 forest specialists. It was demonstrated by multiple regression analyses, that the relative air moisture, temperature of the ground, the cover of leaf litter, herbs, shrubs and canopy cover, abundance of the carabids’ preys are the most important factors determining the diversity and spatial pattern of carabids along the studied transects.

  17. Red edge shift and biochemical content in grass canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of foliar nitrogen in tropical grass is one of the factors that explain the distribution of wildlife. Therefore, the remote sensing of foliar nitrogen contributes to a better understanding of wildlife feeding patterns. This study evaluated changes in the red edge position of the 68

  18. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  19. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.; Alvim Kamei, C.L.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Vermerris, W.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potent

  20. Nitrogen use efficiency in six perennial grasses from contrasting habitats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez de Aldana, B.R.; Berendse, F.

    1997-01-01

    1. We studied the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in six perennial grasses adapted to a wide range of nutrient availability. The glasshouse experiment was carried out in pots containing nutrient solution, with two fertility treatments. Nitrogen-use efficiency was considered as the product of nitrogen

  1. Grass inflorescence mutations and their role in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of natural mutants in the grass family were presented. All appeared as changes in inflorescence structure. In mutated plants chasmogamy was restricted due to anomalous lodicules or compactness of ears. A rare glumeless mutation in Agropyron pectiniforme reduced the level of assimilation in the ear. All mutations appear as unfavorable in natural populations.

  2. Weed-suppressive bacteria to reduce annual grass weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica L.) are exotic, annual grasses that negatively affect cereal production in cropland; reduce protein-rich forage for cattle; choke out native plants in the shrub-steppe habi...

  3. Grass Cell Walls: A Story of Cross-Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Ronald D.; Rancour, David M.; Marita, Jane M.

    2017-01-01

    Cell wall matrices are complex composites mainly of polysaccharides, phenolics (monomers and polymers), and protein. We are beginning to understand the synthesis of these major wall components individually, but still have a poor understanding of how cell walls are assembled into complex matrices. Valuable insight has been gained by examining intact components to understand the individual elements that make up plant cell walls. Grasses are a prominent group within the plant kingdom, not only for their important roles in global agriculture, but also for the complexity of their cell walls. Ferulate incorporation into grass cell wall matrices (C3 and C4 types) leads to a cross-linked matrix that plays a prominent role in the structure and utilization of grass biomass compared to dicot species. Incorporation of p-coumarates as part of the lignin structure also adds to the complexity of grass cell walls. Feruoylation results in a wall with individual hemicellulosic polysaccharides (arabinoxylans) covalently linked to each other and to lignin. Evidence strongly suggests that ferulates not only cross-link arabinoxylans, but may be important factors in lignification of the cell wall. Therefore, the distribution of ferulates on arabinoxylans could provide a means of structuring regions of the matrix with the incorporation of lignin and have a significant impact upon localized cell wall organization. The role of other phenolics in cell wall formation such as p-coumarates (which can have concentrations higher than ferulates) remains unknown. It is possible that p-coumarates assist in the formation of lignin, especially syringyl rich lignin. The uniqueness of the grass cell wall compared to dicot sepcies may not be so much in the gross composition of the wall, but how the distinctive individual components are organized into a functional wall matrix. These features are discussed and working models are provided to illustrate how changing the organization of feruoylation and p

  4. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  5. Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

  6. Quality evaluation of signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) ensiled with forage as tannin source

    OpenAIRE

    B. Santoso; B. Tj. Hariadi

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on examining the possibility of using three kinds of plant leaves i.e. Acacia mangium Willd, Persea americana Mill and Psidium guajava as tannin source to signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) silage. The silages were made from the first cut of signal grass harvested at 50 days. Four treatment silages were TA: grass ensiled without tannin as control, AM: grass ensiled with A. mangium (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight), PA: grass ensiled with P. americana (6 g tannin /kg fresh w...

  7. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  8. Molecular cloning of the MARCH family in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and their response to grass carp reovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mi; Huang, Rong; Xiong, Lv; Luo, Lifei; Chen, Geng; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; He, Libo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-02-20

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an economical aquaculture species in China, and the Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) that causes hemorrhagic disease seriously affects the grass carp cultivation industry. Substantial evidence indicates that there is an association between the membrane-associated RING-CH family of E3 ligase (MARCH) family and immune defense in mammals, while functional studies on non-mammalian MARCH proteins are limited. In order to know the characteristics of the MARCH genes in C. idellus, eight MARCH genes (MARCH1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11) were cloned and the open reading frames (ORF) were identified in grass carp. All MARCH proteins in grass carp contained an RING-CH domain, which is characteristic of the MARCH protein. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different MARCH proteins gathered into their separate clusters. All eight members of the MARCH gene family were detected in all tissues sampled, but the relative expression level differed. In addition, the mRNA expression of all the MARCHs was regulated at different levels in the immune organs after a GCRV challenge, and they responded robustly in both the intestine and liver. The mRNA expression of MARCH8, MHC II, TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1 in the intestine after GCRV infection was analyzed, and the results showed that MARCH8 could negatively regulate TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1, which signaled via the MAPK or NF-κB-activation pathways that play vital roles in immunity. Our findings identified a novel gene family in C. idellus and provided novel evidence that MARCH genes are inducible and involved in the immune response. Moreover, MARCH8 might function to negatively regulate immune receptors in C. idellus. Therefore, the MARCH might play a vital role in regulating the immune response of C. idellus.

  9. Effect of surface-specific training on 20-m sprint performance on sand and grass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Peeling, Peter; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effect of an 8-week preseason conditioning program conducted on a sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surface on 20-m sprint performance. Twelve team-sport athletes were required to attend three 1-hour training sessions per week, including 2 surface-specific sessions (SAND, n = 6 or GRASS, n = 6) and 1 group session (conducted on grass). Throughout the training period, 20-m sprint times of all athletes were recorded on both sand and grass surfaces at the end of weeks 1, 4, and 8. Results showed a significant improvement in 20-m sand time in the SAND group only (p grass time improved equally in both training subgroups (p grass speed gains when incorporating sand surfaces into a preseason program.

  10. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...... and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not necessarily compensated...

  11. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry matter...

  12. In situ spectral reflectance studies of tidal wetland grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. S.; Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    Field measurements of wetland spectral canopy reflectance in the Landsat-MSS wavebands were correlated with biotic factors. The highest single band correlations were observed between visible (MSS Band 4: 0.5 to 0.6 micron and Band 5: 0.6 to 0.7 micron) canopy reflectance and the percentage, by weight, of live (green) vegetation in the canopies of Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow grass), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass). Infrared canopy reflectance displayed significant but weaker dependence on canopy parameters such as live and total biomass and canopy height. The Band 7 (0.8 to 1.1 microns)/Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron) reflectance ratio was found to be highly correlated with green biomass for S. alterniflora. Highest spectral separability between the 'low marsh' S. alterniflora and the 'high marsh' Salt Hay (S. patens and D. spicata) communities in Delaware occurs during December.

  13. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done...... using a suction sampler worn on the chest or lapel that measures breathing zone concentration; a more useful exposure parameter for pollen allergy sufferers is the amount of pollen inhaled, i.e. the dose. The objective of this study was to investigate how well monitoring station data reflect actual...... exposure, something that is currently not well understood. Methods: Exposure samples were collected during the 2011 grass pollen season in an area of abundant unmaintained grass coverage close to the centre of Aarhus, Denmark. Sampling was performed at two-hourly intervals between 12:00 and 20:00 on 14...

  14. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were...

  15. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  16. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  17. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  18. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  19. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, van, Aico

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  20. The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

  1. Fungal symbionts of grasses: evolutionary insights and agricultural potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B; Schardl, C

    1993-08-01

    Some filamentous fungal endophytes confer on their grass hosts important biological properties including resistance to grazing herbivores and resistance to nematodes and some fungal pathogens, as well as drought tolerance and greater field persistence. The production of alkaloids toxic to grazing animals is an undesirable aspect of the association in agronomic situations. Consequently, genetic strategies are being pursued to manipulate fungal endophytes and their hosts for agricultural benefit.

  2. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Schardl, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and systemically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted endophytes is strongly suggestive of cocladogenesis with their hosts. Molecular evidence indicates that many seed-transmitted endophytes are interspecific hybrids. Superinfection may result in hyphal fusion and parasexual recombination. Most endophytes produce one or more alkaloid classes that likely play some role in defending the host plant against pests. Hybridization may have led to the proliferation of alkaloid-production genes among asexual endophytes, favoring hybrids. The ergot alkaloid ergovaline, lolitrems, and lolines are produced by only a single sexual species, Epichloë festucae, but they are common in seed-transmitted endophytes, suggesting that E. festucae contributed genes for their synthesis. Asexual hybrids may also be favored by the counteracting of the accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller's rachet). Endophyte infection can provide other benefits, such as enhanced drought tolerance, photosynthetic rate, and growth. Estimates of infection frequency have revealed variable levels of infection with especially high prevalence in the subfamily Pooideae. Longitudinal studies suggest that the prevalence of seed-transmitted endophytes can increase rapidly over time. In field experiments, infected tall fescue suppressed other grasses and forbs relative to uninfected fescue and supported lower consumer populations. Unlike other widespread plant/microbial symbioses based on the acquisition of mineral resources, grass/endophyte associations are based primarily on protection of the host from biotic and

  3. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  4. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Moustakas

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm, with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm, grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  5. Divergent evolutionary pattern of starch biosynthetic pathway genes in grasses and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Li, Qi-Gang; Dunwell, Jim M; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2012-10-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in crops and its production is critical to both crop yield and quality. In regard to the starch content in the seeds of crop plants, there is a distinct difference between grasses (Poaceae) and dicots. However, few studies have described the evolutionary pattern of genes in the starch biosynthetic pathway in these two groups of plants. In this study, therefore, an attempt was made to compare evolutionary rate, gene duplication, and selective pattern of the key genes involved in this pathway between the two groups, using five grasses and five dicots as materials. The results showed 1) distinct differences in patterns of gene duplication and loss between grasses and dicots; duplication in grasses mainly occurred before the divergence of grasses, whereas duplication mostly occurred in individual species within the dicots; there is less gene loss in grasses than in dicots, 2) a considerably higher evolutionary rate in grasses than in dicots in most gene families analyzed, and 3) evidence of a different selective pattern between grasses and dicots; positive selection may have occurred asymmetrically in grasses in some gene families, for example, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit. Therefore, we deduced that gene duplication contributes to, and a higher evolutionary rate is associated with, the higher starch content in grasses. In addition, two novel aspects of the evolution of the starch biosynthetic pathway were observed.

  6. Influence of competition and rainfall manipulation on the growth responses of savanna trees and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    February, Edmund C; Higgins, Steven I; Bond, William J; Swemmer, Louise

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we explored how rainfall manipulation influenced competitive interactions between grasses and juvenile trees (small nonreproductive trees capable of resprouting) in savanna. To do this, we manipulated rainfall amount in the field using an incomplete factorial experiment that determined the effects of rainfall reduction, no manipulation, rainfall addition, and competition between grasses and trees on grass and tree growth. As response variables, we focused on several measures of tree growth and Disc Pasture Meter settling height as an estimate of grass aboveground biomass. We conducted the study over four years, at two sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results show that rainfall manipulation did not have substantial effects on any of the measures of tree growth we considered. However, trees at plots where grasses had been removed grew on average 15 cm more in height and 1.3-1.7 times more in basal area per year than those in plots with grasses. Grass biomass was not influenced by the presence of trees but was significantly and positively influenced by rainfall addition. These findings were not fundamentally influenced by soil type or by prevailing precipitation, suggesting applicability of our results to a wide range of savannas. Our results suggest that, in savannas, increasing rainfall serves to increase the competitive pressure exerted by grasses on trees. The implication is that recruitment into the adult tree stage from the juvenile stage is most likely in drought years when there is little competition from grass for resources and grass fuel loads are low.

  7. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a ‘water-spending’ behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a ‘water-saving’ nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  8. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  9. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  10. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  11. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  12. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of flower development in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczynska, Aleksandra; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots. Genes from all classes found in eudicots have been also identified in genomes of such monocots like rice, maize or barley. What's more, it seems that miRNA-mediated regulation of floral organ genes that was observed in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana also takes place in monocots. MiRNA172, miRNA159, miRNA171 and miRNA396 regulate expression of floral organ identity genes in barley, rice and maize, affecting various features of the flower structure, ranging from formation of lemma and palea to the development of reproductive organs. A model of floral development in grasses and its genetic regulation is not yet fully characterized. Further studies on both, the model eudicots and grasses, are needed to unravel this topic. This review provides general overview of genetic model of flower organ identity specification in monocots and it's miRNA-mediated regulation.

  13. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  14. Ladar System Identifies Obstacles Partly Hidden by Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Andres

    2003-01-01

    A ladar-based system now undergoing development is intended to enable an autonomous mobile robot in an outdoor environment to avoid moving toward trees, large rocks, and other obstacles that are partly hidden by tall grass. The design of the system incorporates the assumption that the robot is capable of moving through grass and provides for discrimination between grass and obstacles on the basis of geometric properties extracted from ladar readings as described below. The system (see figure) includes a ladar system that projects a range-measuring pulsed laser beam that has a small angular width of radians and is capable of measuring distances of reflective objects from a minimum of dmin to a maximum of dmax. The system is equipped with a rotating mirror that scans the beam through a relatively wide angular range of in a horizontal plane at a suitable small height above the ground. Successive scans are performed at time intervals of seconds. During each scan, the laser beam is fired at relatively small angular intervals of radians to make range measurements, so that the total number of range measurements acquired in a scan is Ne = / .

  15. Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douka, C.E.; Xenoulis, A.C. (National Centre for Scientific Research, Demokritos (Greece))

    1991-01-01

    The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g{sup -1} of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g{sup -1} of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author).

  16. EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

    2008-11-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site.

  17. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

    2005-12-01

    Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges.

  18. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  19. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  20. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall and site effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Truman P; Zefferman, Emily P; Vaughn, Kurt J; Fick, Stephen

    2014-12-05

    Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated (i) competition with exotic annual grasses, (ii) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times) and (iii) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73-99 % less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives 2 weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in (i) overall native cover, (ii) the response of natives to competition, (iii) the strength of the temporal priority effect and (iv) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities.

  1. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall and site effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Truman P.; Zefferman, Emily P.; Vaughn, Kurt J.; Fick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated (i) competition with exotic annual grasses, (ii) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times) and (iii) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73–99 % less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives 2 weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in (i) overall native cover, (ii) the response of natives to competition, (iii) the strength of the temporal priority effect and (iv) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities. PMID:25480888

  2. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  3. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  4. Energy, economic, and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  5. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  6. Chloroplast DNA inversions and the origin of the grass family (Poaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J.J.; Davis, J I; Soreng, R J; Garvin, D; Anderson, M J

    1992-01-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the grass family (Poaceae) have long been debated. The chloroplast genomes of at least some grasses have been known to possess three inversions relative to the typical gene arrangement found in most flowering plants. We have surveyed for the presence of these inversions in grasses and other monocots by polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers constructed from sequences flanking the inversion end points. Amplification phenotypes diagnostic for the lar...

  7. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ferreira Leão; Lisete Chamma Davide; José Marcello Salabert de Campos; Antonio Vander Pereira; Fernanda de Oliveira Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and pearl millet (P. glaucum). Tetraploid (AAA'B) and pentaploid (AA'A'BB) chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB) and pearl millet (AA) were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaplo...

  8. Preference for C4 shade grasses increases hatchling performance in the butterfly, Bicyclus safitza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokelainen, Ossi; Ripley, Brad S; van Bergen, Erik; Osborne, Colin P; Brakefield, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The Miocene radiation of C4 grasses under high-temperature and low ambient CO 2 levels occurred alongside the transformation of a largely forested landscape into savanna. This inevitably changed the host plant regime of herbivores, and the simultaneous diversification of many consumer lineages, including Bicyclus butterflies in Africa, suggests that the radiations of grasses and grazers may be evolutionary linked. We examined mechanisms for this plant-herbivore interaction with the grass-feeding Bicyclus safitza in South Africa. In a controlled environment, we tested oviposition preference and hatchling performance on local grasses with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways that grow either in open or shaded habitats. We predicted preference for C3 plants due to a hypothesized lower processing cost and higher palatability to herbivores. In contrast, we found that females preferred C4 shade grasses rather than either C4 grasses from open habitats or C3 grasses. The oviposition preference broadly followed hatchling performance, although hatchling survival was equally good on C4 or C3 shade grasses. This finding was explained by leaf toughness; shade grasses were softer than grasses from open habitats. Field monitoring revealed a preference of adults for shaded habitats, and stable isotope analysis of field-sampled individuals confirmed their preference for C4 grasses as host plants. Our findings suggest that plant-herbivore interactions can influence the direction of selection in a grass-feeding butterfly. Based on this work, we postulate future research to test whether these interactions more generally contribute to radiations in herbivorous insects via expansions into new, unexploited ecological niches.

  9. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  10. The Nitrogen Utilization in Sheep Fed Only Grass Diets in Either the Fresh or Dried Form

    OpenAIRE

    藤原, 勉

    1980-01-01

    In order to investigate the nitrogen utilization of grass diet in sheep, the present experiment was carried out using wethers fed only the fresh grass or hay prepared from the same origin. The results obtained were as follows ;13;1) The digestibilities of crude protein were almost the same in sheep after feedings of fresh grass and hay. The retained nitrogen per kg of metabolic body size was calculated as 0.30 and 0.25 g in feedings of fresh grass and hay, and these figures were corresponded ...

  11. Characterisation of dog sensitisation to grass pollen in western France from 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, A J J; Bruet, V; Bourdeau, P J

    2013-06-29

    Very few studies have investigated the seasonal aspect of grass pollen sensitisation or its evolution in the allergic canine population. The aim of this study was to evaluate both these aspects. A study of canine grass pollen sensitisation was performed throughout the statistical analysis of 261 intradermal skin testings (IDT=25 allergens tested on average) performed from January 1999 to December 2010. IDTs were performed on dogs with pruritic allergic skin disease. χ(2) Tests were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred and thirteen dogs (81.6 per cent) were sensitised to at least one allergen, and 56 (21.5 per cent) to at least one grass pollen. No increase in the rate of positive IDT was recorded over three periods: 1999-2002, 2003-2006 and 2007-2010. No statistical correlation was detected between sex, age or birth month and grass sensitisation. Moreover, no link was found between the season in which the IDT was performed and sensitisation, indicating that there is no seasonality to the sensitisation. However, considering the grasses tested over these three periods (grass mix and rye grass), a clear and significant increase in the percentage of dogs sensitised to grass pollen was observed between 1999-2002 and 2007-2010 (14.4 per cent and 27.7 per cent, respectively). The possible reasons for this sensitisation increase of dogs to grass pollen are discussed.

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability.

  13. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  14. Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes of tropical forest grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, K Lindsay; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Most studies examining endophytic fungi associated with grasses (Poaceae) have focused on agronomically important species in managed ecosystems or on wild grasses in subtropical, temperate and boreal grasslands. However grasses first arose in tropical forests, where they remain a significant and diverse component of understory and forest-edge communities. To provide a broader context for understanding grass-endophyte associations we characterized fungal endophyte communities inhabiting foliage of 11 species of phylogenetically diverse C(3) grasses in the understory of a lowland tropical forest at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Our sample included members of early-arising subfamilies of Poaceae that are endemic to forests, as well as more recently arising subfamilies that transitioned to open environments. Isolation on culture media and direct PCR and cloning revealed that these grasses harbor species-rich and phylogenetically diverse communities that lack the endophytic Clavicipitaceae known from diverse woodland and pasture grasses in the temperate zone. Both the incidence and diversity of endophytes was consistent among grass species regardless of subfamily, clade affiliation or ancestral habitat use. Genotype and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these endophytic fungi are predominantly host generalists, shared not only among distinctive lineages of Poaceae but also with non-grass plants at the same site.

  15. Effect of Mercury Deposition on Mercury Content and Distribution in Rye Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEISHIQIANG; J.SOMMAR; 等

    1997-01-01

    A grass(Italian rye grass)experiment with complete desing of three factos(Hg,grass and exposure)and two levels(with and withou the factor tested)was carried out in Goeteborg,Sweden from May to September,1995,toward understanding the effect of mercury deposition on plant Hg content and its distribution.It has been found that besides the two general pathways of Hg absorption,i.e.root uptake and foliar absorption,mercury deposition can aslo signifcantly incease Hg content and total load in grass.Such effects seem to be confined only within the above-ground parts of grass plant.Estimate has been made to make clear of the contributions of different pathways to Hg Content and total Hg load in the upper part of grass.Results showed that the contribution of Hg deposition accounted for 27%-32%,of Hg content in the above-ground parts of grass plant without adding Hg to the soil.decreasing with the increase of soil and/or air Hg concentrations.The increment of Hg load in the upper part of grass plant caused by Hg deposition during an interval of two weeks varied between 0.01-0.07μg pt-1,contributing to 17%-48% of the total Hg load in grass plant exposed.

  16. Canopy growth and density of Wyoming big sagebrush sown with cool-season perennial grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, A.L.; Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Williams, M.I. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

    2006-07-15

    Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. In 1999, we initiated a study at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, to evaluate the influence of grass competition on establishment and growth of Wyoming big sagebrush. Combinations of three sagebrush seeding rates (1, 2, and 4 kg pls ha{sup -1}) and seven cool-season perennial grass mixture seeding rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 kg pls ha{sup -1}) were seeded during winter 1998-1999. Shrub density and grass cover were assessed from 1999 to 2004. We monitored sagebrush canopy size in 2001, 2002, and 2004. All sagebrush seeding rates provided shrub densities (>=) 1 shrub m {sup -1} after six growing seasons. Grass production (>=) 75 g m{sup -2} was achieved by seeding grasses at 6 to 8 kg pls ha{sup -1}). Canopy growth of individual sagebrush plants was least in the heaviest grass seeding rate. Reduced grass seeding rates can aid in achieving Wyoming big sagebrush density standards and enhance shrub canopy growth.

  17. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Jacianelly Karla da Silva; Juliana Silva Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de Medeiros; Edson Mauro Santos; Tamires da Silva Magalhães; Alenice Ozino Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bra...

  18. Advances in research on Epichloë endophytes in Chinese native grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë fungal endophytes are broadly found in cool-season grasses. The symbiosis between these grasses and Epichloë may improve the abiotic and biotic resistance of the grass plant, but some Epichloë species produce alkaloids that are toxic for livestock. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the grass-Epichloë s symbiosis so that the beneficial aspects can be preserved and the toxic effects to livestock can be avoided. Since the 1990s, Chinese researchers have conducted a series of studies on grass-Epichloë symbiosis. In this review, we describe the current state of Epichloë endophyte research in Chinese native grasses. We found that more than 77 species of native grasses in China are associated with Epichloë endophytes. In addition, we review the effects of various Epichloë species on native grass responses to abiotic and biotic stress, phylogeny, and alkaloid production. We provide an overview of the study of Epichloë species on native grasses in China and directions for future research.

  19. Advances in Research on Epichloë endophytes in Chinese Native Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Nan, Zhibiao; Song, Qiuyan; Xia, Chao; Li, Xiuzhang; Yao, Xiang; Xu, Wenbo; Kuang, Yu; Tian, Pei; Zhang, Qingping

    2016-01-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes are broadly found in cool-season grasses. The symbiosis between these grasses and Epichloë may improve the abiotic and biotic resistance of the grass plant, but some Epichloë species produce alkaloids that are toxic for livestock. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the grass-Epichloë s symbiosis so that the beneficial aspects can be preserved and the toxic effects to livestock can be avoided. Since the 1990s, Chinese researchers have conducted a series of studies on grass-Epichloë symbiosis. In this review, we describe the current state of Epichloë endophyte research in Chinese native grasses. We found that more than 77 species of native grasses in China are associated with Epichloë endophytes. In addition, we review the effects of various Epichloë species on native grass responses to abiotic and biotic stress, phylogeny, and alkaloid production. We provide an overview of the study of Epichloë species on native grasses in China and directions for future research.

  20. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  1. Estimating the energy requirements and CO{sub 2} emissions from production of the perennial grasses miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.; Metcalfe, P.

    2001-07-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus, reed canary and swithchgrass have attractions as energy crops in the United Kingdom: all have low demand for fertilizer and pesticide, and are harvested annually. Research on energy ratios and carbon ratios of the grasses is reported. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed (from an ADAS database) and the input calculations and assumptions are explained. The study demonstrated the attractions of theses grasses as a source of fuel. The results agreed with those from a model developed for the SRC.

  2. Biomass Partitioning Following Defoliation of Annual and Perennial Mediterranean Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No'am Seligman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted in northeastern Israel to study the effects of various defoliation regimes on biomass partitioning between vegetative and reproductive structures in a perennial and an annual Mediterranean grass. Greater insight into the mechanisms regulating biomass partitioning after defoliation enables ecologists and rangeland managers to interpret and predict population and community dynamics in Mediterranean grasslands more efficiently. Two typical Mediterranean grasses, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual species, and Hordeum bulbosum, a perennial species, were grown in containers in the open. They were subjected to a series of defoliation treatments that comprised three clipping frequencies and three clipping heights in a full factorial combination. In addition, individuals of both species were sampled in the field, in paddocks that were grazed, and in a control exclosure that was closed to grazing during the growing season. The experiment was conducted over two growing seasons, one unusually dry and one unusually wet. The clipping treatments invariably caused a reduction in the amount of biomass partitioned to the reproductive organs, but had little effect on the vegetative components of the plants. Greater tillering following defoliation compensated, to a large degree, for the loss of photosynthetic biomass following defoliation. The effect of grazing on biomass partitioning was much lower than the effect of clipping. Under grazing, the investment in reproductive biomass was considerably higher than when the grasses were clipped. The results of this experiment help to elucidate the reasons for the persistence of these species and, especially, for the dominance of Hordeum bulbosum in many eastern Mediterranean grasslands.

  3. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  4. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.

    1977-11-01

    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  5. Insular organization of gene space in grass genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Andrea; Müller, Hans-Georg; Massa, Alicia N; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Deal, Karin R; You, Frank M; Xu, Xiangyang; Gu, Yong Q; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Anderson, Olin D; Chan, Agnes P; Rabinowicz, Pablo; Devos, Katrien M; Dvorak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Wheat and maize genes were hypothesized to be clustered into islands but the hypothesis was not statistically tested. The hypothesis is statistically tested here in four grass species differing in genome size, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, and Aegilops tauschii. Density functions obtained under a model where gene locations follow a homogeneous Poisson process and thus are not clustered are compared with a model-free situation quantified through a non-parametric density estimate. A simple homogeneous Poisson model for gene locations is not rejected for the small O. sativa and B. distachyon genomes, indicating that genes are distributed largely uniformly in those species, but is rejected for the larger S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii genomes, providing evidence for clustering of genes into islands. It is proposed to call the gene islands "gene insulae" to distinguish them from other types of gene clustering that have been proposed. An average S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii insula is estimated to contain 3.7 and 3.9 genes with an average intergenic distance within an insula of 2.1 and 16.5 kb, respectively. Inter-insular distances are greater than 8 and 81 kb and average 15.1 and 205 kb, in S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A greater gene density observed in the distal regions of the Ae. tauschii chromosomes is shown to be primarily caused by shortening of inter-insular distances. The comparison of the four grass genomes suggests that gene locations are largely a function of a homogeneous Poisson process in small genomes. Nonrandom insertions of LTR retroelements during genome expansion creates gene insulae, which become less dense and further apart with the increase in genome size. High concordance in relative lengths of orthologous intergenic distances among the investigated genomes including the maize genome suggests functional constraints on gene distribution in the grass genomes.

  6. Insular organization of gene space in grass genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gottlieb

    Full Text Available Wheat and maize genes were hypothesized to be clustered into islands but the hypothesis was not statistically tested. The hypothesis is statistically tested here in four grass species differing in genome size, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, and Aegilops tauschii. Density functions obtained under a model where gene locations follow a homogeneous Poisson process and thus are not clustered are compared with a model-free situation quantified through a non-parametric density estimate. A simple homogeneous Poisson model for gene locations is not rejected for the small O. sativa and B. distachyon genomes, indicating that genes are distributed largely uniformly in those species, but is rejected for the larger S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii genomes, providing evidence for clustering of genes into islands. It is proposed to call the gene islands "gene insulae" to distinguish them from other types of gene clustering that have been proposed. An average S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii insula is estimated to contain 3.7 and 3.9 genes with an average intergenic distance within an insula of 2.1 and 16.5 kb, respectively. Inter-insular distances are greater than 8 and 81 kb and average 15.1 and 205 kb, in S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A greater gene density observed in the distal regions of the Ae. tauschii chromosomes is shown to be primarily caused by shortening of inter-insular distances. The comparison of the four grass genomes suggests that gene locations are largely a function of a homogeneous Poisson process in small genomes. Nonrandom insertions of LTR retroelements during genome expansion creates gene insulae, which become less dense and further apart with the increase in genome size. High concordance in relative lengths of orthologous intergenic distances among the investigated genomes including the maize genome suggests functional constraints on gene distribution in the grass genomes.

  7. Men are grass: Bateson, Erickson, utilization and metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Andrew E

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between metaphor and the practice of utilization in therapy and hypnosis can be seen as dependent on metaphor's role in structuring experience. The work of Gregory Bateson and others is used to illustrate how metaphor functions. Bateson's comparison of two forms of syllogistic logic provides a background for distinguishing between the experiential effects of metaphor in contrast to the categorical thinking inherent in simile and analogy. Clinical examples are given to demonstrate how utilization is structured by metaphor, particularly as Bateson has described it in his analysis of the Syllogism in Grass.

  8. Torrefaction of pellets from reed canary grass and softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Pommer, Linda; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    In this work an energy crop, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied in comparison with Norway Spruce (NS ) when treated in a torrefaction process. In the torrefaction process biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere (250-340 deg C) and physical and chemical characteristics are then enhanced and the product becomes more similar to coal. Co-firing of torrefied biomass with coal in existing CHP plants, and gasification of torrefied biomass has recently been demonstrated in industrial scale with positive results.

  9. Grass Valley K2媒体服务器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thomson推出Profile存储设备系列Grass Valley K2媒体服务器和媒体客户端系统。支持以IT为中心、文档为基础的播出和传输工作流程,简化了安装和操作过程,实现了以文档为基础的无限制工作流程,并提供更高水准的网络控制,性价比高。

  10. Evaluating nitrogen utilization efficiency of nonpregnant dry cows offered solely fresh cut grass at maintenance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Chen, X J; Allen, M; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization and develop prediction equations for manure N output (MN), feces N output (FN), and urine N output (UN). Data were obtained under a series of digestibility trials with nonpregnant dry cows fed fresh grass at maintenance level. Grass was cut from 8 different ryegrass swards measured from early to late maturity in 2007 and 2008 (2 primary growth, 3 first regrowth, and 3 second regrowth) and from 2 primary growth early maturity swards in 2009. Each grass was offered to a group of 4 cows and 2 groups were used in each of the 8 swards in 2007 and 2008 for daily measurements over 6 wk; the first group (first 3 wk) and the second group (last 3 wk) assessed early and late maturity grass, respectively. Average values of continuous 3-d data of N intake (NI) and output for individual cows ( = 464) and grass nutrient contents ( = 116) were used in the statistical analysis. Grass N content was positively related to GE and ME contents but negatively related to grass water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), NDF, and ADF contents ( grass WSC contents and ratios of N:WSC, N:digestible OM in total DM (DOMD), and N:ME ( grass N contents and lower grass WSC, NDF, ADF, DOMD, and ME concentrations were significantly associated with greater MN, FN, and UN ( grass lower in N and greater in fermentable energy in animals fed solely fresh grass at maintenance level can improve N utilization, reduce N outputs, and shift part of N excretion toward feces rather than urine. These outcomes are highly desirable in mitigation strategies to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from livestock. Equations predicting N output from BW and grass N content explained a similar amount of variability as using NI and grass chemical composition (excluding DOMD and ME), implying that parameters easily measurable in practice could be used for estimating N outputs. In a research environment, where grass DOMD and ME are likely to be available, their

  11. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

  12. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  13. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  14. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  15. Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Low

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. Animal production from these B. decumbens pastures is highly variable due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated with low growth rates of young animals, anorexia and wasting. The identification of B. decumbens toxicity through clinical signs may grossly underestimate the impact and severity of the disease. Affected animals without clinical signs have elevated serum liver enzyme concentrations resulting from blockage of the bile ducts by birefringent crystals, identified as calcium salts of steroidal saponins found in leaves and stems. The concentrations of the steroidal saponins vary through the year and within the plant. Young, green leaves contain 5–10 times the saponin concentration of mature leaves indicating that B. decumbens pastures are likely to be more toxic during sprouting and early growth. Previous exposure, selective grazing, and avoiding toxic leaves may partly explain apparent resistance of some animals to B. decumbens toxicity. Further research is needed to define growing conditions that produce elevated saponin levels and to investigate the impact of B. decumbens on rumen function.

  16. Red edge shift and biochemical content in grass canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Onisimo; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    The concentration of foliar nitrogen in tropical grass is one of the factors that explain the distribution of wildlife. Therefore, the remote sensing of foliar nitrogen contributes to a better understanding of wildlife feeding patterns. This study evaluated changes in the red edge position of the 680 nm continuum removed chlorophyll feature in the reflectance spectra of samples of Cenchus ciliaris grass grown in a greenhouse under three levels of nitrogen supply. Canopy spectral measurements from each treatment were recorded under controlled laboratory conditions over a four-week period using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer. Results indicate that the mean wavelength positions of the three fertilization treatments were statistically different. An increase in nitrogen supply yielded a shift in the red edge position to longer wavelengths. The red edge position, amplitude, slope at 713 nm and slope at 725 nm were significantly correlated to measured nitrogen concentration (bootstrapped r = 0.89, - 0.28, 0.63 and 0.75, respectively) even at canopy level. Based on these results, the red edge position is strongly correlated with biochemical concentration in plants compared to the other methods tested. The study provides conclusive evidence that confirms the strength of a red edge-nitrogen relationship that remains underused in remote sensing. This method is promising for estimating nutrient content in grasslands.

  17. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  18. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  19. Molecular dating, evolutionary rates, and the age of the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Osborne, Colin P; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Salamin, Nicolas; Edwards, Erika J

    2014-03-01

    Many questions in evolutionary biology require an estimate of divergence times but, for groups with a sparse fossil record, such estimates rely heavily on molecular dating methods. The accuracy of these methods depends on both an adequate underlying model and the appropriate implementation of fossil evidence as calibration points. We explore the effect of these in Poaceae (grasses), a diverse plant lineage with a very limited fossil record, focusing particularly on dating the early divergences in the group. We show that molecular dating based on a data set of plastid markers is strongly dependent on the model assumptions. In particular, an acceleration of evolutionary rates at the base of Poaceae followed by a deceleration in the descendants strongly biases methods that assume an autocorrelation of rates. This problem can be circumvented by using markers that have lower rate variation, and we show that phylogenetic markers extracted from complete nuclear genomes can be a useful complement to the more commonly used plastid markers. However, estimates of divergence times remain strongly affected by different implementations of fossil calibration points. Analyses calibrated with only macrofossils lead to estimates for the age of core Poaceae ∼51-55 Ma, but the inclusion of microfossil evidence pushes this age to 74-82 Ma and leads to lower estimated evolutionary rates in grasses. These results emphasize the importance of considering markers from multiple genomes and alternative fossil placements when addressing evolutionary issues that depend on ages estimated for important groups.

  20. Competition for water between deep- and shallow-rooted grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.L.; Black, R.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)); Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Competition between root systems of neighboring plants may be altered by seasonal variation in precipitation and soil moisture. Competitive effects of a deep-rooted, perennial grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata, on a shallow-rooted, perennial grass, Poa sandbergii, were monitored over two growing seasons by isolating the root system of P. sandbergii individuals within PVC tubes and comparing plant and soil characteristics to controls. When isolated for the entire growing season, P. sandbergii continued vegetative growth three weeks longer and later season soil water content was significantly greater than controls. Differences in soil water content were greatest between 30 and 50cm, below P. sandbergii's typical rooting depth. Flowering phenology was unchanged. When plants were isolated late in the season, treated plants showed more negative predown xylem pressure potential the morning after isolatron. Compared to controls, soil water content was reduced the day after tube insertion. These immediate effects on plant and soil water status may be due to removal of water supplied nightly by hydraulic lift.

  1. Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed. Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The one with highest (R2 and lowest (MBE and (RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C and three humidities (30, 40 and 50% were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

  2. Biogas from grass silage - Measurements and modeling with ADM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Lübken, Manfred; Gehring, Tito; Wichern, Marc; Horn, Harald

    2010-11-01

    Mono fermentation of grass silage without the addition of manure was performed over a period of 345days under mesophilic conditions (38 degrees C). A simulation study based on the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was done in order to show its applicability to lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the influent was fractioned by established fodder analysis (Weender analysis and van Soest method). ADM1 was modified with a separate compound of inert decay products similar to the approach of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). Furthermore, a function, which described the influence of solids on the process of hydrolysis, has been integrated to reproduce reliable ammonium concentrations. The model was calibrated by using the modified Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient to evaluate simulation quality. It was possible to fit observed data by changing only hydrogen inhibition constants and the maximum acetate uptake rate. The extended ADM1 model showed good agreement with measurements and was suitable for modeling anaerobic digestion of grass silage.

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen affected by perennial grass, cover crop, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil C and N sequestration and the potential for N leaching can be influenced by the type of perennial grass, cover crop, and N fertilization due to differences in crop yields and the amount of residue returned to the soil. We evaluated the effects of the combinations of perennial grasses (energy ca...

  4. Anti-Insect Properties of Grass Fungal Endophytes for Plant Resistance to Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many temperate grass species host Epichloë and Neotyphodium endophytic fungi that produce alkaloids with anti-mammalian and anti-insect properties. Ergot and lolitrem alkaloid production by endophyte-infected (E+) grasses can have deleterious effects on grazing livestock, whereas insecticidal alkal...

  5. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium tembladerae and Neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  6. Studies on the influence of some auxin herbicides on grass-seed crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, K.M.

    1960-01-01

    Applications of 2,4-D or MCPA may cause malformations in the initiated leaves of both grasses and cereals, during vegetative stages of development. 2,4,5-TP also caused malformations in stems and leaves, but only after the plants started to shoot. By their strong tillering the reaction of grasses to

  7. Root lifespans of four grass species from habitats differing in nutrient availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krift, van der T.A.J.; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    1. In grass species that occur in pastures or hay meadows, life spans of roots determine much of the carbon and nutrient loss from the plant in addition to the amounts that are lost by mowing or grazing. We hypothesized that grass species from nutrient-poor habitats had longer root life spans and co

  8. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, J.W.; Mostacedo, B.; Peña-Claros, M.; Putz, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr af

  9. Characterization of an alkali-treated grass fiber by thermogravimetric and X-ray crystallographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Debasish; De, Debapriya

    2008-01-01

    The thermal behavior of grass fiber was characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results proved that the removal of water-soluble matter improved the thermal behavior of grass fiber over that of unleached fiber, and this was further enh

  10. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lobbying communications. 56.4911-3 Section 56.4911-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT....4911-3 Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term... lobbying communication's costs is a direct lobbying expenditure, what portion is a grass roots...

  11. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity must keep a record of its lobbying expenditures for the taxable year. Lobbying expenditures of which...

  12. Quality evaluation of signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha ensiled with forage as tannin source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Santoso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on examining the possibility of using three kinds of plant leaves i.e. Acacia mangium Willd, Persea americana Mill and Psidium guajava as tannin source to signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha silage. The silages were made from the first cut of signal grass harvested at 50 days. Four treatment silages were TA: grass ensiled without tannin as control, AM: grass ensiled with A. mangium (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, PA: grass ensiled with P. americana (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, and PG: grass ensiled with P. guajava (6 g tannin/kg fresh weight. After mixing, the materials were packed into glass bottle silos (225 g capacity, in triplicate, which were ensiled for 30 days. The results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations in signal grass silage mixed with tannin of A. mangium were higher (P<0.01 compared to other silages. Degradations of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein during ensiling were the lowest in silage with A. mangium tannin additive. This data was supported by good fermentation quality of that silage e.g. low pH value, NH3-N and VFA concentrations, and high lactic acid concentration and Fleigh point as compared to other silages. It is concluded that addition of tannin from A. mangium leaf at rate of 6 g/kg fresh weight improved fermentation quality and has potential as protein protection agents during the ensilage of signal grass.

  13. Causes of variation in fatty acid content and composition in grass and maize silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Fievez, V.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the variation in fatty acid (FA) content and composition in grass and maize silages and to identify key management factors during plant growth and the ensiling process that cause this variation. Samples of grass (n = 101) and maize (n = 96) silages were randomly

  14. Rumen fermentation profile and intestinal digestibility of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    Maize and grass silages are commonly used as major feed materials for dairy cows in Europe and are becoming common parts of dairy cow rations in other parts of the world. Thenutritive value of maize and grass silages varies greatly due to variation in chemical composition. A combination of different

  15. Preliminary study on three pathogens with potential biological control in Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus galli)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ More than 10 species of pathogenic fungi were isolated from the naturally infected leaves of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in paddy. After preliminary bioassaying, it was found that the Alternaria alternata (Fr.) keissler(AA), Exserohilum monoceras (EM),and "99-10" were three potential agents for biological control of barnyard grass.

  16. Grass Hosts Harbor More Diverse Isolates of Puccinia striiformis Than Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P; Chen, X M; See, D R

    2016-04-01

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on cereal crops and many grass species. However, it is not clear whether the stripe rust populations on grasses are able to infect cereal crops and how closely they are related to each other. In this study, 103 isolates collected from wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and grasses in the United States were characterized by virulence tests and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of 69 pathotypes identified, 41 were virulent on some differentials of wheat only, 10 were virulent on some differentials of barley only, and 18 were virulent on some differentials of both wheat and barley. These pathotypes were clustered into three groups: group one containing isolates from wheat, triticale, rye, and grasses; group two isolates were from barley and grasses; and group three isolates were from grasses and wheat. SSR markers identified 44 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and clustered them into three major molecular groups (MG) with MLGs in MG3 further classified into three subgroups. Isolates from cereal crops were present in one or more of the major or subgroups, but not all, whereas grass isolates were present in all of the major and subgroups. The results indicate that grasses harbor more diverse isolates of P. striiformis than the cereals.

  17. What Makes Responses Prepotent for Young Children? Insights from the Grass-Snow Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how responses become prepotent is essential for understanding when inhibitory control is needed in everyday behaviour. We investigated prepotency in the grass-snow task--in which a child points to a green card when the experimenter says "snow" and a white card when the experimenter says "grass". Experiment 1 (n =…

  18. Transcriptome sequencing identifies novel persistent viruses in herbicide resistant wild-grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadin, Federico; Glover, Rachel; Stafford, Rebecca; Rozado-Aguirre, Zuriñe; Boonham, Neil; Adams, Ian; Mumford, Rick; Edwards, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Herbicide resistance in wild grasses is widespread in the UK, with non-target site resistance (NTSR) to multiple chemistries being particularly problematic in weed control. As a complex trait, NTSR is driven by complex evolutionary pressures and the growing awareness of the role of the phytobiome in plant abiotic stress tolerance, led us to sequence the transcriptomes of herbicide resistant and susceptible populations of black-grass and annual rye-grass for the presence of endophytes. Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides; Am) populations, displaying no overt disease symptoms, contained three previously undescribed viruses belonging to the Partititiviridae (AMPV1 and AMPV2) and Rhabdoviridae (AMVV1) families. These infections were widespread in UK black-grass populations and evidence was obtained for similar viruses being present in annual rye grass (Lolium rigidum), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis). In black-grass, while no direct causative link was established linking viral infection to herbicide resistance, transcriptome sequencing showed a high incidence of infection in the NTSR Peldon population. The widespread infection of these weeds by little characterised and persistent viruses and their potential evolutionary role in enhancing plant stress tolerance mechanisms including NTSR warrants further investigation. PMID:28165016

  19. Translational Genomics for Bioenergy Production from Fuelstock Grasses: Maize as the Model Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeting U.S. and world energy needs using biofuels rests on our ability to improve grasses that use the efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway in which carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms sustain high biomass production, particularly when water is limiting. Today two C4 grasses yield substantial e...

  20. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  1. The Occurrence of Balansioid Endophytes in Georgia, Florida, and Southern Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of toxic fungal endophytes of grasses were detailed in terms of their morphology and taxonomy in detailed slides useful for identification of the little know species of Balansia or clavicipitalean fungi that are found on southern pasture and weed grass species. We have established as ...

  2. Transcriptome sequencing identifies novel persistent viruses in herbicide resistant wild-grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadin, Federico; Glover, Rachel; Stafford, Rebecca; Rozado-Aguirre, Zuriñe; Boonham, Neil; Adams, Ian; Mumford, Rick; Edwards, Robert

    2017-02-06

    Herbicide resistance in wild grasses is widespread in the UK, with non-target site resistance (NTSR) to multiple chemistries being particularly problematic in weed control. As a complex trait, NTSR is driven by complex evolutionary pressures and the growing awareness of the role of the phytobiome in plant abiotic stress tolerance, led us to sequence the transcriptomes of herbicide resistant and susceptible populations of black-grass and annual rye-grass for the presence of endophytes. Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides; Am) populations, displaying no overt disease symptoms, contained three previously undescribed viruses belonging to the Partititiviridae (AMPV1 and AMPV2) and Rhabdoviridae (AMVV1) families. These infections were widespread in UK black-grass populations and evidence was obtained for similar viruses being present in annual rye grass (Lolium rigidum), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis). In black-grass, while no direct causative link was established linking viral infection to herbicide resistance, transcriptome sequencing showed a high incidence of infection in the NTSR Peldon population. The widespread infection of these weeds by little characterised and persistent viruses and their potential evolutionary role in enhancing plant stress tolerance mechanisms including NTSR warrants further investigation.

  3. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  4. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics o

  5. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have a significant influence on a range of crop and soil parameters (Hamza & Anderson, 2005; Raper, 2005). For grass and especially clover, the yield response is negative as a function of traffic intensity (e.g. Frost, 1988).  During the growing season, conventional grass-clov...

  6. Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Postma, J; Ketelaars, J.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that im

  7. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have bee

  8. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  9. Disaggregating tree and grass phenology in tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Savannas are mixed tree-grass systems and as one of the world's largest biomes represent an important component of the Earth system affecting water and energy balances, carbon sequestration and biodiversity as well as supporting large human populations. Savanna vegetation structure and its distribution, however, may change because of major anthropogenic disturbances from climate change, wildfire, agriculture, and livestock production. The overstory and understory may have different water use strategies, different nutrient requirements and have different responses to fire and climate variation. The accurate measurement of the spatial distribution and structure of the overstory and understory are essential for understanding the savanna ecosystem. This project developed a workflow for separating the dynamics of the overstory and understory fractional cover in savannas at the continental scale (Australia, South America, and Africa). Previous studies have successfully separated the phenology of Australian savanna vegetation into persistent and seasonal greenness using time series decomposition, and into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS) using linear unmixing. This study combined these methods to separate the understory and overstory signal in both the green and senescent phenological stages using remotely sensed imagery from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. The methods and parameters were adjusted based on the vegetation variation. The workflow was first tested at the Australian site. Here the PV estimates for overstory and understory showed best performance, however NPV estimates exhibited spatial variation in validation relationships. At the South American site (Cerrado), an additional method based on frequency unmixing was developed to separate green vegetation components with similar phenology. When the decomposition and frequency methods were compared, the frequency

  10. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  11. THE POPULATION OF BACTERIA AND CO2 RELEASE ON PROCESS OF COMPOSTING MANURE AND SWAMP GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Utama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the bacteria population, the release of CO2, pH and organic-C and total-N in the process of compost made from manure and swamp grass. Treatment level consist of 100% manure (K100, 50% of manure + 50% swamp grass (K50R50, 25% of manure + 75% swamp grass (K25R75, and 10% of manure + 90% swamp grass (K10R90. The result of this study indicated the dynamic of different bacteria population on different composting materials by increasing of the composting time. The release of CO2 decrease on all treatment levels by increasing of the composting time. The pH value increased at all levels of treatment, except the composition of 100% manure. The best composition obtained by mixing of 10% manure and 90% swamp grass.

  12. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  13. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae...... to the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale...... of a complex evolutionary history including birth of an ice binding domain, a burst of gene duplication events after cold tolerant grasses radiated from rice, protein domain structure differentiation between paralogs, and sub- and/or neofunctionalisation of IRI-like proteins. From our sequence analysis we...

  14. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline A. E. Strömberg

    2005-01-01

    Because of a dearth of Cenozoic grass fossils, the timing of the taxonomic diversification of modern subclades within the grass family (Poaceae) and the rise to ecological dominance of open-habitat grasses remain obscure. Here, I present data from 99 Eocene to Miocene phytolith assemblages from the North American continental interior (Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana/Idaho), constituting the only high-resolution mid-Cenozoic record of grasses. Analyses of these assemblages show that o...

  15. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  16. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  17. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19 Animals... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises...

  18. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  19. Evolutionary history of chloridoid grasses estimated from 122 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amanda E; Hasenstab, Kristen M; Bell, Hester L; Blaine, Ellen; Ingram, Amanda L; Columbus, J Travis

    2016-12-01

    Chloridoideae (chloridoid grasses) are a subfamily of ca. 1700 species with high diversity in arid habitats. Until now, their evolutionary relationships have primarily been studied with DNA sequences from the chloroplast, a maternally inherited organelle. Next-generation sequencing is able to efficiently recover large numbers of nuclear loci that can then be used to estimate the species phylogeny based upon bi-parentally inherited data. We sought to test our chloroplast-based hypotheses of relationships among chloridoid species with 122 nuclear loci generated through targeted-enrichment next-generation sequencing, sometimes referred to as hyb-seq. We targeted putative single-copy housekeeping genes, as well as genes that have been implicated in traits characteristic of, or particularly labile in, chloridoids: e.g., drought and salt tolerance. We recovered ca. 70% of the targeted loci (122 of 177 loci) in all 47 species sequenced using hyb-seq. We then analyzed the nuclear loci with Bayesian and coalescent methods and the resulting phylogeny resolves relationships between the four chloridoid tribes. Several novel findings with this data were: the sister lineage to Chloridoideae is unresolved; Centropodia+Ellisochloa are excluded from Chloridoideae in phylogenetic estimates using a coalescent model; Sporobolus subtilis is more closely related to Eragrostis than to other species of Sporobolus; and Tragus is more closely related to Chloris and relatives than to a lineage of mainly New World species. Relationships in Cynodonteae in the nuclear phylogeny are quite different from chloroplast estimates, but were not robust to changes in the method of phylogenetic analysis. We tested the data signal with several partition schemes, a concatenation analysis, and tests of alternative hypotheses to assess our confidence in this new, nuclear estimate of evolutionary relationships. Our work provides markers and a framework for additional phylogenetic studies that sample more

  20. Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin, E-mail: nchopra@eng.ua.edu; Wu, Junchi; Shi, Wenwu

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (∼10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous

  1. Convergent and contingent community responses to grass source and dominance during prairie restoration across a longitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopf, Ryan P; Baer, Sara G; Gibson, David J

    2014-02-01

    Restoring prairie on formerly cultivated land begins by selecting propagule seed sources and the diversity of species to reintroduce. This study examined the effects of dominant grass propagule source (cultivar vs. non-cultivar) and sown propagule diversity (grass:forb sowing ratio) on plant community structure. Two field experiments were established in Kansas and Illinois consisting of identical split plot designs. Dominant grass source was assigned as the whole-plot factor, and sown dominance of grasses (five levels of seeded grass dominance) as the subplot factor. Species density, cover, and diversity were quantified for 5 years. The effect of dominant grass source on the cover of focal grasses, sown species, and volunteer species was contingent upon location, with variation between dominant grass sources observed exclusively in Kansas. Species density and diversity showed regionally convergent patterns in response to dominant grass source. Contrary to our hypotheses, total species density and diversity were not lower in the presence of grass cultivars, the grass source we had predicted would be more competitive. Sown grass dominance effects on the cover of the focal grass species were contingent upon location resulting from establishment corresponding better to the assigned treatments in Illinois. All other cover groups showed regionally convergent patterns, with lower cover of volunteers and higher cover of sown forbs, diversity, and species density in the lowest sown grass dominance treatment in both sites. Thus, decisions regarding the diversity of propagules to reintroduce had more consequence for plant community structure than cultivar or non-cultivar source of dominant grasses.

  2. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  3. REVISITANDO WOUNDED KNEE EM GREEN GRASS, RUNNING WATER.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho investiga de que maneira a história tem sido colocada dentro da literatura, no caso específico do texto literário pós-moderno. As complexidades de troca entre história, ficção (estória) e narrativas de vida em Green grass, running water são analisadas a partir de uma série de formulações. O “Massacre de Wounded Knee”, Dakota do Sul, de 1890, e seu desdobramento, a “Batalha em Wounded Knee”, que ocorreu na década de 1970, são os episódios históricos analisados a partir da perspec...

  4. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project......Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods......, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment...

  5. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  6. Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 3. Species on monocots (Poaceae, true grasses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Nakashima, Chiharu

    2015-06-01

    The third part of a series of monographic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat., Mycosphaerellaceae, Ascomycota) continues with a treatment of taxa on monocots (Liliopsida; Equisetopsida, Magnoliidae, Lilianae), covering asexual and holomorph species with mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs on true grasses (Poaceae), which were excluded from the second part. The species concerned are keyed out, alphabetically listed, described, illustrated and supplemented by references to previously published descriptions, illustrations, and exsiccatae. A key to the recognised genera and a discussion of taxonomically relevant characters was published in the first part of this series. Several species are lecto- or neotypified. The following taxonomic novelties are introduced: Cercospora barretoana comb. nov., C. cymbopogonicola nom. nov., Cladosporium elymi comb. nov., Passalora agrostidicola sp. nov., P. brachyelytri comb. nov., and P. dichanthii-annulati comb. nov.

  7. Availability of grasses, weeds and leaves as energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osadolor, Odia O. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State (Nigeria)

    2009-03-15

    The forest and savanna are already denuded of trees, hence this study focused on grasses, weeds and leaves as a possible source of sustainable, highly renewable replacement for wood as an energy source. A study of the availability and productivity of the material across Nigeria showed that it varies from 381 g/m{sup 2} a in Gombe, 732 g/m{sup 2} a in Ekpoma, 610 g/m{sup 2} a in Auchi to 1421 g/m{sup 2} a in the Benue-Plateau forest of Jos area. The turnover rate was, however, positive across the country ranging from 0.097 to 0.130 while the annual incremental yield varied from 26 g to 402 g. (author)

  8. High-value renewable energy from prairie grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin Jr, Samuel B [ORNL; De La Torre Ugarte, D. [University of Tennessee; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Sanderson, M. [USDA ARS; Tolbert, Virginia R [ORNL; Wolf, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2002-05-01

    Projected economic benefits of renewable energy derived from a native prairie grass, switchgrass, include nonmarket values that can reduce net fuel costs to near zero. At a farm gate price of $44.00/dry Mg, an agricultural sector model predicts higher profits for switchgrass than conventional crops on 16.9 million hectares (ha). Benefits would include an annual increase of $6 billion in net farm returns, a $1.86 billion reduction in government subsidies, and displacement of 44-159 Tg/year (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g) of greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporating these values into the pricing structure for switchgrass bioenergy could accelerate commercialization and provide net benefits to the U.S. economy.

  9. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize current knowledge about grass buffers for protecting small, isolated wetlands in agricultural contexts, including information relevant to protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants, and information on how buffers may affect densities and productivity of grassland birds. Land-uses surrounding the approximately 60,000 playas within the Playa Lakes Region (PLR), including intensive agriculture, feedlots, and oil extraction, can contribute to severe degradation of playas. Farming and grazing can lead to significant sedimentation in nearby playas, eliminating their ability to hold water, support the region’s biodiversity, or adequately recharge aquifers. Contaminants further degrade habitats and threaten the water quality of underlying aquifers, including the Ogallala Aquifer.

  10. Processing Uav and LIDAR Point Clouds in Grass GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Petrasova, A.; Jeziorska, J.; Mitasova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Today's methods of acquiring Earth surface data, namely lidar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, non-selectively collect or generate large amounts of points. Point clouds from different sources vary in their properties such as number of returns, density, or quality. We present a set of tools with applications for different types of points clouds obtained by a lidar scanner, structure from motion technique (SfM), and a low-cost 3D scanner. To take advantage of the vertical structure of multiple return lidar point clouds, we demonstrate tools to process them using 3D raster techniques which allow, for example, the development of custom vegetation classification methods. Dense point clouds obtained from UAV imagery, often containing redundant points, can be decimated using various techniques before further processing. We implemented and compared several decimation techniques in regard to their performance and the final digital surface model (DSM). Finally, we will describe the processing of a point cloud from a low-cost 3D scanner, namely Microsoft Kinect, and its application for interaction with physical models. All the presented tools are open source and integrated in GRASS GIS, a multi-purpose open source GIS with remote sensing capabilities. The tools integrate with other open source projects, specifically Point Data Abstraction Library (PDAL), Point Cloud Library (PCL), and OpenKinect libfreenect2 library to benefit from the open source point cloud ecosystem. The implementation in GRASS GIS ensures long term maintenance and reproducibility by the scientific community but also by the original authors themselves.

  11. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  12. Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, Gautam; Baird, Lisa M; Mitchell, Robert B

    2014-03-01

    Perennial, temperate, C4 grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these species for biomass production on marginal lands, numerous aspects of their biology are as yet unexplored at the molecular level. Perenniality, a key agronomic trait, is a function of plant dormancy and winter survival of the below-ground parts of the plants. These include the crowns, rhizomes and meristems that will produce tillers. Maintaining meristem viability is critical for the continued survival of the plants. Plant tillers emerge from the dormant crown and rhizome meristems at the start of the growing period in the spring, progress through a phase of vegetative growth, followed by flowering and eventually undergo senescence. There is nutrient mobilization from the aerial portions of the plant to the crowns and rhizomes during tiller senescence. Signals arising from the shoots and from the environment can be expected to be integrated as the plants enter into dormancy. Plant senescence and dormancy have been well studied in several dicot species and offer a potential framework to understand these processes in temperate C4 perennial grasses. The availability of latitudinally adapted populations for switchgrass presents an opportunity to dissect molecular mechanisms that can impact senescence, dormancy and winter survival. Given the large increase in genomic and other resources for switchgrass, it is anticipated that projected molecular studies with switchgrass will have a broader impact on related species.

  13. Glucose Metabolism in Sheep Fed Grass Supplemented with Gliricidia Sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Widiawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritivefeed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionat and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteen sheeps (18 months old were used in the experiment. Theseare were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group, Gliricidia(GS group, and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group. D-[U-14C]glucoseinfusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps. The measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01. Glucose entry rate (GER increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that theutilization of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention.

  14. Complex interactions between a legume and two grasses in a subalpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Charles; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Winterton, Peter; Lamaze, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between plants are a complex combination of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on environmental contexts. The more frequent association of Trifolium alpinum (legume) with Festuca eskia than with Nardus stricta (grasses) in many Pyrenean subalpine meadows suggests a differential ability to use nitrogen (N) derived from N(2) fixation. In the field, we investigated the interactions between the legume and grasses and, in the glasshouse, the transfer of (15)N from the legume to the grasses. In one grass-Trifolium mixture, the legume had a strong positive effect on the biomass and N content of the grass as compared to pure grass stands. When both grasses grew together with the legume, only Festuca benefited from the presence of Trifolium but, surprisingly, the benefit decreased with increasing Trifolium abundance. Leaf labeling experiments with (15)N-NH(4)(+) revealed a higher transfer of (15)N from Trifolium to Festuca than to Nardus, suggesting a more direct N pathway between the two species. This more direct pathway could prevent Nardus from benefiting from the legume N in the three-species mixtures. Thus, the positive interactions between N-fixers and nonfixers appear to be largely species-specific and to depend strongly on the species in the plant assemblage.

  15. Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain et Evrard growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

  16. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  17. Overland flow resistances on varying slope gradients and partitioning on grassed slopes under simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengzhong; Ma, Lan; Wainwright, John; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-04-01

    It is still unclear how slope steepness (S) and revegetation affect resistance (f) to overland flow. A series of experiments on runoff hydraulics was conducted on granular surfaces (bare soil and sandpaper) and grassed surfaces, including grass plots (GP), GP with litter (GL), and GP without leaves (GS) under simulated rainfall and inflow (30grass plots. A greater f occurred at the gentle and steep slopes for the granular surfaces, while f decreased with increasing slopes for the grass treatments. The different f-S relations suggest that f is not a simple function of S. When Re≈1000, the sowing rye grass with level lines increased f by approximately 100 times and decreased bed shear stress to approximately 5%. The contribution of grass leaves, stems, litter, and grain surface to total resistance in the grass plots were averagely 52%, 32%, 16%, and 1%. The greater resistance from leaves may result from the leaves lying at the plot surface impacted by raindrop impact. These results are beneficial to understand the dynamics of runoff and erosion on hillslopes impacted by vegetation restoration.

  18. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  19. Particle selectivity of sediment deposited over grass barriers and the effect of rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengzhong; Ma, Lan; Wainwright, John

    2016-10-01

    Particle selectivity of the sediment deposited over vegetative barriers is of importance to predict sediment transport and particulate pollutant load into surface waters. Grassed barriers with 20-90% covers at 15° slope were subjected to silt-laden inflows in the presence and absence of simulated rainfalls to investigate the sediment deposition processes. The results show that regrass of steep croplands can effectively trap eroded sediment from upslope, and the rowed grass barriers can strengthen sediment deposition. The deposition order of sediment particle sizes (μm) follows (>50) > (25-50) > (10-25) = ( (2-10), and the particle selectivity weakens with increasing grass covers. Clay particles had a similar deposition efficiency to overall sediment, implying the effectiveness of regrass in controlling soil nutrient loss. The contribution of grass to total overland flow resistance is almost equivalent to the percentage of grass cover. For steep grassed slopes, raindrop impact significantly decreases sediment deposition, but limitedly affects particle selectivity of deposited sediment and overland flow hydraulics. Both raindrop kinetic energy and stream power available for surface soil contribute to sediment deposition in net deposition areas of grass barriers. These imply that rainfall effect on sediment delivery over vegetated barriers derives from the additional raindrop energy, rather than the variation in runoff hydraulics. These results can help to clarify the effect of raindrop impact on sediment transport and to evaluate the benefit of revegetation in decreasing sediment yield and its particulate nutrient load into surface waters.

  20. EVOLUTIONS OF A BLACK-GRASS POPULATION SUBMITTED TO DIVERSE CROP SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, F; Matrheeuws, L; Verbiest, M

    2014-01-01

    Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. The first case of resistance in Belgium was reported by Eelen et al. (1996). Since then, monitoring showed that resistant black-grass was not confined to restricted areas anymore and that all usually effective modes of action could be subject to resistance issue (Henriet and Maréchal, 2009). There is no report that agrochemical companies will soon bring a new mode of action effective against grasses on the market, in a close future. It is therefore important to preserve the still effective actives by integrating them into global weeding strategies. A long-lasting trial was set up in order to study the evolution of a black-grass population when submitted to diverse crop systems. Several factors were studied such as rotation (quadri-annual-bisannual-monoculture winter wheat), sowing date (standard date or delayed), cultivation (inversion tillage or not) and herbicide treatments. During three years, each time winter wheat occurred in the rotation, each plot gets the same factorial combination (rotation excepted). In untreated plots, black-grass head counting's showed no differences between tillage or not and bisannual or quadri-annual rotation. On the other hand, number of black-grass heads was higher in standard sowing date and monoculture than in delayed sowing date and other rotations, respectively. The general efficacy of the herbicide treatments was decreasing over the years.

  1. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  2. The effect of seaweed Ecklonia maxima extract and mineral nitrogen on fodder grass chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Grażyna Anna; Godlewska, Agnieszka; Jankowska, Jolanta

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the biostimulant Kelpak and different nitrogen rates on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents as well as non-structural carbohydrates in orchard grass and Braun's festulolium. The experiment was a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. It was set up at the experimental facility of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, in late April 2009. The following factors were examined: biostimulant with the trade name Kelpak SL applied at 2 dm(3) ha(-1) and a control-no biostimulant; nitrogen application rates 50 and 150 kg ha(-1) and a control (0 kg ha(-1)); pure stands of grass species grown in monoculture--orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), cv. Amila,-Braun's festulolium (Festulolium braunii), cv. Felopa. Kelpak significantly increased non-structural carbohydrates, and increasing nitrogen rates reduced the concentration of these components in plants. Increasing nitrogen rates significantly decreased cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and non-structural carbohydrate contents. Compared with orchard grass, Braun's festulolium proved to be of a higher nutritional value due to lower cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents and more non-structural carbohydrates. The aforementioned contents in the grasses differed significantly depending on the cut. Most cellulose and non-structural carbohydrates were determined in second-cut grass whereas most hemicellulose and lignin in second-cut grass.

  3. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  4. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  5. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  6. Effects of rye grass coverage on soil loss from loess slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuequn Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative coverage is commonly used to reduce urban slope soil erosion. Laboratory experimental study on soil erosion under grass covered slopes is conventionally time and space consuming. In this study, a new method is suggested to study the influences of vegetation coverage on soil erosion from a sloped loess surface under three slope gradients of 5°, 15°, and 25°; four rye grass coverages of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; and three rainfall intensities of 60, 90, and 120 mm/h with a silt-loamy loess soil. Rye grasses were planted in the field with the studied soil before being transplanted into a laboratory flume. Grass was allowed to resume growth for a period before the rain simulation experiment. Results showed that the grass cover reduced soil erosion by 63.90% to 92.75% and sediment transport rate by 80.59% to 96.17% under different slope gradients and rainfall intensities. The sediment concentration/sediment transport rate from bare slope was significantly higher than from a grass-covered slope. The sediment concentration/transport rate from grass-covered slopes decreased linearly with grass coverage and increased with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration/transport rate from the bare slope increased as a power function of slope and reached the maximum value at the gradient of about 25°, whereas that from grass-covered slope increased linearly and at much lower levels. The results of this study can be used to estimate the effect of vegetation on soil erosion from loess slopes.

  7. Regional and seasonal variation in airborne grass pollen levels between cities of Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medek, Danielle E; Beggs, Paul J; Erbas, Bircan; Jaggard, Alison K; Campbell, Bradley C; Vicendese, Don; Johnston, Fay H; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R; Green, Brett J; Burton, Pamela K; Bowman, David M J S; Newnham, Rewi M; Katelaris, Constance H; Haberle, Simon G; Newbigin, Ed; Davies, Janet M

    Although grass pollen is widely regarded as the major outdoor aeroallergen source in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), no assemblage of airborne pollen data for the region has been previously compiled. Grass pollen count data collected at 14 urban sites in Australia and NZ over periods ranging from 1 to 17 years were acquired, assembled and compared, revealing considerable spatiotemporal variability. Although direct comparison between these data is problematic due to methodological differences between monitoring sites, the following patterns are apparent. Grass pollen seasons tended to have more than one peak from tropics to latitudes of 37°S and single peaks at sites south of this latitude. A longer grass pollen season was therefore found at sites below 37°S, driven by later seasonal end dates for grass growth and flowering. Daily pollen counts increased with latitude; subtropical regions had seasons of both high intensity and long duration. At higher latitude sites, the single springtime grass pollen peak is potentially due to a cooler growing season and a predominance of pollen from C3 grasses. The multiple peaks at lower latitude sites may be due to a warmer season and the predominance of pollen from C4 grasses. Prevalence and duration of seasonal allergies may reflect the differing pollen seasons across Australia and NZ. It must be emphasized that these findings are tentative due to limitations in the available data, reinforcing the need to implement standardized pollen-monitoring methods across Australasia. Furthermore, spatiotemporal differences in grass pollen counts indicate that local, current, standardized pollen monitoring would assist with the management of pollen allergen exposure for patients at risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  8. The Effect of Integrated Grasses in Controlling Soil, Nutrient and Organic Matter in Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honest Augustine Mosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and nutrient loss is one of a serious problem in Loess plateau china. The eroded materials are directly transported to the lakes and rivers specifically yellow river in China, this might lead to eutrophication if no prevention measures will be taken. The experiment was conducted on soil, and nutrient loss from 5º slope. Individual grasses plots for rye grass(Lolium, white clover(Trifolium repens and integrated grass (rye + white clover plots were prepared with a percentage cover of 25, 50, 80 and 100 in each treatment. Bare land was used as a reference plot. The results show that, the sediment loss in a bare land reported to be 1.5, 3, 2.7 and 1.3, 2.1, 1.9 in 100 % and 80 % cover plots. The runoff rate as compared to bare land, shown to be about 2 times less for white clover and rye grass plots, while more than 2 times less for integrated grasses plots. The total nitrogen and organic matter loss the results were in the order bare land white clover rye grasses and integrated grasses in which 100 %, 80 % and 50 % vegetative cover shown to perform better. On average enrichment ratio range was 40 % to 90 % for nutrient loss, and 50 % to 85 % for organic matter for all plots in comparison with soil origin. The enrichment ration significantly shown to be high from bare land> rye and white clover plots> integrated grasses plot. It has been concluded that integrated grasses is more effective measure over others in controlling both soil, nutrient and organic matter loss in the soil. This study contributed some information on the erosion modeling and improvement of soil and grassland conservation techniques for better land use for sustainable development

  9. Silicon, endophytes and secondary metabolites as grass defenses against mammalian herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otso eHuitu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasses have been considered to primarily employ tolerance in lieu of defense in mitigating damage caused by herbivory. Yet a number of mechanisms have been identified in grasses, which may deter feeding by grazers. These include enhanced silicon uptake, hosting of toxin-producing endophytic fungi and induction of secondary metabolites. While these mechanisms have been individually studied, their synergistic responses to grazing, as well as their effects on grazers, are poorly known. A field experiment was carried out in 5 × 5 m outdoor enclosures to quantify phytochemical changes of either endophyte-infected (E+ or endophyte-free (E- meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis in response to medium intensity (corresponding with densities of ca. 1200 voles / ha for 5 weeks during 3 months or heavy intensity (ca. 1200 voles / ha for 8 weeks during 3 months grazing by a mammalian herbivore, the field vole (Microtus agrestis. A laboratory experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effects of endophyte infection status and grazing history of the grass diet on vole performance. As predicted, grazing increased foliar silicon content, by up to 13 %. Grazing also increased foliar levels of phosphorous and several phenolic compounds, most notably those of the flavonols isorhamnetin-diglycoside and rhamnetin derivative. Silicon concentrations were consistently circa 16 % higher in E+ grasses than in E-grasses, at all levels of grazing. Similarly, concentrations of chlorogenic acid derivative were found to be consistently higher in E+ than in E- grasses. Female voles maintained on heavily grazed grasses suffered higher mortality rates in the laboratory than female voles fed ungrazed grass, regardless of endophyte infection status. Our results conclusively demonstrate that, in addition to tolerance, grasses employ multi-tiered, effective defenses against mammalian grazers.

  10. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  11. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  12. Temperature and functional traits influence differences in nitrogen uptake capacity between native and invasive grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, A Joshua; James, Jeremy J; Monaco, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Performance differences between native and exotic invasive plants are often considered static, but invasive grasses may achieve growth advantages in western North America shrublands and steppe under only optimal growing conditions. We examine differences in N uptake and several morphological variables that influence uptake at temperatures between 5 and 25 °C. We contrast two native perennial grasses in western North America: Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata; two invasive annual grasses: Bromus tectorum and Taeniatherum caput-medusae; and one highly selected non-native perennial grass: Agropyron cristatum. The influence of temperature on N uptake is poorly characterized, yet these invasive annual grasses are known to germinate in warm soils in the autumn, and both experience cool soils during the short growing season following snowmelt in the spring. To further explore the influence of temperature on the correlation between morphological variables and N uptake, our data are applied to a previously published path model and one proposed here. Differences in N uptake between native and invasive grasses were small at the lowest temperature, but were large at the highest temperature. At lower temperatures, uptake of N by annuals and perennials was correlated with leaf N and mass. At higher temperatures, uptake by annuals was correlated only with these leaf traits, but uptake by perennials was correlated with these leaf traits as well as root N and mass. Consequently, our results imply that annual grasses face fewer morphological constraints on N uptake than perennial grasses, and annual grasses may gain further advantage in warmer temperature conditions or during more frequent warm periods.

  13. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  14. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  15. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  16. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  17. Replacement of aruana grass by gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) on silage quality

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Antonio Massafera; Ligiane Aparecida Florentino; Carlos Henrique Silveira Rabelo; Carla Joice Härter; Adauton Vilela de Rezende; Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effect of the replacement of aruana grass by gliricidia on the fermentative losses, chemical composition, and aerobic stability of silages. For ensiling, whole-crop aruana grass (75 d of growth) was chopped (275 g kg-1 dry matter - DM) and ensiled alone or associated with gliricidia (270 g kg-1 DM; 150 d of growth). For gliricidia, we used only the leaves and stalks to ensile. The evaluated treatments were different ratios of aruana grass to gliricidia (10...

  18. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil...... contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass...

  19. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  20. Foraminifera and the ecology of sea grass communities since the late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher; Jagt, John

    2016-04-01

    Sea grasses are marine angiosperms (plants) that, in the late Cretaceous, migrated from the land into shallow-water marine environments. They represent a distinct, but fragile, marine habitat and sea grass meadows are often regarded as biodiversity hot-spots with a range of species (including fish, sea horses and cuttlefish) using them as nurseries for their young. Foraminifera are often found associated with sea grass meadows, with the associated taxa reflecting both the environment and palaeolatitude. In the tropics and sub-tropics, miliolid foraminifera dominate (e.g., Peneroplis spp.) as do large discoidal taxa such as Marginopora and Calcarina. In temperate to cool latitudes the assemblage changes to one dominated by smaller benthic taxa, including Elphidium spp. One taxon, Elphidium crispum, is geotropic and is often found - in the summer months - to crowd the fronds of the sea grass. In the Gulpen and Maastricht formations of the Maastricht area (The Netherlands and Belgium) sea grass fossils (both fronds and rhizomes) have been recorded in association with assemblages of both larger and smaller benthic foraminifera (Hart et al., 2016). Some of the large discoidal forms (e.g., Omphalocyclus and Orbitoides/Lepidorbitoides) and the distinctive Siderolites are associated with these sea grass fossils and are suggestive of the modern sea grass communities of sub-tropical areas. While earlier records were of relatively isolated sea grasses, in September/October 2015 surfaces with abundant sea grasses were found that are suggestive of complete 'meadows'. Preservation of some silicified rhizomes indicates that silicification must have been very rapid, before any degradation or compaction of the delicate tissues. The presence of sea grass fossils and their associated benthic foraminifera is indicative of a clear, shallow-water seaway, with a maximum depth of 15-20 m. The reported variations in sea level during the latest Cretaceous cannot, therefore, have been very

  1. An Invasive Grass Species Alters Carbon Cycling in Hawaiian Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, C. M.; Sandquist, D. R.; Cordell, S.

    2004-12-01

    At lower elevations on the leeward side of the island of Hawaii, remnant native forests are heavily invaded by an introduced African bunchgrass, Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass). Our research is designed to determine the consequences of this invasion for carbon (C) cycling in Hawaiian dry forests. We examined above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in 400 m2 replicated forest plots (n = 4) with fountain grass (grass plots) and in areas where fountain grass had been removed for ˜3 years (removal plots). C pools were estimated with direct sampling and allometric equations developed in situ for the dominant tree species. Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was estimated as aboveground biomass increment plus litterfall minus loss from mortality (trees) and with clip plots (grass and herbaceous species); total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) was estimated using a conservation of mass, C balance approach. Our results indicate that the invasion of a non-native grass in this ecosystem has considerable impacts on both C pools and fluxes. Aboveground, tree biomass did not differ between treatments (P = 0.57) but the presence of fountain grass led to a 7.5-fold increase in understory biomass in grass plots compared to removal plots (P < 0.01). Tree ANPP was significantly higher in removal plots for both foliage (0.10 and 0.06 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P = 0.02) and wood (0.13 and 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P < 0.01). However, grass ANPP was ˜35% greater than tree foliage productivity in grass plots. Despite this added foliar productivity, total ANPP (Tree + Grass ANPP) was significantly higher in removal plots (P = 0.04). Belowground, grass plots exhibited higher rates of soil-surface CO2 efflux (1.09 and 1.38 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P = 0.03 ). Likewise, TBCA was significantly higher in grass plots (1.21 kg C m-2 yr-1) than in removal plots (0.97 kg C m-2

  2. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The

  3. Construction of Rural Grass-roots Water Conservancy Service System in the Context of Institutional Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning WANG

    2015-01-01

    At present,it is urgent to solve problems of reforming and improving grass-roots water conservancy management mode in rural areas and improving rural water conservancy public service ability. Through analyzing institutional changes of grass-roots water conservancy management in rural areas,this paper discussed current situations and outstanding problems in grass-roots water conservancy services in rural areas of Kunming City. On the basis of current situations and problems,it came up with policy recommendations from reform of management institutions,reform of personnel system,construction of human resources,development of rural water use cooperation organizations,and improvement of fund input mechanism,to build rural grass-roots water conservancy service system.

  4. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  5. Distribution and risk evaluation of heavy metal in the soil of typical grassed swale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Binghui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr in the surface soil of three grassed swales located in the city of Beijing, Jiaxing and Shenzhen were studied in this paper. Evaluations on the risk of heavy metals were conducted based on the second level limit of soil environmental quality standard, using different indexes (i.e., single item, comprehensive items and potential ecological risk indexes. Results show that the concentration of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr in all the soil samples is within the limit of second level of soil environmental quality standard of China, except the soil samples of the grassed swale from Shenzhen city. The result also shows that the concentration of the four kinds of heavy metals in the surface soil of grassed swales is linearly correlated with the depth of soil sampling points. In summary, ecological risk of heavy metals in the three grassed swales is slight.

  6. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig;

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth...... interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley......-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations...

  7. Distinguishing grass from ground using LiDAR: Techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Swetnam, T.; Papuga, S. A.; Nelson, K.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Chorover, J.

    2011-12-01

    Standard protocols exist for extracting bare-earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from LiDAR point clouds that include trees and other large woody vegetation. Grasses and other herbaceous plants can also obscure the ground surface, yet methods for optimally distinguishing grass from ground to generate accurate LiDAR-based raster products for geomorphic and ecological applications are still under development. Developing such methods is important because LiDAR-based difference products (e.g. snow thickness) require accurate representations of the ground surface and because raster data for grass height and density have important applications in ecology. In this study, we developed and tested methods for constructing optimal bare-earth and grass height raster layers from LiDAR point clouds and compared the results to high-quality field-based measurements of grass height, density, and species type for nearly 1000 precisely geo-referenced locations collected during the acquisition of a >200 km^2 airborne LiDAR flight of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (New Mexico). In cases of partially bare ground (where the skewness of return heights above a plane fit to the lowest first returns is sufficiently large), a planar fit to the lowest first returns provides a good method of producing an accurate bare-earth DEM and the statistics of the first returns above that planar fit provide good estimates of the mean and variance of grass height. In areas of relatively thick grass cover, however, a fit to the lowest first returns yields a bare-earth DEM that may be a meter or more above the actual ground surface. Here we propose a method to solve this problem using field-measured correlations among the mean, variance, and skewness of grass heights. In this method, the variance and skewness of the differences between LiDAR first returns and a 10m^2 planar fit to the lowest first returns is used, together with field-based correlations of grass height statistics, to estimate the mean

  8. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  9. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 395...

  10. Narrow grass hedges reduce tylosin and associated antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff from areas receiving livestock manure can potentially contaminate surface water with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of narrow grass hedges (NGHs) on reducing the transport of antimicrobial...

  11. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 75...

  12. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjellheim, Siri; Boden, Scott; Trevaskis, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, including important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons so that flowering and seed production coincide with favorable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group. PMID:25221560

  13. Additions to the grasses (Poaceae of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Chorghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three species of grasses viz., Dimeria orissae, Iseilema holei and Spodiopogon rhizophorus are being reported for the first time as new distributional records to Telangana from the Kawal Tiger Reserve. Detailed description and illustrations are provided here.

  14. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri eFjellheim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons, so that flowering and seed production coincide with favourable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group.

  15. Protein contamination on Klason lignin contents in tropical grasses and legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the extent of protein contamination on Klason lignin (KL in tropical grasses and legumes, and to propose an equation to estimate the protein-free content of Klason lignin (KLp. Five grass (30 samples and 12 legume species (31 samples were evaluated. Legumes had higher KL contents. Protein contamination was significant in both grasses and legumes, but greater in legume samples. The model to predict KLp was based on KL and crude protein (CP contents, as follows: KLp = 0.8807KL - 0.0938KL x D - 0.00338CP (R2=0.935, in which D=0, for grasses, and D=1 for legumes.

  16. [Prescribed fire in northern mixed grass prairie] 2001 field season progress report, J. Clark Salyer NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress report on the 2001 field season for the project titled "Prescribed fire for fuel reduction in northern mixed grass prairie : Influence on habitat and...

  17. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  18. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...

  19. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  20. The effect of floodplain grass on the flow characteristics of meandering compound channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Shan, Yuqi; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Liao, Huasheng

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted in a large-scale meandering compound channel to investigate the effect of floodplain grass on the main flow field in the channel. Three-dimensional velocity fields, turbulences, and Reynolds shear stresses were measured along half a meander. The experiments revealed that flexible artificial grass planted on a floodplain can significantly reduce the conveyance capability of the entire channel. Two parallel stage-discharge curves increased with increasing flow depth. The additional resistance of the floodplain grass increased the streamwise velocity and conveyance in the main channel along a meander. An analysis of the generation mechanism of secondary flows in the main channel indicated that the secondary current consisted of an enhanced original secondary cell that was strengthened by the centrifugal force and a component of the upstream floodplain flow. The relative dominance of these two components in the secondary flows was primarily determined by the angle between the floodplain flow and the main channel ridge, and also the floodplain roughness. At the same flow depth, the secondary flow in cases with grass on the floodplain was generally stronger than that in the case of a smooth meander bend, although it was weaker near the middle cross-over section. Floodplain grass enhanced the intensity of the lateral turbulence above the bankfull level and significantly modified the turbulence structure, although it had a negligible effect on the vertical turbulence except at the bend entrance. Floodplain grass also affected the Reynolds shear stresses in the main channel, generating stronger lateral shear stresses at a low flow depth. In contrast, at a high flow depth, the distribution of the interface shear stresses changed entirely while its magnitude remained the same. When the floodplains were grassed, the vertical shear stress that was induced by secondary flows was greater at the apexes but reduced at the cross-over sections

  1. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  2. A New Operation for Producing Disease-Suppressive Compost from Grass Clippings

    OpenAIRE

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hiraoka, Sachiko; Nagata, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of grass clippings discharged from golf courses as the raw material for production of a suppressive compost to control Rhizoctonia large-patch disease in mascarene grass. Bacillus subtilis N4, a mesophilic bacterium with suppressive effects on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, was used as an inoculum in a procedure developed with the aim of controlling composting temperatures and inoculation timing. The population density of mesophilic bacteria in th...

  3. Mill wastewater and olive pomace compost as amendments for rye-grass

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    International audience; A two-year experiment was carried out to study the effects of applying untreated Olive Wastewater (OWW), treated OWW and olive pomace compost as soil amendments on both rye-grass growth and soil characteristics. We analysed growth parameters (Leaf Area Index, and fresh and dry weight), leaf green colour (SPAD readings), N uptake of the rye-grass and chemical soil characteristics. The results indicate that the highest untreated OWW application increased growth parameter...

  4. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa) based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Bustam BM (2010) Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa) based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG). This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996) and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens...

  5. Monami as an oscillatory hydrodynamic instability in a submerged sea grass bed

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ravi; Bandi, M M; Mahadevan, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The onset of monami, the synchronous waving of sea grass beds driven by a steady flow, is modeled as a linear instability of the flow. Our model treats the drag exerted by the grass in establishing the steady flow profile, and in damping out perturbations to it. This damping leads to a finite threshold flow for the instability, which agrees with experimental observations. This role of vegetation drag differentiates our mechanism from the previous hypothesis that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability underlies monami.

  6. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacianelly Karla da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4 Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS, elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS, elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB, and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB. There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between diets EGS and CS in g d−1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg−1 d−1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

  7. Investigating the possible usage of elephant grass ash to manufacture the eco-friendly binary cements

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Erika Y.; Frías, Moisés; Sergio F. Santos; Michelle S. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, agro-industrial residues are focusing attention worldwide as a new source of pozzolans; in Brazil one of the wastes generated from agro-industrial activities comes from elephant grass that is cultivated as biomass for energy cogeneration. The goal of this paper is to analyze the influence of elephant grass, once activated at 700 C for 1 h in electric furnace, on the evolution of the hydration reaction as well as physical and mechanical properties in blended cemen...

  8. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  9. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  10. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  11. Climate, CO2, and the history of North American grasses since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Jennifer M; Cerling, Thure E; Hoppe, Kathryn A; Mosier, Thomas M; Still, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene is one of the most important ecological transitions of the Cenozoic, but the primary driver of this global expansion is widely debated. We use the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) of bison and mammoth tissues as a proxy for the relative abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in their grazing habitat to determine climatic and atmospheric CO2 controls on C4 grass distributions from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present. We predict the spatial variability of grass δ(13)C in North America using a mean of three different methods of classification and regression tree (CART) machine learning techniques and nine climatic variables. We show that growing season precipitation and temperature are the strongest predictors of all single climate variables. We apply this CART analysis to high-resolution gridded climate data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) mean paleoclimate model outputs to produce predictive isotope landscape models ("isoscapes") for the current, mid-Holocene, and LGM average δ(13)C of grass-dominated areas across North America. From the LGM to the present, C4 grass abundances substantially increased in the Great Plains despite concurrent increases in atmospheric CO2. These results suggest that changes in growing season precipitation rather than atmospheric CO2 were critically important in the Neogene expansion of C4 grasses.

  12. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  13. Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation.

  14. Safener responsiveness and multiple herbicide resistance in the weed black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Ian; Bryant, David N; Edwards, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Safeners enhance the selectivity of graminicidal herbicides such as fenoxaprop ethyl in cereals, by increasing their rates of detoxification in the crop. While studying the selectivity of fenoxaprop ethyl in wheat, we determined that the safeners mefenpyr diethyl and fenchlorazole ethyl also enhanced herbicide tolerance in the competing weed black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides). Fenoxaprop ethyl was detoxified by conjugation with glutathione in both wheat and black-grass, with the resulting metabolites processed to the respective cysteine derivatives, which were then N-glycosylated. In black-grass, these detoxification pathways were only slightly enhanced by safeners, suggesting that metabolism alone was unlikely to account for increased herbicide tolerance. Instead, it was determined that safening was associated with an accumulation of glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione and enzymes with antioxidant functions including phi and lambda glutathione transferases, active as glutathione peroxidases and thiol transferases respectively. These safener-induced changes closely mirrored those determined in two independent black-grass populations that had acquired multiple herbicide resistance (MHR) in the field. In addition to enhanced glutathione metabolism, both safener treatment and MHR resulted in elevated levels of flavonoids in the foliage of black-grass plants, notably flavone-C-glycosides and anthocyanins. Our results demonstrate that safening in a grass weed is associated with an inducible activation in antioxidant and secondary metabolism which mirrors the biochemical phenotype exhibited in plants that are resistant to multiple classes of herbicides.

  15. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper: targeted use of genome resources for comparative grass genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F X; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  16. Hydraulic lift as a determinant of tree-grass coexistence on savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    The coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas is determined by a complex set of interacting factors that determine access to resources and demographic dynamics, under the control of external drivers and vegetation feedbacks with the physical environment. Existing theories explain coexistence mainly as an effect of competitive relations and/or disturbances. However, theoretical studies on the way facilitative interactions resulting from hydraulic lift affect tree-grass coexistence and the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable are still lacking. We investigated the role of hydraulic lift in the stability of tree-grass coexistence in savannas. To that end, we developed a new mechanistic model that accounts for both competition for soil water in the shallow soil and fire-induced disturbance. We found that hydraulic lift favors grasses, which scavenge the water lifted by woody plants. Thus, hydraulic lift expands (at the expenses of woodlands) the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable. These results indicate that hydraulic lift can be an important mechanism responsible for the coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas. Grass facilitation by trees through the process of hydraulic lift could allow savannas to persist stably in mesic regions that would otherwise exhibit a forest cover.

  17. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent tasks it makes sense to merge relevant GRASS functionality into an own and encapsulated QGIS extension. Its architecture and development is tested and combined with the Web Processing Service (WPS for remote execution using the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs as an example. The results of this assay may be suitable for discussing and planning other wizard-like geoprocessing plugins in QGIS that also should make use of an additional GRASS server.

  18. Elevated CO₂ mitigates drought and temperature-induced oxidative stress differently in grasses and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Farfan-Vignolo, Evelyn Roxana; de Vos, Dirk; Asard, Han

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will affect plant growth, including mitigation of stress impact. Such effects vary considerably between species-groups. Grasses (Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis) and legumes (Medicago lupulina, Lotus corniculatus) were subjected to drought, elevated temperature and elevated CO2. Drought inhibited plant growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and induced osmolytes and antioxidants in all species. In contrast, oxidative damage was more strongly induced in the legumes than in the grasses. Warming generally exacerbated drought effects, whereas elevated CO2 reduced stress impact. In the grasses, photosynthesis and chlorophyll levels were more protected by CO2 than in the legumes. Oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, H2O2 levels), on the other hand, were generally more reduced in the legumes. This is consistent with changes in molecular antioxidants, which were reduced by elevated CO2 in the grasses, but not in the legumes. Antioxidant enzymes decreased similarly in both species-groups. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle was little affected by drought and CO2. Overall, elevated CO2 reduced drought effects in grasses and legumes, and this mitigation was stronger in the legumes. This is possibly explained by stronger reduction in H2O2 generation (photorespiration and NADPH oxidase), and a higher availability of molecular antioxidants. The grass/legume-specificity was supported by principal component analysis.

  19. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  20. Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołda Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the toleration of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra to cadmium contamination as well as the phytoremediation potential of these three species of grass. The pot experiment was conducted in four replications in pots containing 2.0 kg of soil. The soil was contaminated with three doses of Cd – 30, 60 and 120 mg·kg−1. After two months, the aerial parts of plants were harvested. The roots were dug up, brushed off from the remaining soil and washed with water. The biomass was defined and the cadmium concentration was determined in aerial parts and roots. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using biomass of grasses, bioaccumulation factor (BF and translocation factor (TF. All three tested species of grasses had TF 1. It indicates their suitability for phytostabilisation and makes them unsuitable for phytoextraction of Cd from the soil. Comparing the usefulness of the tested grasses for phytoremediation has shown that the phytostabilisation potential of P. pratensis was lower than that of L. perenne and F. rubra. P. pratensis was distinguished by higher TF, smaller root biomass and lower tolerance for Cd excess in the soil in comparison with the two other test grasses. At the same time, L. perenne was characterised by the smallest decrease in biomass and the largest Cd accumulation in roots at the lowest dose of Cd. It indicates good usefulness for phytostabilisation of soils characterised by a relatively small pollution by cadmium.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  2. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  3. Effects of climate and water balance across grasslands of varying C3 and C4 grass cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Munson, Seth M.; Thoma, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change in grassland ecosystems may lead to divergent shifts in the abundance and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Many studies relate mean climate conditions over relatively long time periods to plant cover, but there is still much uncertainty about how the balance of C3and C4 species will be affected by climate at a finer temporal scale than season (individual events to months). We monitored cover at five grassland sites with co-dominant C3 and C4 grass species or only dominant C3 grass species for 6 yr in national parks across the Colorado Plateau region to assess the influence of specific months of climate and water balance on changes in grass cover. C4 grass cover increased and decreased to a larger degree than C3 grass cover with extremely dry and wet consecutive years, but this response varied by ecological site. Climate and water balance explained 10–49% of the inter-annual variability of cover of C3 and C4 grasses at all sites. High precipitation in the spring and in previous year monsoon storms influenced changes in cover of C4 grasses, with measures of water balance in the same months explaining additional variability. C3 grasses in grasslands where they were dominant were influenced primarily by longer periods of climate, while C3 grasses in grasslands where they were co-dominant with C4 grasses were influenced little by climate anomalies at either short or long periods of time. Our results suggest that future changes in spring and summer climate and water balance are likely to affect cover of both C3 and C4 grasses, but cover of C4 grasses may be affected more strongly, and the degree of change will depend on soils and topography where they are growing and the timing of the growing season.

  4. Seed defensins of barnyard grass Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Baranov, Yurij; Musolyamov, Alexander Kh; Yalpani, Nasser; Egorov, Tsezi A; Grishin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    From the annual weed barnyard grass Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., two novel defensins Ec-AMP-D1 and Ec-AMP-D2 that differ by a single amino acid substitution were isolated by a combination of different chromatographic procedures. Both defensins were active against several phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans at micromolar concentrations. The Ec-AMP-D1 showed higher activity against the oomycete than Ec-AMP-D2. The comparison of the amino acid sequences of the antifungal E. crusgalli defensins with those of earlier characterized T. kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova, Ts.A. Egorov, A.Kh. Musolyamov, M.S. Odintsova, V.A. Pukhalsky, E.V. Grishin, Seed defensins from T. kiharae and related species: genome localization of defensin-encoding genes, Biochimie, 89 (2007) 605-612.] that were devoid of substantial antifungal activity point to the C-terminal region of the molecule as the main determinant of the antifungal activity of E. crusgalli defensins.

  5. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  6. Evidence for rapid evolution of phenology in an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, A; Flory, S L; Hartman, J M

    2013-02-01

    Evolutionary dynamics of integrative traits such as phenology are predicted to be critically important to range expansion and invasion success, yet there are few empirical examples of such phenomena. In this study, we used multiple common gardens to examine the evolutionary significance of latitudinal variation in phenology of a widespread invasive species, the Asian short-day flowering annual grass Microstegium vimineum. In environmentally controlled growth chambers, we grew plants from seeds collected from multiple latitudes across the species' invasive range. Flowering time and biomass were both strongly correlated with the latitude of population origin such that populations collected from more northern latitudes flowered significantly earlier and at lower biomass than populations from southern locations. We suggest that this pattern may be the result of rapid adaptive evolution of phenology over a period of less than one hundred years and that such changes have likely promoted the northward range expansion of this species. We note that possible barriers to gene flow, including bottlenecks and inbreeding, have apparently not forestalled evolutionary processes for this plant. Furthermore, we hypothesize that evolution of phenology may be a widespread and potentially essential process during range expansion for many invasive plant species.

  7. Water Balance in a Mid-Latitude, Mixed Grass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billesbach, D.; Arkebauer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Covering more than 50,000 square kilometers, the Nebraska Sand Hills are the largest stabilized dune field in the world. A unique feature of this region is the close proximity of the land surface to the vast High Plains Aquifier. The land-surface is classified as a mixed grass prairie, and except for a few very small instances, has never been put under the plow. The region is currently home to most of the rangeland cattle industry in Nebraska, and prior to European settlement, was the primary home-range for large herds of North American bison. The co-location of an extensive sub-surface water resource and an inherently semi-arid climate produces an interesting ecosystem, which affords many unique opportunities to study plant-water relationships. We are currently operating a pair of Energy Balance/Bowen Ratio (EBBR) systems to measure evapotranspiration and other ecosystem parameters within key land surface types. We now have 2 growing seasons or more than 20 months of data. We will discuss this data and compare the two seasons in terms of water inputs and outputs.

  8. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  9. Root proliferation in native perennial grasses of arid Patagonia, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanina A. TORRES; Mara M. MUJICA; Sandra S. BAIONI; Jos ENTO; Mara N. FIORETTI; Guillermo TUCAT; Carlos A. BUSSO; Oscar A. MONTENEGRO; Leticia ITHURRART; Hugo D. GIORGETTI; Gustavo RODRGUEZ; Diego BENTIVEGNA; Roberto E. BREVEDAN; Osvaldo A. FERNNDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Pappophorum vaginatum is the most abundant C4 perennial grass desirable to livestock in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. We hypothesized that (1) defoliation reduce net primary productivity, and root length density and weight in the native species, and (2) root net primary productivity, and root length density and weight, are greater in P. vaginatum than in the other, less desirable, native species (i.e., Aristida spegazzinii, A. subulata and Sporobolus cryptandrus). Plants of all species were either exposed or not to a severe defoliation twice a year during two growing seasons. Root proliferation was measured using the cylinder method. Cylindrical, iron structures, wrapped up using nylon mesh, were buried diagonally from the periphery to the center on individual plants. These structures, initially filled with soil without any organic residue, were dug up from the soil on 25 April 2008, after two successive defoliations in mid-spring 2007. During the second growing season (2008-2009), cylinders were destructively harvested on 4 April 2009, after one or two defoliations in mid-and/or late-spring, respectively. Roots grown into the cylinders were obtained after washing the soil manually. Defoliation during two successive years did reduce the study variables only after plants of all species were defoliated twice, which supported the first hypothesis. The greater root net primary productivity, root length den-sity and weight in P. vaginatum than in the other native species, in support of the second hypothesis, could help to explain its greater abundance in rangelands of Argentina.

  10. Extreme genetic diversity in asexual grass thrips populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, A; Dumas, Z; Schwander, T

    2016-05-01

    The continuous generation of genetic variation has been proposed as one of the main factors explaining the maintenance of sexual reproduction in nature. However, populations of asexual individuals may attain high levels of genetic diversity through within-lineage diversification, replicate transitions to asexuality from sexual ancestors and migration. How these mechanisms affect genetic variation in populations of closely related sexual and asexual taxa can therefore provide insights into the role of genetic diversity for the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluate patterns of intra- and interpopulation genetic diversity in sexual and asexual populations of Aptinothrips rufus grass thrips. Asexual A. rufus populations are found throughout the world, whereas sexual populations appear to be confined to few locations in the Mediterranean region. We found that asexual A. rufus populations are characterized by extremely high levels of genetic diversity, both in comparison with their sexual relatives and in comparison with other asexual species. Migration is extensive among asexual populations over large geographic distances, whereas close sexual populations are strongly isolated from each other. The combination of extensive migration with replicate evolution of asexual lineages, and a past demographic expansion in at least one of them, generated high local clone diversities in A. rufus. These high clone diversities in asexual populations may mimic certain benefits conferred by sex via genetic diversity and could help explain the extreme success of asexual A. rufus populations.

  11. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  12. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  13. Functionally dissimilar neighbors accelerate litter decomposition in two grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Lou; Jung, Vincent; Prinzing, Andreas; Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Butenschoen, Olaf; Mony, Cendrine

    2017-02-16

    Plant litter decomposition is a key regulator of nutrient recycling. In a given environment, decomposition of litter from a focal species depends on its litter quality and on the efficiency of local decomposers. Both may be strongly modified by functional traits of neighboring species, but the consequences for decomposition of litter from the focal species remain unknown. We tested whether decomposition of a focal plant's litter is influenced by the functional-trait dissimilarity to the neighboring plants. We cultivated two grass species (Brachypodium pinnatum and Elytrigia repens) in experimental mesocosms with functionally similar and dissimilar neighborhoods, and reciprocally transplanted litter. For both species, litter quality increased in functionally dissimilar neighborhoods, partly as a result of changes in functional traits involved in plant-plant interactions. Furthermore, functional dissimilarity increased overall decomposer efficiency in one species, probably via complementarity effects. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in grasslands: interspecific functional diversity within plant communities can enhance intraspecific contributions to litter decomposition. Thus, plant species might better perform in diverse communities by benefiting from higher remineralization rates of their own litter.

  14. Evolution of herbicide resistance mechanisms in grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzrafi, Maor; Gadri, Yaron; Frenkel, Eyal; Rubin, Baruch; Peleg, Zvi

    2014-12-01

    Herbicide resistant weeds are becoming increasingly common, threatening global food security. Here, we present BrIFAR: a new model system for the functional study of mechanisms of herbicide resistance in grass weeds. We have developed a large collection of Brachypodium accessions, the BrI collection, representing a wide range of habitats. Wide screening of the responses of the accessions to four major herbicide groups (PSII, ACCase, ALS/AHAS and EPSPS inhibitors) identified 28 herbicide-resistance candidate accessions. Target-site resistance to PSII inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a known history of herbicide applications. An amino acid substitution in the psbA gene (serine264 to glycine) conferred resistance and also significantly affected the flowering and shoot dry weight of the resistant accession, as compared to the sensitive accession. Non-target site resistance to ACCase inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a history of herbicide application and from a nature reserve. In-vitro enzyme activity tests and responses following pre-treatment with malathion (a cytochrome-P450 inhibitor) indicated sensitivity at the enzyme level, and give strong support to diclofop-methyl and pinoxaden enhanced detoxification as NTS resistance mechanism. BrIFAR can promote better understanding of the evolution of mechanisms of herbicide resistance and aid the implementation of integrative management approaches for sustainable agriculture.

  15. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk...... production and milk content of fat and protein were unaffected. Milk from cows fed the high proportion of maize silage had a lower (P = 0.04) long-chain fatty acid content (≥ C18). Furthermore, milk from cows fed the high proportion of maize silage had a lower (13-26%) content of luteine (P = 0.03), 13-cis...

  16. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jörg Schaller; Carsten Brackhage; Ernst Bäucker; E Gert Dudel

    2013-06-01

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be explained by the UV-screening effect of the silicon double layer. It was shown for seedlings of soybeans (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that enhanced silicon supply reduces stress induced by UV-radiation. Even more important is a direct correlation between silicon content in the epidermis near area (intercellular spaces) and the absorption of UV-radiation in this area shown in other papers. The silicon double layer may act like a glass layer and decreases the transmission of UV-radiation at the epidermis near area. In summary, the absorbance/reflection of ultraviolet radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the epidermis near area of leaves, particularly the occurrence (qualitatively and quantitatively) of phenolic substances and/or a silicon double layer in this area. Consequently, UV-screening by plant silicon double layer should get more attention in future research with emphasis on effects of UV-radiation on plant physiology.

  17. Aridity increases below-ground niche breadth in grass communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Bradford, John B.; Munson, Seth M.; Gremer, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Aridity is an important environmental filter in the assembly of plant communities worldwide. The extent to which root traits mediate responses to aridity, and how they are coordinated with leaf traits, remains unclear. Here, we measured variation in root tissue density (RTD), specific root length (SRL), specific leaf area (SLA), and seed size within and among thirty perennial grass communities distributed along an aridity gradient spanning 190–540 mm of climatic water deficit (potential minus actual evapotranspiration). We tested the hypotheses that traits exhibited coordinated variation (1) among species, as well as (2) among communities varying in aridity, and (3) functional diversity within communities declines with increasing aridity, consistent with the “stress-dominance” hypothesis. Across communities, SLA and RTD exhibited a coordinated response to aridity, shifting toward more conservative (lower SLA, higher RTD) functional strategies with increasing aridity. The response of SRL to aridity was more idiosyncratic and was independent of variation in SLA and RTD. Contrary to the stress-dominance hypothesis, the diversity of SRL values within communities increased with aridity, while none of the other traits exhibited significant diversity responses. These results are consistent with other studies that have found SRL to be independent of an SLA–RTD axis of functional variation and suggest that the dynamic nature of soil moisture in arid environments may facilitate a wider array of resource capture strategies associated with variation in SRL.

  18. Feruloylation in Grasses: Current and Future Perspectives1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcia M. De O.Buanafina

    2009-01-01

    In the cell walls of forage grasses, ferulic acid is esterified to arabinoxylans and participates with lignin mono-mers in oxidative coupling pathways to generate ferulate-polysaccharide-lignin complexes that cross-link the cell wall. The accumulation of ferulates and the cross-linking of arabinoxylans via diferulate esters are hypothesized to function in various processes in plants. The specific roles of arabinoxylan feruloylation as well as the nature, cellular localization, and substrate for arabinoxylans feruloylation of cell walls are reviewed. The various approaches that have been used for assessing the specific roles of feruloylation are described and assessed. I argue that, until recently, the specific role of feruloylation in these various processes has been established largely by indirect experiments and, although these studies reached similar conclusions about the potential importance of wall feruloylation, they suffer from a common problem: namely they depend on correlations between two processes and do not stem from a detailed understanding of the mech-anisms of feruloylation. I also argue that the nature of arabinoxylan feruloylation remains uncertain.

  19. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  20. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

    2014-07-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism.

  1. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  2. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Shonima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

  3. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change.

  4. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments.

  5. Production of biogas with grass silage - when is it worthwhile?; Biogas erzeugen mit Grassilage - wann lohnt sich das?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, S.; Hilberth, A.; Doehler, H. [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration determine the costs of the supply of grass silage by the example of three grassland regions with dairy cattle farming. Furthermore, the authors discuss the economic thresholds for the use of grass silage in biogas plants. Clearly increased methane yields and clearly smaller costs for the supply of substrate for maize silages speak for the renouncement of grass silage as a substrate for biogas plants. In grassland regions, biogas plants are economical if liquid manure as basic substrate and small quantities of grass silage are used for gas production. The use of grass silage only is meaningful in grassland regions with very small costs of supply. In milk cattle regions with high costs of supply, the use of higher amounts of grass silage is meaningful only if the cultivation of grassland is optimized and the associated costs clearly are lowered. Saving potentials are available in the cultivation of grassland.

  6. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2005-08-23

    Because of a dearth of Cenozoic grass fossils, the timing of the taxonomic diversification of modern subclades within the grass family (Poaceae) and the rise to ecological dominance of open-habitat grasses remain obscure. Here, I present data from 99 Eocene to Miocene phytolith assemblages from the North American continental interior (Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana/Idaho), constituting the only high-resolution mid-Cenozoic record of grasses. Analyses of these assemblages show that open-habitat grasses had undergone considerable taxonomic diversification by the earliest Oligocene (34 million years ago) but that they did not become ecologically dominant in North America until 7-11 million years later (Late Oligocene or Early Miocene). This pattern of decoupling suggests that environmental changes (e.g., climate changes), rather than taxonomic radiations within Poaceae, provided the key opportunity for open-habitat grasses to expand in North America.

  7. The linear relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the cow diet, milk fatty acid composition, and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C; Lopez, C; Delaby, L; Peyraud, J L

    2006-06-01

    Fresh grass in the cow diet improves the rheological and nutritional properties of butter. However, the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and these properties is still unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and the properties of milk and butter. Four groups of 2 cows were fed 4 isoenergetic diets characterized by increasing amounts of fresh grass (0, 30, 60, and 100% dry matter of forage) according to a Youden square design. Energy levels were similar among all diets. Thus, no effect of mobilization was observed and the results were only due to the proportion of fresh grass in the diet. Milk yield linearly increased with the proportion of fresh grass in the diet (+0.21 kg/d per 10% of grass). Fat yield remained unchanged. Thus, by effect of dilution, increasing the proportion of fresh grass in the diet induced a linear decrease in fat content. Milk fat globule size decreased by 0.29 mum when the proportion of grass reached 30% in the diet. Increasing the proportion of fresh grass in the diet induced a linear increase in unsaturated fatty acids percentages at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Relationships were +0.38, +0.12, +0.05 and -0.69 points/10% of fresh grass in the diet for C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:3n-3, and C16:0, respectively. These modifications in fatty acid composition, and in particular in the spreadability index, C16:0/C18:1, were responsible for linear decreases in final melting temperature and solid fat content in butter fat, perceived in sensory analysis by a linear decrease in firmness in mouth. The nutritional value of butter was also linearly improved by the proportion of fresh grass in the diet by halving the atherogenicity index.

  8. Effects of the Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiosis with Schedonorus pratensis on host grass invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kruti; Hager, Heather A; Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2015-07-01

    Initial studies of grass-endophyte mutualisms using Schedonorus arundinaceus cultivar Kentucky-31 infected with the vertically transmitted endophyte Epichloë coenophiala found strong, positive endophyte effects on host-grass invasion success. However, more recent work using different cultivars of S. arundinaceus has cast doubt on the ubiquity of this effect, at least as it pertains to S. arundinaceus-E. coenophiala. We investigated the generality of previous work on vertically transmitted Epichloë-associated grass invasiveness by studying a pair of very closely related species: S. pratensis and E. uncinata. Seven cultivars of S. pratensis and two cultivars of S. arundinaceus that were developed with high- or low-endophyte infection rate were broadcast seeded into 2 × 2-m plots in a tilled, old-field grassland community in a completely randomized block design. Schedonorus abundance, endophyte infection rate, and co-occurring vegetation were sampled 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after establishment, and the aboveground invertebrate community was sampled in S. pratensis plots 3 and 4 years after establishment. Endophyte infection did not enable the host grass to achieve high abundance in the plant community. Contrary to expectations, high-endophyte S. pratensis increased plant richness relative to low-endophyte cultivars. However, as expected, high-endophyte S. pratensis marginally decreased invertebrate taxon richness. Endophyte effects on vegetation and invertebrate community composition were inconsistent among cultivars and were weaker than temporal effects. The effect of the grass-Epichloë symbiosis on diversity is not generalizable, but rather specific to species, cultivar, infection, and potentially site. Examining grass-endophyte systems using multiple cultivars and species replicated among sites will be important to determine the range of conditions in which endophyte associations benefit host grass performance and have subsequent effects on co

  9. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  11. Modelling Water Uptake Provides a New Perspective on Grass and Tree Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzacavallo, Michael G; Kulmatiski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Root biomass distributions have long been used to infer patterns of resource uptake. These patterns are used to understand plant growth, plant coexistence and water budgets. Root biomass, however, may be a poor indicator of resource uptake because large roots typically do not absorb water, fine roots do not absorb water from dry soils and roots of different species can be difficult to differentiate. In a sub-tropical savanna, Kruger Park, South Africa, we used a hydrologic tracer experiment to describe the abundance of active grass and tree roots across the soil profile. We then used this tracer data to parameterize a water movement model (Hydrus 1D). The model accounted for water availability and estimated grass and tree water uptake by depth over a growing season. Most root biomass was found in shallow soils (0-20 cm) and tracer data revealed that, within these shallow depths, half of active grass roots were in the top 12 cm while half of active tree roots were in the top 21 cm. However, because shallow soils provided roots with less water than deep soils (20-90 cm), the water movement model indicated that grass and tree water uptake was twice as deep as would be predicted from root biomass or tracer data alone: half of grass and tree water uptake occurred in the top 23 and 43 cm, respectively. Niche partitioning was also greater when estimated from water uptake rather than tracer uptake. Contrary to long-standing assumptions, shallow grass root distributions absorbed 32% less water than slightly deeper tree root distributions when grasses and trees were assumed to have equal water demands. Quantifying water uptake revealed deeper soil water uptake, greater niche partitioning and greater benefits of deep roots than would be estimated from root biomass or tracer uptake data alone.

  12. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality

  13. Impacts of leguminous shrub encroachment on neighboring grasses include transfer of fixed nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Yang; Yu, Qiang; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Trumbore, Susan E; Yang, Jun-Jie; Han, Xing-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Shrub encroachment induced by global change and human disturbance strongly affects ecosystem structure and function. In this study, we explore the degree to which invading leguminous shrubs affected neighboring grasses, including via the transfer of fixed nitrogen (N). We measured N concentrations and natural abundance (15)N of shoot tissues from three dominant grasses from different plant functional groups across seven distances along a local transect (up to 500 cm) to the leguminous shrub, Caragana microphylla. C. microphylla did transfer fixed N to neighboring grasses, but the amount and distance of N transferred were strongly species-specific. Shoot N concentrations decreased significantly with distance from C. microphylla, for a rhizomatous grass, Leymus chinensis, and a bunchgrass, Achnatherum sibiricum. However, N concentrations of another bunchgrass, Stipa grandis, were higher only directly underneath the shrub canopy. Shoot δ(15)N values of L. chinensis were enriched up to 500 cm from the shrub, but for S. grandis were enriched only below the shrub canopy. In contrast, δ(15)N of A. sibiricum did not change along the 500-cm transect. Our results indicated the rhizomatous grass transferred fixed N over long distances while bunchgrasses did not. The presence of C. microphylla increased the shoot biomass of L. chinensis but decreased that of S. grandis and A. sibiricum. These findings highlight the potential role of nutrient-acquisition strategies of neighboring grasses in moderating the interspecific variation of fixed N transfer from the leguminous shrub. Overall, leguminous shrubs have either positive or negative effects on the neighboring grasses and dramatically affect plant community composition and structure.

  14. Intra-annual rainfall regime shifts competitive interactions between coastal sage scrub and invasive grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Leah J; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-02-01

    Changes in rainfall distribution, generally predicted by many climate models, can affect resource dynamics and ecosystem function. While little studied, intra-annual rainfall distribution may have particularly strong effects on competitive interactions. Here, we test whether increased rainfall event size and decreased frequency within a growing season can influence competitive dynamics related to the invasion of exotic annual grasses in California coastal sage scrub (CSS). We hypothesized that larger rainfall events and decreased frequency will increase the competitive ability of native CSS species: a deeper root system will permit greater water use during dry periods between pulses and enhance their resource depletion effect on more shallow-rooted grasses. We planted grass and CSS seedlings in an additive competition design under three rainfall treatments: frequent small events, infrequent large events, and infrequent small events. The first two treatments had the same total rainfall but different frequency, while the second and third treatments had the same frequency but different total rainfall. Rainfall treatment altered the competitive interactions between CSS and grasses. In the first year, the competitive effect of annual grasses on shrub seedlings was strongest under the frequent small rainfall regime where they reduced deep soil moisture and light. In year two, the established shrubs began to exert strong competitive effects on grasses, and these effects were strongest under the infrequent small rainfall regime (low total rain) where they reduced shallow soil moisture and decreased grass stomatal conductance. Results suggest that reductions in both rainfall frequency and total rainfall may be important to competitive interactions, and can alter plant community composition and invasion when species have different rooting depths and different responses to soil moisture.

  15. Septate endophyte colonization and host responses of grasses and forbs native to a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyam, Keerthi; Fox, Chad; Jumpponen, Ari

    2012-02-01

    Native tallgrass prairies support distinct dark septate endophyte (DSE) communities exemplified by Periconia macrospinosa and Microdochium sp. that were recently identified as common root symbionts in this system. Since these DSE fungi were repeatedly isolated from grasses and forbs, we aimed to test their abilities to colonize different hosts. One Microdochium and three Periconia strains were screened for colonization and growth responses using five native grasses and six forbs in an in vitro system. Previously published data for an additional grass (Andropogon gerardii) were included and reanalyzed. Presence of indicative inter- and intracellular structures (melanized hyphae, microsclerotia, and chlamydospores) demonstrated that all plant species were colonized by the DSE isolates albeit to varying degrees. Microscopic observations suggested that, compared to forbs, grasses were colonized to a greater degree in vitro. Host biomass responses varied among the host species. In broad comparisons, more grass species than forbs tended to respond positively to colonization, whereas more forb species tended to be non-responsive. Based on the suspected differences in the levels of colonization, we predicted that tallgrass prairie grasses would support greater DSE colonization than forbs in the field. A survey of field-collected roots from 15 native species supported this hypothesis. Our study supports the "broad host range" of DSE fungi, although the differences in the rates of colonization in the laboratory and in the field suggest a greater compatibility between grasses and DSE fungi. Furthermore, host responses to DSE range from mutualism to parasitism, suggesting a genotype-level interplay between the fungi and their hosts that determines the outcome of this symbiosis.

  16. Dichotomy in the NRT gene families of dicots and grass species.

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    Darren Plett

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the nitrate (NO(3(- acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO(3(- transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2 family members which are known to participate in high-affinity transport. A modified reciprocal best hit (RBH approach was used to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT genes in the four fully sequenced grass genomes (maize, rice, sorghum, Brachypodium. We also included the poplar genome in our analysis to establish whether differences between Arabidopsis and the grasses may be generally applicable to monocots and dicots. Our analysis reveals fundamental differences between Arabidopsis and the grass species in the gene number and family structure of all three families of NRT transporters. All grass species possessed additional NRT1.1 orthologues and appear to lack NRT1.6/NRT1.7 orthologues. There is significant separation in the NRT2 phylogenetic tree between NRT2 genes from dicots and grass species. This indicates that determination of function of NRT2 genes in grass species will not be possible in cereals based simply on sequence homology to functionally characterised Arabidopsis NRT2 genes and that proper functional analysis will be required. Arabidopsis has a unique NRT3.2 gene which may be a fusion of the NRT3.1 and NRT3.2 genes present in all other species examined here. This work provides a framework for future analysis of NO(3(- transporters and NO(3(- transport in grass crop species.

  17. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

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    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  18. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles.

  19. Evaluating indigenous grass species as on-site sediment trapping measures, northwest Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Ritsema, Coen; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted to evaluate the sediment trapping efficacy (STE) of grass species as an on-site sediment trapping measure, still a lot of grass species are availab1e of which their STE is unknown. Lack of information on the STE of such grass species has a negative influence on their acceptance and practical application by the users. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Mewi watershed, northwestern Ethiopian highlands, to evaluate the STE of four locally dominant indigenous grass species (Desho, Senbelet, Akirma and Sebez) and one exotic species (Vetiver) using plot experiments. On average, the annual runoff produced was found to be 79; 64; 69; 71; 74; 75 l m-2, which resulted in 7; 1.7; 2.9; 3.6; 4.5 and 5.6 kg m-2 yr-1 of sediment yield on the Control, Desho, Vetiver, Senbelet, Akirma and Sebez plots, respectively. Desho had a trapping efficacy of 76 % because of its fast growth and lateral spreading nature. Vetiver and Senbelet reduced the transported sediment with 59 % and 49 % STE, respectively. Because of their slow growth nature, Akirma and Sebez showed low STEs, 36 % and 20 %, respectively. The grass species were found to be important sources of livestock feed in addition to trapping sediment and reducing soil loss. Desho, Senbelet, Akirma, Vetiver and Sebez provided 132, 106, 76, 69 and 51 t ha-1 yr-1 fresh biomass, respectively. The indigenous grass species provided a practical means to reduce sediment yield, therefore, it can be concluded that such indigenous grass species can be used as an on-site sediment trapping measure in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia.

  20. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M.E.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria, Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis, Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica, Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea, Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax, Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon, Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya, Sal leaf (Shorea robusta, Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis and Tiger’s claw (Erythrina variegata leaf were collected from study areas. Samples were collected, chopped and tested immediately for moisture content and remaining samples were sun-dried and processed using standard procedure. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE, Ether extract (EE and Ash. Metabolizable energy (ME was calculated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, crude protein content in Bottle gourd leaf was 33.6 g/100g, Castor bean leaf 21.0 g/100g, Cogon grass 8.4 g/100g, Dhol kolmi 26.3 g/100g, Giant reed leaf 8.6 g/100g, Hilly grass 6.8 g/100g, Pithraj leaf 15.3 g/100g, Sal leaf 16.3 g/100g, Shegun leaf 11.9 g/100g and Tiger’s claw leaf 18.4 g/100g. In addition to crude protein, all samples contained substantial amount of crude fibre, nitrogen free extracts, ether extracts and ash. It could therefore, be inferred that, the hilly grasses and leaves might be used as an alternative to conventional feeds for livestock particularly during scarcity period.

  1. Review of the integrated process for the production of grass biomethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Korres, Nicholas E; Murphy, Jerry D

    2009-11-15

    Production of grass biomethane is an integrated process which involves numerous stages with numerous permutations. The grass grown can be of numerous species, and it can involve numerous cuts. The lignocellulosic content of grass increases with maturity of grass; the first cut offers more methane potential than the later cuts. Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are higher (and as such methane potential is higher) for grass cut in the afternoon as opposed to that cut in the morning. The method of ensiling has a significant effect on the dry solids content of the grass silage. Pit or clamp silage in southern Germany and Austria has a solids content of about 40%; warm dry summers allow wilting of the grass before ensiling. In temperate oceanic climates like Ireland, pit silage has a solids content of about 21% while bale silage has a solids content of 32%. Biogas production is related to mass of volatile solids rather than mass of silage; typically one ton of volatile solid produces 300 m(3) of methane. The dry solids content of the silage has a significant impact on the biodigester configuration. Silage with a high solids content would lend itself to a two-stage process; a leach bed where volatile solids are converted to a leachate high in chemical oxygen demand (COD), followed by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket where the COD can be converted efficiently to CH(4). Alternative configurations include wet continuous processes such as the ubiquitous continuously stirred tank reactor; this necessitates significant dilution of the feedstock to effect a solids content of 12%. Various pretreatment methods may be employed especially if the hydrolytic step is separated from the methanogenic step. Size reduction, thermal, and enzymatic methodologies are used. Good digester design is to seek to emulate the cow, thus rumen fluid offers great potential for hydrolysis.

  2. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  3. 草鱼出血病%Grass carp bleeding disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱并生

    2011-01-01

    @@ 草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idella是我国重要的淡水鱼类养殖品种,但养殖过程极易发生出血病导致草鱼大量死亡,给草鱼养殖业带来巨大损失。我国在20世纪70年代开始进行病原的研究,1980年发现病毒颗粒并确认为草鱼出血病病原,1991年国际病毒分类委员会将其命名为草鱼呼肠孤病毒(Grass carp reovirus,GCRV)。一直以来除呼肠孤病毒感染草鱼引起出血病外,未见有病毒和细菌混合感染的报道。本刊2009年8期介绍了邓国成、叶星等发表的文章“草鱼出血病混合感染的嗜水气单胞菌的分离、鉴定与理化特性”[1]。作者采集广东、福建等省部分地区的病鱼进行病原分析,发现所检病鱼样本存在病毒和细菌合并感染的情况,细菌性病原为嗜水气单胞菌Aeromonas hydrophila。研究结果为草鱼病害的有效防治提供了新的思路与科学依据。

  4. Water yield following forest-grass-forest transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Brantley, Steven T.; Miniat, Chelcy F.; Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T.

    2017-02-01

    Many currently forested areas in the southern Appalachians were harvested in the early 1900s and cleared for agriculture or pasture, but have since been abandoned and reverted to forest (old-field succession). Land-use and land-cover changes such as these may have altered the timing and quantity of water yield (Q). We examined 80 years of streamflow and vegetation data in an experimental watershed that underwent forest-grass-forest conversion (i.e., old-field succession treatment). We hypothesized that changes in forest species composition and water use would largely explain long-term changes in Q. Aboveground biomass was comparable among watersheds before the treatment (208.3 Mg ha-1), and again after 45 years of forest regeneration (217.9 Mg ha-1). However, management practices in the treatment watershed altered resulting species composition compared to the reference watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) and Q in the treatment watershed recovered to pretreatment levels after 9 years of abandonment, then Q became less (averaging 5.4 % less) and ET more (averaging 4.5 % more) than expected after the 10th year up to the present day. We demonstrate that the decline in Q and corresponding increase in ET could be explained by the shift in major forest species from predominantly Quercus and Carya before treatment to predominantly Liriodendron and Acer through old-field succession. The annual change in Q can be attributed to changes in seasonal Q. The greatest management effect on monthly Q occurred during the wettest (i.e., above median Q) growing-season months, when Q was significantly lower than expected. In the dormant season, monthly Q was higher than expected during the wettest months.

  5. Positive effects of non-native grasses on the growth of a native annual in a southern california ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Carlton, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem.

  6. Overlap in nitrogen sources and redistribution of nitrogen between trees and grasses in a semi-arid savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, K V R; Prins, Herbert H T; de Bie, Steven; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Woodborne, Stephan; Gort, Gerrit; Kirkman, Kevin; Fry, Brian; de Kroon, Hans

    2014-04-01

    A key question in savanna ecology is how trees and grasses coexist under N limitation. We used N stable isotopes and N content to study N source partitioning across seasons from trees and associated grasses in a semi-arid savanna. We also used (15)N tracer additions to investigate possible redistribution of N by trees to grasses. Foliar stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values were consistent with trees and grasses using mycorrhiza-supplied N in all seasons except in the wet season when they switched to microbially fixed N. The dependence of trees and grasses on mineralized soil N seemed highly unlikely based on seasonal variation in mineralization rates in the Kruger Park region. Remarkably, foliar δ(15)N values were similar for all three tree species differing in the potential for N fixation through nodulation. The tracer experiment showed that N was redistributed by trees to understory grasses in all seasons. Our results suggest that the redistribution of N from trees to grasses and uptake of N was independent of water redistribution. Although there is overlap of N sources between trees and grasses, dependence on biological sources of N coupled with redistribution of subsoil N by trees may contribute to the coexistence of trees and grasses in semi-arid savannas.

  7. Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern California Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem. PMID:25379790

  8. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  9. The Role of Moisture in the Successful Rehabilitation of Denuded Patches of a Semi-Arid Environment in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.; Nyangito, M.M.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Muiri, W.M.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Kaufman, Von R.; Verhagen, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maa

  10. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pablo Burrieza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  11. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  12. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otanael Oliveira dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum. were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % in substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  13. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants.

  14. Monocotyledons in Particleboard Production: Adhesives, Additives, and Surface Modification of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Trischler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a supplier to the furniture industry, the particleboard industry is searching for opportunities to reduce costs, weight, and formaldehyde emissions. One such opportunity is to use monocotyledons such as straw and hemp, as well as grasses like reed canary grass. A major problem when using reed canary grass or other monocotyledons in combination with wood is the difference in their surface properties, leading to poor reactivity and wettability with adhesives such as melamine urea formaldehyde. To this end, either the surface of the particles must be modified in some way, or different adhesives must be used. The purpose of this paper is to present adhesives, surfactants, coupling agents, and pre-treatment methods that can be used in combination with monocotyledons to improve compatibility with wood. Some of the methods have been tested on reed canary grass. The results show a wide range of strength values for the joint between wood and untreated or pre-treated reed canary grass glued with different adhesives, with and without a surfactant and a coupling agent. Isocyanate-based adhesives provided relatively strong bonds, and polyvinyl acetate, acryl, and epoxy adhesives were also effective. The most effective method was pre-treatment followed by adhesives in combination with a coupling agent.

  15. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  16. Phylogenetic evidence for an animal pathogen origin of ergot and the grass endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatafora, J W; Sung, G-H; Sung, J-M; Hywel-Jones, N L; White, J F

    2007-04-01

    Grass-associated fungi (grass symbionts) in the family Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) are species whose host range is restricted to the plant family Poaceae and rarely Cyperaceae. The best-characterized species include Claviceps purpurea (ergot of rye) and Neotyphodium coenophialum (endophyte of tall fescue). They have been the focus of considerable research due to their importance in agricultural and grassland ecosystems and the diversity of their bioactive secondary metabolites. Here we show through multigene phylogenetic analyses and ancestral character state reconstruction that the grass symbionts in Clavicipitaceae are a derived group that originated from an animal pathogen through a dynamic process of interkingdom host jumping. The closest relatives of the grass symbionts include the genera Hypocrella, a pathogen of scale insects and white flies, and Metarhizium, a generalist arthropod pathogen. These data do not support the monophyly of Clavicipitaceae, but place it as part of a larger clade that includes Hypocreaceae, a family that contains mainly parasites of other fungi. A minimum of 5-8 independent and unidirectional interkingdom host jumps has occurred among clavicipitaceous fungi, including 3-5 to fungi, 1-2 to animals, and 1 to plants. These findings provide a new evolutionary context for studying the biology of the grass symbionts, their role in plant ecology, and the evolution of host affiliation in fungal symbioses.

  17. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.

  18. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this tab......BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety...... of this tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test......: sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, nasal congestion, watery eyes, and itchy eyes. Secondary end points included rescue medication intake, individual scores, and safety. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 266 children (mean age, 10.9 +/- 3.22 years). The RTSS for the 300-IR group was highly...

  19. Ecohydrological Consequences of Grasses Invading Shrublands: A Comparison of Cold and Warm Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. P.; Turnbull, L.; Young, M.; Williams, C. J.; Ravi, S.; Seyfried, M. S.; Bowling, D. R.; Scott, R. L.; Caldwell, T. G.; Wainwright, J.; Germino, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Exotic grasses are altering native savannas and woodlands across the globe. In this paper, we summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the ecohydrological consequences of native-shrubland-to-grassland conversion. Our objectives are to understand ecohydrological changes at the local scale, such as soil-water content or hillslope erosion; and whether these small-scale changes have consequences for larger-scale phenomena such as flooding, sedimentation in rivers, groundwater recharge, energy budgets, and weather patterns. In addition, we are interested in identifying gaps in our knowledge and research priorities. Our analysis is based on a synthesis of relevant literature complemented by simulation modeling using HYDRUS-1D and MAHLERAN. In terms of runoff and erosion, we find that the influence of grass invasion on surface runoff and erosion is different for the cold and warm deserts. For cold deserts, runoff and erosion will increase while for the warm deserts the opposite is likely to occur. In particular, erosion the erosion hazard will be greatly amplified on steep slopes (>20%) following burning. In warm deserts, grass invasion may actually reduce runoff and erosion. In terms of the vertical fluxes of evaporation and soil water recharge we find that grass invasion will likely lead to higher soil water recharge in cold deserts but not to the extent that groundwater will be affected for many, many decades and then likely not very much. In warm deserts grass invasion likely has little affect on evapotranspiration fluxes or soil water.

  20. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  1. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baldocchi, Dennis D, E-mail: lkoteen@berkeley.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  2. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Soares Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  3. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  4. Adverse reactions to immunotherapy are associated with different patterns of sensitization to grass allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, J; Rodríguez, F; Campo, P; Laffond, E; Marín, A; Alonso, M D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during immunotherapy with a grass extract (AVANZ® Phleum, ALK-Abelló) are related to the different patterns of sensitization of patients to grass allergens. A total of 192 patients with rhinitis and/or asthma sensitized to grass pollen received a 4-week updosing with five injections. ADRs were evaluated following EAACI guidelines. A total of 432 ADRs in 133 (69%) patients were recorded, 64% local and 31% systemic. There was a significant association between the number of grass allergens that sensitized the patients and the total number of ADRs (P = 0.004) occurred locally (P = 0.003) and systemically (P = 0.01). Sensitization to Phl p1 + Phl p5 or Phl p1 + Phl p5 + Phl p12 was significantly associated with a higher frequency of local or systemic reactions (P = 0.001, both). Different patterns of sensitization to grass allergens may potentially be considered a risk marker to the development of ADRs to immunotherapy.

  5. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices. PMID:28102323

  6. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  7. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  8. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  9. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  10. The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, I. [Universiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society; Scurlock, J.M.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lindvall, E. [Svaloef Weibull AB, Umeae (Sweden); Christou, M. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi-Attikis (Greece)

    2003-10-01

    Perennial grasses display many beneficial attributes as energy crops, and there has been increasing interest in their use in the US and Europe since the mid-1980s. In the US, the Herbaceous Energy Crops Research Program (HECP), funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), was established in 1984. After evaluating 35 potential herbaceous crops of which 18 were perennial grasses it was concluded that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the native perennial grass which showed the greatest potential. In 1991, the DOE's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which evolved from the HECP, decided to focus research on a 'model' crop system and to concentrate research resources on switchgrass, in order to rapidly attain its maximal output as a biomass crop. In Europe, about 20 perennial grasses have been tested and four perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRG), namely miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) giant reed (Arundo donax) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) were chosen for more extensive research programs. Reed canary grass and giant reed are grasses with the C{sub 3} photosynthetic pathway, and are native to Europe. Miscanthus, which originated in Southeast Asia, and switchgrass, native to North America, are both C{sub 4} grasses. These four grasses differ in their ecological/climatic demands, their yield potentials, biomass characteristics and crop management requirements. Efficient production of bioenergy from such perennial grasses requires the choice of the most appropriate grass species for the given ecological/climatic conditions. In temperate and warm regions, C{sub 4} grasses outyield C{sub 3} grasses due to their more efficient photosynthetic pathway. However, the further north perennial grasses are planted, the more likely cool season grasses are to yield more than warm season grasses. Low winter temperatures and short vegetation periods are major limits to the growth of C{sub 4} grasses in northern Europe

  11. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to grass in a systematic planting design. [Medicago sativa; Lotus corniculatus; Phalaris arundinacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, L.S.; Heichel, G.H.; Russelle, M.P.

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage legume in the USA, but N transfer from this or other perennial forage species to companion grasses growing in a mixed sward is poorly understood. Furthermore, interplant distances and legume/grass ratios have seldom been controlled in studies of N transfer from legumes to non-legumes. The objectives of this field study were: (i) to determine the amount of N transferred from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus carniculatus L.) to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.); (ii) to define conditions of distance and species ratio under which N transfer occurs; (iii) to compare the two legumes for N transfer; and (iv) to determine the effect of grass proximity on legume N/sub 2/ fixation. Legumes were interplanted with grass in single-species rows within km/sup 2/ plots on a Typic hapludoll soil labeled with /sup 15/N. Analysis of herbage showed significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in grass near legumes than in grass grown alone, and significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in legumes near grass than legumes in monoculture. Calculations using isotope dilution methods showed that grass derived a maximum of 68% of its N from alfalfa and 79% from trefoil. This N represented 13% of the N/sub 2/ fixed by trefoil and 17% of that fixed by alfalfa. The results indicated that N transfer occurred over a distance of 20 cm with maximum N transfer in areas of high legume/grass ratio. At third harvest, N derived from symbiosis was significantly higher (95% in alfalfa, 92% in trefoil) for legumes grown in mixture with grass than for legumes grown in monoculture (86% in alfalfa, 80% in trefoil). These results indicate that significant N transfer occurred, and that the amount of N transferred was dependent on interspecies distance and legume/grass ratio.

  12. THE BODIES COALESCED WITH HISTORY IN RUSHDIE'S MIDNIGHT'S CHILDREN AND GRASS' THE TIN DRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk KALAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie and Günter Grass always attract the readers' attention with their fabulous novels. In their novels titled Tin Drum by Günter Grass and Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie having much importance to irradiate their homeland's history, the authors indicate the most important incidences in their history. While Grass deals with Hitler's period and his aftermath, Rushdie concerns about the birth of independent India. Both writers pen the advantage and disadvantage aspects of the then term in the society. A great number of terms, such as identity, history, postmodernism, intertextuality, histographic metafiction can be easily observed in the novels. In this context, the protagonists of these two novels have the same destiny with their homeland, which is emphasized in this study.

  13. Characterisation of a Giant Lemon Grass Acclimatised in the Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loumouamou Aubin Nestor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the essential oil of the giant variety of lemon grass (Poaceae obtained from farmers in Congo-Kinshasa and tested in Congo-Brazzaville. Chemical analysis, by GC and GCMS, of the essential oil from different parts of the plant, extracted at different stages of growth, revealed the very high stability of the citral chemotype (>80%; giving it the status of interesting species for the production of citral oil. However, it could not be identified to any of the oil-yielding grasses already described in the literature. Like Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf it produces an essential oil containing more than 80% citral, but displays morphological characteristics of vigorous grasses. The botanical description of the plant and the chemical composition of its oil identify it to Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud Stapf.

  14. Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Seare T; Yuan, XianJun; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of Napier grass silage was examined. Napier grass ensiled with no additive control, 0.2% formic acid, 0.4% molasses, and 0.3% fibrolytic enzyme for, 7, 30, 60 and 90days. Additives increased lactic acid, soluble carbohydrate and decreased all of lignocellulosic contents except acid detergent lignin and pH than control. The highest value of nonstructural carbohydrate and large reduction in lignocellulosic contents was observed in formic acid and fibrolytic enzyme silage respectively. The content of glucose and fructose showed rapid drop in the first 7days of ensilage. Ensilage decreased lignocellulosic contents and increased ED compared to fresh material. The ED of formic acid and molasses silage was significantly higher than control and fibrolytic enzyme silages in all tested days. In summery the ensiling quality structural and nonstructural carbohydrate and ED value of mature Napier grass silage improved through additives.

  15. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and pearl millet (P. glaucum. Tetraploid (AAA'B and pentaploid (AA'A'BB chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB and pearl millet (AA were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaploid and tetraploid genomic combinations showed high level of mixoploidy, in discordance with the expected somatic chromosome set. The pentaploid chromosome number ranged from 20 to 34, and the tetraploid chromosome number from 16 to 28. Chromosome number variation was higher in pentaploid genomic combinations than in tetraploid, and mixoploidy was observed among hexaploids. Genomic combinations 4x and 5x are mixoploid, and the variation of chromosome number within chromosomal race 5x is greater than in 4x.

  16. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Orby, P.V.;

    2013-01-01

    available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations...... between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen...... levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination...

  17. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.;

    2008-01-01

    , 47 and 44 g kg-1 h-1 and DM intake was 2.5, 2.1 and 1.5 kg d-1 for ECS, MCS and LCS silage, respectively. Faeces samples were collected during four days, washed in nylon bags, freeze dried and sieved into six sieving fractions; bottom bowl (B), 0.106 (C), 0.212 (D), 0.5 (S), 1.0 (M) and 2.36 (O) mm......The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silages....

  18. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. [(sea grasses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R. J.; Gordon, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental water penetration film and black and white near infrared film were used to study the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Detailed description of the grass beds was obtained by flying at an altitude of 5,000 feet, at low tide when wind conditions were minimal. Results show that there was a 36% reduction in the amount of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay from 1971 to 1974, the greatest losses occurring in the York, Piankatank and Rappahannock rivers (tabulated data is given). Recovery of some grass beds occurs primarily through seedling recruitment and subsequent vegetative growth. Cownose rays are suspected as a main factor for the decimation of some of the grass beds. Maps and photographs of the areas studied are given.

  19. A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubeileh, Ashraf; Rennie, Timothy J; Goss, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    With a dry biomass production exceeding 40Mgha(-1) in many environments, Miscanthus spp. is the most productive perennial C4 grass species thanks to five advantages over North American prairie tallgrasses. However, miscanthus has a slower nutrient remobilization system, resulting in higher nutrient concentrations at harvest. Perennial C4 grasses benefit from soil microbial associations, reducing their nutrient needs. For combustion purposes, grasses with low moisture content, high lignin and low nutrients are desired. For ethanol, preferred feedstock will have lower lignin, higher sugars, starch, or cellulose/hemicellulose depending on the conversion method. Species with high stem-to-leaf ratio provide better biofuel conversion efficiency and quality. Recently-developed transgenic switchgrass lines have much higher ethanol yields and lower transformation costs. Further selection and breeding are needed to optimize biomass quality and nutrient cycling.

  20. Climate change is projected to outpace rates of niche change in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, F Alice; Wilson, Ashley A; Wiens, John J

    2016-09-01

    Climate change may soon threaten much of global biodiversity, especially if species cannot adapt to changing climatic conditions quickly enough. A critical question is how quickly climatic niches change, and if this speed is sufficient to prevent extinction as climates warm. Here, we address this question in the grass family (Poaceae). Grasses are fundamental to one of Earth's most widespread biomes (grasslands), and provide roughly half of all calories consumed by humans (including wheat, rice, corn and sorghum). We estimate rates of climatic niche change in 236 species and compare these with rates of projected climate change by 2070. Our results show that projected climate change is consistently faster than rates of niche change in grasses, typically by more than 5000-fold for temperature-related variables. Although these results do not show directly what will happen under global warming, they have troubling implications for a major biome and for human food resources.