WorldWideScience

Sample records for buffel grass cenchrus

  1. DO ADDITIONAL BANDS (COASTAL, NIR-2, RED-EDGE AND YELLOW IN WORLDVIEW-2 MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY IMPROVE DISCRIMINATION OF AN INVASIVE TUSSOCK, BUFFEL GRASS (CENCHRUS CILIARIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marshall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our goals is to determine if Worldview-2 8-band multispectral imagery can be used to discriminate an invasive grass species namely, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris in the subtropical arid parts of central Australia and whether it offers a tangible improvement on 4-band (visible and near infra red multispectral imagery. A Worldview-2 scene was acquired for a 10*10km area just west of Alice Springs in central Australia following heavy rains of early Summer. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to classify the image. Target and background spectra were selected in the field and extracted from the image. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA was used to examine the spectral separability of each group of the target/ background spectra. The importance of the additional spectral bands on the image classification was assessed by running LDA for both 8 and 4 bands (red, green, blue and NIR. LDA did not indicate improved separability between groups when additional spectral bands were applied. Preliminary classification results indicate that Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris is detected with an omission error 44%, commission error of 11.8% and overall accuracy of 59.5%. We were surprised that the additional spectral bands did not improve spectral separability and in part attribute this to the high degree of variance we observed within groups of spectra, which was particularly observable in the NIR2 and Yellow bands. The analyses may be significantly improved by acquiring imagery following the first big rains at the end of the dry season. At this time, phonological differences between our focal species and the surrounding native vegetation should be maximised. We suspect that Worldview-2 will offer even greater potential for the discrimination of Buffel grass under these conditions, being able to fully utilise the yellow-band in particular.

  2. Do Additional Bands (coastal, NIR-2, Red-Edge and Yellow) in WORLDVIEW-2 Multispectral Imagery Improve Discrimination of AN Invasive Tussock, Buffel Grass (cenchrus Ciliaris)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V.; Lewis, M.; Ostendorf, B.

    2012-07-01

    Our goals is to determine if Worldview-2 8-band multispectral imagery can be used to discriminate an invasive grass species namely, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in the subtropical arid parts of central Australia and whether it offers a tangible improvement on 4-band (visible and near infra red) multispectral imagery. A Worldview-2 scene was acquired for a 10*10km area just west of Alice Springs in central Australia following heavy rains of early Summer. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to classify the image. Target and background spectra were selected in the field and extracted from the image. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) was used to examine the spectral separability of each group of the target/ background spectra. The importance of the additional spectral bands on the image classification was assessed by running LDA for both 8 and 4 bands (red, green, blue and NIR). LDA did not indicate improved separability between groups when additional spectral bands were applied. Preliminary classification results indicate that Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is detected with an omission error 44%, commission error of 11.8% and overall accuracy of 59.5%. We were surprised that the additional spectral bands did not improve spectral separability and in part attribute this to the high degree of variance we observed within groups of spectra, which was particularly observable in the NIR2 and Yellow bands. The analyses may be significantly improved by acquiring imagery following the first big rains at the end of the dry season. At this time, phonological differences between our focal species and the surrounding native vegetation should be maximised. We suspect that Worldview-2 will offer even greater potential for the discrimination of Buffel grass under these conditions, being able to fully utilise the yellow-band in particular.

  3. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  4. Morphogenetical, structural and access to productive buffel grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando de Sousa Moreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the buffel grass is so important to the productive systems in the semiarid Brazilian studies with this forage are still scarce and diffused, so this experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphogenesis, structural and productive six accessions of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. belonging to the active germplasm bank (BAG Embrapa semiarid. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Technology and Social Sciences (DTCS University of Bahia (UNEB, from December 2008 to January 2009. The experimental design was completely randomized with six accessions of buffel grass (Tanzania, Pusa Giant, Aridus, Buchuma, Iran and Biloela and five replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Regarding the results, the accessions differed significantly in most variables, especially in morphogenetic and structural variables. It was observed that the buffel grass provides a mean rate of appearance of one sheet every four days in each tiller, with a lifetime of sheet 17 days, keeping ten per tiller. Although they found morphogenetic and structural differences between accessions of buffel grass they did not affect the production parameters.

  5. Tackling Contentious Invasive Plant Species: A Case Study of Buffel Grass in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Anthony C.; Friedel, Margaret H.; Marshall, Nadine A.; van Klinken, Rieks D.

    2012-02-01

    Introduced plants that have both production values and negative impacts can be contentious. Generally they are either treated as weeds and their use prohibited; or unfettered exploitation is permitted and land managers must individually contend with any negative effects. Buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) is contentious in Australia and there has been no attempt to broadly and systematically address the issues surrounding it. However, recent research indicates that there is some mutual acceptance by proponents and opponents of each others' perspectives and we contend that this provides the basis for a national approach. It would require thorough and on-going consultation with stakeholders and development of realistic goals that are applicable across a range of scales and responsive to regional differences in costs, benefits and socio-economic and biophysical circumstances. It would be necessary to clearly allocate responsibilities and ascertain the most appropriate balance between legislative and non-legislative mechanisms. A national approach could involve avoiding the introduction of additional genetic material, countering proliferation in regions where the species is sparse, preventing incursion into conservation reserves where it is absent, containing strategically located populations and managing communities to prevent or reduce dominance by buffel grass. This approach could be applied to other contentious plant species.

  6. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  7. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region.

  8. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  9. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%, δ4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.31%, fagarsterol (lupeol (1.25% and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%. Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  10. Buffels (CW3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit, ECRU

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available This report entails available historical information on Buffels estuary and abiotic and biotic characteristics found in the estuary are presented. Although the Buffels River has a relatively large catchment compared with most other major rivers...

  11. Hyperspectral band depth analysis for a better estimation of grass biomass (Cenchrus ciliaris) measured under controlled laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of grass quantity is important for providing information about the productivity and functioning of rangelands. Existing indices used to estimate grass quantity, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are of limited value due to the saturation problem, especially in

  12. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  13. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN e hídrico (BH, de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2 e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9. De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia e Biloela (3,9g/dia, e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia. Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal.The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB and water balances (WB of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred Santa Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2 and % of body weight (2.9. In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with

  14. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  15. Caracterización de producción de etanol a partir de zacate buffel y sus implicaciones ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareen Krizzan Encinas Soto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se caracterizó el potencial para la obtención de etanol a partir de la planta silvestre Cenchrus ciliaris, también conocida como zacate buffel. A partir de estudios experimentales a nivel laboratorio, se determinaron los rendimientos técnicos y requerimientos energéticos de las etapas de pretratamiento ácido, hidrólisis enzimática y fermentación. Los valores obtenidos fueron comparados con los reportados en la literatura para otros procesos de producción de combustibles. Los resultados del presente trabajo indican que el procesamiento de Cenchrus ciliaris consume la tercera parte de la energía requerida para procesar gasolina por 1 MJ de etanol producido. Asimismo, mediante este proceso es factible la reducción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero por 1 MJ de energía de etanol producido en aproximadamente 40 % su valor actual.

  16. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  17. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Nyariki, Dickson M; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  18. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  19. Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

  20. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  1. Biodiversity effects on ecosystem function due to land use: The case of buffel savannas in the Sky Islands Seas in the central region of Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Castellanos; H. Celaya; C. Hinojo; A. Ibarra; J. R. Romo

    2013-01-01

    Buffel savannas have been an important landscape on cattle grazing ranches in Sonora over the past 50 years or more. Changes in land use result in biodiversity changes that may produce ecosystem functional changes; however, these are less well documented. Although fire driven processes have been proposed for Buffel savannas, this is not generally the case, and other...

  2. Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Antônio Alves de; Espíndola,Gastão Barreto

    2000-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena), com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha). As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utiliz...

  3. Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Antônio Alves de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena, com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha. As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.

  4. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required.

  5. The presence of synaptic and chromosome disjunction mutants in Cenchrus ciliaris (Poaceae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic mutants are present in  Cenchrus ciliaris L This species, due to the presence of linear bivalents and occasion­al trivalents and quadrivalents, is an intermediate desynaptic species. In addition, geographical distribution and environmental factors, such as high temperatures and low humidity, could also have had an influence on the desynapsis observed.The disjunction of chromosomes during anaphase I was mostly abnormal in this desynaptic species. Precocious disjunction of chromosomes into chromatids occurred during anaphase I Due to the high incidence of this chromosome abnormality, a mutant gene,  'pc'  responsible for the disjunction of chromosomes, must be present. The absence of cytokinesis in one specimen indicates a recessive mutant gene,  'va' to be active in this species.

  6. Effect on of in vitro fermentation of mixture of Tithonia diversifolia, Cenchrus clandestinum and polyunsaturated fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Cardona Iglesias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluated by in vitro, the effect of mixing wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinum and concentrated feed, with the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (AGPI on the production of methane (CH4 ml/g MSd, dry matter digestibility (%DIVMS and production of volatile fatty acids (AGV. The research was conducted in NUTRILAB laboratory (Medellin, Colombia in September 2015. Three combinations of AGPI rich lipid sources were used with a total maximum inclusion level corresponding to 3% of incubated dry matter. Combinations of lipid sources were: SAGPI1: 0.5% soya oil, 0.5% sish oil, 2% rich in omega 3 bypass fat. SAGPI2: 1% Soya oil, 0.5% fish oil, 1.5% bypass fat rich in omega 3. SAGPI3: 2.5% Soya oil, 0.5% fish oil. A source of bypass fat (GSP was also used. The results were processed using pre-planned test comparisons through the PROC MIXED-SAS.The methane production in vitro decreased (p<0.05, while the dry matter digestibility increased (p<0.05 24 and 48 hours after wild sunflower was include and / or AGPI or both into the mixtures. In the molar ratio of AGV (%, acetic acid showed an increased presence. The inclusion of forage like wild sunflower and sources of AGPI supplementation in cattle, could be a strategy to reduce methane emissions without causing a detriment to the ruminal fermentation.

  7. CAMBIOS EN EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE NITRÓGENO Y AGUA EN EL SUELO DE UN MATORRAL DESÉRTICO TRANSFORMADO A SABANA DE BUFFEL (Pennisetum ciliare (L. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Celaya Michel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores de la degradación de los ecosistemas naturales, al modificar los procesos de transferencia de nitrógeno y agua reduciendo su productividad. En el presente trabajo, se describe cómo la transformación de matorrales desérticos a sabanas de zacate buffel en la región central de Sonora (RCS afecta dichos almacenes de recursos del suelo. Para entenderlo, se seleccionaron parcelas en el matorral bajo el dosel de árboles de Olneya tesota (NA y espacios abiertos sin cobertura vegetal aparente (NI, y en la sabana de buffel, bajo la misma especie de árbol (SA, inter-espacio (SI y bajo el pasto buffel (SB. Se analizó el nitrógeno total y las formas disponibles de este nutrimento en el suelo, así como contenido de agua en el suelo a diferentes profundidades durante cuatro años (2010 al 2013. Se encontró una pérdida anual de 12.5 kg N ha-1 debido a la transformación del ecosistema natural dominado por árboles y arbustos que generan islas de fertilidad e inter-espacios, a una sabana dominada por buffel e inter-espacios a sabana. La humedad del suelo indica que en la parte superficial del suelo, los espacios abiertos tienen más humedad, pero en la parte profunda de 150 a 200 cm la cubierta vegetal de los árboles y buffel almacenan más agua. Los resultados sugieren que el cambio de matorrales a sabanas de buffel ha disminuido los reservorios de nitrógeno y agua, e impactado las propiedades físicas del suelo, la fertilidad, y los reservorios hídricos del suelo. El estudio sugiere que los cambios espaciales y temporales en nitrógeno y agua en el suelo repercutirán de manera importante en el balance hidrológico y funcionamiento del ecosistema transformado.

  8. Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Nouman, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; Basra, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in amino acids, ascorbate, zeatin, minerals, and many other compounds known for their growth-promoting potential. This study was planned to explore the potential of MLE as a seed priming agent to increase the germination rate and plant vigor of 3 range grasses, i.e. Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale, and Echinochloa crusgalli. The priming strategies used were hydropriming, CaCl2, PEG-8000 (-1.1 M Pa), MLE (concentrate; 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40...

  9. Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

  10. Kangaroo grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Aamir Saleem1, Sarwat N. Mirza1, Irshad Ahmad Khan1* and Jennifer Franklin2. 1Department of Forestry and Range Management, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University .... as soil moisture approaches field capacity (Nolan, 1994). Because Kangaroo grass grows under a wide range of conditions, it has a wide ...

  11. Field Sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) Seeds in the Same Bur Respond Differently to Temperature and Water Potential in Relation to Germination in a Semi-Arid Environment, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhixin (Jason); Tian, Xun; Bai, Yuguang; Liu, Huifang; Niu, Xueli; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big...

  12. Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 × 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates in each treatment. The parthenium weeds were planted with or without buffel grass. The plants were inoculated with P. abrupta var. partheniicola urediniospores either at the rosette, flowering or mature growth stage of development. As controls, an additional six non inoculated plants with and without buffel grass were planted. The results showed that P. abrupta var. partheniicola affected more on the younger plants than on the older ones. Its infection decreased the plant height. A higher reduction in plant above ground biomass was recorded because of the rust when the plants were inoculated at the rosette growth stage of development in the presence of competition. The impact of the rust was greatest on the ability of parthenium to produce seeds.

  13. Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladston Rafael de Arruda Santos

    2005-04-01

    fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth., ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, ashes (ASH, total carbohydrates (TCH and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC, respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

  14. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, Habtamu T.; Madakadze, I. C.; Angassa, A.; Hassen, A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists’ claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists’ experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (prangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (prangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID

  15. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bacteria from forest soils. Figure 1E also shows seasonal shifts in abundance of rhizospheric bacterial communities of the two grasses, adding yet another layer of complexity. Similar trends were evident from fungal and faunal OTUs identified in these grass rhizospheres, where many OTUs had no significant match.

  16. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  17. Pyriculins A and B, two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols and other phytotoxic metabolites produced by Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Górecki, Marcin; Mandoli, Alessandro; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Clement, Suzette; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-napthalenone, and (4S)-(+)-isosclerone. Pyriculins A and B were characterized by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [HRESIMS]) and chemical methods such as (4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)hex-4-ene-2,3-diols. The relative and absolute configuration of these compounds was determined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR, electronic circular dichroism [ECD]) and computational tools. When bioassayed in a buffelgrass coleoptile and radicle elongation test, (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol proved to be the most toxic compound. Seed germination was much reduced and slowed with respect to the control and radicles failed to elongate. All five compounds delayed germination, but only (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol was able to prevent radicle development of buffelgrass seedlings. It had no effect on coleoptile elongation, while the other four compounds caused significantly increased coleoptile development relative to the control. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  19. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  20. (IITA) Improved Spear Grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    ensure food security and combat poverty (Chikoye, Avav, Ellis-Jones, Kormawa,. Udensi, Tarawali and Nielson, 2005). One of such chronic weeds that has been a menace to sustainable food production in the forest/savanna transition zone of. Nigeria is Imperata cylindrinca (spear grass) (Avav and Okereke, 1999). It is a.

  1. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Metagenomics at Grass Roots. Sudeshna ... benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies.

  2. GRASS GERMPLASM FOR DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulase solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pre-treatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulase solution (APCS). The CSD procedure in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter ...

  3. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu T. Keba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF and ash content to verify pastoralists’ claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV and dry matter digestibility (DMD were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists’ experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05 variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5% content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8 and Aristida adoensis (9.8% during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV

  4. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  5. Field Sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus Seeds in the Same Bur Respond Differently to Temperature and Water Potential in Relation to Germination in a Semi-Arid Environment, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Zhang

    Full Text Available The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big seeds (M and small seeds (P. Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted under different temperature regimes (0/10°C, 5/15°C, 10/20°C, 15/25°C, 18/28°C, 20/30°C and 25/35°C and water potentials (-1.50Mpa, -1.00Mpa, -0.75Mpa, -0.50Mpa, -0.25Mpa and 0Mpa for M and P seeds. The results support the hypothesis that germination of C. pauciflorus is significantly influenced by seed type, temperature and water potential. M and P seeds responded differently to varied alternative temperatures and water potentials. However, M and P seeds were more sensitive to water potential than to temperature. Optimal conditions for M and P seed germination were measured at 25/35°C (night temperature/day temperature and 20/30°C, respectively. In contrast, the highest germination rate was observed for the 0Mpa of the water potential treatment. Additionally, base temperature (Tbase and base water potential (Wbase were lower for M (7.7°C, -1.11Mpa at 10/20°C, and -1.07Mpa at 20/30°C than for P (9.4°C, -0.92Mpa at 10/20°C, and -0.52Mpa at 20/30°C. These different germination strategies of M and P seeds with respect to temperature and water potential increased overall plant propagation. These results indicate that tropical and subtropical regions water potentials beyond -0.50Mpa (10/20°C or -1.00Mpa (20/30°C face a potential risk of C. pauciflorus invasion.

  6. Field Sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) Seeds in the Same Bur Respond Differently to Temperature and Water Potential in Relation to Germination in a Semi-Arid Environment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Tian, Xun; Bai, Yuguang; Liu, Huifang; Niu, Xueli; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big seeds (M) and small seeds (P). Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted under different temperature regimes (0/10°C, 5/15°C, 10/20°C, 15/25°C, 18/28°C, 20/30°C and 25/35°C) and water potentials (-1.50Mpa, -1.00Mpa, -0.75Mpa, -0.50Mpa, -0.25Mpa and 0Mpa) for M and P seeds. The results support the hypothesis that germination of C. pauciflorus is significantly influenced by seed type, temperature and water potential. M and P seeds responded differently to varied alternative temperatures and water potentials. However, M and P seeds were more sensitive to water potential than to temperature. Optimal conditions for M and P seed germination were measured at 25/35°C (night temperature/day temperature) and 20/30°C, respectively. In contrast, the highest germination rate was observed for the 0Mpa of the water potential treatment. Additionally, base temperature (Tbase) and base water potential (Wbase) were lower for M (7.7°C, -1.11Mpa at 10/20°C, and -1.07Mpa at 20/30°C) than for P (9.4°C, -0.92Mpa at 10/20°C, and -0.52Mpa at 20/30°C). These different germination strategies of M and P seeds with respect to temperature and water potential increased overall plant propagation. These results indicate that tropical and subtropical regions water potentials beyond -0.50Mpa (10/20°C) or -1.00Mpa (20/30°C) face a potential risk of C. pauciflorus invasion.

  7. Identification of some Malaysian grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1935-01-01

    When BUSE gave an enumeration of the grasses collected by JUNGHUHN in Java and Sumatra, he mentioned under Paspalum a species, described by RETZIUS in the year 1781 as Paspalum hirsutum. BUSE identified a grass from Sumatra as being the species of RETZIUS, on account of the description, having

  8. Nutritional content, digestibility and performance of native grasses biomass that dominate livestock Molinopampa, Pomacochas and Leymebamba basins, Amazonas, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Oliva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the nutritional content, in vitro digestibility and performance of biomass and species as farmers are the most important species of native grasses that predominate in the three main livestock basins of the Amazonas: Molinopampa, Pomacochas and Leymebamba. For this random sampling, six areas of 0.25 m2 per treatment every 60 days for three outbreaks. The obtained samples were separately weighed and mixed, and then extract a uniform and representative aliquot of 1 kg per species to be dehydrated in an oven at 60 °C for 48 hours, they were subjected to a proximate analysis. Values obtained with each of the evaluation parameters and after being multiplied with respective values final cumulative weighted value being calculated the following results Trifolium repens L (35.9, often Philoglossa mimuloides-Often Siso (35.3, Cenchrus clandestinus (32.8, Trifolium dubium (32.5 and Philoglossa mimuloides-Siso lapacho (31.3. The values mean the cumulative importance of each species.

  9. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  10. Equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  12. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Frid, Leonardo; Olsson, Aaryn D.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris) at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA). Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most

  13. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion

  14. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  15. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  16. (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Key words: Kangaroo grass, biomass, dry matter, rangeland, growth stages. INTRODUCTION ..... sativa L.) pastures. Ph.D Dissertation presented to ... Production curves for the six most important grass species in the western ...

  17. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    manually or with hydraulic press to produce briquettes for use in stove. However, there is sufficient literature suggesting the use of grass species for animal husbandry. Odia [5] examined the energy potential dried leaves and agricultural residues. As a follow up on the previous research attempts on biomass fuel, this work is ...

  18. Allergenicity and crossreactivity of buffalo grass ( Stenotaphrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In the subtropical climate of South Africa, grasses of the subfamily Panicoideae are predominant. Bermuda grass has previously been shown to be an important local allergen, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes of Bermuda grass extracts are known to be distinct from those of the Pooid pollen extracts.

  19. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  20. L-band radar scattering from grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  1. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  2. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between mature grass plants and grass seedlings have been found to be both facilitative and competitive. To examine the effects of aboveground and belowground competition on seedling biomass and the effects of soil depth on competitive interactions, seedlings of three locally common grass species ...

  3. Modelling of strategic grass harvest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiessen, M.; Mourik, van S.; Evert, van F.K.

    2017-01-01

    Grass harvest plays a crucial role in milk production. Farmers face the problem of timing the harvest with respect to quality (crude protein content) and quantity (dry matter yield). Literature suggests that harvesting more frequently and thereby keeping the grass short (light harvesting) will

  4. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    gamba grass and bagasse was 0.8 (RK<1) while pineapple leaf and maize stalk have Runkel ratio of 0.9 (RK<1). Peel from maize cob and Bahaman grass have Runkel Ratio of 1. (RK=1). Calculated fibre derivatives indicated that the non wood raw materials were good in pulp and papermaking. Key words: Non-wood fibre, ...

  5. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  6. An introduction to the grasses of Ethiopia and Eritrea | Phillips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia together with Eritrea has a rich grass flora comprising over 600 species. Grasses typical of each of the vegetation types found in the area are discussed. Grasses from specialised edaphic conditions are considered, and also weed, pasture and lawn grasses. The paper concludes with a section on the importance of ...

  7. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  8. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation

  9. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  10. ALLERGENICITY AND CROSS- REACTIVITY OF BUFFALO GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Cynodon dactylon. (Bermuda), and Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo); for pastures. (Digitaria erianthe); garden ornamentals (e.g. Pennisetum villosum); and for erosion control, Pennisetum and Eragrostis. Lolium perenne (rye grass), of the subfamily Pooideae, has been.

  11. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  12. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  13. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  14. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Deguang; Gong, Wangbao; Li, Zhifei; Wang, Haiying; Xia, Yun; Wei, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  15. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  16. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  17. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental......Compared with annual grain and seed crops, the production of perennial crops reduces losses of nutrients, the need for pesticides, and supports soil carbon build-up. This may help implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD); the Nitrates Directive; and support the new EU greenhouse gas...... production into grass production. Grasses and legumes have higher contents of protein with better quality (high lysine and methionine contents) than grain and seed crops. Thus, substituting imported soya bean protein with protein extracted from perennial grasses is an interesting option....

  18. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  19. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  20. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  1. OCORRÊNCIA E ATIVIDADE DE BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS EM FORRAGEIRAS CULTIVADAS NA REGIÃO SEMIÁRIDA NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIA CARNEIRO MONTEIRO DOS SANTOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria play important role on economy nitrogen fertilizer in forage glasses and environmental sustainability. With the objective of evaluate the occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria associated associated with native forage at two different times and identify isolates with potential for fixing N2 in the semiarid region. Was conducted in the Soil Laboratory of the Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural in Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba. A study was carried out at the Soil Laboratory of the Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos, Paraíba. The objective this study was to verify in the native diazotrophic endophytic bacteria associated with forage glasses and to identify isolates in NBF hability, during the rainy and dry seasons in semiarid region. Root samples of three forage grasses [Andropogon gayanus Kunth (Andropogon, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania (Tanzânia and Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Buffel] cultivated in the field experiment was utilized. The bacteria were isolated in NFb culture media free-N specific for Azospirillum spp., the isolates was quantified, phenotypically characterized, purified. From caracterized after, was evaluated for their nitrogenase activity in vitro. The resultas show diazotrophics bacteria growth in the three forage grasses tested. The ocorrency diazotrophics bacteria be influencied by genotipic plant and seasonal variation. A more density of NSDB of the genus Azospirillum associated in the root grasses were obtained in dry season. The NSDB isolates, show a high potencial for new studies on the genetic caracteristcs and avaliation the inoculo potential to (BNF associated on grasses in semiarid region.

  2. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  3. The influence of the application of grass herbicides on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Economic analysis; Fluazifop-butyl; Merino sheep; Pastures; Propyzamide; Wool production; adg; animal production; dryland; fluzifop-butyl; grass; lucerne; treatments; weeds; yield; production; grasses; herbicides; southern cape; south africa; ruens; stocking rates; medicago sativa; medicago truncatula ...

  4. Distinct physiological responses underlie defoliation tolerance in African lawn and bunch grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, T.M.; Kumordzi, B.B.; Fokkema, W.; Valls Fox, H.; Olff, H.

    Premise of research. African grass communities are dominated by two distinct functional types: tall, caespitose bunch grasses and short, spreading lawn grasses. Functional type coexistence has been explained by differences in defoliation tolerance, because lawn grasses occur in intensively grazed

  5. Grass seedling demography and sagebrush steppe restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. James; M. J. Rinella; T. Svejcar

    2012-01-01

    Seeding is a key management tool for arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. A recent study inWyoming big sagebrush steppe suggested that over 90% of seeded native grass individuals die before seedlings emerged. This current study examines the timing and rate of seed germination, seedling emergence, and seedling death related...

  6. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available of the interaction Varies in both time and space, allowing a rich array of possible outcomes but no universal predictive model. Simple models of coexistence of trees and grasses, based on separation in rooting depth, are theoretically and experimentally inadequate...

  7. Monitoring grass swards using imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.16-1.45 mm2) and spectral resolution (5-13 nm) was explored for monitoring light interception and biomass of grass swards. Thirty-six Lolium perenne L. mini-swards were studied for a total of eleven consecutive growth periods.

  8. The Prairie Life: The Sea of Grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that explores the importance of the environment for 19th-century frontier settlers and the conflict between ranchers and small farmers over appropriate land use. Students watch a video movie, "The Sea of Grass"; read selections from "O Pioneers!"; and write a compare/contrast essay. (MJP)

  9. Novel Imaging Spectroscopy for Grass Sward Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Meuleman, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Lokhorst, C.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to improve grassland management may benefit from the use of new sensing techniques, such as imaging spectroscopy. In order to explore the potential of hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy for rapid and objective characterization of grass swards an experimental prototype has been developed.

  10. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  11. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental ...

  12. Methyl bromide soil fumigation: effect on grass yields | MGW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual herbage yields of grasses grown on sandy soils on Henderson Research Station seldom exceed 10 000 kg/ha dry matter, while on heavy clay soils yields of 18 000 kg/ha are consistently obtained with similar amounts of applied fertilizers. Keywords: methyl bromide|soils|fumigation|grasses|grass ...

  13. Responses of savanna lawn and bunch grasses to water limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Alfons; Zeinstra, Patricia; Veldhuis, Michiel; Fokkema, Rienk; Tielens, Elske; Howison, Ruth; Olff, Han

    The grass layer of African savannas consists of two main vegetation types: grazing lawns, dominated by short, mostly clonally reproducing grasses, and bunch grasslands, dominated by tall bunch grasses. This patchy distribution of vegetation types is mostly created by large herbivores, which

  14. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-five (35) grower crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to seven combinations of concentrate, grass and legume in proportions of 50 g:60 g:40 g in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: (1) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and groundnut haulms (RRG), (2) rabbit meal, Rhodes grass and sweet potato ...

  15. Invasion of the exotic grasses: Mapping their progression via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric B. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Several exotic annual grass species are invading the Intermountain West. After disturbances including wildfire, these grasses can form dense stands with fine fuels that then shorten fire intervals. Thus invasive annual grasses and wildfire form a positive feedback mechanism that threatens native ecosystems. Chief among these within Nevada are Bromus tectorum...

  16. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  17. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.L. Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria

  18. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos. Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and winter the rates were 164, 2.38, 3.26 and 3.89 UA/ha. In summer, the stocking rate of 4.34 UA/ha enabled best combination between weight gain per animal and per area with daily average gains of 0.560kg/animal and 2.99 kg/ha on cameroon grass and of 0.505 kg/animal and 2.79 kg/ha for braquiarão grass. However, in winter, the stocking rate of 3.26 UA/ha was the one which enabled greatest animal yield with daily average gains of 0.670kg/animal and 2.86 kg/ha on cameroon grass and 0.503 kg/animal and 2.10kg/ha on braquiarão grass. The weight gain per animal and per area is influenced by stocking rate. The cameroon grass provides greater weight than grass braquiarão gains, both animal as per area, in both rainy and dry seasons.

  19. Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    We report the sustained efficacy of the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax® (Phleum pratense 75000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) from a 5-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe grass pollen allergy inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications were followed for 2 years after the completion of 3 years of treatment. The active group demonstrated a 31% reduction in median rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score over the season compared with placebo. Individual symptom scores favoured active treatment. Combined symptom and medication scores demonstrated a 33% reduction in medians with active treatment. Persistent clinical efficacy was accompanied by prolonged increases in allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies and IgE-blocking factor, confirming clinical and immunological tolerance for at least 2 years after the treatment completion. No safety issues were identified during follow-up. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  1. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  2. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  3. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  4. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND YIELDS OF GRASSES GROWN IN SALINE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Purbajanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of saline condition to crop physiology, growth andforages yield. A factorial completed random design was used in this study. The first factor was type ofgrass, these were king grass (Pennisetum hybrid, napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum, panicum grass(Panicum maximum, setaria grass (Setaria sphacelata and star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus. Thesecond factor was salt solution (NaCl with concentration 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM. Parameters of thisexperiment were the percentage of chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, number of tiller, biomass and drymatter yield. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s multiple range testwhen there were significant effects of the treatment. Panicum grass had the highest chlorophyll content(1.85 mg/g of leaf. Photosynthesis rate of setaria grass was the lowest. The increasing of NaClconcentration up to 300 mM NaCl reduced chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis, tiller number,biomass yield and dry matter yield. Responses of leaf area, biomass and dry matter yield to salinitywere linear for king, napier, panicum and setaria grasses. In tar grass, the response of leaf area andbiomass ware linear, but those of dry matter yield was quadratic. The response of tiller number tosalinity was linear for all species.

  5. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  6. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  7. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  8. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vate Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200 Republic of South Africa lntroduction. Hancock et al. ( 1987) investigated the relationship between the performance of Hereford steers grazing three different pastures (tall fescue, orchardgrass and brome grass) and their subsequent performance in a feedlot. The live mass of these.

  9. Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Warner, D.; Hatew, Bayissa; Klop, G.; Podesta, S.C.; Lingen, van H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and determined whether recent prediction equations for methane, based on a wide variety of diets, are applicable to grass- and grass silage-based diets.

  10. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  11. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  12. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  13. Short Communication: Autelogical studies on grass species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lack of information on the demography, population dynamics and competitive abilities of southern African grasses was also identified. A table summarizing these studies is presented. Keywords: autecology; competitive ability; demography; grasses; literature; literature survey; pasture; population dynamics; reference list; ...

  14. Response of higveld grass species to ammonium and nitrate nitrogen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-one populations in twenty-two species of highveld grasses were grown in pots of soil fertilized with solutions for comparing ammonium and nitrate nutrition. Cotton, tomato, cereal crops and pasture grasses were included for comparison. Roots and shoots were harvested separately, weighed and analysed for major ...

  15. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  16. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attributed mainly to the differences in mass and condition of the animals at the start of each season and pasture maturation. Keywords: cynodon aethiopicus; grasses; grazing; henderson research station; herbage; herbage yield; nitrogen; pastures; salisbury district; star grass; stocking rate; stocking rates; yield; zimbabwe ...

  17. The grasses of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve: Their habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification is presented of the vegetation of the Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, based on the habitat preferences of the grass species, and processed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Habitat factors correlated with the grasses include geological formation, altitude, aspect, slope, stoniness, soil depth, soil pH ...

  18. Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken in Kenya's southern savanna rangelands to determine the seasonal effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on aboveground grass biomass, grass species composition, soil organic matter and soil moisture content. The study was conducted during the period June to December 1999 in order to

  19. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  20. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by different environmental ... coniferous tree species as leading natural flora. (Mohammad, 1989). The country is known .... Effect of spacing and broadcast method on germination of Kangaroo grass at Rawalpindi during 2005-06 and 2006-07.

  1. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    period being non-significant, both year and storage period, as main factors, did not present any differences (P. >0.05). The interactions between grass species × year were different for ash, CP, NDF and ADF (P <0.05). (Table 6). Table 2 Chemical composition, silage fermentation quality and NDF utilization of grass silages ...

  2. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  3. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  4. Grass pollen, aeroallergens, and clinical symptoms in Ciudad Real, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo Brito, F; Mur Gimeno, P; Carnés, J; Fernández-Caldas, E; Lara, P; Alonso, A M; García, R; Guerra, F

    2010-01-01

    In allergic individuals, onset of symptoms is related to atmospheric pollen grain counts and aeroallergen concentrations. However, this relationship is not always clear. To analyze the correlation between grass pollen grain and aeroallergen concentrations in Ciudad Real, Spain, during the year 2004 and establish their association with symptoms in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis, or both. Two different samplers were used to assess allergen exposure: a Burkard spore trap to collect pollen grains and a high-volume air sampler to collect airborne particles. Individual filters were extracted daily in phosphate-buffered serum and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on serum containing high titers of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to grasses. The study population comprised 27 grass-allergic patients whose symptoms and medication were recorded daily. Grass pollens were detected between April 28 and July 18. There was a positive correlation between pollen grain counts and symptoms (r = 0.62; P > .001). Grass aeroallergens were detected not only during the grass pollination period, but also before and after this period. There was also a very significant correlation between aeroallergen levels and symptoms (r = 0.76; P < .0001). The threshold level for grass pollen was 35 grains/m3. Grass-related allergenic activity is present throughout the year, demonstrating the existence of aeroallergens outside the pollen season. Symptoms in allergic patients may be related to airborne particle concentrations. This fact should be taken into account in the clinical follow-up and management of allergic patients.

  5. Effect of Bamboo ( Bambusa valgaris ) and Elephant grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant potential of bamboo and elephant grass leaf extracts were evaluated in cooked and raw broiler meat stored under refrigeration at 3±20C. To a separate 350g of minced broiler meat, 1.5% bamboo leaf extract (BLE) or elephant grass extract (EGE) was added. There was a negative control without additive while a ...

  6. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  7. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  8. Grass species composition, yield and quality under and outside tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year study was conducted in lightly grazed areas of Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to evaluate the impact of widely spaced trees on understorey grass composition, yield and quality. The study trees were Terminalia sericea and Acacia karroo. Ordination techniques using grass density and biomass as indices ...

  9. Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Lemon Grass ( Andropogon citratus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to determine the effects of lemon grass, Andropogon citratus L. extract on the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of okra was conducted. Phytochemical analyses of the bioactive ingredients in lemon grass were carried out to determine the chemical compounds with nematicidal activities present in lemon ...

  10. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  11. Potentials of agricultural waste and grasses in pulp and papermaking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. Potassium hydroxide from wood ash was used as alkali for pulping. Results from visopan Microscope showed that banana stalk has the highest fibre length of 2.60 mm and Bahaman grass has the least fibre length of 0.85 mm. Runkel Ratio (RK) for ...

  12. Structural traits of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the forage potential of elephant grass, controlling canopy structure during grazing has limited its use in pasture. This study was conducted to determine the effect of grazing frequency and post-grazing height on canopy structural characteristics of elephant grass genotypes. The treatments consisted of the factorial ...

  13. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  14. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  15. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  16. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  17. Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Teskera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

  18. Selenium supplementation and selenium status of dairy cows fed diets based on grass, grass silage or maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierus, M.; Schwarz, F.J.; Kirchgessner, M.

    2002-01-01

    In three separate trial series (TS) the effect of diet composition on selenium (Se) status of dairy cows were investigated. Diets were formulated based mainly on grass (TS1), grass silage (TS2) or maize silage (TS3) with different levels of Se supplementation. Each TS comprised a total of 30 dairy

  19. Phenology of perennial, native grass, belowground axillary buds in the northern mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Morgan L; Vermeire, Lance T; Ganguli, Amy C; Hendrickson, John R

    2017-06-01

    Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of bud banks, the timing of recruitment and the crucial link between formation and maintenance is unknown. We assessed patterns of belowground bud development, dormancy, and mortality associated with three perennial native grasses in the northern Great Plains. Temperature and soil moisture were measured below the soil surface to determine relationships with belowground bud development. Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) generated more buds over winter that remained dormant; whereas, C3 species needle-and-thread (Hesperostipa comata) and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), maintained limited dormant buds throughout winter. Soil temperature was a good predictor for C4 species bud production; whereas, soil moisture was a reliable predictor for C3 buds. Distinct differences existed between C4 species blue grama and C3 species needle-and-thread, whereas C3 species western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) was intermediate, indicating there is likely a species-specific continuum between the C3 and C4 extremes rather than a stark difference. The ability to predict belowground bud development is a novel insight to native perennial grasses. Native grass species' strategies and adaptability regarding belowground bud bank size and bud phenology are important factors optimizing tiller recruitment given the variable growing conditions. Patterns of bud dormancy and development will provide insight to the underlying mechanisms by which management practices and fluctuations in precipitation amount and growing season length can alter mixed-grass prairie plant community dynamics. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steers subjected to stocking rates of 6, 8 and l0 steers/ha gained 45.1 t 2.0,39.2 + 1.8 and 35,8 t 2.4kglsteer on Smuts fin- ger grass and 6l .8 x.2.1, ..... ACOCKS, J.P.H., 1988. Veld Types of South Africa. Memoirs of The. Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 40. 2nd Edition, Pretoria: Dept. Agric. Tech. Services. ADJEI, M.B. ...

  1. A comparison of irrigated grass-clover and nitrogen-fertilized grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pure grass pastures were fertilized with 450 kg N/ha in 1973/74 and 500 kg N/ha in 1974/75 and 1975/76.Grazing started in February 1973 with a policy aimed at producing fatstock for the high-priced Christmas period. Three groups of steers have been slaughtered off the trial. The carrying capacity and productivity of ...

  2. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ile grasst han when grazingS mutsf ingerg rass[ 54.0+ 1.5a nd4 0.0t 1.2k g (P < 0.01),r espectivelyI]t. wasn ot clearw hethert he highers ummer growth-rateo n both pasturesin animalsw intereda t maintenancew asd uet o compensatoryg rowth or to relativelym ore grass/kgl ive weight beinga vailablet o the lighter animals.

  3. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  4. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  5. Effect of level of lactic acid bacteria inoculant from fermented grass extract on fermentation quality of king grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Antaribaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling is a method of preserving moist forage based on natural fermentation where lactic acid bacteria (LAB ferment water soluble carbohydrate into organic acids mainly lactic acid under anaerobic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides ensiled with addition of LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (LBFG. Four treatment were (G0 king grass without additive; (G1 king grass with 2% (v/w of LBFG; (G2 king grass with 3% (v/w of LBFG; (G3 king grass with 4% (v/w of LBFG. Ensiling was conducted in bottle silos of 225 g capacity at room temperatures (27.0 ± 0.20C for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in silage G1, G2 and G3 were relatively higher than that in silage G0. The pH value, butyric acid, total VFA and NH3-N concentrations decreased linearly with increasing level of LBFG addition, while lactic acid concentration increased linearly with LBFG addition. It was concluded that addition of 3% (v/w of LBFG resulting a better fermentation quality of king grass silage than 2% and 4% (v/w of LBFG.

  6. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  7. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Intake, milk yield and kid growth rate was monitored for 14 weeks. ... pelleted concentrate, Cenchrus ciliaris (buffalo grass) hay and Medicago sativa (lucerne) .... lactation curve than cattle (Devendra and McLeroy, 1982; Chamberlain, 1989).

  8. Drought impact on the germination of selected energy grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek KOPECKÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a sufficient amount of phytomass for the needs of eco-energetics, there are monocultural grasslands established on the arable land. In the context of the changing climate and more frequent periods of drought, it is important to look for grass species and varieties that are able to withstand these stress conditions. Influence of droughtness on germination of four selected energy grass species is decribed in paper. The investigated species were tall meadow oat (Arrhenatherum elatius L. - the Median variety, orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L. - the Padania variety, tall wheatgrass (Elymus elongatus - the Szarvasi-1 variety and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. - the Chrastava variety. Although the species differed in the germinability (p 0.05

  9. Ensiling characteristic and nutritive value of Napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensiling characteristic and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schmach) combined with or without leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit) as influenced by starch or formic acid addition.

  10. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  11. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  12. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio....../ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor......-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject...

  13. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  14. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  15. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  16. Phosphorus reserves increase grass regrowth after defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Mariano; Oesterheld, Martín

    2009-04-01

    Accumulation of P above levels that promote growth, a common plant response called "luxury consumption", can be considered as a form of reserve to support future growth when the nutrient can subsequently be mobilized. However, the effect of P reserves on regrowth following defoliation has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that P luxury consumption increases plant tolerance to defoliation. We performed two experiments with four grass species from a continuously grazed temperate grassland in the Flooding Pampa (Argentina). The first experiment, aimed at generating P luxury consumption by fertilization, resulted in one species (Sporobolus indicus) showing luxury consumption. In this way, we were able to obtain plants of S. indicus with similar biomass but contrasting amounts of P reserves. The second experiment evaluated the subsequent regrowth following defoliation on a P-free medium of these plants differing in P reserves. Regrowth was larger for plants that had shown P luxury consumption during a previous period than for plants with lower levels of P reserves. During regrowth these plants showed a clear pattern of P remobilization from the stubble, crown, and root compartments to the regrowing tissue, in addition to a likely reutilization of P present in leaf-growth zones. This work is the first showing that high levels of P reserves can confer tolerance to defoliation by promoting compensatory growth under P deficiency.

  17. KARTAWINATA et al: Grass communities on Oahu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    " "

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available For the windward group, there was a significant correlation (TableV only between the amount of rainfall and the order of the plots on theX-axis. It has been shown in the ordination diagram (Fig. 4 that threecommunity types can be recognized, the Rhynchelytrum repens, Melinisminutiflora and Andropogon virginicus community types. The relationshipbetween the change of the grass dominance and the rainfall gradient alongthe X- axis is shown in Fig. 9. In this diagram the X-axis was dividedinto ten segments: 0.0 — 9.9; 10.0 — 19.9; 20.0 — 29.9; 30.0 — 39.9;40.0 — 49.9; 50.0 — 59.9; 60.0 — 69.9; 70.0 — 79.9; 80.0 — 89.9 and90.0 — 100.0. The intervals 20.0 — 39.9 and 50.0 — 69.9 were consideredas individual units because there was only one plot in the intervals20.0 — 29.9 and 50.0 — 59.9, respectively.

  18. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende; José Marques Pereira; Thasia Martins Macedo; Augusto Magno Ferreira Borges; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Érico de Sa Petit Lobão; Isis Miranda Carvalho Nicory

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos). Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and w...

  19. Biomass of elephant grass and leucaena for bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass production of elephant grass and leucaena in Paraná state, Brazil, for the generation of renewable energy. Two field studies were conducted in the municipality of Ibiporã (23° S, 51° 01?W. In the first study, the dry matter accumulation curves were calculated, with sampling at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days after cultivation. The second study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with split plots. The total aboveground biomass production of elephant grass and leucaena was estimated in the main plot. Cutting times of 60 and 120 days after cultivation were evaluated in the subplots. The productivity of dry matter (kg.ha-1 was estimated using the biomass data. In addition, the potential production of energy from the burning of elephant grass biomass, and the potential production of total aboveground biomass and energy of elephant grass (in Paraná was estimated using an agrometeorological model. Elephant grass can be potentially used as an alternative energy source. Leucaena has slow initial growth, and it must therefore be evaluated over a longer period in order to determine its potential. Simulation analyses of the capability of power generation, conducted based on the annual dry matter production, revealed that elephant grass could be an important source of renewable energy in the state of Paraná.

  20. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E.H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  1. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  2. Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Reeder; G.E. Schuman

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of livestock grazing on C content of the plant-soil system (to 60 cm) of two semi-arid grasslands: a mixed-grass prairie (grazed 12 years), and a short-grass steppe (grazed 56 years). Grazing treatments included season-long grazing at heavy and light stocking rates, and non-grazed exclosures. Significantly higher soil C (0-30cm) was measured in...

  3. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  5. Biogas potential in Grasses from Wetlands; Biogaspotential hos vaatmarksgraes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marvin

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass. The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called 'hotspots'. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds. There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0,21 Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas

  6. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  7. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  8. Episodic evolution and adaptation of chloroplast genomes in ancestral grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojian Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the chloroplast genomes of the grass family, Poaceae, have undergone an elevated evolutionary rate compared to most other angiosperms, yet the details of this phenomenon have remained obscure. To know how the rate change occurred during evolution, estimation of the time-scale with reliable calibrations is needed. The recent finding of 65 Ma grass phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites places the diversification of the grasses to the Cretaceous period, and provides a reliable calibration in studying the tempo and mode of grass chloroplast evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using chloroplast genome data from angiosperms and by taking account of new paleontological evidence, we now show that episodic rate acceleration both in terms of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions occurred in the common ancestral branch of the core Poaceae (a group formed by rice, wheat, maize, and their allies accompanied by adaptive evolution in several chloroplast proteins, while the rate reverted to the slow rate typical of most monocot species in the terminal branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding of episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses accompanied by adaptive molecular evolution has a profound bearing on the evolution of grasses, which form a highly successful group of plants. The widely used model for estimating divergence times was based on the assumption of correlated rates between ancestral and descendant lineages. However, the assumption is proved to be inadequate in approximating the episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses, and the assumption of independent rates is more appropriate. This finding has implications for studies of molecular evolutionary rates and time-scale of evolution in other groups of organisms.

  9. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  10. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2017-07-06

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  12. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  13. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  14. Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka

    2014-01-05

    Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  16. Radiocaesium in soil, grass and lamb at Ribe[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    The {sup 137}Cs concentrations found in soil, grass and lamb during 1998-2000 follow the declining tren seen from previous years. The values have been compared with the corresponding levels predicted from model calculation. The results observed during 1998-2000 of {sup 137}Cs in soil, grass and lamb in Denmark at the Ribe site are in good agreement with values predicted by model calculations. The {sup 129}I results from the Ribe site show an average concentration of 1.3 Bg kg{sup -1} in lamb's thyroids and 1.3 mBq kg{sup -1} in grass. Studies in Nordic and North European countries indicate that environmental {sup 129}I is due to atmospheric emissions and discharges to sea from the reprocessing plants Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. (au)

  17. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  18. Penetrating palpebral grass awn in a dog: Unusual case of a penetrating grass awn in an eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Andrea; Fruganti, Alessandro; Cerquetella, Matteo; Cassarani, Maria Paola; Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    An unusual case of a penetrating grass awn in an eyelid of a dog is reported. A 6-month-old mixed breed dog was referred to the Ophthalmology Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Camerino University for anorexia, lethargy, left monolateral ocular swelling and pain to the left eye, present from 1 month. Ophthalmic examination of the left eye showed copious and purulent discharge, and ultrasonography revealed the presence of an abscess containing a grass foreign body. The grass awn was surgically removed. Three days after surgery, the dog showed a marked improvement, with a total resolution obtained in 7 days. To the authors' knowledge, penetrating foreign bodies such as the one of this paper have never been described before in literature.

  19. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available at various scales such as local, regional and global scale. Traditional field techniques to measure grass nutrient concentration have been reported to be laborious and time consuming. Remote sensing techniques provide opportunity to map grass nutrient...

  1. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  2. Integrating environmental and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing variables for grass nitrogen estimation in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...

  3. Effect of fire and grazing on invasive species in northern mixed grass prairie

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plants pose a threat to pristine and natural mixed grass prairie so managers seek to control them. On the basis of experience in the tall grass prairie,...

  4. Hoosier Farmland Wildlife Notes: Warm Season Grasses, Why All the Fuss?

    OpenAIRE

    MacGowan, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Many wildlife professionals are encouraging landowners to include planting warm season grasses in their wildlife management plans. The purpose of this publication is to describe the many benefits of warm season grasses, especially their benefits to wildlife.

  5. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Saroj; Jain, Anand K.; Mehta, Swaroop C.; Tonpay, Shrinivas D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administra...

  6. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari Saroj; Jain Anand; Mehta Swaroop; Tonpay Shrinivas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice admi...

  7. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, S R; Nelson, H. S.; Nolte, H.; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z; Andersen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...

  8. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon Visser; Wilson, John R.U.; Kim Canavan; Susan Canavan; Lyn Fish; David Le Maitre; Ingrid Nänni; Caroline Mashau; Tim O’Connor; Philip Ivey; Sabrina Kumschick; Richardson, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alie...

  9. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  10. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  11. Bacterial community associated with ensilage process of wilted guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, S; Nishino, N

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of wilting, storage period and bacterial inoculant on the bacterial community and ensiling fermentation of guinea grass silage. Fermentation products, colony counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were determined. There was more lactic acid than acetic acid in all silages, but the lactic acid to acetic acid ratio decreased with storage time. This shift from lactic to acetic acid was not prevented even with a combination of wilting and bacterial inoculant. The DGGE analyses suggest that facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus) were involved in the shift to acetic acid fermentation. Lactic acid can dominate the fermentation in tropical grass silage with sufficient wilting prior to ensiling. Prolonged storage may lead to high levels of acetic acid without distinctive changes in the bacterial community. The bacterial community looks stable compared to fermentation products over the course of long storage periods in tropical grass silage. Acetic acid fermentation in tropical grass silage can be a result of the changes in bacterial metabolism rather than community structure.

  12. Reed canary grass: from production to end use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea - RCG) is a lignocellulosic perennial crop that is carbon-efficient in terms of sequestration and nutrient recycling, and grows well on land that is marginal for food and feed production. Therefore, it can help deliver sustainable bioenergy without impacting f...

  13. Effect of maturity on the mineral content of Columbus grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of maturity on mineral content in Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). Immediately after field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Thereafter, 60 plots 2 x 2 sq. m size were demarcated and ...

  14. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  15. Short Communication: Habitat preferences of twenty-three grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some grass species occur more frequently in certain habitats than in others, but uncertainty as to exactly which factors are responsible for this phenomenon exist. Species composition as well as habitat data were collected from plots situated on the mild slopes of the study area, and the data were analysed by means of a ...

  16. Canonical correlations in elephant grass for energy purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elephant grass has the potential to be used as a source for energy production. Besides dry matter yield, other characteristics related to biomass quality are important. The canonic correlation analysis is a multivariate statistical procedure that allows for discovering characteristic associations among groups. The objective of ...

  17. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.; Alvim Kamei, C.L.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Vermerris, W.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the

  18. Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indicate that the MT-1 and Mott have a closest genetic relationship; Huanan and N51 possess a relatively close relationship, and Guimu-1 is the most distinct from the other four cultivars. [Xie X-M., Zhou F., Zhang X-Q. and Zhang J-M. 2009 Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass and closely related.

  19. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  20. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Nairobi, Department of Animal Production, P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. Received 9 ... ers lack specific guidelines on how to combine napier grass with Iucerne for dairy heifers and the effect of ..... (CP). dry matter (DM). average daily weight gains (AUG). substitution rate (SR) and feed efficiency. (FE) for ...

  1. Follow the Grass: a Smart Material Interactive Pervasive Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, A.; Huisman, Gijs; Nijholt, Antinus; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    2012-01-01

    Smart materials offer new possibilities for creating engaging and interesting forms of interaction and ways of displaying information in a material way. In this paper we describe Follow the Grass, a concept of an interactive pervasive display for public spaces. The display will be built up out of a

  2. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral antiinflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods:The chemical profile ofLGEOas determined bygas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed ...

  3. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  4. Differential responses of Duo grass ( Lolium × Festuca ), a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of suitable plants to extract and concentrate excess phosphorus (P) from contaminated soil serves as an attractive method of phyto-remediation. Plant species vary considerably in their potential to assimilate different organic and inorganic P substrates. Duo grass (a hybrid of Lolium × Festuca) seedlings were grown in ...

  5. Impact of the invader Ipomoea hildebrandtii on grass biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass biomass increased 47% in weeding treatments and 117% with protection from grazing. Ipomoea hildebrandtii removal also led to decline in soil moisture at at a depth of 5 cm and an increase at 30 cm, and lower soil compaction. Grazing lowered soil moisture and increased soil compaction. Mineralisation of N was ...

  6. INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF LOW QUALITY RHODES GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at Bunda College, Malawi, to determine the effect of magadi (a sodium sesquicarbonate- Na2CO3, NaHCO3.2H2O) treated forages on their intake and digestibility and growth of sheep. Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth), Cedrela (Toona ciliata, M. Roem) and Sesbania [Sesbania sesban ...

  7. Survey of Domestication Process of Grass Cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interestingly, it was discovered that forages, grains, fruits, tubers and nuts were offered to the grasscutters. Reflecting that grass cutters domestication in southwestern Nigeria is possible if only, social infrastructures such as constant electricity supply, pipe borne water and good network of roads, incentives like pups, feed ...

  8. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  9. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  10. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was animal primarily (probability P = 50%) rolled its body onto its side to rapidly (time t = 2.1 s) maneuver through the gaps between model grass. We developed a simple energy minimization model, and found that body roll reduces the energy barriers that the animal must overcome during traversal. We hypothesized that the animal's ellipsoidal body shape facilitated traversal. To test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  11. January 1977 The punctated grass-mouse, Lemniscomys striatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 730 puncta ted grass-mice was dissected to study their biology. Breeding occurred during the rains and ceased during the dry seasons, and the mean number of embryos per female reached a maximum towards the end of the breeding season. The testes and vesiculae seminales of adult males regressed during ...

  12. Is the grazing tolerance of mesic decreaser and increaser grasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of two decreasers, three Increaser II grasses, and an Increaser III species to frequent, severe defoliation under three levels of competition from neighbours and two levels of soil nutrients was examined in a pot trial. The effects of competition and especially nutrients markedly modified the defoliation ...

  13. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  14. Ensiling of elephant grass with soybean hulls or rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation pattern of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo silage with different levels of soybean hulls or rice bran. Two trials were conducted, comprising of a completely randomized design, with four replicates each. Treatments consisted on the addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of soybean hulls or rice bran to unwilted green elephant grass forage. Large PVC silos were used adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. The silos were opened 40 days after ensiling. The results revealed that the inclusion of 10% soybean hulls increased elephant grass forage dry matter (DM content to 31%, but did not alter the water soluble carbohydrate (WSC content or buffering capacity. The resultant silages exhibited good fermentation patterns in terms of pH (less than 3.97 and NH3-N (4.07% total N levels. The inclusion of rice bran increased both DM and WSC content in the forage, improving the fermentation pattern of silages (P < 0.05. This too was verified by a pH lower than 3.92 and a maximum NH3-N of 4.23% of the total N. The inclusion of 10% rice bran to the elephant grass improved the nutritional value of the forage to be ensiled and, hence, of the produced silage.

  15. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be ...

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... family, Poaceae (Gramineae). Kinds of seed: Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, bluestems, bromes, cereals, fescues... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201.56-5 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED...

  17. Rangeland resilience and resistance: annual and perennial grass stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience, the ability to resist a shift to an alternative vegetation state, has become an important topic in range management. To quantify the degree to which a plant community is resilient, we experimentally manipulated communities dominated by either the invasive annual grass chea...

  18. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    For the evaluation of rumen degradation parameters and INDF, grass species, year, ... variability in the chemical composition and degradability parameters, reflecting a wide range in NDF quality .... silage processing and microorganisms, may be more susceptible to enzymatic attack, mainly in ..... of their rapid maturing rate.

  19. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17......: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; ...

  20. Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in soil moisture content were measured by Gypsum Block which aided in determining the irrigation schedules. The grasses demonstrated varied levels of WUE which was evaluated by amount of biomass productivity in relation to evapotranspired water during the growing period. The three soil moisture content ...

  1. Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea extracts. Negussie Wodajo, Ghirma Moges, Theodros Solomon. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(2), 129-134. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics.

  2. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  3. Rainbows in the grass. II. Arbitrary diagonal incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Charles L; Lock, James A; Fleet, Richard W

    2008-12-01

    We consider external reflection rainbow caustics due to the reflection of light from a pendant droplet where the light rays are at an arbitrary angle with respect to the horizontal. We compare this theory to observation of glare spots from pendant drops on grass; we also consider the potential application of this theory to the determination of liquid surface tension.

  4. Grass competition may benefit high density peach orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated that grass competition dwarfed and reduced the yield of individual peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in narrow vegetation free areas (VFA). In this report, the area-based yield of two peach cultivars, 'Redskin' and 'Jersey Dawn' on 'Lovell', was estimated...

  5. Regeneration and propagation of reed grass for large-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전서범

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... wastewater using wetlands and aquatic macrophytes is in the limelight as an ... treatment. Especially, reed grass is one of the most important and abundant species among the aquatic macrophytes used for wastewater purification, and it has been applied ... cultivated without fertilizer, irrigation or pesticides.

  6. On the seed production of tropical grasses in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, J.G.

    1973-01-01

    The small amount of viable seed that can be harvested from tropical ley grasses such as Chloris gayana, Setaria sphacelata and Panicum spp. is largely due to the wide range in maturity between different heads and in maturity between seeds in any head. Ripe seed is also liable

  7. Translocation of radioactive paraquat in some veld grasses | TD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two pot experiments radioactive paraquat was applied to certain important veld grasses (Experiment I-Aristida junciformis, Themeda triandra, Elyonuris argenteus, Andropogon filifolius, Eragrostis curvula; Experiment II-A. junciformis, E. argenteus) to determine the extent of translocation at a young stage of growth with ...

  8. Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial, temperate, C4 warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these specie...

  9. Phytolith Assemblages in Grasses Native to Central Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGO, LUCRECIA; Distel, Roberto A.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwar...

  10. Impact of the invader Ipomoea hildebrandtii on grass biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea hildebrandtii removal also led to decline in soil moisture at at a depth of 5 cm and an increase at 30 cm, and lower soil compaction. Grazing lowered soil moisture and increased soil compaction. Mineralisation of N was highest under the dominant grass Chloris roxburghiana followed by I. hildebrandtii and bare ...

  11. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    advanced generations and characterized as dwarf mutant 1. (dwf1), dwarf ... types were recorded and statistically analysed in advanced ...... valuable multiple marker stock in genetics and breeding re- search in grass pea. Downes and Marshall (1983) described colchicine as a powerful mutagen in at least some genotypes.

  12. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  13. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... stored at –20° C in a deep freezer immediately after collection. At the end of each collection period, the samples were bulked for each animal for proximate analysis according to AOAC (1980) procedures. Compositions of the concentrates, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean ...

  14. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  15. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  16. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the substantial area covered by grasslands in Madagascar (65%), the taxonomy of the grasses (Poaceae), which represent the main plant component of these vegetation types, is still understudied. Inventories and detailed specimen identification work from 1 2 localities in the Itremo Massif Protected Area allowed us ...

  17. Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ) as influenced by flood irrigation and compost manure levels in zaria. ... A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of irrigation volume, irrigation frequency and compost manure application on growth components, forage yield ...

  18. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    of this tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test...

  19. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  20. Hydro‑methanol leaf extract of lemon grass is friendly with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an aromatic perennial tall grass with rhizomes densely tufted fibrous root. The aim of the study was to determine the histological effect(s) of the hydro- methanol leaf extract of lemon grass (HLELG) on Albino Wistar rats kidney. The objectives were to: (a) Determine the ...

  1. Below-ground competition between trees and grasses may overwhelm the facilitative effects of hydraulic lift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Prins, H.H.T.; Berendse, F.; Kroon, de H.; Dawson, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Under large East African Acacia trees, which were known to show hydraulic lift, we experimentally tested whether tree roots facilitate grass production or compete with grasses for below-ground resources. Prevention of tree-grass interactions through root trenching led to increased soil water content

  2. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: II - disponibilidade de N, P e K no solo ao longo do ciclo de cultivo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: II - soil N, P, and K availability throughout the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    . During 2003, these treatments were repeated and the decomposition dynamics evaluated in samples contained in 0.5 mm-mesh nylon decomposition bags with organic materials buried at 20 cm soil depth. Soil nutrient availability was also evaluated in soil samples (0-20 cm during the growing season. In the green-house, buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. was grown for 300 days in pots containing soil from the field plots and submitted to successive cuts of the shoots. Dry matter and nutrient losses from the incorporated material in the decomposition bags peaked in the first 30 days in all treatments. At the end of the growing season, dry matter and nutrient losses were lower for the treatments with manure, compared to treatments C and T. Manure incorporation increased soil P and K levels throughout the study period, but led to net N immobilization during the first few weeks after incorporation. Treatment C increased soil mineral N concentration shortly after incorporation, but decreased later in the growing season. Soil P and K levels remained unchanged. In the green-house study, 35 days after planting the biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake by buffel grass was the highest in treatment CE. In the following harvests, treatment E led to a greater biomass and nutrient uptake by buffel grass, indicating that N immobilization after manure incorporation limited plant growth in the first weeks. These results show that planting and incorporation of crotalaria coupled with the application of only half the usual manure rate was enough to avoid soil net N immobilization and increased soil P and K levels. The combined application of animal and green manure leads to availability of soil nutrients more synchronized with the plant demand.

  3. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  4. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  6. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  7. Grass Cell Walls: A Story of Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Ronald D; Rancour, David M; Marita, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall matrices are complex composites mainly of polysaccharides, phenolics (monomers and polymers), and protein. We are beginning to understand the synthesis of these major wall components individually, but still have a poor understanding of how cell walls are assembled into complex matrices. Valuable insight has been gained by examining intact components to understand the individual elements that make up plant cell walls. Grasses are a prominent group within the plant kingdom, not only for their important roles in global agriculture, but also for the complexity of their cell walls. Ferulate incorporation into grass cell wall matrices (C3 and C4 types) leads to a cross-linked matrix that plays a prominent role in the structure and utilization of grass biomass compared to dicot species. Incorporation of p-coumarates as part of the lignin structure also adds to the complexity of grass cell walls. Feruoylation results in a wall with individual hemicellulosic polysaccharides (arabinoxylans) covalently linked to each other and to lignin. Evidence strongly suggests that ferulates not only cross-link arabinoxylans, but may be important factors in lignification of the cell wall. Therefore, the distribution of ferulates on arabinoxylans could provide a means of structuring regions of the matrix with the incorporation of lignin and have a significant impact upon localized cell wall organization. The role of other phenolics in cell wall formation such as p-coumarates (which can have concentrations higher than ferulates) remains unknown. It is possible that p-coumarates assist in the formation of lignin, especially syringyl rich lignin. The uniqueness of the grass cell wall compared to dicot sepcies may not be so much in the gross composition of the wall, but how the distinctive individual components are organized into a functional wall matrix. These features are discussed and working models are provided to illustrate how changing the organization of feruoylation and p

  8. Influence of livestock grazing on C sequestration in semi-arid mixed-grass and short-grass rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J D; Schuman, G E

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of livestock grazing on C content of the plant-soil system (to 60 cm) of two semi-arid grasslands: a mixed-grass prairie (grazed 12 years), and a short-grass steppe (grazed 56 years). Grazing treatments included season-long grazing at heavy and light stocking rates, and non-grazed exclosures. Significantly higher soil C (0-30cm) was measured in grazed pastures compared to non-grazed exclosures, although for the short-grass steppe higher soil C was observed with the heavy grazing treatment only. Excluding grazing caused an immobilization of C in excessive aboveground plant litter, and an increase in annual forbs and grasses which lack dense fibrous rooting systems conducive to soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Our data indicate that higher soil C with grazing was in part the result of more rapid annual shoot turnover, and redistribution of C within the plant-soil system as a result of changes in plant species composition.

  9. Research on screening of suitable forage grasses in coastal saline - alkaline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaoyu; Han, Xin; Song, Qianhong; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Qingyun

    2017-11-01

    The screening of salt-tolerant plants can provide suitable tree species for the afforestation of coastal salinity and maintain biodiversity and ecological stability. The research was based on the study of seven grasses, such as high fescue, the bermuda grass, the thyme, the rye grass, the precocious grass, the third leaf, and the red three leaves. Each pasture was planted in three different kinds of soil, such as salt alkali soil, salt alkali soil + ecological bag and non-saline alkali soil. The effect of salt alkali soil on germinating time, germination rate and grass growth was analyzed. The effects of ecological bag on soil salt and the growth and germination of grass was also analyzed in order to provide the reference basis for the widespread and systematic selection of salt-tolerant plants, with the grass being selected for the suitable ecological bag.

  10. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein

  11. First report of crown rust (Puccinia coronata var. gibberosa) on blue oat grass (Helictotrichon sempervirens) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornamental grasses are popular decorative plants, with sales valued at $124 million in the U. S. in 2009. One common ornamental grass is blue oat grass, Helictotrichon sempervirens (Vill.) Pilg., a large blue-green grass native to Europe. In 2011, H. sempervirens plants in a commercial nursery in ...

  12. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto, and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposing patterns of the cellulosic preparations, obtained by hydrochloric hydrolysis gave additional evidence to the relatively higher stability of the more crystalline cellulosic preparations. In the main decomposition stage, the cleavage of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose reduces the polymerization degree leading to the formation of CO2, H2O and other hydrocarbon derivatives.

  13. Learning to Mow Grass: IDF Adaptations to Hybrid Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Learning to Mow Grass: IDF Adaptations to Hybrid Threats A Monograph by MAJ Kha M. Nguyen United States Army School of Advanced Military...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Kha M. Nguyen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Defense Force 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Kha M. Nguyen a

  14. Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

  15. South Dakota rangelands: More than a sea of grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Robert Gartner; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Presettlement explorers described the region’s landscape as a “sea of grass.” Yet, this “sea” was quite varied, and included a wealth of less obvious forested communities. Both physiographic and climatic gradients across the state of South Dakota contributed to the development of variable vegetation types of South Dakota. The diverse flora truly identifies the state as...

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  17. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Torres, Andres F.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops—maize, sugarcane and sorghum—and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses—miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  18. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Convex Relationships in Ecosystems Containing Mixtures of Trees and Grass R.J. Scholes Environmental and Resource Economics; Dec 2003; 26, 4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 559 Reproduced... with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further...

  19. Variation in biomass related variables of reed canary grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAHRAMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea L., is a relatively new biomass crop in northern Europe, which produces raw material for bioenergy and paper pulp. Breeding reed canary grass for industrial purposes is under way in the absence of domestic cultivars being available. Knowledge of the extent of variation in biomass related traits is a basic requirement of the breeding programme. The aim of this study was to describe variation in biomass related traits and evaluate the relationships among the variables. Field experiment was carried out between 1994 and 1998 in Finland. Research material included wild and elite populations, which were divided into ten groups according to their origin. Biomass yield, plant fractions, shoot number, node number, leaf area and overwintering ability were measured. Panicle number, plant height and seed ripening were included to the analyses of the relationships. Results indicated the high biomass yield potential of reed canary grass, reaching over 13 t DM ha-1 in the fourth year after establishment. Elite material and a local group from southern Finland had the highest biomass yield, whereas the northernmost local group had the lowest. Three factors established accounted for 45% of the variance and they were defined as “high biomass yield”, “leaf-shoot relationship” and “fast development”. The first factor indicated positive connections among biomass yield, panicle number, plant height, straw fraction and node fraction. This study indicated variation in agronomic traits of reed canary grass, which enables breeding of new cultivars with desired trait combinations.;

  20. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  1. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  2. odap from grass pea assayed by flow injection analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the neurotoxin [LN -oxa1yl-L-oz,[i-diaminopropionic acid (B-ODAP) from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). Samples of the ... extraction methods for the same sample yielded similar peak absorbances due to the detected B-ODAP ... 1.4.3.11, 6.8 units/mg; from Yamasa Corp, Japan) was dissolved in 3 mL of 0.1 M phosphate.

  3. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Mokhtar, Doaa M.; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  4. Bacterial community dynamics during the ensilage of wilted grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, J; O'Kiely, P; Clipson, N J W; Forristal, P D; Doyle, E M

    2008-08-01

    Grass silage is the product formed by a natural lactic acid bacterial fermentation when grass is stored under anaerobic conditions, and represents an important ruminant feedstuff on farms during winter. Of the two commonly employed methods of ensiling forage, baled silage composition frequently differs from that of comparable precision-chop silage reflecting a different ensiling environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the silage fermentation in wilted grass and between ensiling systems. Fermentation dynamics were examined using traditional methods of silage analyses, including microbial enumeration and analysis of fermentation products, and culture-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). A successful fermentation was achieved in both systems, with the fermentation (increase in lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid concentration, decrease in pH) proceeding rapidly once the herbage was ensiled. Under controlled conditions, little difference in silage quality and microbial composition were observed between ensiling systems and this was further reflected in the T-RFLP community analysis. T-RFLP proved a potentially useful tool to study the ensilage process and could provide valid support to traditional methods, or a viable alternative to these methods, for investigating the dynamics of the bacterial community over the course of the fermentation.

  5. Additives in ensiling palisade grass managed under grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barros Macedo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of summer forage excess represents a management strategy to meet animals' needs for dry matter in the shortage period, but has been poorly studied. Silage can be used for this purpose. This study analyzed the production of palisade grass silage from pasture subjected to different grazing intensities with and without additive, determining losses by gases and effluents and chemical composition of silage. The experiment was a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design, with four replications. The factors were: 1st – herbage allowance of 5% (5 kg dry matter 100 kg-1 of animal weight day-1, 10, 15 and 20%. The pasture was managed under rotational stocking with 35-day grazing cycles (7 days of occupation and 28 days of rest and 2nd - additives: a control; b citrus pulp pellets; c biological inoculant for grass silage. The forage of palisade grass harvested from pastures subjected to low-intensity grazing showed quantitative and qualitative characteristics for ensiling. However, high humidity and low fermentable carbohydrate require the use of additive, favor the fermentation process and increase the nutritional quality of silage.

  6. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

  7. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  8. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A; Lizotte, R E; Testa, S; Cooper, C M

    2014-11-01

    Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices to remove pesticides that may be entrained in agricultural runoff. However, buffer system efficacy in pesticide runoff mitigation varies widely due to a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, pesticide chemistry, vegetation composition, and hydrology. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetland buffer system, were evaluated for their ability to retain diazinon and permethrin associated with a simulated storm runoff. The two systems were equally inefficient at retaining diazinon (mean 9.6 % retention for control and buffer). Grass-wetland buffers retained 83 % and 85 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively, while the control only retained 39 % and 44 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively. Half-distances (the distance required to decrease pesticide concentration by one-half) for both permethrin isomers were 26 %-30 % shorter in grass buffers (22-23 m) than in the control (32 m). The current study demonstrates treatment efficacy was a function of pesticide properties with the more strongly sorbing permethrin retained to a greater degree. The study also demonstrates challenges in remediating multiple pesticides with a single management practice. By using suites of management practices, especially those employing vegetation, better mitigation of pesticide impacts may be accomplished.

  9. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  10. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  11. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens...

  12. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  13. Influence of competition and rainfall manipulation on the growth responses of savanna trees and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    February, Edmund C; Higgins, Steven I; Bond, William J; Swemmer, Louise

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we explored how rainfall manipulation influenced competitive interactions between grasses and juvenile trees (small nonreproductive trees capable of resprouting) in savanna. To do this, we manipulated rainfall amount in the field using an incomplete factorial experiment that determined the effects of rainfall reduction, no manipulation, rainfall addition, and competition between grasses and trees on grass and tree growth. As response variables, we focused on several measures of tree growth and Disc Pasture Meter settling height as an estimate of grass aboveground biomass. We conducted the study over four years, at two sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results show that rainfall manipulation did not have substantial effects on any of the measures of tree growth we considered. However, trees at plots where grasses had been removed grew on average 15 cm more in height and 1.3-1.7 times more in basal area per year than those in plots with grasses. Grass biomass was not influenced by the presence of trees but was significantly and positively influenced by rainfall addition. These findings were not fundamentally influenced by soil type or by prevailing precipitation, suggesting applicability of our results to a wide range of savannas. Our results suggest that, in savannas, increasing rainfall serves to increase the competitive pressure exerted by grasses on trees. The implication is that recruitment into the adult tree stage from the juvenile stage is most likely in drought years when there is little competition from grass for resources and grass fuel loads are low.

  14. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Moustakas

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm, with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm, grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  15. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E; Cameron, Tom C; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm), with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm), grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  16. Status of exotic grasses and grass-like vegetation and potential impacts on wildlife in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Northeastern section of the United States, known as New England, has seen vast changes in land cover and human population over the past 3 centuries. Much of the region is forested; grasslands and other open-land cover types are less common, but provide habitat for many species that are currently declining in abundance and distribution. New England also consists of some of the most densely populated and developed states in the country. The origin, distribution, and spread of exotic species are highly correlated with human development. As such, exotics are common throughout much of New England, including several species of graminoids (grasses and grass-like plants such as sedges and rushes). Several of the more invasive grass species can form expansive dense mats that exclude native plants, alter ecosystem structure and functions, and are perceived to provide little-to-no value as wildlife food or cover. Although little research has been conducted on direct impacts of exotic graminoids on wildlife populations in New England, several studies on the common reed (Phragmites australis) in salt marshes have shown this species to have variable effects as cover for birds and other wildlife, depending on the distribution of the plant (e.g., patches and borders of reeds are used more by wildlife than expansive densely growing stands). Direct impacts of other grasses on wildlife populations are largely unknown. However, many of the invasive graminoid species that are present in New England have the capability of outcompeting native plants and thereby potentially affecting associated fauna. Preservation, protection, and restoration of grassland and open-land cover types are complex but necessary challenges in the region to maintain biological and genetic diversity of grassland, wetland, and other open-land obligate species.

  17. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  18. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    in the acidification and eutrophication (N) categories for the reed canary grass scenario, reflecting the impacts of the cultivation process. The main conclusion was that future strategies for manure-biogas production in Estonia should not rely upon land-dependent biomass, even if the availability of arable land...... in Estonia is, under current conditions, not considered to be an issue. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, land use changes, dairy manure, reed canary grass, natural grass...

  19. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne Stephen L.; Nagy Istvan; Pfeifer Matthisas; Armstead Ian; Swain Suresh; Studer Bruno; Mayer Klaus; Campbell Jacqueline D.; Czaban Adrian; Hentrup Stephan; Paniz Frank; Bendixen Christian; Hedegaard Jakob; Caccamo Mario; Asp Torben

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat barley oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28 455 gene models and we utilized macro co linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley and synteny within the grass family to ...

  20. Earthworm species and burrows related to agricultural management of clover-grass rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.; Lamandé, M.; Eriksen, J.; Holmstrup, M.

    2012-01-01

    Clover grass is an important element in crop rotations due to its beneficial agronomic properties including nitrogen build-up, biodiversity stimulation and maintenance of soil macropores and it harvests very high levels of earthworm biomass. We studied the relationship between crucial ele-ments of a clover grass crop rotation and earthworm diversity and macropore depth distribution. The dominance of anecics increased from the annual crops to the perenial clover-grass. Aporrec-todea tuberculat...

  1. Facilitation or Competition? Tree Effects on Grass Biomass across a Precipitation Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E.; Cameron, Tom C.; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the i...

  2. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...

  3. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  4. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic...... intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure...

  5. Phytolith indices as proxies of grass subfamilies on East African tropical mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, Laurent; Alexandre, Anne; Wooller, Matthew J.; Hély, Christelle; Williamson, David; Schäfer, Peter A.; Majule, Amos; Guiot, Joël

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide researchers that investigate fossil phytolith assemblages and model/data comparisons a new tool for estimating C 3/C 4 grass composition over time. We tested the reliability of modern soil phytolith assemblages and phytolith indices for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies and tree cover density. We analyzed modern soil phytolith assemblages from sites over elevation gradients on Mount Kenya (Kenya), Mount Rungwe and around Lake Masoko (southern Tanzania). These data were compared with available botanical data. A phytolith index named Ic, proved to be an effective proxy of the proportions of Pooideae, Arundinoideae and Bambusoideae grasses (mainly C 3 grasses) versus Panicoideae grasses (mainly C 4 grasses), increasing with elevation in East-Africa. When tropical mountains are covered by open habitats (e.g . grasses and shrublands), Ic should be a reliable proxy of the C 3/C 4 grass composition. These results highlight the value of the phytolith index Ic, when interpreting paleo-environmental records from tropical mountains, to: 1) better understand past local and regional C 3/C 4 grass distributions and associated climatic changes and 2) increase the set of C 3/C 4 data available for model/data comparisons.

  6. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.

    1977-11-01

    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  7. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  8. Men are grass: Bateson, Erickson, utilization and metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Andrew E

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between metaphor and the practice of utilization in therapy and hypnosis can be seen as dependent on metaphor's role in structuring experience. The work of Gregory Bateson and others is used to illustrate how metaphor functions. Bateson's comparison of two forms of syllogistic logic provides a background for distinguishing between the experiential effects of metaphor in contrast to the categorical thinking inherent in simile and analogy. Clinical examples are given to demonstrate how utilization is structured by metaphor, particularly as Bateson has described it in his analysis of the Syllogism in Grass.

  9. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Gebbert, S.

    2014-12-01

    GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists directly or through other projects such as R or QGIS to perform geoprocessing tasks. Thus, a large number of scientific geospatial computations depend on quality and correct functionality of GRASS GIS. Automatic functionality testing is therefore necessary to ensure software reliability. Here we present a testing framework for GRASS GIS which addresses different needs of GRASS GIS and geospatial software in general. It allows to test GRASS tools (referred to as GRASS modules) and examine outputs including large raster and vector maps as well as temporal datasets. Furthermore, it enables to test all levels of GRASS GIS architecture including C and Python application programming interface and GRASS modules invoked as subprocesses. Since GRASS GIS is used as a platform for development of geospatial algorithms and models, the testing framework allows not only to test GRASS GIS core functionality but also tools developed by scientists as a part of their research. Using testing framework we can test GRASS GIS and related tools automatically and repetitively and thus detect errors caused by code changes and new developments. Tools and code are then easier to maintain which results in preserving reproducibility of scientific results over time. Similarly to open source code, the test results are publicly accessible, so that all current and potential users can see them. The usage of testing framework will be presented on an example of a test suite for r.slope.aspect module, a tool for computation of terrain slope, aspect, curvatures and other terrain characteristics.

  10. Purification of the major group 1 allergen from Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Alexander C; Davies, Janet M; Dang, Thanh D; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2011-01-01

    Group 1 grass pollen allergens are glycoproteins of the β-expansin family. They are a predominant component of pollen and are potent allergens with a high frequency of serum IgE reactivity in grass pollen-allergic patients. Bahia grass is distinct from temperate grasses and has a prolonged pollination period and wide distribution in warmer climates. Here we describe the purification of the group 1 pollen allergen, Pas n 1, from Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), an important subtropical aeroallergen source. Pas n 1 was purified from an aqueous Bahia grass pollen extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography, and assessed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and ELISA. Pas n 1 was purified to a single 29-kDa protein band containing two dominant isoforms detected by an allergen-specific monoclonal antibody and serum IgE of a Bahia grass pollen-allergic donor. The frequency of serum IgE reactivity with purified Pas n 1 in 51 Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients was 90.6%. Serum IgE reactivity with purified Pas n 1 was highly correlated with serum IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract and recombinant Pas n 1 (r = 0.821 and 0.913, respectively). Pas n 1 is a major allergen reactive at high frequency with serum IgE of Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients. Purified natural Pas n 1 has utility for improved specific diagnosis and immunotherapy for Bahia grass pollen allergy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Codon usage and codon pair patterns in non-grass monocot genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Purabi; Binti Othman, RofinaYasmin; Mebus, Katharina; Ramakrishnan, N; Ann Harikrishna, Jennifer

    2017-11-28

    Studies on codon usage in monocots have focused on grasses, and observed patterns of this taxon were generalized to all monocot species. Here, non-grass monocot species were analysed to investigate the differences between grass and non-grass monocots. First, studies of codon usage in monocots were reviewed. The current information was then extended regarding codon usage, as well as codon-pair context bias, using four completely sequenced non-grass monocot genomes (Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Phoenix dactylifera and Spirodela polyrhiza) for which comparable transcriptome datasets are available. Measurements were taken regarding relative synonymous codon usage, effective number of codons, derived optimal codon and GC content and then the relationships investigated to infer the underlying evolutionary forces. The research identified optimal codons, rare codons and preferred codon-pair context in the non-grass monocot species studied. In contrast to the bimodal distribution of GC3 (GC content in third codon position) in grasses, non-grass monocots showed a unimodal distribution. Disproportionate use of G and C (and of A and T) in two- and four-codon amino acids detected in the analysis rules out the mutational bias hypothesis as an explanation of genomic variation in GC content. There was found to be a positive relationship between CAI (codon adaptation index; predicts the level of expression of a gene) and GC3. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between coding and genomic GC content and negative correlation of GC3 with gene length, indicating a strong impact of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) in shaping codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots. Optimal codons in these non-grass monocots show a preference for G/C in the third codon position. These results support the concept that codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots are mainly driven by gBGC.

  12. Spectral and spatial variability of undisturbed and disturbed grass under different view and illumination directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel-Donohue, Christoph C.; Shivers, Sarah Wells; Conover, Damon

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that disturbed grass covered surfaces show variability with view and illumination conditions. A good example is a grass field in a soccer stadium that shows stripes indicating in which direction the grass was mowed. These spatial variations are due to a complex interplay of spectral characteristics of grass blades, density, their length and orientations. Viewing a grass surface from nadir or near horizontal directions results in observing different components. Views from a vertical direction show more variations due to reflections from the randomly oriented grass blades and their shadows. Views from near horizontal show a mixture of reflected and transmitted light from grass blades. An experiment was performed on a mowed grass surface which had paths of simulated heavy foot traffic laid down in different directions. High spatial resolution hyperspectral data cubes were taken by an imaging spectrometer covering the visible through near infrared over a period of time covering several hours. Ground truth grass reflectance spectra with a hand held spectrometer were obtained of undisturbed and disturbed areas. Close range images were taken of selected areas with a hand held camera which were then used to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the grass using structure-from-motion algorithms. Computer graphics rendering using raytracing of reconstructed and procedurally created grass surfaces were used to compute BRDF models. In this paper, we discuss differences between observed and simulated spectral and spatial variability. Based on the measurements and/or simulations, we derive simple spectral index methods to detect spatial disturbances and apply scattering models.

  13. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  14. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  15. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  16. Emerging technologies advancing forage and turf grass genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, David; Studer, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Grassland is of major importance for agricultural production and provides valuable ecosystem services. Its impact is likely to rise in changing socio-economic and climatic environments. High yielding forage grass species are major components of sustainable grassland production. Understanding the genome structure and function of grassland species provides opportunities to accelerate crop improvement and thus to mitigate the future challenges of increased feed and food demand, scarcity of natural resources such as water and nutrients, and high product qualities. In this review, we will discuss a selection of technological developments that served as main drivers to generate new insights into the structure and function of nuclear genomes. Many of these technologies were originally developed in human or animal science and are now increasingly applied in plant genomics. Our main goal is to highlight the benefits of using these technologies for forage and turf grass genome research, to discuss their potentials and limitations as well as their relevance for future applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple genetic pathways for seed shattering in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S

    2006-10-01

    Shattering is an essential seed dispersal mechanism in wild species. It is believed that independent mutations at orthologous loci led to convergent domestication of cereal crops. To investigate genetic relationships of Triticeae shattering genes with those of other grasses, we mapped spike-, barrel- (B-type), and wedge-type (W-type) spikelet disarticulation genes in wheat and its wild relatives. The Br1 gene for W-type disarticulation was mapped to a region delimited by Xpsr598 and Xpsr1196 on the short arm of chromosomes 3A in Triticum timopheevii and 3S in Aegilops speltoides. The spike- and W-type disarticulation genes are allelic at Br1 in Ae. speltoides. The B-type disarticulation gene, designated as Br2, was mapped to an interval of 4.4 cM between Xmwg2013 and Xpsr170 on the long arm of chromosome 3D in Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of common wheat. Therefore, B- and W-type disarticulations are governed by two different orthologous loci on group-3 chromosomes. Based on map position, orthologs of Br1 and Br2 were not detected in barley, maize, rice, and sorghum, indicating multiple genetic pathways for shattering in grasses. The implications of the mapping results are discussed with regard to the evolution of polyploid wheat and domestication of cereals.

  18. Disaggregating tree and grass phenology in tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Savannas are mixed tree-grass systems and as one of the world's largest biomes represent an important component of the Earth system affecting water and energy balances, carbon sequestration and biodiversity as well as supporting large human populations. Savanna vegetation structure and its distribution, however, may change because of major anthropogenic disturbances from climate change, wildfire, agriculture, and livestock production. The overstory and understory may have different water use strategies, different nutrient requirements and have different responses to fire and climate variation. The accurate measurement of the spatial distribution and structure of the overstory and understory are essential for understanding the savanna ecosystem. This project developed a workflow for separating the dynamics of the overstory and understory fractional cover in savannas at the continental scale (Australia, South America, and Africa). Previous studies have successfully separated the phenology of Australian savanna vegetation into persistent and seasonal greenness using time series decomposition, and into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS) using linear unmixing. This study combined these methods to separate the understory and overstory signal in both the green and senescent phenological stages using remotely sensed imagery from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. The methods and parameters were adjusted based on the vegetation variation. The workflow was first tested at the Australian site. Here the PV estimates for overstory and understory showed best performance, however NPV estimates exhibited spatial variation in validation relationships. At the South American site (Cerrado), an additional method based on frequency unmixing was developed to separate green vegetation components with similar phenology. When the decomposition and frequency methods were compared, the frequency

  19. FY2008 project report : Using Adaptive Management to Drive Restoration of Tall-grass and Mixed-grass Prairie in Northeastern North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Accomplishments from 2008 on a project at Devils Lake Wetland Management District to restore formerly cropped refuge lands to diverse mixtures of native grasses,...

  20. Evaluating poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) for golf courses in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata (L.) P. beauv. Ex Roem & Schult. ) results presented here are part of ongoing studies to evaluate its adaptation for golf courses as part of low maintenance natural communities at Lincoln University of Missouri. Because its natural adaptation to shade and poor soils, poverty grass could be established in golf...

  1. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2017-08-22

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g-1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h-1  g-1 were observed in 1.5 W g-1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg-1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Quality evaluation of signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha ensiled with forage as tannin source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Santoso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on examining the possibility of using three kinds of plant leaves i.e. Acacia mangium Willd, Persea americana Mill and Psidium guajava as tannin source to signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha silage. The silages were made from the first cut of signal grass harvested at 50 days. Four treatment silages were TA: grass ensiled without tannin as control, AM: grass ensiled with A. mangium (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, PA: grass ensiled with P. americana (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, and PG: grass ensiled with P. guajava (6 g tannin/kg fresh weight. After mixing, the materials were packed into glass bottle silos (225 g capacity, in triplicate, which were ensiled for 30 days. The results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations in signal grass silage mixed with tannin of A. mangium were higher (P<0.01 compared to other silages. Degradations of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein during ensiling were the lowest in silage with A. mangium tannin additive. This data was supported by good fermentation quality of that silage e.g. low pH value, NH3-N and VFA concentrations, and high lactic acid concentration and Fleigh point as compared to other silages. It is concluded that addition of tannin from A. mangium leaf at rate of 6 g/kg fresh weight improved fermentation quality and has potential as protein protection agents during the ensilage of signal grass.

  3. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu

    2012-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb...

  4. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  5. Explaining grass-nutrient patterns in a savanna rangeland of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Prins, H.H.T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wieren, van S.E.; Huizing, H.; Grant, R.; Peel, M.J.S.; Biggs, H.

    2004-01-01

    Aim The search for possible factors influencing the spatial variation of grass quality is an important step towards understanding the distribution of herbivores, as well as a step towards identifying crucial areas for conservation and restoration. A number of studies have shown that grass quality at

  6. Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Postma, J; Ketelaars, J.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that

  7. Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Andrew N; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Francis, Amie D; Shand, Laura C

    2014-10-01

    • Variation in how seeds are dispersed in grasses is ecologically important, and selection for dispersal mechanisms has produced a great variety of dispersal structures (diaspores). Abscission ("shattering") is necessary in wild grasses, but its elimination by selection on nonshattering mutants was a key component of the domestication syndrome in cereal grasses. A key question is whether a common genetic pathway controls abscission in wild grasses, and, if so, what genes in that pathway may have been selected upon during domestication. We summarize morphological and genetic information on abscission zones and disarticulation patterns in grasses and identify hypotheses to test the likelihood of a common genetic pathway.• Morphological data on abscission zones for over 10000 species of grasses were tabulated and analyzed using a tribal phylogeny of the grasses. The genomic location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and orthologs of genes controlling shattering were compared across species to ascertain whether the same loci might control shattering in different grass lineages.• The simple trait of nonshattering is derived from a great diversity of shattering phenotypes. Several sets of QTLs from multiple species are syntenic yet many are not. Genes known to be involved in shattering in several species were found to have orthologs that sometimes colocalized with QTLs in different species, adding support to the hypothesis of retention of a common genetic pathway. These results are used to suggest a research plan that could test the common genetic pathway model more thoroughly. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Use of compost bacteria to degrade cellulose from grass cuttings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass was added daily to the reactor in order to obtain maximum production of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and VFA. The results indicated that daily addition of grass is essential for the efficient VFA production, sulphate reduction and for the cell growth of the microbial biomass. Sulphate reduction of 38% was achieved ...

  9. Impacts of native grasses and cheatgrass on Great Basin forb development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Ann Parkinson

    2008-01-01

    Land managers need more information on native forb growth and interactions between forbs and grasses to improve degraded sagebrush steppe habitats in the Great Basin, and to increase the diversity of revegetation seed mixes. This is especially important in areas infested with Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), an annual grass present in more than 100...

  10. The rate of consumption of bush and grass by goats in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may be due to protein indigestibility caused by tannin complexing by A. karroo, luxury consumption of A. karroo as a favoured food, an adaptation by goats to use browse more efficiently than grass, or differences in palatability between A. karroo and grass. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse; bush; consumption; diet; ...

  11. Modelling grass digestibility on the basis of morphological and physiological plant characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental

  12. Effect of fire intensity on the grass and bush components of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to investigate the effect of fire intensity on the recovery of grass and sward, and to investigate what intensity offire is required to burn down bush of a particular size and species; Fire intensity is an important component of the fire regime and its effect on the grass sward and bush were ...

  13. Downy brome control and impacts on perennial grass abundance: a systematic review spanning 64 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the high cost of restoration and the underlying assumption that reducing annual grass abundance is a necessary precursor to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West, USA, we sought to identify limitations and strengths of annual grass and woody plant reduction methods and refine future ...

  14. Sustained effect of SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet on rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølund, L; Durham, S R; Calderon, M; Emminger, W; Andersen, J S; Rask, P; Dahl, R

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has increased significantly over the past decades with grass pollen being a common trigger. The impact of allergy on patient's quality of life is substantial. To investigate the sustained effect on quality of life during the grass pollen season 1 year after 3 years of treatment with the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT), Graza (Phleum pratense 75,000 SQ-T/2800 BAU; ALK, Denmark). The trial was a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adult subjects with a history of moderate-severe grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications. Subjects received 3 years of grass AIT (n = 157) or placebo (n = 126), followed by 1 year of follow-up. Quality of life assessments were based on the standardized rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ(S)); completed weekly during the entire grass pollen season. During follow-up, the overall RQLQ(S) score for the entire grass pollen season was significantly improved in the active group (relative difference to placebo: 23%, P = 0.004). The improvement was higher during the peak pollen season (28%, P = 0.001). The treatment effect of grass AIT during the follow-up year and the previous three treatment years was similar. Improvements were found in all seven RQLQ(S) domains. The RQLQ(S) as a function of the weekly average pollen counts showed a clear separation between the treatment groups (P pollen exposure.

  15. Preliminary assessment of dual use bioenergy-forage potential of exotic and native grasses in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some bioenergy grasses may have dual use potential as livestock feed or bioenergy feedstock. We conducted two studies on exotic and native grasses thought to have primary use as either livestock forage [‘Bumpers’ eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) and ‘Alamo’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)] ...

  16. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  17. Ranking of grass species according to visible wilting order and rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf water potential and soil water content at which each grass species wilted were recorded. Keywords: availability; digitaria argyrograpta; digitaria eriantha; grasses; leaf water potential; moisture stress; neutron probe; orange free state; panicum stapfianum; soil water; soil water content; soil water potential; south africa ...

  18. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  19. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) ameliorates murine spontaneous ileitis by decreasing lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chikako; Hokari, Ryota; Komoto, Shunsuke; Kurihara, Chie; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Matsunaga, Hisayuki; Takebayashi, Koichi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Tsuzuki, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Hibi, Toshifumi; Miura, Soichiro

    2010-07-01

    Aberrant leukocyte migration has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Lemon grass is a natural herb that contains citral, which suppresses lymphocyte expression of gut homing molecules by inhibiting retinoic acid formation. We therefore hypothesized that lemon grass intake could ameliorate excess migration of leukocytes to the inflamed intestine in chronic ileitis. Migration of fluorescence-labeled T cells to microvessels in the ileal mucosa of SAMP1/Yit mice was monitored using intravital microscopy. In some mice, lemon grass solution was administered for two weeks. For evaluation of the effects on chronic ileitis, mice were treated with lemon grass for 26 weeks. Surface expression of beta7 and CCR9 on T lymphocytes was stronger in SAMP1/Yit mice than in AKR/J mice. Lemon grass treatment attenuated the surface expression of beta7-integrin and CCR9. The number of adherent lymphocytes to microvessels in chronic inflamed ileum was significantly few when lymphocytes were isolated from lemon grass treated mice. Long-term lemon grass treatment improved ileitis in SAMP1/Yit mice, which was assessed by body weight, histological changes and the infiltration of beta7-positive cells. Lemon grass ameliorated ileitis through decreasing lymphocyte migration by inhibiting beta7-expression, suggesting its therapeutic usefulness for IBD.

  20. Synthesis of field experiments concerning the grass layer in the savanna regions of southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connor, TG

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this synthesis of long term experiments was to develop an account of how the principal determinants (rainfall, soil type, woody/grass ratio, herbivory, fire) influence the dynamics of the grass layer of southern African savannas...

  1. Taxonomic studies of grasses and their indigenous uses in the salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomic studies of grasses and their indigenous uses in the salt range area of Pakistan. ... The present investigations were carried out in Salt Range area of Pakistan, regarding the morphology of grasses as an aid to their correct identification, their distribution ... In situ conservation is recommended for future research ...

  2. Characterization of an alkali-treated grass fiber by thermogravimetric and X-ray crystallographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, D.; De, Debapriya

    2008-01-01

    The thermal behavior of grass fiber was characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results proved that the removal of water-soluble matter improved the thermal behavior of grass fiber over that of unleached fiber, and this was further

  3. Soil sterilization alters interactions between the native grass Bouteloua gracilis and invasive Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The invasive grass Bromus tectorum negatively impacts grassland communities throughout the western U.S. We asked whether soil biota growing in association with a native grass (Bouteloua gracilis) increase growth and competitive ability of Bromus, and whether responses vary between soils collec...

  4. Stability of exotic annual grasses following restoration efforts in southern California coastal sage scrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Cox; Edith B. Allen

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of semi-arid shrub ecosystems often requires control of invasive grasses but the effects of these grass-control treatments on native and exotic forbs have not been investigated adequately to assess long-term stability. In southern California, coastal sage scrub (CSS) vegetation is one semi-arid shrub community that has been invaded extensively by both...

  5. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have a significant influence on a range of crop and soil parameters (Hamza & Anderson, 2005; Raper, 2005). For grass and especially clover, the yield response is negative as a function of traffic intensity (e.g. Frost, 1988).  During the growing season, conventional grass-clov...

  6. Preferential predation of cool season grass seed by the common cricket (Acheta domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if there might be a seed predation preference among forage grasses a laboratory study was conducted using the common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.). Six cool-season grasses were selected and feeding studies were conducted over a three day period. The study was designed as a randomized ...

  7. Effect of high-sugar grasses on methane emissions simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Parsons, A.J.; Edwards, G.R.; Rasmussen, S.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential ability to decrease N excretion in cattle. However, feeding high-sugar grasses alters the pattern of rumen fermentation, and no in vivo studies to date have examined this strategy with respect to another

  8. The Grass Snake and the Basilisk: From Pre-Christian Protective House God to the Antichrist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, H.J.R.; Janssen, I.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The grass snake owes its far northern distribution in Europe to the production and hoarding of dung from stock breeding. Dung heaps appear to be perfect breeding sites that surpass ‘natural’ reproduction sites in quality. Here we point out that the grass snake's dependency on manure goes back to

  9. What Makes Responses Prepotent for Young Children? Insights from the Grass-Snow Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how responses become prepotent is essential for understanding when inhibitory control is needed in everyday behaviour. We investigated prepotency in the grass-snow task--in which a child points to a green card when the experimenter says "snow" and a white card when the experimenter says "grass". Experiment 1 (n =…

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) fuel loads and moisture on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Andrew D. Taylor; J. Boone Kauffman

    2013-01-01

    Frequent wildfires in tropical landscapes dominated by non-native invasive grasses threaten surrounding ecosystems and developed areas. To better manage fire, accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in fuels are urgently needed. We quantified the spatial variability in live and dead fine fuel loads and moistures at four guinea grass (...

  11. A tensilmeter for the measurement of the tensile strength of grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design and construction of a simple and inexpensive tensilmeter for measuring the tensile properties of grass leaves is described. The instrument was found to give reliable results and was used to estimate the variation in the breaking force and breaking tension along the length of leaf blades of six grass species.

  12. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  13. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  14. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  15. Management techniques for the control of Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (molasses grass: ten years of research on an invasive grass species in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Martins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The invasion of exotic species is considered to be a major threat to the preservation of biodiversity. In the Parque Nacional de Brasília (National Park of Brasília, the invasive Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass occupies more than 10 % of the area of the park. The present, long-term, study compared two treatments of exposure to molasses grass: 1 fire and 2 integrated management (fire + herbicide sprays + manual removal. The aerial biomass of molasses grass in the experimental area initially represented ca. 55 % of the total aerial biomass, a percentage that apparently did not influence native plant species richness at this site. Fire alone was not sufficient to control molasses grass, which attained its pre-treatment biomass values after two years. Integrated management reduced, and maintained, biomass to less than 1 % of its original value after ten years, and maintained this level throughout the study, demonstrating that it is a promising strategy for the recovery of areas invaded by molasses grass in the Cerrado. However, because of the recolonization by molasses grass, long-term monitoring efforts are targeting outbreaks, which would require immediate intervention in order to maintain the native biological diversity of the region.

  16. Rhinitis symptoms caused by grass pollen are associated with elevated basophile allergen sensitivity and a larger grass-specific immunoglobulin E fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidarn, M; Košnik, M; Silar, M; Grahek, A; Korošec, P

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the difference between clinically irrelevant IgE-sensitization and allergic rhinitis are not fully understood. We evaluated the humoral and cellular mechanisms that may be associated with the presence of allergic rhinitis symptoms. We selected 26 subjects with positive grass pollen skin tests and IgE antibodies to Timothy (g6) and the major grass allergens rPhl p 1, 5b. Fourteen of those patients reported a history of allergic rhinitis. During winter, we performed a grass pollen CD63 basophile activation test using four log allergen concentrations, followed by a grass nasal provocation test (NPT). We obtained symptom scores in the subsequent pollination season. We showed that subjects with a positive NPT have significantly higher CD63 basophile grass pollen responsiveness than NPT-negative subjects, preferably at submaximal allergen concentrations, which represent cellular sensitivity. Moreover, basophile sensitivity positively correlated with the size of the grass-specific IgE fraction in relation to total IgE, and it was highly predictive of allergic rhinitis symptoms in the following pollination season. Allergic rhinitis symptoms are significantly associated with allergen-specific basophile sensitivity. In vitro evaluation of basophile sensitivity should prove useful for distinguishing clinical phenotype of allergic sensitization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Tensile strength of warm and cool season forage grasses in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Zwi G; Fethiere, Richard; Adesogan, Adegbola; Sollenberger, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    The tensile strength (TS) of four warm-season and three cool-season forage grasses was measured with an Instron Universal machine, along with cell-wall analysis and determination of in vitro organic matter digestibility. The mean TS of the warm-season grasses was significantly higher than that of the cool season grasses (22 vs. 9 kg, respectively, p oats (12.6 vs. 6.8 and 7.5 kg, respectively, p digestibility (correlation coefficients were 0.64, 0.73. 0.41, and -0.64, respectively). Grass tensile strength may have implications on animal preference and on the energy that animals must spend during grazing, and consequently on animal performance (feed intake, daily weight gain and milk, and meat production). Information on grass TS would help to select and screen improved forage cultivars and enable to improve grassland management with better animal performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  19. Use of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) acid hydrolysate for microbial oil production by Trichosporon cutaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Fang; Huang, Chao; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Bo; Qi, Gao-Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-10-02

    Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) dilute acid hydrolysate contains 34.6 g/L total sugars. The potential of lipid production by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum grown on elephant grass acid hydrolysate was investigated for the first time. During the fermentation process on the elephant grass acid hydrolysate, glucose, xylose, and arabinose could be well utilized as carbon sources by T. cutaneum. Interestingly, xylose was almost no use before glucose was consumed completely. This illustrated that simultaneous saccharification of xylose and glucose by T. cutaneum did not occur on elephant grass acid hydrolysate. The highest biomass, lipid content, lipid yield, and lipid coefficient of T. cutaneum were measured after the sixth day of fermentation and were 22.76 g/L, 24.0%, 5.46 g/L, and 16.1%, respectively. Therefore, elephant grass is a promising raw material for microbial oil production by T. cutaneum.

  20. Sweet grass protection against oxidative stress formation in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Wojciech; Jarocka-Karpowicz, Iwona; Bielawska, Katarzyna; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influences of sweet grass on chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. Chronic ethanol intoxication decreased activities and antioxidant levels resulting in enhanced lipid peroxidation. Administration of sweet grass solution to ethanol-intoxicated rats partially normalized the activity activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, as well as levels of reduced glutathione and vitamins C, E, and A. Sweet grass also protected unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic and docosahexaenoic) from oxidations and decreased levels of lipid peroxidation products: 4-hydroxynonenal, isoprostanes, and neuroprostanes. The present in vivo study confirms previous in vitro data demonstrating the bioactivity of sweet grass and suggests a possible role for sweet grass in human health protection from deleterious consequences associated with oxidative stress formation.

  1. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities......Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16....... The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  trial coordinates, the average altitude, the average of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to  trees and hedges...

  2. Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin, E-mail: nchopra@eng.ua.edu; Wu, Junchi; Shi, Wenwu

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (∼10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous

  3. Development and characterization of a recombinant, hypoallergenic, peptide-based vaccine for grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Maderegger, Bernhard; Hauer, Martina; Stolz, Frank; Niederberger, Verena; Marth, Katharina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Weiss, Richard; Thalhamer, Josef; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-05-01

    Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B virus as a carrier were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by means of chromatography. Recombinant PreS fusion proteins were tested for allergenic activity and T-cell activation by means of IgE serology, basophil activation testing, T-cell proliferation assays, and xMAP Luminex technology in patients with grass pollen allergy. Rabbits were immunized with PreS fusion proteins to characterize their immunogenicity. Ten hypoallergenic PreS fusion proteins were constructed, expressed, and purified. According to immunogenicity and induction of allergen-specific blocking IgG antibodies, 4 hypoallergenic fusion proteins (BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326) representing Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 were included as components in the vaccine termed BM32. BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326 showed almost completely abolished allergenic activity and induced significantly reduced T-cell proliferation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in patients' PBMCs compared with grass pollen allergens. On immunization, they induced allergen-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited patients' IgE binding to all 4 major allergens of grass pollen, as well as allergen-induced basophil activation. A recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine (BM32) consisting of 4 recombinant PreS-fused grass pollen allergen peptides was developed for safe immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tree-grass interactions on an East African savanna : the effects of facilitation, competition, and hydraulic lift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: Rangelands, Semi-arid areas, stable isotopes, Acacia, C 4- grasses, plant nutrients, soil nutrients, soil water, plant water relations

    Savanna trees can either increase or decrease the productivity of understorey grasses. Trees reduce grass

  5. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  6. Spatio-ecological complexity measures in GRASS GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchini, Duccio; Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Ricotta, Carlo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Landa, Martin; Marcantonio, Matteo; Bastin, Lucy; Metz, Markus; Delucchi, Luca; Neteler, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Good estimates of ecosystem complexity are essential for a number of ecological tasks: from biodiversity estimation, to forest structure variable retrieval, to feature extraction by edge detection and generation of multifractal surface as neutral models for e.g. feature change assessment. Hence, measuring ecological complexity over space becomes crucial in macroecology and geography. Many geospatial tools have been advocated in spatial ecology to estimate ecosystem complexity and its changes over space and time. Among these tools, free and open source options especially offer opportunities to guarantee the robustness of algorithms and reproducibility. In this paper we will summarize the most straightforward measures of spatial complexity available in the Free and Open Source Software GRASS GIS, relating them to key ecological patterns and processes.

  7. The epichloae: alkaloid diversity and roles in symbiosis with grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Florea, Simona; Pan, Juan; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Bec, Sladana; Calie, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species; Clavicipitaceae) are fungi that live in systemic symbioses with cool-season grasses, and many produce alkaloids that are deterrent or toxic to herbivores. The epichloae colonize much of the aerial plant tissues, and most benignly colonize host seeds to transmit vertically. Of their four chemical classes of alkaloids, the ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes are active against mammals and insects, whereas peramine and lolines specifically affect insects. Comparative genomic analysis of Clavicipitaceae reveals a distinctive feature of the epichloae, namely, large repeat blocks in their alkaloid biosynthesis gene loci. Such repeat blocks can facilitate gene losses, mutations, and duplications, thus enhancing diversity of alkaloid structures within each class. We suggest that alkaloid diversification is selected especially in the vertically transmissible epichloae. PMID:23850071

  8. Low frequency electromagnetic prospecting system. [Grass Valley, KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, B.K.

    1978-04-01

    A prototype portable electromagnetic sounding system was assembled and depth sounding survey was conducted in Grass Valley, Nevada, as a part of a program to evaluate geophysical techniques in geothermal exploration. A horizontal loop transmitter of radius 50 meters operating between .01 Hz and 100 Hz was used in conjunction with a SQUID magnetometer. A digital synchronous detector was used for on site processing of magnetometer output. This detector allowed useful data acquisition with transmitter-receiver separation of up to 2 km with power requirements of less than 72 watts. Conductive sediments (1 to 10 ohm-m) of thicknesses of up to 1.5 km were well resolved with this system, and the interpreted sections compared very well with dc resistivity measurements made with much heavier equipment and larger arrays in the same area.

  9. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  10. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize current knowledge about grass buffers for protecting small, isolated wetlands in agricultural contexts, including information relevant to protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants, and information on how buffers may affect densities and productivity of grassland birds. Land-uses surrounding the approximately 60,000 playas within the Playa Lakes Region (PLR), including intensive agriculture, feedlots, and oil extraction, can contribute to severe degradation of playas. Farming and grazing can lead to significant sedimentation in nearby playas, eliminating their ability to hold water, support the region’s biodiversity, or adequately recharge aquifers. Contaminants further degrade habitats and threaten the water quality of underlying aquifers, including the Ogallala Aquifer.

  11. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  12. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  13. Phytolith assemblages in grasses native to central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Lucrecia; Distel, Roberto A

    2004-12-01

    Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwardsiana and Aristida subulata. For each species, phytoliths present in the leaf blades were classified into 47 morphotypes, and their relative frequency determined by observing 300-400 phytoliths per sample (n = 5). Data were analyzed by complete linkage cluster analysis, using the Morisita Index as measure of association. The results showed differentiation among phytolith assemblages at species level or at plant functional type level. Cluster analysis separated C3 from C4 species and palatable from non-palatable species. This study highlights the possibility of reconstructing past vegetation in central Argentina grasslands through the analysis of soil phytolith assemblages.

  14. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  15. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... richness relative to native richness in California; warmer areas contain higher proportions of exotic species. This pattern was very well captured by a simple model that predicts invasion severity given only the trait–climate relationship for native species and trait differences between native and exotic...... species. This study provides some of the first evidence for an important interaction between climate change and species invasions across very broad geographic and taxonomic scales....

  16. Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R; Walker, S M; Varga, E M; Jacobson, M R; O'Brien, F; Noble, W; Till, S J; Hamid, Q A; Nouri-Aria, K T

    1999-08-12

    Pollen immunotherapy is effective in selected patients with IgE-mediated seasonal allergic rhinitis, although it is questionable whether there is long-term benefit after the discontinuation of treatment. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the discontinuation of immunotherapy for grass-pollen allergy in patients in whom three to four years of this treatment had previously been shown to be effective. During the three years of this trial, primary outcome measures were scores for seasonal symptoms and the use of rescue medication. Objective measures included the immediate conjunctival response and the immediate and late skin responses to allergen challenge. Cutaneous-biopsy specimens obtained 24 hours after intradermal allergen challenge were examined for T-cell infiltration and the presence of cytokine-producing T helper cells (TH2 cells) (as evidenced by the presence of interleukin-4 messenger RNA). A matched group of patients with hay fever who had not received immunotherapy was followed as a control for the natural course of the disease. Scores for seasonal symptoms and the use of rescue antiallergic medication, which included short courses of prednisolone, remained low after the discontinuation of immunotherapy, and there was no significant difference between patients who continued immunotherapy and those who discontinued it. Symptom scores in both treatment groups (median areas under the curve in 1995, 921 for continuation of immunotherapy and 504 for discontinuation of immunotherapy; P=0.60) were markedly lower than those in the group that had not received immunotherapy (median value in 1995, 2863). Although there was a tendency for immediate sensitivity to allergen to return late after discontinuation, there was a sustained reduction in the late skin response and associated CD3+ T-cell infiltration and interleukin-4 messenger RNA expression. Immunotherapy for grass-pollen allergy for three to four years induces prolonged

  17. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  18. Potential of grass seed production for new lawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Vargas de Oliveira Maximino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paspalum and Axonopus genera are among the main warm season grasses used for lawns. The seed propagation contributes to the decrease of the cost of establishment, besides maintaining the exact characteristics of the mother plant genotype, because they are apomictic species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed production potential of seventeen grass accesses of the species Paspalum notatum, P. lepton, P. lividum and Axonopus parodii. The experiment was conducted at Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with four replications. The evaluated variables were: number of inflorescences per area, number of florets per inflorescence and seed production potential (SPP. In order to measure the seed production potential of the accesses, the equation proposed is: SPP = number of florets per inflorescence x number of inflorescences per m2 . There were year, access and interaction between years and accesses effect for the traits number of inflorescences per area and seed production potential. For the number of florets per inflorescence, there was no year effect. Potential production for the 2013/2014 harvest, ranged from 19,152.00 to 135,062.70 seeds m- ², with PN 09 of the P. notatum species standing out. In the 2014/2015 harvest, the seed production potential ranged from 9,973.75 to 81,536.75 seeds m- ², highlighting the access PN 11 of the species P. notatum. The accesses PN 11, PN 09, PN 10 and AP 01 were in the top third of the seed production potential ranking in the two harvests, and “grama-batatais” was in the lower third. There is genotype-environment interaction for all characteristics evaluated. However, there are accesses that show seed production potential consistently superior to the “grama-batatais” control, and have a greater potential for exploitation in the establishment of lawns by seeds.

  19. PROCESSING UAV AND LIDAR POINT CLOUDS IN GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s methods of acquiring Earth surface data, namely lidar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery, non-selectively collect or generate large amounts of points. Point clouds from different sources vary in their properties such as number of returns, density, or quality. We present a set of tools with applications for different types of points clouds obtained by a lidar scanner, structure from motion technique (SfM, and a low-cost 3D scanner. To take advantage of the vertical structure of multiple return lidar point clouds, we demonstrate tools to process them using 3D raster techniques which allow, for example, the development of custom vegetation classification methods. Dense point clouds obtained from UAV imagery, often containing redundant points, can be decimated using various techniques before further processing. We implemented and compared several decimation techniques in regard to their performance and the final digital surface model (DSM. Finally, we will describe the processing of a point cloud from a low-cost 3D scanner, namely Microsoft Kinect, and its application for interaction with physical models. All the presented tools are open source and integrated in GRASS GIS, a multi-purpose open source GIS with remote sensing capabilities. The tools integrate with other open source projects, specifically Point Data Abstraction Library (PDAL, Point Cloud Library (PCL, and OpenKinect libfreenect2 library to benefit from the open source point cloud ecosystem. The implementation in GRASS GIS ensures long term maintenance and reproducibility by the scientific community but also by the original authors themselves.

  20. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.R. [Myosotis Ecological Consulting, Blairmore, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n{lt} 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. VANHATALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;

  2. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  3. Impacts of grass removal on wetting and actual water repellency in a sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostindie Klaas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content and actual water repellency were assessed for soil profiles at two sites in a bare and grasscovered plot of a sand pasture, to investigate the impact of the grass removal on both properties. The soil of the plots was sampled six times in vertical transects to a depth of 33 cm between 23 May and 7 October 2002. On each sampling date the soil water contents were measured and the persistence of actual water repellency was determined of field-moist samples. Considerably higher soil water contents were found in the bare versus the grass-covered plots. These alterations are caused by differences between evaporation and transpiration rates across the plots. Noteworthy are the often excessive differences in soil water content at depths of 10 to 30 cm between the bare and grass-covered plots. These differences are a consequence of water uptake by the roots in the grass-covered plots. The water storage in the upper 19 cm of the bare soil was at least two times greater than in the grass-covered soil during dry periods. A major part of the soil profile in the grass-covered plots exhibited extreme water repellency to a depth of 19 cm on all sampling dates, while the soil profile of the bare plots was completely wettable on eight of the twelve sampling dates. Significant differences in persistence of actual water repellency were found between the grass-covered and bare plots.

  4. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  5. The effect of seaweed Ecklonia maxima extract and mineral nitrogen on fodder grass chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Grażyna Anna; Godlewska, Agnieszka; Jankowska, Jolanta

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the biostimulant Kelpak and different nitrogen rates on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents as well as non-structural carbohydrates in orchard grass and Braun's festulolium. The experiment was a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. It was set up at the experimental facility of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, in late April 2009. The following factors were examined: biostimulant with the trade name Kelpak SL applied at 2 dm(3) ha(-1) and a control-no biostimulant; nitrogen application rates 50 and 150 kg ha(-1) and a control (0 kg ha(-1)); pure stands of grass species grown in monoculture--orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), cv. Amila,-Braun's festulolium (Festulolium braunii), cv. Felopa. Kelpak significantly increased non-structural carbohydrates, and increasing nitrogen rates reduced the concentration of these components in plants. Increasing nitrogen rates significantly decreased cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and non-structural carbohydrate contents. Compared with orchard grass, Braun's festulolium proved to be of a higher nutritional value due to lower cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents and more non-structural carbohydrates. The aforementioned contents in the grasses differed significantly depending on the cut. Most cellulose and non-structural carbohydrates were determined in second-cut grass whereas most hemicellulose and lignin in second-cut grass.

  6. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  7. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  8. Changes of the Shrub/Grass balance under Climate Change: Mechanisms and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, O.; Gherardi, L.; Anadon, J.

    2016-12-01

    Most arid and semiarid ecosystems are made up of grasses and shrubs; and their balance could be altered by changes in climate, fire and grazing among others. Here, we focus on the effects of climate change on the shrub/grass balance and the mechanisms mediating alterations of the balance. We assess hypotheses that state that climate change affects shrub/grass balance by affecting the distribution of soil water in the profile. We report on studies that range from the plot to the sub-continental scale using manipulative experiments, simulation modelling and remote sensing tools. Specifically, we evaluate the effect of amount of precipitation on the shrub/grass balance. In Chihuahuan desert ecosystems, prolonged drought drove shrub encroachment as a result of a-symmetric competition between shrubs and grasses. Demise of shallow-rooted grasses after prolonged drought resulted in an increase in soil-water resources for deep-rooted shrubs. We also quantitatively assessed the effect of changes in shrub/grass balance on the provisioning of ecosystem services in North and South America. In both regions, woody-plant encroachment reduced livestock production, which is the main ecosystem service provided by drylands. However, the effect of woody-plant encroachment had a larger impact in South than North America. The differential effect of changes in the shrub/balance was mediated by differences in the demand of ecosystem services.

  9. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  10. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  11. Effects of rye grass coverage on soil loss from loess slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuequn Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative coverage is commonly used to reduce urban slope soil erosion. Laboratory experimental study on soil erosion under grass covered slopes is conventionally time and space consuming. In this study, a new method is suggested to study the influences of vegetation coverage on soil erosion from a sloped loess surface under three slope gradients of 5°, 15°, and 25°; four rye grass coverages of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; and three rainfall intensities of 60, 90, and 120 mm/h with a silt-loamy loess soil. Rye grasses were planted in the field with the studied soil before being transplanted into a laboratory flume. Grass was allowed to resume growth for a period before the rain simulation experiment. Results showed that the grass cover reduced soil erosion by 63.90% to 92.75% and sediment transport rate by 80.59% to 96.17% under different slope gradients and rainfall intensities. The sediment concentration/sediment transport rate from bare slope was significantly higher than from a grass-covered slope. The sediment concentration/transport rate from grass-covered slopes decreased linearly with grass coverage and increased with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration/transport rate from the bare slope increased as a power function of slope and reached the maximum value at the gradient of about 25°, whereas that from grass-covered slope increased linearly and at much lower levels. The results of this study can be used to estimate the effect of vegetation on soil erosion from loess slopes.

  12. Silicon, endophytes and secondary metabolites as grass defenses against mammalian herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otso eHuitu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasses have been considered to primarily employ tolerance in lieu of defense in mitigating damage caused by herbivory. Yet a number of mechanisms have been identified in grasses, which may deter feeding by grazers. These include enhanced silicon uptake, hosting of toxin-producing endophytic fungi and induction of secondary metabolites. While these mechanisms have been individually studied, their synergistic responses to grazing, as well as their effects on grazers, are poorly known. A field experiment was carried out in 5 × 5 m outdoor enclosures to quantify phytochemical changes of either endophyte-infected (E+ or endophyte-free (E- meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis in response to medium intensity (corresponding with densities of ca. 1200 voles / ha for 5 weeks during 3 months or heavy intensity (ca. 1200 voles / ha for 8 weeks during 3 months grazing by a mammalian herbivore, the field vole (Microtus agrestis. A laboratory experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effects of endophyte infection status and grazing history of the grass diet on vole performance. As predicted, grazing increased foliar silicon content, by up to 13 %. Grazing also increased foliar levels of phosphorous and several phenolic compounds, most notably those of the flavonols isorhamnetin-diglycoside and rhamnetin derivative. Silicon concentrations were consistently circa 16 % higher in E+ grasses than in E-grasses, at all levels of grazing. Similarly, concentrations of chlorogenic acid derivative were found to be consistently higher in E+ than in E- grasses. Female voles maintained on heavily grazed grasses suffered higher mortality rates in the laboratory than female voles fed ungrazed grass, regardless of endophyte infection status. Our results conclusively demonstrate that, in addition to tolerance, grasses employ multi-tiered, effective defenses against mammalian grazers.

  13. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  14. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R; Nelson, H S; Nolte, H; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z; Andersen, J S

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated with grass SLIT-tablet or placebo. Daily pollen counts were obtained from centralized pollen databases. The effect of treatment on the relationship between the TCS and pollen counts was investigated, and the relative difference between grass SLIT-tablet and placebo as a function of average grass pollen counts was modelled by linear regression. The magnitude of treatment effect based on TCS was greater with higher pollen exposure (P pollen exposure during the first period of the season, with predicted reduction in TCS = 12% + 0.35% × pollen count (slope significantly different from 0, P = 0.003; R(2)  = 0.66). Corresponding correlations to the entire grass pollen season and to the peak season were equally good, whereas there was a poor correlation between difference in measured efficacy and pollen exposure during the last part of the season. In seasonal allergy trials with grass SLIT-tablet, the observed treatment effect is highly dependent on pollen exposure with the magnitude being greater with higher pollen exposure. This is an important relationship to consider when interpreting individual clinical trial results. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  16. The Effect of Integrated Grasses in Controlling Soil, Nutrient and Organic Matter in Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honest Augustine Mosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and nutrient loss is one of a serious problem in Loess plateau china. The eroded materials are directly transported to the lakes and rivers specifically yellow river in China, this might lead to eutrophication if no prevention measures will be taken. The experiment was conducted on soil, and nutrient loss from 5º slope. Individual grasses plots for rye grass(Lolium, white clover(Trifolium repens and integrated grass (rye + white clover plots were prepared with a percentage cover of 25, 50, 80 and 100 in each treatment. Bare land was used as a reference plot. The results show that, the sediment loss in a bare land reported to be 1.5, 3, 2.7 and 1.3, 2.1, 1.9 in 100 % and 80 % cover plots. The runoff rate as compared to bare land, shown to be about 2 times less for white clover and rye grass plots, while more than 2 times less for integrated grasses plots. The total nitrogen and organic matter loss the results were in the order bare land white clover rye grasses and integrated grasses in which 100 %, 80 % and 50 % vegetative cover shown to perform better. On average enrichment ratio range was 40 % to 90 % for nutrient loss, and 50 % to 85 % for organic matter for all plots in comparison with soil origin. The enrichment ration significantly shown to be high from bare land> rye and white clover plots> integrated grasses plot. It has been concluded that integrated grasses is more effective measure over others in controlling both soil, nutrient and organic matter loss in the soil. This study contributed some information on the erosion modeling and improvement of soil and grassland conservation techniques for better land use for sustainable development

  17. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  18. Foraminifera and the ecology of sea grass communities since the late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher; Jagt, John

    2016-04-01

    Sea grasses are marine angiosperms (plants) that, in the late Cretaceous, migrated from the land into shallow-water marine environments. They represent a distinct, but fragile, marine habitat and sea grass meadows are often regarded as biodiversity hot-spots with a range of species (including fish, sea horses and cuttlefish) using them as nurseries for their young. Foraminifera are often found associated with sea grass meadows, with the associated taxa reflecting both the environment and palaeolatitude. In the tropics and sub-tropics, miliolid foraminifera dominate (e.g., Peneroplis spp.) as do large discoidal taxa such as Marginopora and Calcarina. In temperate to cool latitudes the assemblage changes to one dominated by smaller benthic taxa, including Elphidium spp. One taxon, Elphidium crispum, is geotropic and is often found - in the summer months - to crowd the fronds of the sea grass. In the Gulpen and Maastricht formations of the Maastricht area (The Netherlands and Belgium) sea grass fossils (both fronds and rhizomes) have been recorded in association with assemblages of both larger and smaller benthic foraminifera (Hart et al., 2016). Some of the large discoidal forms (e.g., Omphalocyclus and Orbitoides/Lepidorbitoides) and the distinctive Siderolites are associated with these sea grass fossils and are suggestive of the modern sea grass communities of sub-tropical areas. While earlier records were of relatively isolated sea grasses, in September/October 2015 surfaces with abundant sea grasses were found that are suggestive of complete 'meadows'. Preservation of some silicified rhizomes indicates that silicification must have been very rapid, before any degradation or compaction of the delicate tissues. The presence of sea grass fossils and their associated benthic foraminifera is indicative of a clear, shallow-water seaway, with a maximum depth of 15-20 m. The reported variations in sea level during the latest Cretaceous cannot, therefore, have been very

  19. Local versus landscape-scale effects of savanna trees on grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, C.; Grace, J.B.; Augustine, D.J.; Young, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    1. Savanna ecosystems - defined by the coexistence of trees and grasses - cover more than one-fifth the world's land surface and harbour most of the world's rangelands, livestock and large mammal diversity. Savanna trees can have a variety of effects on grasses, with consequences for the wild and domestic herbivores that depend on them. 2.Studies of these effects have focused on two different spatial scales. At the scale of individual trees, many studies have shown net positive effects of trees on sub-canopy grass nutrient concentrations and biomass. At the landscape scale, other studies have shown negative effects of high tree densities on grass productivity. These disparate results have led to different conclusions about the effects of trees on forage quality and ungulate nutrition in savannas. 3.We integrate these approaches by examining the effects of trees on grasses at both spatial scales and across a range of landscape-scale tree densities. 4.We quantified grass biomass, species composition and nutrient concentrations in these different contexts in an Acacia drepanolobium savanna in Laikipia, Kenya. Individual trees had positive effects on grass biomass, most likely because trees enrich soil nitrogen. Grass leaf phosphorus in sub-canopy areas, however, was depressed. The effects of individual trees could explain the effects of increasing landscape-scale tree cover for the biomass of only two of the four dominant grass species. 5.The negative effects of trees on grass and soil phosphorus, combined with depressed grass productivity in areas of high tree cover, suggest that ungulate nutrition may be compromised in areas with many trees. 6.Synthesis. We conclude that few, isolated trees may have positive local effects on savanna grasses and forage, but in areas of high tree density the negative landscape-scale effects of trees are likely to outweigh these positive effects. In savannas and other patchy landscapes, attempts to predict the consequences of changes

  20. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  1. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2017-12-20

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses (barley [BA], ryegrass [RG], rye [RY], triticale [TR], and wheat [WT]) in monoculture (i.e., no legumes [NO]) or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes (crimson clover [CC] and hairy vetch [HV]). After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  2. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  3. Bid-deficient fish delay grass carp reovirus (GCRV) replication and attenuate GCRV-triggered apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    He, Libo; Wang, Hao; Luo, Lifei; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Bid, BH3-interacting domain death agonist, is a pro-apoptotic BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family, playing an important role in apoptosis. In the study, Bid genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), named CiBid and GrBid, were cloned and analyzed. Bid was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues of grass carp, but the expression level varied in different tissues. Following grass carp reovirus (GCRV) stimulation in vivo, Bid and apoptosis related...

  4. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The

  5. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  6. Comparative characterization of bacterial communities in geese fed all-grass or high-grain diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qi Xu; Xiaoya Yuan; Tiantian Gu; Yang Li; Wangcheng Dai; Xiaokun Shen; Yadong Song; Yang Zhang; Wenming Zhao; Guobin Chang; Guohong Chen

    2017-01-01

    .... Results Here, caecal and faecal samples were collected simultaneously from all-grass-fed geese and high-grain-fed geese and the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced...

  7. Acroceras macrum Stapf. (Nile grass) - A review. | J.M.L.C. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical pasture grass Acroceras macrum Stapf is reviewed with respect to morhphology, distribution, response to climate, genetic variation and cytology, soil and nutrient requirements, establishment, utilization, management and renovation, compatibility with legumes, seed production, diseases, interveinal chlorosis, ...

  8. Nitrate-nitrite toxicity in cattle and sheep grazing Dactyloctenium radulans (button grass) in stockyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Rayner, A C; Thompson, G K; Pidgeon, G F; Burren, B R

    2004-10-01

    Hungry cattle and sheep introduced to stockyards containing a dominant or pure growth of Dactyloctenium radulans (button grass) suffered acute nitrate-nitrite toxicity in four incidents in inland Queensland between 1993 and 2001. Deaths ranged from 16 to 44%. Methaemoglobinaemia was noted at necropsies in all incidents. An aqueous humour sample from one dead steer contained 75 mg nitrate/L and from one dead sheep contained 100 mg nitrate and 50 mg nitrite/L (normal = ca 5 mg nitrate/L). Both lush and dry button grass were toxic. The nitrate content of button grass from within the stockyards ranged from 4.0 to 12.9% as potassium nitrate equivalent in dry matter and from outside the stockyards ranged from stockyard soil may boost the nitrate content of button grass to a concentration hazardous to hungry ruminants.

  9. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  10. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri eFjellheim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons, so that flowering and seed production coincide with favourable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group.

  11. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjellheim, Siri; Boden, Scott; Trevaskis, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, including important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons so that flowering and seed production coincide with favorable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group.

  12. Effect of competition on stable carbon isotope ratios of two tussock grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K; Richards, J H; Caldwell, M M

    1991-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that plant carbon isotope composition varies when plants experience differences in water and nutrient availability. However, none have addressed the effect of root interactions, including competition for these soil resources, on carbon isotope ratios. We studied the effect of interspecific root interactions on the productivity and carbon isotope ratios of two Great Basin tussock grass species (Agropyron desertorum and Pseudoroegneria spicata). We compared grasses grown in mixture with sagebrush (Artemisia tridentara) to grasses in similar mixtures but where root interactions with sagebrush were limited by fiberglass partitions. During both years of the study, tussocks growing in competition with sagebrush produced tissue with more negative δ 13 C values than grasses experiencing limited root interaction with sagebrush. The magnitude of this difference (0.5 to 0.9%) is similar to that found in other studies when soil fertility and moisture availability were altered.

  13. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight cattle...

  14. Environmental factors associated with the foliage cover of invasive fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Kate; Florentine, Singarayer K

    2018-01-01

    Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass. The 'lake' factor was the only environmental parameter that was significantly associated with the presence of this weed.

  15. Improved criteria and comparative genomics tool provide new insights into grass paleogenomics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salse, Jerome; Abrouk, Michael; Murat, Florent; Quraishi, Umar Masood; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    ... over interpret the results of large scale comparative sequence analyses. Recently, we have established a number of improved parameters and tools to define significant relationships between genomes as a basis to develop paleogenomics studies in grasses...

  16. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 395...

  17. Four new species in Magnaporthaceae from grass roots in New Jersey Pine Barrens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jing; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Based on morphology and DNA sequences of SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1 genes, we describe four new species in Magnaporthaceae that are associated with grass roots collected from New Jersey Pine Barrens...

  18. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight...

  19. Status of herbicide technology for control of tree species and to reduce shrub and grass competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell L., Jr. McCormack

    1977-01-01

    The values of herbicides as silvicultural tools are summarized. Treatments are discussed with reference to chemicals and methods of application as they pertain to control of grass and herbaceous weeds, understory vegetation, and overstory vegetation.

  20. Assessment of supercritical water oxidation system testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Army Science and Technology; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    2013-01-01

    "Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant reviews and evaluates the results of the tests conducted on one of the SCWO units...

  1. Assessment of agent monitoring strategies for the Blue Grass and Pueblo chemical agent destruction pilot plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Army Science and Technology; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    2012-01-01

    .... Army organization, the Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Element. ACWA is currently constructing the last two chemical weapons disposal facilities, the Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants...

  2. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  3. Protein contamination on Klason lignin contents in tropical grasses and legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the extent of protein contamination on Klason lignin (KL in tropical grasses and legumes, and to propose an equation to estimate the protein-free content of Klason lignin (KLp. Five grass (30 samples and 12 legume species (31 samples were evaluated. Legumes had higher KL contents. Protein contamination was significant in both grasses and legumes, but greater in legume samples. The model to predict KLp was based on KL and crude protein (CP contents, as follows: KLp = 0.8807KL - 0.0938KL x D - 0.00338CP (R2=0.935, in which D=0, for grasses, and D=1 for legumes.

  4. Water-removed spectra increase the retrieval accuracy when estimating savanna grass nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available savanna grass species (Digitariaeriantha). Spectral measurements were made using a spectrometer. The D. eriantha was cut, dried and chemically analyzed for foliar N and P concentrations. WR spectra were determined by calculating the residual from...

  5. Additions to the grasses (Poaceae of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Chorghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three species of grasses viz., Dimeria orissae, Iseilema holei and Spodiopogon rhizophorus are being reported for the first time as new distributional records to Telangana from the Kawal Tiger Reserve. Detailed description and illustrations are provided here.

  6. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 75...

  7. STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TANZANIA GRASS SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT DEFOLIATION FREQUENCIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitor Hugo Maués Macedo; Antônio Marcos Quadros Cunha; Ebson Pereira Cândido; Felipe Nogueira Domingues; Deyvid de Menezes Melo; Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of defoliation at fixed periods on the structural and productive characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum...

  8. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Deresz, Fermino; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Lopes, Fernando César Ferraz; Glória, Leonardo Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles...

  9. Safety and tolerability of grass pollen tablets in sublingual immunotherapy--a phase-1 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T H; Poulsen, Lars K.; Melac, M

    2006-01-01

    A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis....

  10. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    OpenAIRE

    A. VANHATALO; T. GÄDDNÄS; T. HEIKKILÄ

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass) and grain supplement (oats vs. barley) on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40%) silage rather than pure gras...

  11. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  12. A New Operation for Producing Disease-Suppressive Compost from Grass Clippings

    OpenAIRE

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hiraoka, Sachiko; Nagata, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of grass clippings discharged from golf courses as the raw material for production of a suppressive compost to control Rhizoctonia large-patch disease in mascarene grass. Bacillus subtilis N4, a mesophilic bacterium with suppressive effects on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, was used as an inoculum in a procedure developed with the aim of controlling composting temperatures and inoculation timing. The population density of mesophilic bacteria in th...

  13. The Distribution of Toxic Dinoflagellates on Sea Grass Enhalus Acoroides at Pari Island, Seribu Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Widiarti, Riani; Anggraini, Fitrian

    2012-01-01

    Benthic dinoflagellates causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), could be found attached either on macroalgae or sea grasses. Research on density and distribution of benthic dinoflagellates on sea grass leaves was conducted in Pari Island waters, Seribu Islands, in April 2012. Research was carried out by collecting Enhalus acoroides leaves from each site, and put inside the plastic jars containing seawater. In order to separate the dinoflagellates species from the leaves, the plastic jars were...

  14. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates.

    OpenAIRE

    Siri eFjellheim; Scott eBoden; Ben eTrevaskis

    2014-01-01

    Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons, so that flowering and seed production coincide with favourable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathw...

  15. Variation in the production and quality of bana grass over the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hacker (1971) found, with both temperate and tropical grasses, that at a yOlmg stage of growth leaf may be less digestible than stem. According to the present data, this possibly results because the cell wall of leaves at this stage is less digestible than the cell wall of stems. A feature of ba1a grass though, is that even after 12 ...

  16. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  17. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  18. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  19. Silage production and the chemical composition of corn and Grass-tanzania intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Luiza Matielo de Paula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and chemical composition of silages of grass Tanzania and corn, grown single or intercropping. The experiment was conducted at UTFPR Câmpus Dois Vizinhos in the period between October 2011 and July 2012, a 600 m² area. The treatments were: TMI - single corn, TMT - corn and grass Tanzania consortium at the time of sowing, TT - Tanzania grass single, TT32 - grass Tanzania silage to 32% dry matter (content similar to that of corn. The experimental design a randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. Agronomic evaluations were performed 120 days after planting, as follows: number of linear-1 plants metro, plant height and ear insertion and number of ears.plants-1. In the grass we evaluated canopy height, where it was held the botanical separation in green leaves, dried and stem. Silage started being held in 100 mm PVC pipe (mini-silos kept sealed for 60 days. At the time of opening of the silo were determined the following parameters: DM, pH, total loss of DM (PDM, specifies mass (SM, dry matter recovery indices (IRDM, losses gas (LG, and size particle. Chemical analysis of the results of OM, MM, ADF were higher for TMI treatments, TT and TT, respectively. CP and LIG had superior results for the treatments containing grass. Corn intercropping with grass Tanzania silage provides more crude protein and lignin compared to exclusive corn silage without damaging the crop yield. Silage maiden Tanzania has higher levels of ADF and crude protein as well as increased production of dry matter than corn silage. The grass Tanzania should be harvested with 30% DM as presented better pH values, higher dry matter recovery rate, less loss of gas as well as increased production of dry matter that Tanzania harvested at the same age corn.

  20. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  1. Aridity increases below-ground niche breadth in grass communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Bradford, John B.; Munson, Seth M.; Gremer, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Aridity is an important environmental filter in the assembly of plant communities worldwide. The extent to which root traits mediate responses to aridity, and how they are coordinated with leaf traits, remains unclear. Here, we measured variation in root tissue density (RTD), specific root length (SRL), specific leaf area (SLA), and seed size within and among thirty perennial grass communities distributed along an aridity gradient spanning 190–540 mm of climatic water deficit (potential minus actual evapotranspiration). We tested the hypotheses that traits exhibited coordinated variation (1) among species, as well as (2) among communities varying in aridity, and (3) functional diversity within communities declines with increasing aridity, consistent with the “stress-dominance” hypothesis. Across communities, SLA and RTD exhibited a coordinated response to aridity, shifting toward more conservative (lower SLA, higher RTD) functional strategies with increasing aridity. The response of SRL to aridity was more idiosyncratic and was independent of variation in SLA and RTD. Contrary to the stress-dominance hypothesis, the diversity of SRL values within communities increased with aridity, while none of the other traits exhibited significant diversity responses. These results are consistent with other studies that have found SRL to be independent of an SLA–RTD axis of functional variation and suggest that the dynamic nature of soil moisture in arid environments may facilitate a wider array of resource capture strategies associated with variation in SRL.

  2. Mono fermentation of grass silage by means of loop reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Wichern, Marc; Lübken, Manfred; Horn, Harald

    2009-12-01

    A loop reactor was operated for mono fermentation of grass silage without manure addition under mesophilic conditions (38 degrees C). An averaged specific biogas production of 0.50 m(N)(3) per kg volatile solids (VS) with a methane concentration of 52% at an organic loading rate of up to 3.5 kg(VS)/(m(3) d) was obtained. The retention time varied from 440 days at 1.0 kg(VS)/(m(3) d) to 50 days at 3.5 kg(VS)/(m(3) d). The degradation level was more than 60% based on VS and 75% based on COD. The first-order hydrolysis rate constant of the process was estimated to be 0.6 d(-1). Despite the relative high ammonium concentration of up to 4 g/l, the system worked stable for an operation period of 310 days. In particular the TS content in the fermenter was found to be a key parameter and should not exceed 12% in order to avoid instabilities.

  3. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  4. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  5. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  6. Genome diversity in wild grasses under environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Shapter, Frances M.; McDonald, Stuart; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Chivers, Ian H.; Drenth, Andre; Nevo, Eviatar; Henry, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of diversity distribution in the Isa defense locus in wild-barley populations suggest adaptive selection at this locus. The extent to which environmental selection may act at additional nuclear-encoded defense loci and within the whole chloroplast genome has now been examined by analyses in two grass species. Analysis of genetic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) defense genes revealed much greater variation in biotic stress-related genes than abiotic stress-related genes. Genetic diversity at the Isa defense locus in wild populations of weeping ricegrass [Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R. Br.], a very distant wild-rice relative, was more diverse in samples from relatively hotter and drier environments, a phenomenon that reflects observations in wild barley populations. Whole-chloroplast genome sequences of bulked weeping ricegrass individuals sourced from contrasting environments showed higher levels of diversity in the drier environment in both coding and noncoding portions of the genome. Increased genetic diversity may be important in allowing plant populations to adapt to greater environmental variation in warmer and drier climatic conditions. PMID:22173638

  7. Starch Biosynthesis in the Developing Endosperms of Grasses and Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Tetlow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The starch-rich endosperms of the Poaceae, which includes wild grasses and their domesticated descendents the cereals, have provided humankind and their livestock with the bulk of their daily calories since the dawn of civilization up to the present day. There are currently unprecedented pressures on global food supplies, largely resulting from population growth, loss of agricultural land that is linked to increased urbanization, and climate change. Since cereal yields essentially underpin world food and feed supply, it is critical that we understand the biological factors contributing to crop yields. In particular, it is important to understand the biochemical pathway that is involved in starch biosynthesis, since this pathway is the major yield determinant in the seeds of six out of the top seven crops grown worldwide. This review outlines the critical stages of growth and development of the endosperm tissue in the Poaceae, including discussion of carbon provision to the growing sink tissue. The main body of the review presents a current view of our understanding of storage starch biosynthesis, which occurs inside the amyloplasts of developing endosperms.

  8. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake and transport infectious prions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc) to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. PMID:25981035

  10. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  11. Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation.

  12. Hydraulic lift as a determinant of tree-grass coexistence on savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    The coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas is determined by a complex set of interacting factors that determine access to resources and demographic dynamics, under the control of external drivers and vegetation feedbacks with the physical environment. Existing theories explain coexistence mainly as an effect of competitive relations and/or disturbances. However, theoretical studies on the way facilitative interactions resulting from hydraulic lift affect tree-grass coexistence and the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable are still lacking. We investigated the role of hydraulic lift in the stability of tree-grass coexistence in savannas. To that end, we developed a new mechanistic model that accounts for both competition for soil water in the shallow soil and fire-induced disturbance. We found that hydraulic lift favors grasses, which scavenge the water lifted by woody plants. Thus, hydraulic lift expands (at the expenses of woodlands) the range of environmental conditions in which savannas are stable. These results indicate that hydraulic lift can be an important mechanism responsible for the coexistence of woody plants and grasses in savannas. Grass facilitation by trees through the process of hydraulic lift could allow savannas to persist stably in mesic regions that would otherwise exhibit a forest cover. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Water requirement of four cutting grasses water efficiency in the Colombian dry Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murillo Solano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombia Caribbean region’s low rainfall (600 to 1500 mm and irregular distribution leads to a drastic reduction in availability of fodder. The project objectives were to determine the water requirements of 4 grasses, evaluate water - production equations and the effect of water deficit on yield. Spray gradient methodolog y was used on a split plot design with 4 repetitions and 6 treatments for 100, 80, 60, 40, 20 y 0% of the water deficit. In summer season from January to April, the average daily water consumption of grasses purple King grass, green King grass, Elephant and Maralfalfa was 4,7; 4,6; 4,6 y 4,9 mm/day with average K factors 0,68; 0,66; 0,67 y 0,73 respectively. Dry matter productions with indicated water consumptions were higher in 301, 317, 140 and 415% respectively than productions in treatments without irrigation. At maximum rainfall (April - June the average water requirements of these grasses in the same old order was 4,25; 4,23; 4,22; 4,54 mm/day with average K factors of 0,75; 0,75; 0,74 and 0,81. Yields in dry matter with previous consumptions exceeded 146, 178, 141 y 204% respectively to no irrigation treatments. Under irrigated conditions Maralfalfa is recommended while under rainfed conditions Elephant grass is recommended.

  14. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) play a pivotal trophic role in enhancing Ruppia maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Donna Drury; Rakocinski, Chet F

    2007-03-01

    Coupled trophic-engineer interactions are potentially important for maintaining habitat function and ecosystem services. As ephemeral submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Ruppia maritima has a short well-defined growth-senescence cycle and should benefit from any ecological interaction that enhances its physical condition and longevity. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) are abundant facultative grazers of epiphytic algae and conveyors of nutrients in tidal marsh and SAV habitats. Grass shrimp addition consistently enhanced Ruppia biomass and shoot density in a series of three field experiments conducted in Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mississippi, USA. In two experiments, epiphyte grazing by grass shrimp enhanced Ruppia by inhibiting die-back during the mid- and latter stages of the Ruppia life cycle. Despite a nonsignificant epiphyte grazing effect, grass shrimp also enhanced Ruppia during its early growth stage in a third experiment. In that experiment, nutrient addition also significantly increased epiphyte biomass. Grass shrimp may have fostered the early growth of Ruppia through direct deposition of feces to the sediment in the third experiment. Grass shrimp play a pivotal trophic role in the maintenance of Ruppia through context-dependent interactions involving stage of the SAV life cycle, season, and nutrient limitation.

  15. Morphogenetic characteristics in Tanzania grass conhsorted with Stylosanthes Campo Grande or fertilized with nitrogen under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida Lins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study morphogenic and structural characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania intercropped with Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala or fertilized with nitrogen. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Were used a randomized complete blocks with split plots and three replications. The treatments were: Tanzania grass + Stylosanthes; Tanzania grass + 75 Kg N.ha. year-1; Tanzania grass + 150Kg N.ha.year-1; Tanzania grass + 225 Kg N.ha.year-1. Were used urea and ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source. The morphogenetic evaluations were conducted in the spring and summer. Were evaluated 15 tillers per paddock, twice a week for four weeks per season in study. The morphogenic characteristics were not affected by nitrogen fertilization or consortium, except the leaf elongation rate (LER. The highest values for this variable were observed in the spring in the fertilized pastures. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen fertilization influences the leaf elongation rate (LER of Tanzania grass, and this one when is intercropped with Stylosanthes Campo Grande show morphogenic characteristics similar when fertilized with nitrogen, except for rate leaf elongation.

  16. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  17. Deep Circular RNA Sequencing Provides Insights into the Mechanism Underlying Grass Carp Reovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV, is a major disease that hampers the development of grass carp aquaculture in China. The mechanism underlying GCRV infection is still largely unknown. Circular RNAs (circRNAs are important regulators involved in various biological processes. In the present study, grass carp were infected with GCRV, and spleen samples were collected at 0 (control, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-infection (dpi. Samples were used to construct and sequence circRNA libraries, and a total of 5052 circRNAs were identified before and after GCRV infection, of which 41 exhibited differential expression compared with controls. Many parental genes of the differentially expressed circRNAs are involved in metal ion binding, protein ubiquitination, enzyme activity, and nucleotide binding. Moreover, 72 binding miRNAs were predicted from the differentially expressed circRNAs, of which eight targeted genes were predicted to be involved in immune responses, blood coagulation, hemostasis, and complement and coagulation cascades. Upregulation of these genes may lead to endothelial and blood cell damage and hemorrhagic symptoms. Our results indicate that an mRNA–miRNA–circRNA network may be present in grass carp infected with GCRV, providing new insight into the mechanism underlying grass carp reovirus infection.

  18. Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołda Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the toleration of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra to cadmium contamination as well as the phytoremediation potential of these three species of grass. The pot experiment was conducted in four replications in pots containing 2.0 kg of soil. The soil was contaminated with three doses of Cd – 30, 60 and 120 mg·kg−1. After two months, the aerial parts of plants were harvested. The roots were dug up, brushed off from the remaining soil and washed with water. The biomass was defined and the cadmium concentration was determined in aerial parts and roots. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using biomass of grasses, bioaccumulation factor (BF and translocation factor (TF. All three tested species of grasses had TF 1. It indicates their suitability for phytostabilisation and makes them unsuitable for phytoextraction of Cd from the soil. Comparing the usefulness of the tested grasses for phytoremediation has shown that the phytostabilisation potential of P. pratensis was lower than that of L. perenne and F. rubra. P. pratensis was distinguished by higher TF, smaller root biomass and lower tolerance for Cd excess in the soil in comparison with the two other test grasses. At the same time, L. perenne was characterised by the smallest decrease in biomass and the largest Cd accumulation in roots at the lowest dose of Cd. It indicates good usefulness for phytostabilisation of soils characterised by a relatively small pollution by cadmium.

  19. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent tasks it makes sense to merge relevant GRASS functionality into an own and encapsulated QGIS extension. Its architecture and development is tested and combined with the Web Processing Service (WPS for remote execution using the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs as an example. The results of this assay may be suitable for discussing and planning other wizard-like geoprocessing plugins in QGIS that also should make use of an additional GRASS server.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  1. Comparing relative feed value with degradation parameters of grass and legume forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, T J; Sampson, J D; Spain, J N

    2008-09-01

    Relative feed value (RFV) was evaluated relative to in situ degradation parameters of grass and legume forages. Early-cut alfalfa (n = 20), late-cut alfalfa (n = 26), cool-season grass (n = 11), warm-season grass (n = 4), and grass-legume (n = 20) samples were collected from duplicate hay bales submitted to the 2002 and 2003 Missouri State Fair Hay Contests. Subsamples were incubated in the rumen of 2 lactating Holstein cows for 0, 6 or 8, 12, 24, and 48 h to determine in situ degradation of DM, ADF, NDF, CP, and hemicellulose over time. Degradation data were fit to a variety of candidate models to estimate degradation parameters. Correlation coefficients between degradation parameter estimates [sorted according to forage (early-cut alfalfa, late-cut alfalfa, grass, or grass-legume)] and RFV were determined. For further comparison, correlations between NDF degradation parameter estimates and digestible DMI were determined with data from a previous study. Degradation data were best fit to a single, gamma 2-distributed pool model without a lag phase. Relative feed value was significantly correlated (P forages. These results suggest that RFV is limited by its failure to include degradation parameters.

  2. High-biomass C4 grasses-Filling the yield gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E

    2017-08-01

    A significant increase in agricultural productivity will be required by 2050 to meet the needs of an expanding and rapidly developing world population, without allocating more land and water resources to agriculture, and despite slowing rates of grain yield improvement. This review examines the proposition that high-biomass C4 grasses could help fill the yield gap. High-biomass C4 grasses exhibit high yield due to C4 photosynthesis, long growth duration, and efficient capture and utilization of light, water, and nutrients. These C4 grasses exhibit high levels of drought tolerance during their long vegetative growth phase ideal for crops grown in water-limited regions of agricultural production. The stems of some high-biomass C4 grasses can accumulate high levels of non-structural carbohydrates that could be engineered to enhance biomass yield and utility as feedstocks for animals and biofuels production. The regulatory pathway that delays flowering of high-biomass C4 grasses in long days has been elucidated enabling production and deployment of hybrids. Crop and landscape-scale modeling predict that utilization of high-biomass C4 grass crops on land and in regions where water resources limit grain crop yield could increase agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Cudmore, Becky

    2017-01-01

    Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous, freshwater fish that was first introduced in the United States in the early 1960s for use in biological control of aquatic vegetation. It has since escaped and dispersed through the Mississippi River basin towards the Great Lakes. To characterize the risk of Grass Carp to the Great Lakes basin, a binational ecological risk assessment of Grass Carp was conducted.This risk assessment covered both triploid (sterile) and diploid (fertile) Grass Carp and assessed the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread, and the magnitude of the ecological consequences within 5, 10, 20 and 50 years from 2014 (i.e., the baseline year) to the connected Great Lakes basin (defined as the Great Lakes basin and its tributaries to the first impassable barrier; risk was assessed based on current climate conditions and at the individual lake scale but does not address a finer geographical scale (e.g., bay or sub-region).For triploid Grass Carp, the probability of occurrence (likelihood of arrival, survival, and spread) was assessed, and for diploid Grass Carp the probability of introduction (likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment and spread) was assessed.

  4. Effects of climate and water balance across grasslands of varying C3 and C4 grass cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Munson, Seth M.; Thoma, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change in grassland ecosystems may lead to divergent shifts in the abundance and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Many studies relate mean climate conditions over relatively long time periods to plant cover, but there is still much uncertainty about how the balance of C3and C4 species will be affected by climate at a finer temporal scale than season (individual events to months). We monitored cover at five grassland sites with co-dominant C3 and C4 grass species or only dominant C3 grass species for 6 yr in national parks across the Colorado Plateau region to assess the influence of specific months of climate and water balance on changes in grass cover. C4 grass cover increased and decreased to a larger degree than C3 grass cover with extremely dry and wet consecutive years, but this response varied by ecological site. Climate and water balance explained 10–49% of the inter-annual variability of cover of C3 and C4 grasses at all sites. High precipitation in the spring and in previous year monsoon storms influenced changes in cover of C4 grasses, with measures of water balance in the same months explaining additional variability. C3 grasses in grasslands where they were dominant were influenced primarily by longer periods of climate, while C3 grasses in grasslands where they were co-dominant with C4 grasses were influenced little by climate anomalies at either short or long periods of time. Our results suggest that future changes in spring and summer climate and water balance are likely to affect cover of both C3 and C4 grasses, but cover of C4 grasses may be affected more strongly, and the degree of change will depend on soils and topography where they are growing and the timing of the growing season.

  5. Alnus acuminata Kunth impact on N2O fluxes and quality of Pennisetum clandestinum grass Hochst. ex Chiov. grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Silva Parra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aliso Alnus acuminata Kunth is a forest species of the of the Colombian Andes associated with Kikuyu grass as silvopastoral system (SPS and fixe atmospheric N. The SPS was compared with 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1 year-1 at 30, 45 and 60 days on pasture quality, expressed as green forage (GF, dry matter (DM, percentage of crude protein (% CP and N absorbed, also fluxes N2O emissions to the atmosphere were evaluated. The SPS exceeded to 0 and 50 kg.N.ha-1 in all variables, less in the N2O emission fluxes that was greater than 0 kg.N.ha-1 (P0.05, and in GF was similar to 100 kg.N.ha-1 (p>0.05. 150 and 200 kg.N.ha-1.year-1 exceeded all the variables to the SSP. A higher GF and DM was achieved at 45 days and %CP at 30 days.

  6. Agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of Marandu grass in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm and grass monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha in silvopastoral systems (SSP’s composed of babassu palms (Attalea speciosa and grass monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The study followed a completely randomized design, with the arrangement in split plots with six replicates for the evaluation of agronomic characteristics and 30 repetitions for the morphogenic and structural characteristics. The plots were divided into pasture environments with different palm densities (monoculture, 80, 131, 160 palms.ha-¹, and the subplots were divided into the different seasons (rainy and dry. Total forage production was affected (P 0.05 by pastoral system during the rainy season, but in the dry period, higher responses were obtained in SSPs. Overall, SSPs with 80 palms.ha-¹ favored the agronomic characteristics of pastures. Morphogenic and structural characteristics were favored by increasing palm densities. Leaf senescence and duration were not affected by the system.

  7. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-07-01

    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. © The Author 2014

  8. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change. © 2012

  9. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  10. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  11. Günter Grass, peler l’oignon du souvenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Renault

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La publication en 2006 de l’autobiographie de Günter Grass, Pelures d’oignon, fait scandale : cet homme si engagé du côté des plus faibles s’est engagé volontairement dans la Waffen SS ! Cet aveu est difficile de la part de l’auteur. Il lui faut peler amèrement l’oignon du souvenir, multiplier les questions, cherchant alors des réponses pour comprendre son attitude d’alors, des réponses qui ne peuvent que le rendre coupable à ses yeux comme à celui de son lectorat. Aussi son pacte autobiographique tourne-t-il, pour l’essentiel, autour de la question du jugement. Il n’hésite pas à se dédoubler, faisant de son « Moi » passé un personnage que son « Moi » présent juge sévèrement. Les métaphores de la honte se multiplient, donnant lieu à un cache-cache entre les deux « Moi » de l’auteur qui ne va pas sans s’achever sur la victoire du « Moi » présent, lequel se dit coupable pour renforcer une thèse qui lui est chère, celle de la co-responsabilité : c’est l’ensemble du peuple allemand qui est co-responsable face au Mal nazi. Mémoire et Imagination se réconcilient au nom d’un engagement dont le présent prend acte.

  12. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis......Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  13. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... of single species in the forage part into account allowing diets consisting of both grasses and legumes to be included. The grass species included were perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass, orchardgrass, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue and festulolium, and the legume species included were white clover...... individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed...

  14. GrassVeg.DE – die neue kollaborative Vegetationsdaten-bank für alle Offenlandhabitate Deutschlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengler, Juergen; Becker, Thomas; Conradi, Timo

    2017-01-01

    and internationally. Data from GrassVeg.DE are provided to the European Vegetation Archive (EVA) and, in the future, also to the global database "sPlot". Data providers of GrassVeg.DE retain full copyright of their data and becomd members of the GrassVeg.DE Consortium. Thereby, they profit from their contribution via...... co-authorships and citations as well as the option to propose own projects using the full GrassVeg.DE or EVA data. In July 2017, the fast-growing GrassVeg.DE database contained 3,181 vegetation plots, originating from eight federal states of Germany. In the future, GrassVeg.DE could facilitate...

  15. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  16. DEPENDENCE OF GRASS COVER TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE ON THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Miroshnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine forests Chigirinsky Bor grow on fresh sod-podzolic soils formed on ancient alluvial deposits. Pine forests are characterized by stringent moisture regimes and constantly suffer from lack of productive moisture in soil.  Industrial development of Cherkasy in 60th years of ХХ century leaded air pollution and emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, and dust. This contributed to significant negative influence on the surrounding forest ecosystems from enterprises of  Cherkassy industrial agglomeration. The grass cover in pine stands of Chigirinsky Bor transforms into xerophytic grasses and ruderal communities under the impact of negative biotic and abiotic factors. They are namely the anthropogenic violation of forest conditions, stands decline, recreational and industrial tree crowns understocking, xerophytic and heliophytic transformations of forest conditions. All the above mentioned caused strong ruderal and adventive transformation of grass cover. We registered the changes in nitrophilous plant spread regards the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration approaching which emits toxic with nitrogen-containing gases. Adventive and other non-forest species displace ferns and mosses, the ratio of ecomorfs is also changes due to increase of the quantity and development activation of annuals, xerophytic, ruderal, and nitrofil plants. The Asteraceae/Brassicaceae 3:1 ratio indicates significant anthropogenic violations in the region. We fixed the xerophytic, ruderal, and adventive transformation of grass cover in forest ecosystems. It is also founded the tendency of expanding the fraction of mesophilic plant species due to alterations in water regime (creation of Kremenchug reservoir and draining of floodplain Tyasmyn. When approaching the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration the grass cover degradation is clearly observed on the environmental profile. All this causes the forest ecosystem degradation and gradual loss of forest vegetation typical characteristics. We

  17. The role of grass volatiles on oviposition site selection by Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hill, Sharon R; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-02-07

    The reproductive success and population dynamics, of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes is strongly influenced by the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Mosquitoes select oviposition sites at different spatial scales, starting with selecting a habitat in which to search. This study utilizes the association of larval abundance in the field with natural breeding habitats, dominated by various types of wild grasses, as a proxy for oviposition site selection by gravid mosquitoes. Moreover, the role of olfactory cues emanating from these habitats in the attraction and oviposition stimulation of females was analysed. The density of Anopheles larvae in breeding sites associated with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Echinochloa stagnina, Typha latifolia and Cyperus papyrus, was sampled and the larvae identified to species level. Headspace volatile extracts of the grasses were collected and used to assess behavioural attraction and oviposition stimulation of gravid Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes in wind tunnel and two-choice oviposition assays, respectively. The ability of the mosquitoes to differentiate among the grass volatile extracts was tested in multi-choice tent assays. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were the most abundant species found in the various grass-associated habitats. The larval densities described a hierarchical distribution, with Poaceae (Echinochloa pyramidalis and Echinochloa stagnina)-associated habitat sites demonstrating higher densities than that of Typha-associated sites, and where larvae were absent from Cyperus-associated sites. This hierarchy was maintained by gravid An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii mosquitoes in attraction, oviposition and multi-choice assays to grass volatile extracts. The demonstrated hierarchical preference of gravid An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis for grass volatiles indicates that vegetation cues associated with larval habitats are instrumental in the oviposition site choice of the malaria mosquitoes

  18. Dichotomy in the NRT gene families of dicots and grass species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Plett

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the nitrate (NO(3(- acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO(3(- transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2 family members which are known to participate in high-affinity transport. A modified reciprocal best hit (RBH approach was used to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT genes in the four fully sequenced grass genomes (maize, rice, sorghum, Brachypodium. We also included the poplar genome in our analysis to establish whether differences between Arabidopsis and the grasses may be generally applicable to monocots and dicots. Our analysis reveals fundamental differences between Arabidopsis and the grass species in the gene number and family structure of all three families of NRT transporters. All grass species possessed additional NRT1.1 orthologues and appear to lack NRT1.6/NRT1.7 orthologues. There is significant separation in the NRT2 phylogenetic tree between NRT2 genes from dicots and grass species. This indicates that determination of function of NRT2 genes in grass species will not be possible in cereals based simply on sequence homology to functionally characterised Arabidopsis NRT2 genes and that proper functional analysis will be required. Arabidopsis has a unique NRT3.2 gene which may be a fusion of the NRT3.1 and NRT3.2 genes present in all other species examined here. This work provides a framework for future analysis of NO(3(- transporters and NO(3(- transport in grass crop species.

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  20. Review of the integrated process for the production of grass biomethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Korres, Nicholas E; Murphy, Jerry D

    2009-11-15

    Production of grass biomethane is an integrated process which involves numerous stages with numerous permutations. The grass grown can be of numerous species, and it can involve numerous cuts. The lignocellulosic content of grass increases with maturity of grass; the first cut offers more methane potential than the later cuts. Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are higher (and as such methane potential is higher) for grass cut in the afternoon as opposed to that cut in the morning. The method of ensiling has a significant effect on the dry solids content of the grass silage. Pit or clamp silage in southern Germany and Austria has a solids content of about 40%; warm dry summers allow wilting of the grass before ensiling. In temperate oceanic climates like Ireland, pit silage has a solids content of about 21% while bale silage has a solids content of 32%. Biogas production is related to mass of volatile solids rather than mass of silage; typically one ton of volatile solid produces 300 m(3) of methane. The dry solids content of the silage has a significant impact on the biodigester configuration. Silage with a high solids content would lend itself to a two-stage process; a leach bed where volatile solids are converted to a leachate high in chemical oxygen demand (COD), followed by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket where the COD can be converted efficiently to CH(4). Alternative configurations include wet continuous processes such as the ubiquitous continuously stirred tank reactor; this necessitates significant dilution of the feedstock to effect a solids content of 12%. Various pretreatment methods may be employed especially if the hydrolytic step is separated from the methanogenic step. Size reduction, thermal, and enzymatic methodologies are used. Good digester design is to seek to emulate the cow, thus rumen fluid offers great potential for hydrolysis.

  1. Phenology largely explains taller grass at successful nests in greater sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph T; Tack, Jason D; Doherty, Kevin E; Allred, Brady W; Maestas, Jeremy D; Berkeley, Lorelle I; Dettenmaier, Seth J; Messmer, Terry A; Naugle, David E

    2018-01-01

    Much interest lies in the identification of manageable habitat variables that affect key vital rates for species of concern. For ground-nesting birds, vegetation surrounding the nest may play an important role in mediating nest success by providing concealment from predators. Height of grasses surrounding the nest is thought to be a driver of nest survival in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse), a species that has experienced widespread population declines throughout their range. However, a growing body of the literature has found that widely used field methods can produce misleading inference on the relationship between grass height and nest success. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that measuring concealment following nest fate (failure or hatch) introduces a temporal bias whereby successful nests are measured later in the season, on average, than failed nests. This sampling bias can produce inference suggesting a positive effect of grass height on nest survival, though the relationship arises due to the confounding effect of plant phenology, not an effect on predation risk. To test the generality of this finding for sage-grouse, we reanalyzed existing datasets comprising >800 sage-grouse nests from three independent studies across the range where there was a positive relationship found between grass height and nest survival, including two using methods now known to be biased. Correcting for phenology produced equivocal relationships between grass height and sage-grouse nest survival. Viewed in total, evidence for a ubiquitous biological effect of grass height on sage-grouse nest success across time and space is lacking. In light of these findings, a reevaluation of land management guidelines emphasizing specific grass height targets to promote nest success may be merited.

  2. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  3. Role of fire in the germination ecology of fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), an invasive African bunchgrass in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edith N. Adkins; Susan Cordell; Donald R. Drake

    2011-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to test factors expected to be relevant for the germination of fountain grass: (1) light; (2) emergence of fountain grass seedlings from depths of 0, 2.5, and 5 cm; (3) fire passing over exposed and buried seeds; (4) laboratory heat treatment mimicking exposure to grass fire. Both fire in the field and heat applied in the...

  4. Control Effect of Sudan Grass on Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in Cucumber and Lettuce Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Hwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on cucumber and lettuce was evaluated with green manure crop species in greenhouse. Nematicidal effect of sudan grass cultivation in cucumber greenhouse was comparable to that of chemical treatment with fosthiazate GR, showing the high activity of 88.6%. Sudan grass cultivation in lettuce greenhouse significantly reduced the number of M. incognita in soil, showing 93.5% of nematiidal activity. In addition, since growth of sudan grass was superior to other green manure crop species, it is considered that cultivation of sudan grass is proper to control M. incognita in greenhouse.

  5. Positive effects of non-native grasses on the growth of a native annual in a southern california ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem.

  6. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  7. Overlap in nitrogen sources and redistribution of nitrogen between trees and grasses in a semi-arid savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, K V R; Prins, Herbert H T; de Bie, Steven; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Woodborne, Stephan; Gort, Gerrit; Kirkman, Kevin; Fry, Brian; de Kroon, Hans

    2014-04-01

    A key question in savanna ecology is how trees and grasses coexist under N limitation. We used N stable isotopes and N content to study N source partitioning across seasons from trees and associated grasses in a semi-arid savanna. We also used (15)N tracer additions to investigate possible redistribution of N by trees to grasses. Foliar stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values were consistent with trees and grasses using mycorrhiza-supplied N in all seasons except in the wet season when they switched to microbially fixed N. The dependence of trees and grasses on mineralized soil N seemed highly unlikely based on seasonal variation in mineralization rates in the Kruger Park region. Remarkably, foliar δ(15)N values were similar for all three tree species differing in the potential for N fixation through nodulation. The tracer experiment showed that N was redistributed by trees to understory grasses in all seasons. Our results suggest that the redistribution of N from trees to grasses and uptake of N was independent of water redistribution. Although there is overlap of N sources between trees and grasses, dependence on biological sources of N coupled with redistribution of subsoil N by trees may contribute to the coexistence of trees and grasses in semi-arid savannas.

  8. Alternative pathways to landscape transformation: Invasive grasses, burn severity and fire frequency in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    Arid ecosystems are often vulnerable to transformation to invasive-dominated states following fire, but data on persistence of these states are sparse. The grass/fire cycle is a feedback process between invasive annual grasses and fire frequency that often leads to the formation of alternative vegetation states dominated by the invasive grasses. However, other components of fire regimes, such as burn severity, also have the potential to produce long-term vegetation transformations. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of both fire frequency and burn severity on the transformation of woody-dominated communities to communities dominated by invasive grasses in major elevation zones of the Mojave Desert of western North America.We used a chronosequence design to collect data on herbaceous and woody cover at 229 unburned reference plots and 578 plots that burned between 1972 and 2010. We stratified the plots by elevation zone (low, mid, high), fire frequency (1–3 times) and years post-fire (YPF; 1–5, 6–10, 11–20 and 21–40 YPF). Burn severity for each plot was estimated by the difference normalized burn ratio.We identified two broad post-fire successional pathways. One was an outcome of fire frequency, resulting in a strong potential transformation via the grass/fire cycle. The second pathway was driven by burn severity, the critical aspect being that long-term transformation of a community could occur from just one fire in areas that burned at high or sometimes moderate severity. Dominance by invasive grasses was most likely to occur in low-and high-elevation communities; cover of native herbaceous species was often greater than that of invasive grasses in the mid-elevation zone.Synthesis. Invasive grasses can dominate a site that burned only one time in many decades at high severity, or a site that burned at low severity but multiple times in the same time period. However, high burn severity may predispose areas to more frequent fire because they have

  9. Suppression of Bromus tectorum L. by Established Perennial Grasses: Potential Mechanisms—Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass is an Eurasian annual grass that has invaded ecosystems throughout the Intermountain west of the United States. Our purpose was to examine mechanisms by which established perennial grasses suppress the growth of B. tectorum. Using rhizotrons, the experiment was conducted over 5 growth cycles: (1 B. tectorum planted between perennial grasses; (2 perennials clipped and B. tectorum planted; (3 perennials clipped and B. tectorum planted into soil mixed with activated carbon; (4 perennials clipped, B. tectorum planted, and top-dressed with fertilizer, and; (5 perennial grasses killed and B. tectorum planted. Water was not limiting in this study. Response variables measured at the end of each growth cycle included above-ground mass and tissue nutrient concentrations. Relative to controls (B. tectorum without competition, established perennial grasses significantly hindered the growth of B. tectorum. Overall, biomass of B. tectorum, grown between established perennials, increased considerably after fertilizer addition and dramatically upon death of the perennials. Potential mechanisms involved in the suppression of B. tectorum include reduced nitrogen (possibly phosphorus availability and coopting of biological soil space by perennial roots. Our data cannot confirm or reject allelopathic suppression. Understanding the mechanisms involved with suppression may lead to novel control strategies against B. tectorum.

  10. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otanael Oliveira dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum. were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % in substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  11. Electrokinetic Enhancement on Phytoremediation in Zinc Contaminated Soil by Ruzi Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dararat Rojanapithayakorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Ruzi grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis for electrokinetic (EK-phytoremedial and phytoremedial removal of zinc ions (Zn2+ from contaminated soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. After 15 d of germination, Ruzi grass seedlings were transferred to experimental soil pots that were supplemented to 0, 300, 400 and 500 mg Zn2+/kg soil. After 15 d growth, the Zn2+ concentration that allowed the highest survival rate and biomass of Ruzi grass was selected to sequentially determine the optimum applied voltage (from 0, 1, 2 and 4 V/cm and then the duration of the selected applied voltage (0, 2, 4 and 6 h/d. An applied voltage of 2 V/cm for 2 h/d was found to be the most optimal for Zn accumulation in the Ruzi grass, and this was then used to treat soil contaminated with a high concentration of Zn2+ (1000 mg Zn2+/kg soil in comparison with and without the applied electric field (phytoremediation over a 15 d treatment. The EK-phytoremediation significantly increased the accumulation of zinc (Zn in Ruzi grass roots (but not shoots and decreased the residual Zn levels in the soil compared to that with phytoremediation only. The plant Zn concentration following EK-phytoremediation (393.8 ± 19.7 mg/kg was almost 4.4-fold higher than that in the phytoremediation system (89.9 ± 4.5 mg/kg.

  12. Recovery of tall cotton-grass following real and simulated feeding by snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2 and 4 yr after removal, respectively (n = 10 yr-1). Aerial cover and biomass of common non-forage species such as Carex aquatilis did not increase on treated areas. Removal of cotton-grass by geese likely reduces forage availability at exploited sites for at least 2-4 yr after feeding but probably does not affect long-term community composition. Temporal heterogeneity in forage abundance likely contributes to the large spatial requirement of snow geese during staging.

  13. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  14. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  15. The Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility of Some Tropical Grasses at Different Stage of Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyuddin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD was determined by Telly and Terry methods in vitro on 5 tropical grasses species, Sorghum, Themeda, Iseilema, Brachyacne and Dicanthium. Stem and leaf samples were harvested at different maturity stages, started from early flowering stage to the stage when the grasses were dried. In general, IVNDFD ranged from 22% to 41%. Stages of maturity affected IVNDFD in 4 species; IVNDFD was higher in the stems than in the leaves for 2 species out of 5 species of grasses; the rest was similar. There was no correlation between NDF and IVNDFD, showing that NDF degradability in the rumen was vary. Digestibility potential of NDF (PDNDF varied from 21% to 44% and has negative correlation with IVNDFD (r=0.75. Growth affected PDNDF in 2 species; and 3 out 5 species observed showed PDNDF in the leaves was higher than that in the stems. Negative correlation was exist between dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, water soluble extract (WSE and protein with PDNDF. Grasses with stated PDNDF values have relatively high NDF retention in the rumen, which will cause low NDF or dry matter consumption. (Animal Production 11(3: 189-195 (2009Key Words: NDF digestibility, tropical grasses, stem, leaves, maturity stage

  16. Suitability of multipurpose trees, shrubs and grasses to rehabilitate gullies in the sub-humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talema, Ayalew; Muys, Bart; Poesen, Jean; Padro, Roc; Dibaba, Hirko; Diels, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation plays a vital role for sustainable rehabilitation of degraded lands. However, the selection of suitable and effective plant species remains a long-lasting challenge in most parts of the sub-humid tropics. To address this challenge 18 multipurpose plant species (6 trees, 3 shrubs and 9 grasses), preselected from the regional species pool in Southwest Ethiopia were planted in severely degraded gullies and monitored from July 2011 to June 2014. The experiment had a split-plot design with farmyard manure (FYM) application, as main plot and plant species as sub-plot factors repeated in three blocks. The study revealed that grasses were the most successful to rehabilitate the gully within the monitoring period, compared to trees and shrubs. The survival rate of the four most successful grass species, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Pennisetum macrourum, Pennisetum polystachion and Pennisetum purpureum ranged from 61 to 90% with FYM application and from 20 to 85% without FYM, while most of the well-known indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs failed to survive. For the grass Pennisetum purpureum, shoot height, shoot and root dry biomass increased by 300%, 342% and 578% respectively due to FYM application, with a remarkably higher response to FYM compared to all the other studied species. The overall results demonstrate that severely degraded lands can be effectively restored by using early successional species such as locally adapted and selected grasses before the plantation of trees and shrubs.

  17. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  18. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  19. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  20. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices. PMID:28102323

  1. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  2. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.

  3. Complexation of lead by Bermuda grass root exudates in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine; Butler, Afrachanna; Larson, Steven; Medina, Victor; Begonia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Exudates produced from Bermuda grass roots were collected in deionized water from sterilized Bermuda grass sod at 3-day intervals over a period of 15 days. Exudates were analyzed for total organic carbon, and characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Exudate samples were adjusted to pH values of 4.5, 6.5, and 7.5, amended with lead and quantified for soluble and complexed lead via Inductively Coupled Plasma--Optical Emission Spectrometry. Data obtained from total organic carbon measurements indicated compositional changes in Bermuda grass root exudates as organic carbon concentrations increased over time. Analysis of the infrared spectroscopy data indicated that carboxylic acids and amine functional groups were present in root exudates. Also, the ability of root-exuded compounds to solubilize lead in aqueous media was demonstrated as exudate samples dissolved an average of 60% more lead than deionized water. At pH values 4.5 and 7.5, lead complexation by Bermuda grass root exudates increased with decreasing molecular weight size fractions, while an opposite trend was observed at pH 6.5. Results from this study demonstrated the ability of Bermuda grass root exudates to complex lead in aqueous media.

  4. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  5. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  6. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Soares Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  7. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Si-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  8. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pablo Burrieza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  9. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  10. Immunochemical Analysis of Paxilline and Ergot Alkaloid Mycotoxins in Grass Seeds and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julia I; Gross, Madeleine; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Hamscher, Gerd; Usleber, Ewald

    2018-01-10

    Limited availability of toxin standards for lolitrem B and ergovaline impedes routine control of grasses for endophyte toxins. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the indole-diterpene mycotoxin paxilline, in combination with a generic EIA for ergot alkaloids, as alternative parameters for screening purposes. Analysis of grass seeds and model pastures of four different grass species showed that both EIAs yielded highly positive results for paxilline and ergot alkaloids in perennial ryegrass seeds. Furthermore, evidence for natural occurrence of paxilline in grass in Germany was obtained. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis qualitatively confirmed the paxilline EIA results but showed that paxilline analogues 1'-O-acetylpaxilline and 13-desoxypaxilline were the predominant compounds in seeds and grass. In the absence of easily accessible reference standards for specific analysis of some major endophyte toxins, analysis of paxilline and ergot alkaloids by EIA may be suitable substitute parameters. The major advantage of this approach is its ease of use and speed, providing an analytical tool which could enhance routine screening for endophyte toxins in pasture.

  11. Testing the recoverability of grass DNA transferred to textiles for forensic purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Francès

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Botanical evidence such as grass stains on textiles is sometimes present in the crime scene and can allow investigators to establish an association between persons linked to the criminal event and the crime scene. In this study, extraction of grass DNA from stains on textiles was undertaken. DNA extraction was performed on four grass species conserved both indoors and outdoors for 7, 14 and 30 days after staining. Once the extracted DNA was quantified, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplifying a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer was performed.DNA extraction was successful in 97.5% of samples. No significant differences in the amount of extracted DNA were detected among species or stain ages. However, one grass species (Cynodon dactylon showed a significant diminution in the mean DNA concentration between indoor and outdoor samples (439.9±137 ng/µL vs. 318.9±177 ng/µL respectively; p=0.041. PCR was successful in 89.2% of samples. This study has thus demonstrated the recoverability of grass DNA from stains on cloths and its stability in the first month after staining in both outdoor and indoor environments, as well as its suitability for PCR amplification that could allow correct species identification.

  12. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of

  13. The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, I. [Universiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society; Scurlock, J.M.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lindvall, E. [Svaloef Weibull AB, Umeae (Sweden); Christou, M. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi-Attikis (Greece)

    2003-10-01

    Perennial grasses display many beneficial attributes as energy crops, and there has been increasing interest in their use in the US and Europe since the mid-1980s. In the US, the Herbaceous Energy Crops Research Program (HECP), funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), was established in 1984. After evaluating 35 potential herbaceous crops of which 18 were perennial grasses it was concluded that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the native perennial grass which showed the greatest potential. In 1991, the DOE's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which evolved from the HECP, decided to focus research on a 'model' crop system and to concentrate research resources on switchgrass, in order to rapidly attain its maximal output as a biomass crop. In Europe, about 20 perennial grasses have been tested and four perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRG), namely miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) giant reed (Arundo donax) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) were chosen for more extensive research programs. Reed canary grass and giant reed are grasses with the C{sub 3} photosynthetic pathway, and are native to Europe. Miscanthus, which originated in Southeast Asia, and switchgrass, native to North America, are both C{sub 4} grasses. These four grasses differ in their ecological/climatic demands, their yield potentials, biomass characteristics and crop management requirements. Efficient production of bioenergy from such perennial grasses requires the choice of the most appropriate grass species for the given ecological/climatic conditions. In temperate and warm regions, C{sub 4} grasses outyield C{sub 3} grasses due to their more efficient photosynthetic pathway. However, the further north perennial grasses are planted, the more likely cool season grasses are to yield more than warm season grasses. Low winter temperatures and short vegetation periods are major limits to the growth of C{sub 4} grasses in northern Europe

  14. Evaluation of six candidate DNA barcode loci for identification of five important invasive grasses in eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisuo Wang

    Full Text Available Invasive grass weeds reduce farm productivity, threaten biodiversity, and increase weed control costs. Identification of invasive grasses from native grasses has generally relied on the morphological examination of grass floral material. DNA barcoding may provide an alternative means to identify co-occurring native and invasive grasses, particularly during early growth stages when floral characters are unavailable for analysis. However, there are no universal loci available for grass barcoding. We herein evaluated the utility of six candidate loci (atpF intron, matK, ndhK-ndhC, psbE-petL, ETS and ITS for barcode identification of several economically important invasive grass species frequently found among native grasses in eastern Australia. We evaluated these loci in 66 specimens representing five invasive grass species (Chloris gayana, Eragrostis curvula, Hyparrhenia hirta, Nassella neesiana, Nassella trichotoma and seven native grass species. Our results indicated that, while no single locus can be universally used as a DNA barcode for distinguishing the grass species examined in this study, two plastid loci (atpF and matK showed good distinguishing power to separate most of the taxa examined, and could be used as a dual locus to distinguish several of the invasive from the native species. Low PCR success rates were evidenced among two nuclear loci (ETS and ITS, and few species were amplified at these loci, however ETS was able to genetically distinguish the two important invasive Nassella species. Multiple loci analyses also suggested that ETS played a crucial role in allowing identification of the two Nassella species in the multiple loci combinations.

  15. Evaluation of six candidate DNA barcode loci for identification of five important invasive grasses in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aisuo; Gopurenko, David; Wu, Hanwen; Lepschi, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Invasive grass weeds reduce farm productivity, threaten biodiversity, and increase weed control costs. Identification of invasive grasses from native grasses has generally relied on the morphological examination of grass floral material. DNA barcoding may provide an alternative means to identify co-occurring native and invasive grasses, particularly during early growth stages when floral characters are unavailable for analysis. However, there are no universal loci available for grass barcoding. We herein evaluated the utility of six candidate loci (atpF intron, matK, ndhK-ndhC, psbE-petL, ETS and ITS) for barcode identification of several economically important invasive grass species frequently found among native grasses in eastern Australia. We evaluated these loci in 66 specimens representing five invasive grass species (Chloris gayana, Eragrostis curvula, Hyparrhenia hirta, Nassella neesiana, Nassella trichotoma) and seven native grass species. Our results indicated that, while no single locus can be universally used as a DNA barcode for distinguishing the grass species examined in this study, two plastid loci (atpF and matK) showed good distinguishing power to separate most of the taxa examined, and could be used as a dual locus to distinguish several of the invasive from the native species. Low PCR success rates were evidenced among two nuclear loci (ETS and ITS), and few species were amplified at these loci, however ETS was able to genetically distinguish the two important invasive Nassella species. Multiple loci analyses also suggested that ETS played a crucial role in allowing identification of the two Nassella species in the multiple loci combinations.

  16. Critical appraisal of Timothy grass pollen extract GRAZAX in the management of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Attanasi, Marina; Petrosino, Marianna I; Di Filippo, Paola; Di Pillo, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases of adult and pediatric age, associated with grass pollen (GP) allergy in >50% cases, with a consistent impact on quality of life of affected patients. A grass allergen tablet, containing standardized extract derived from Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen and ~15 μg major allergen P. pratense (rPhl p 5), may be the future of allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) for GP allergy. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the role of Timothy GP extract IT for the management of allergic rhinitis. For this purpose, we have tried to analyze potential mechanisms of action at the basis of Timothy GP extract, we have reviewed efficacy studies to establish potential benefits and clinical response, and we have also evaluated safety and tolerability profiles and patient focus perspective, such as quality of life, satisfaction and acceptability, and compliance to this IT.

  17. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass...... (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold...... to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous...

  18. A grass molecular identification system for forensic botany: a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jodie; Gilmore, Simon R; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2009-11-01

    Plant material is frequently encountered in criminal investigations but often overlooked as potential evidence. We designed a DNA-based molecular identification system for 100 Australian grasses that consisted of a series of polymerase chain reaction assays that enabled the progressive identification of grasses to different taxonomic levels. The identification system was based on DNA sequence variation at four chloroplast and two mitochondrial loci. Seventeen informative indels and 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized as molecular markers for subfamily to species-level identification. To identify an unknown sample to subfamily level required a minimum of four markers or nine markers for species identification. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by blind tests. We have demonstrated "proof of concept" of a molecular identification system for trace botanical samples. Our evaluation suggests that the adoption of a system that combines this approach with DNA sequencing could assist the morphological identification of grasses found as forensic evidence.

  19. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  20. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Saulo M; Silva, Pâmela S; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2010-06-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.