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Sample records for buff-breasted sandpipers tryngites

  1. Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot; Weatherhead; Kempenaers; Scribner

    1998-08-01

    Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic) did not explain the observed variation in mating tactics used by males. Which males abandoned versus returned to leks was also not related to morphology or behaviour, and there was no tendency for males to join leks that were larger or smaller than the lek they abandoned. These results suggest that male desertion of leks was not dependent on a male's characteristics nor on the size of the lek he was presently attending. Males did join leks with larger males than their previous lek, perhaps to mate with females attracted to these larger 'hotshot' males. Males at both leks and solitary sites successfully mated. Lek tenure did not affect mating success, although lekking males appeared to mate more frequently than solitary males. Courtship disruption and to a lesser extent, female mimicry, were effective at preventing females from mating at leks, and may offer a partial explanation for female mating off leks. Our analysis that combined all males together within a year (regardless of mating tactic) indicated that males that attended leks for longer periods of time and that had fewer wing spots were significantly more likely to mate. Given some evidence that wing spotting declines with age, and that females inspect male underwings during courtship, the latter result suggests that female choice may play some role in determining male success. We suggest that male buff-breasted sandpipers may use alternative mating tactics more readily than males in other 'classic' lek-breeding species because: (1) unpredictable breeding conditions in this species' high

  2. Lekking without a paradox in the buff-breasted sandpiper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, R B; Scribner, K T; Lanctot, R B; Weatherhead, P J; Kempenaers, B

    1997-06-01

    Females in lek-breeding species appear to copulate with a small subset of the available males. Such strong directional selection is predicted to decrease additive genetic variance in the preferred male traits, yet females continue to mate selectively, thus generating the lek paradox. In a study of buff-breasted sandpipers (Tryngites subruficollis), we combine detailed behavioral observations with paternity analyses using single-locus minisatellite DNA probes to provide the first evidence from a lek-breeding species that the variance in male reproductive success is much lower than expected. In 17 and 30 broods sampled in two consecutive years, a minimum of 20 and 39 males, respectively, sired offspring. This low variance in male reproductive success resulted from effective use of alternative reproductive tactics by males, females mating with solitary males off leks, and multiple mating by females. Thus, the results of this study suggests that sexual selection through female choice is weak in buff-breasted sandpipers. The behavior of other lek-breeding birds is sufficiently similar to that of buff-breasted sandpipers that paternity studies of those species should be conducted to determine whether leks generally are less paradoxical than they appear.

  3. Residency patterns of migrating sandpipers at a midcontinental stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Arctic-nesting shorebirds require several refueling stops during their long migrations between breeding grounds and Central and South American wintering areas. The protection of stopover habitats for transcontinental migrants depends on whether birds fly long distances between a few select sites or fly short distances and stop at several wetlands. Although the Great Plains historically provided a vast array of wetlands for use by migrants, wetland loss and conversion have reduced the availability of stopover sites in recent decades. In this study, we examined (1) residency periods, (2) fat dynamics, and (3) migration chronology of two shorebird species, the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis) at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Kansas. Semipalmated Sandpipers had prolonged periods of species residency with overlapping arrivals and departures. Individual residency periods were highly variable and were unrelated to lipid reserves upon arrival. In contrast, White-rumped Sandpipers arrived and departed more synchronously. Birds that arrived in poor condition stayed longer than those with more body fat in 1991, but not in 1992. Wind direction did not influence patterns of departures of either species. We hypothesize that Semipalmated Sandpipers are ecologically eurytopic when migrating across the Great Plains in the spring. Highly variable patterns in arrival, residency, and lipid levels indicate that spring migration of this species is relaxed and opportunistic. White-rumped Sandpipers showed a pattern of reduced flexibility. Flight range estimates suggest that most birds require intermediate stopovers before reaching the breeding grounds. Interior wetlands appear to function as migration stopovers rather than staging areas for shorebirds.

  4. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  5. Effects of oilfield brinewater discharges on Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, J.L.; King, K.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rattner, B.A.; LeCaptain, L.

    1993-01-01

    Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were studied at an oilfield brinewater discharge site near Corpus Christi, Texas, and at a reference site near Galveston, Texas. Morphological indices, hepatic monooxygenase activities, and contaminant burdens were quantified to evaluate exposure and effects. Pooled stomach contents of birds collected at the discharge site contained higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons than the reference site. Total pristane concentration, and the ratio of pristane:n-heptadecane in sandpiper carcasses were significantly greater at the oil discharge site, indicative of chronic exposure. Concentrations of other organic contaminants (petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and metabolites) in carcasses at both study sites were relatively low. Neither body weight, bill length or hepatic monooxygenase activities differed between sites, although liver weight and liver weight:body weight ratio were significantly lower at the discharge site. These data suggest that oilfield brinewater discharges have only limited toxicity to sandpipers wintering near the site.

  6. [Advantages and limitations of interspecies associations in northern migratory sandpipers (Charadrii, Aves)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Investigations were carried out at two stations of Ornithological Unit, IBPN FEB RAS, located in Nizhnekolymsk District, Yakutia, starting from May 15-20 in 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1990; at the northern coast of Pukhovoy Bay, Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya starting from June 1 in 1994; at Cape Beliy Nos, the Yugorsky Peninsula, starting from June 1 in 1995-1997. Classic associations are detected in interspecies flocks of sandpipers between the following species: the Pacific golden plover and the curlew sandpiper, the pectoral sandpiper and the long-billed dowitcher, the pectoral sandpiper and the dunlin, the grey plover and the dunlin. However, total amount of birds that form associations is not large. In species of group "A" (the grey plover, the Pacific golden plover, the pectoral sandpiper), no difference has been observed in migratory birds behavior within inter- or conspecific flocks. Species of group "B" (the dunlin, the curlew sandpiper, the long-billed dowitcher), on the contrary, change their behavior sharply depending on whether they belong to an association or not. Species of group "A" do not get any advantages when forming an association. Unlike them, species of group "B" profit from associating: a part of time spent in foraging substantially increases; more time is spent on rest and less time is spent on reconnaissance and vigilance (readiness for actions); safety of birds is enhanced. On the other hand, in species of group "B" there are also disadvantages related with associating: i.e., interspecies competition for food; foraging in suboptimal habitats which, in turn, may lead to notable increase of time spent by birds in foraging. An assumption is put forward that in species of group "B" advantages and limitations of associating cancel each other to a certain extent, and this explains rather small number of birds forming associations.

  7. Population genetics and evaluation of genetic evidence for subspecies in the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Mizrahi, David S.; Mitchell, Melanie M.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) are among the most common North American shorebirds. Breeding in Arctic North America, this species displays regional differences in migratory pathways and possesses longitudinal bill length variation. Previous investigations suggested that genetic structure may occur within Semipalmated Sandpipers and that three subspecies corresponding to western, central, and eastern breeding groups exist. In this study, mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci were used to analyze DNA of birds (microsatellites: n = 120; mtDNA: n = 114) sampled from seven North American locations. Analyses designed to quantify genetic structure and diversity patterns, evaluate genetic evidence for population size changes, and determine if genetic data support the existence of Semipalmated Sandpiper subspecies were performed. Genetic structure based only on the mtDNA data was observed, whereas the microsatellite loci provided no evidence of genetic differentiation. Differentiation among locations and regions reflected allele frequency differences rather than separate phylogenetic groups, and similar levels of genetic diversity were noted. Combined, the two data sets provided no evidence to support the existence of subspecies and were not useful for determining migratory connectivity between breeding sites and wintering grounds. Birds from western and central groups displayed signatures of population expansions, whereas the eastern group was more consistent with a stable overall population. Results of this analysis suggest that the eastern group was the source of individuals that colonized the central and western regions currently utilized by Semipalmated Sandpipers.

  8. Migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers achieve high fuelling rates by taking a multi-course meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Dekinga, A; Koolhaas, A; van der Winden, J; van der Have, T M; Chernichko, I I

    2006-01-01

    In spring, large numbers of migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers make a stop-over in the Sivash, a shallow lagoon system in the Crimea, Ukraine, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Observed fuelling rates are high and, in just a few weeks, the birds can build up sufficient departure mass to reac

  9. Ecological and social factors affecting the local habitat distribution of western sandpipers wintering at Bah?Santa Mar? Northwest Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The process of habitat selection often requires individuals to choose among habitats that differ in foraging profitability and predation danger. The local habitat distribution of Western Sandpipers (Calidris maur~] was studied at Bahia Santa Maria, northwest Mexico, for three non-breeding seasons (1 999-2002). Western Sandpipers are highly sexually dimorphic, males being lighter and smaller-billed than females, and thus males may use visual foraging more often, be more susceptible to interfer...

  10. Food and feeding ecology of purple sandpipers Calidris maritima on rocky intertidal habitats (Helgoland, German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker

    On the island of Helgoland (German Bight) Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima feed mainly in the intertidal of piers and rocky shores. The main prey species are Littorina saxatilis and Mytilus edulis, complemented by crustaceans, polychaetes, other molluscs and green algae. Beach habitats are used as alternative feeding sites during storms. Feeding sites seem to be selected according to rates of assimilated energy intake. The most profitable habitat (wrack beds on the high-tide line with kelp-fly larvae, 16.8 W) is used after arrival in October but is not available during winter. Because of high intake rates in rocky habitats (13.1 W on piers, 5.5 W on mussel beds), which allow short daily feeding times, and available alternative feeding sites during storms, Purple Sandpipers do not need to carry fat reserves in winter like other waders wintering in central and Western Europe. This, and the ever accessible food supply of epibenthic macrofauna on rocky shores, may enable Purple Sandpipers to winter further north than other wader species.

  11. Genetic parentage and mate guarding in the Arctic-breedng Western Sandpiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, D.; Kempenaers, B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2002-01-01

    Extra-pair copulations and fertilizations are common among birds, especially in passerines. So far, however, only a few studies have examined genetic mating systems in socially monogamous shorebirds. Here, we examine parentage in the Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri. Given that Western Sandpipers nest at high densities on the arctic tundra, have separate nesting and feeding areas, and show high divorce rates between years, we expected extra-pair paternity to be more common in this species compared to other monogamous shorebirds. However, DNA fingerprinting of 98 chicks from 40 families revealed that only 8% of the broods contained young sired by extra-pair males, in that 5% of all chicks were extrapair. All chicks were the genetic offspring of their social mothers. We found that males followed females more often than the reverse. Also, cuckolded males were separated from their mates (by more than 10 m) for longer than those that did not lose paternity. Although these results suggest a role for male mate guarding, we propose that high potential costs in terms of reduced paternal care likely constrain female Western Sandpipers from seeking extra-pair copulations.

  12. Fat dynamics of arctic-nesting sandpipers during spring in mid-continental North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.; Eldridge, J.L.; Gratto-Trevor, C. L.; Buhl, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We measured fresh body mass, total body fat, and fat-free dry mass (FFDM) of three species of Arctic-nesting calidrid sandpipers (Baird's Sandpiper [Calidris bairdii], hereafter "BASA"; Semipalmated Sandpiper [C. pusilla], hereafter "SESA"; and White-rumped Sandpiper [C. fuscicollis], hereafter "WRSA") during spring stopovers in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North Dakota, and evaluated the contribution of stored fat to (1) energy requirements for migration to their Arctic-breeding grounds and (2) nutrient needs for reproduction. All spring migrant WRSA (n = 124) and BASA (H = 111), and all but 2 of 99 SESA we collected were ???2 years old. Male and female BASA migrated through North Dakota concurrently, male SESA averaged earlier than females, and WRSA males preceded females. Fat indices (ratio of fat to FFDM) of male and female SESA and WRSA averaged approximately twice those of male and female BASA. Total body fat of male and female BASA increased with date in spring 1980, but not in 1981; slopes were similar for both sexes each year. Male and female SESA arrived lean in 1980 and 1981, and total body fat increased with date in both years, with similar slopes for all combinations of sex and year. Male and female WRSA arrived lean in 1980-1981 and 1981, respectively, and total body fat increased with date, whereas females arrived with fat reserves already acquired in 1980. Interspecific and sex differences in migration schedules probably contributed to variation in fat storage patterns by affecting maintenance energy costs and food availability. Estimated flight ranges of BASA suggest that few could have met their energy needs for migration to the breeding grounds exclusively from fat stored by the time of departure from North Dakota. Estimated flight ranges of SESA and WRSA, along with fresh body masses of both species when live-trapped on or near their breeding grounds in northern Canada, suggest that major parts of both populations stored adequate fat by

  13. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, Dan; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper

  14. Orientation and autumn migration routes of juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers at a staging site in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönroos, Johanna; Muheim, Rachel; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Arctic waders are well known for their impressive long-distance migrations between their high northerly breeding grounds and wintering areas in the Southern hemisphere. Performing such long migrations requires precise orientation mechanisms. We conducted orientation cage experiments with juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers (Calidris acuminata) to investigate what cues they rely on when departing from Alaska on their long autumn migration flights across the Pacific Ocean to Australasia, and which possible migration routes they could use. Experiments were performed under natural clear skies, total overcast conditions and in manipulated magnetic fields at a staging site in Alaska. Under clear skies the juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers oriented towards SSE, which coincides well with reported sun compass directions from their breeding grounds in Siberia towards Alaska and could reflect their true migratory direction towards Australasia assuming that they change direction towards SW somewhere along the route. Under overcast skies the sandpipers showed a mean direction towards SW which would lead them to Australasia, if they followed a sun compass route. However, because of unfavourable weather conditions (headwinds) associated with overcast conditions, these south-westerly directions could also reflect local movements. The juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers responded clearly to the manipulated magnetic field under overcast skies, suggesting the use of a magnetic compass for selecting their courses.

  15. Growth, behaviour of broods and weather-related variation in breeding productivity of Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferruginea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Van Roomen, MWJ; Underhill, LG

    1998-01-01

    Growth and survival of chicks and movements of broods were studied in Curlew Sandpipers in N.E. Taimyr, Siberia, in 1991. Breeding was synchronised, 73% of 30 clutches hatching during 10-15 July. Nests were distributed clumped in dry frost-heaved tundra. Broods were tended by females only and moved

  16. Growth, behaviour of broods and weather-related variation in breeding productivity of curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Roomen, van M.J.W.; Underhill, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Growth and survival of chicks and movements of broods were studied in Curlew Sandpipers in N.E. Taimyr, Siberia, in 1991. Breeding was synchronised, 73% of 30 clutches hatching during 10-15 July. Nests were distributed clumped in dry frost-heaved tundra. Broods were tended by females only and moved

  17. Population trends and migration strategy of the Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola at Ottenby, SE Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola; Stervander, Martin; Helseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Long-term ringing data are useful for understanding population trends and migration strategies adopted by migratory bird species during migration. To investigate the patterns in demography, phenology of migration and stopover behaviour in Wood Sandpipers Tringa glareola trapped on autumn migration...... at Ottenby, southeast Sweden, in 1947-2011, we analysed 65 years of autumn ringing data to describe age-specific trends in annual trappings, morphometrics and phenology, as well as fuel deposition rates and stopover duration from recapture data. We also analysed the migratory direction of the species from...... deposition rates of 2.5 and 0.7 g day-1 respectively. Juvenile birds probably vary their strategy according to time of season and prevailing conditions. Both adults and juveniles followed the Mediterranean Flyway, but juveniles displayed significantly more southerly and significantly more scattered migratory...

  18. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  19. Accumulation of selenium and lack of severe effects on productivity of American dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) and spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Lee E; Graham, Mark; Paton, Dale

    2005-04-01

    Selenium has been found at elevated concentrations in water, sediments, and aquatic biota in the Elk River (British Columbia, Canada) and some of its tributaries downstream of several coal mines. Selenium water concentrations in those areas exceed Canadian and British Columbia guidelines and are above levels at which adverse effects to fish and waterfowl could occur. We compared selenium concentrations in the eggs of two riverine waterbirds, American dippers and spotted sandpipers, with measures of productivity: the number of eggs laid, egg hatchability, and nestling survival. In American dippers, the mean egg selenium concentration from the exposed areas, 1.10 +/- SE 0.059 microg/g wet weight, was indistinguishable from the reference areas, 0.96 +/- SE 0.059 microg/g wet weight. For spotted sandpipers, the mean egg selenium concentration in the exposed areas, 2.2 +/- 0.5 microg/g wet weight, was significantly higher than in the reference areas, 1.2 +/- 0.14 microg/g wet weight, but less than reported thresholds for waterfowl and other shorebirds. There were no significant differences in egg hatchability between dippers in reference and exposed areas, but reduced hatchability was apparent for sandpipers in exposed locations. Despite the slightly reduced hatchability in sandpipers, overall productivity was higher than regional norms for both species; thus, selenium did not affect the number of young recruited to local populations. We did not observe teratogenic effects in either species, although none was expected at these concentrations. Despite moderately high selenium concentrations in the water, mean egg selenium concentrations were less than predicted from uptake models. We hypothesise that the relatively low uptake of selenium into the eggs of the two waterbirds in this study is likely due to their lotic environment's low biological transformation and uptake rates.

  20. Accumulation of selenium and lack of severe effects on productivity of American dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) and spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.E.; Graham, M.; Paton, D. [SciWrite Environmental Science Ltd, Coquitlam, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-01

    Selenium has been found at elevated concentrations in water, sediments, and aquatic biota in the Elk River (British Columbia, Canada) and some of its tributaries downstream of several coal mines. Selenium water concentrations in those areas are above levels at which adverse effects to fish and waterfowl could occur. We compared selenium concentrations in the eggs of two riverine waterbirds, American dippers and spotted sandpipers, with measures of productivity: the number of eggs laid, egg hatchability, and nestling Survival. In American dippers, the mean egg selenium concentration from the exposed areas, 1.10 {+-} SE 0.059 {mu}g/g wet weight, was indistinguishable from the reference areas, 0.96 {+-} SE 0.059 {mu} g/g wet weight. For spotted sandpipers, the mean egg selenium concentration in the exposed areas, 2.2 {+-} 0.5 {mu} g/g wet weight, was significantly higher than in the reference areas, 1.2 {+-} 0.14 {mu} g/g wet weight, but less than reported thresholds for waterfowl and other shorebirds. There were no significant differences in egg hatchability between dippers in reference and exposed areas, but reduced hatchability was apparent for sandpipers in exposed locations. Despite the slightly reduced hatchability in sandpipers, overall productivity was higher than regional norms for both species; thus, selenium did not affect the number of young recruited to local populations. Despite moderately high selenium concentrations in the water, mean egg selenium concentrations were less than predicted from uptake models. We hypothesise that the relatively low uptake of selenium into the eggs of the two waterbirds in this study is likely due to their lotic environment's low biological transformation and uptake rates.

  1. A puzzling migratory detour : Are fueling conditions in Alaska driving the movement of juvenile sharp -tailed sandpipers ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, A.; Gill, R.E.; Jamieson, S.E.; McCaffery, B.; Wennerberg, L.; Wikelski, M.; Klaassen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Making a detour can be advantageous to a migrating bird if fuel-deposition rates at stopover sites along the detour are considerably higher than at stopover sites along a more direct route. One example of an extensive migratory detour is that of the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), of which large numbers of juveniles are found during fall migration in western Alaska. These birds take a detour of 1500-3400 km from the most direct route between their natal range in northeastern Siberia and nonbreeding areas in Australia. We studied the autumnal fueling rates and fuel loads of 357 Sharp-tailed Sandpipers captured in western Alaska. In early September the birds increased in mass at a rate of only 0.5% of lean body mass day?1. Later in September, the rate of mass increase was about 6% of lean body mass day?1, among the highest values found among similar-sized shorebirds around the world. Some individuals more than doubled their body mass because of fuel deposition, allowing nonstop flight of between 7100 and 9800 km, presumably including a trans-oceanic flight to the southern hemisphere. Our observations indicated that predator attacks were rare in our study area, adding another potential benefit of the detour. We conclude that the most likely reason for the Alaskan detour is that it allows juvenile Sharp-tailed Sandpipers to put on large fuel stores at exceptionally high rates. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  2. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  3. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ariam; Elner, Robert W.; Favaro, Corinna; Rickards, Karen; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2015-03-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in the hundreds of thousands on the Fraser River estuary, British Columbia, Canada, during northward migration to breeding areas. Western sandpipers show greater modification of tongue and bill morphology for biofilm feeding than dunlin, and their diet includes more biofilm. Therefore, we hypothesized that these congeners differentially use the intertidal area. A tide following index (TFI) was used to describe their distributions in the upper intertidal during ebbing tides. Also, we assessed sediment grain size, biofilm (= microphytobenthic or MPB) biomass and invertebrate abundance. Foraging dunlin closely followed the ebbing tide line, exploiting the upper intertidal only as the tide retreated through this area. In contrast, western sandpipers were less prone to follow the tide, and spent more time in the upper intertidal. Microphytobenthic biomass and sediment water content were highest in the upper intertidal, indicating greater biofilm availability for shorebirds in the first 350 m from shore. Invertebrate density did not differ between sections of the upper intertidal. Overall, western sandpiper behaviour and distribution more closely matched MPB biofilm availability than invertebrate availability. Conservation of sandpipers should consider physical processes, such as tides and currents, which maintain the availability of biofilm, a critical food source during global migration.

  4. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez, A.; Elner, R.W.; Favaro, C.; Rickards, K.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in

  5. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  6. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) exhibits the most northerly nonbreeding distribution of any shorebird in the North Pacific, being common during winter in cold, dark locations as far north as upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N). By contrast, the tschuktschorum subspecies migrates to sites ranging from about 59°N to more benign locations as far south as ~37°N. These distributional extremes exert contrasting energetic demands, and we measured common metabolic parameters in the two subspecies held under identical laboratory conditions to determine whether differences in these parameters are reflected by their nonbreeding life histories. Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance did not differ between subspecies, and the subspecies had a similar metabolic response to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone. Relatively low thermal conductance values may, however, reflect intrinsic metabolic adaptations to northerly latitudes. In the absence of differences in basic metabolic parameters, the two subspecies’ nonbreeding distributions will likely be more strongly influenced by adaptations to regional variation in ecological factors such as prey density, prey quality, and foraging habitat.

  7. Coping with the cold: an ecological context for the abundance and distribution of rock sandpipers during winter in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds are conspicuous and abundant at high northern latitudes during spring and summer, but as seasonal conditions deteriorate, few remain during winter. To the best of our knowledge, Cook Inlet, Alaska (60.6˚ N, 151.6˚ W), is the world’s coldest site that regularly supports wintering populations of shorebirds, and it is also the most northerly nonbreeding location for shorebirds in the Pacific Basin. During the winters of 1997–2012, we conducted aerial surveys of upper Cook Inlet to document the spatial and temporal distribution and number of Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) using the inlet. The average survey total was 8191 ± 6143 SD birds, and the average of each winter season’s highest single-day count was 13 603 ± 4948 SD birds. We detected only Rock Sandpipers during our surveys, essentially all of which were individuals of the nominate subspecies (C. p. ptilocnemis). Survey totals in some winters closely matched the population estimate for this subspecies, demonstrating the region’s importance as a nonbreeding resource to the subspecies. Birds were most often found at only a handful of sites in upper Cook Inlet, but shifted their distribution to more southerly locations in the inlet during periods of extreme cold. Two environmental factors allow Rock Sandpipers to inhabit Cook Inlet during winter: 1) an abundant bivalve (Macoma balthica) food source and 2) current and tidal dynamics that keep foraging substrates accessible during all but extreme periods of cold and ice accretion. C. p. ptilocnemis is a subspecies of high conservation concern for which annual winter surveys may serve as a relatively inexpensive population-monitoring tool that will also provide insight into adaptations that allow these birds to exploit high-latitude environments in winter.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Proximate and ultimate factors that promote aggregated breeding in the Western Sandpiper%导致西滨鹬集群繁殖的直接因子和最终因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew Johnson; Jeffrey R Walters

    2011-01-01

    We report that Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) on Alaska's Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta exhibited aggregated breeding behavior at a relatively small spatial scale. Prior to clutch initiation, males performing song flight displays on a 36 ha plot were aggregated as were subsequent initial nesting attempts on the plot. We tested three hypotheses commonly invoked to explain aggregated breeding in territorial species (social mate choice, predation, and material resources hypotheses), and found support for the material resources hypothesis, as dispersed individuals were more often associated with tundra habitat patches, and aggregated individuals nested more often in undulating-tundra habitat patches compared to patch availability. The pattern of habitat occupancy conformed to an ideal despotic distribution with aggregated nesting birds in undulating-tundra patches experiencing lower reproductive success. On our study plot, older, more aggressive males solicited females more often, and defended larger, more dispersed sites in tundra habitat patches, compared to younger, less aggressive males that were aggregated in undulating-tundra habitat patches. Breeding aggregations are often concentrated on or near a critical resource. In contrast, Western Sandpiper breeding aggregations occur when dominant and/or older individuals exclude younger, subordinate individuals from preferred habitat. Although many taxa of non-colonial birds have been reported to aggregate breeding territories, this is the first quantitative report of aggregated breeding behavior in a non-colonial monogamous shorebird species prior to hatch.%该文报道了西滨鹬 (Calidris mauri) 在美国阿拉斯加州育空-卡斯科奎姆河三角洲相对较小的空间尺度上所表现的集群繁殖行为.在开始产卵之前,西滨鹬雄鸟聚集在一处36 hm2的区域鸣唱飞行,进行求偶炫耀.随后在该区域营巢时,西滨鹬也保持着集群状态.检验了三个常用于解释具领域行

  10. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Upland Sandpiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Jill A.; Dinkins, Meghan F.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Parkin, Barry D.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1999-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The impact of management depends, in part, upon a species' nesting phenology and biology. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after nest failure or success, and the propensity to return to a previous breeding site. The duration and timing of breeding varies among regions and years. Species' response to management summarizes the current knowledge and major findings in the literature on the effects of different management practices on the species. The section on management recommendations complements the previous section and summarizes specific recommendations for habitat management provided in the literature. If management recommendations differ in different portions of the species' breeding range, recommendations are given separately by region. The literature cited contains references to published and unpublished literature on the management effects and habitat requirements of the species. This section is not meant to be a complete bibliography; for a searchable, annotated bibliography of published and unpublished papers dealing with habitat needs of grassland birds and their responses to habitat management, use the Grassland and Wetland Birds Bibliography on the home page of this resource.

  11. Exposure of nonbreeding migratory shorebirds to cholinesterase-inhibiting contaminants in the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, K.M.; Hooper, M.J.; Johnson, K.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Zaccagnini, M.E.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds frequently forage and roost in agricultural habitats, where they may be exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. Exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, common anti-cholinesterases, can cause sublethal effects, even death. To evaluate exposure of migratory shorebirds to organophosphorus and carbamates, we sampled birds stopping over during migration in North America and wintering in South America. We compared plasma cholinesterase activities and body masses of individuals captured at sites with no known sources of organophosphorus or carbamates to those captured in agricultural areas where agrochemicals were recommended for control of crop pests. In South America, plasma acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in Buff-breasted Sandpipers was lower at agricultural sites than at reference sites, indicating exposure to organophosphorus and carbamates. Results of plasma cholinesterase reactivation assays and foot-wash analyses were inconclusive. A meta-analysis of six species revealed no widespread effect of agricultural chemicals on cholinesterase activity. however, four of six species were negative for acetylcholinesterase and one of six for butyrylcholinesterase, indicating negative effects of pesticides on cholinesterase activity in a subset of shorebirds. Exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can decrease body mass, but comparisons between treatments and hemispheres suggest that agrochemicals did not affect migratory shorebirds' body mass. Our study, one of the first to estimate of shorebirds' exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, suggests that shorebirds are being exposed to cholinesterase- inhibiting pesticides at specific sites in the winter range but not at migratory stopover sites. future research should examine potential behavioral effects of exposure and identify other potential sitesand levels of exposure. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  12. The effects of wing loading and gender on the escape flights of least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    High body mass caused by fat storage during migration is believed to increase a bird's risk of predation by decreasing its ability to escape predators. We demonstrate the negative effect of wing loading (mass/wing area) on escape speed and angle of two migrating species of shorebird. We also show si

  13. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Butler, R.W.; Lank, D.B.; Smith, B.D.; Ireland, J.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of top predators can affect prey behaviour, morphology and life history, and thereby can produce indirect population consequences greater and further reaching than direct depredation would have alone. Raptor species in the Americas are recovering since restrictions on the use of dichlor

  14. Turnover Rates of Fall Migrating Pectoral Sandpipers Through the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MA V) is the historic alluvial floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River. Most of the MAV is located in Arkansas, Louisiana, and...

  15. Vegetation and Environmental Gradients of the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    rope (Phalaropus lobatus), buff-breasted sand- piper (Tyngites subruficollis) and Lapland long- Other mammals spur (Calcarius lapponicus). The Lapland...Sax1fralea flagellurti %% ll1d Drab nivahs Litjebl. ,4,dae PU-,,rulradlau -%it t .uhd, Draha pseudopi/osa Pohle Stllartu rut ,P’Ihu I hr )- Empetrum nigrum L

  16. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (fat stores. Rock Sandpipers increase the mass of lean tissues from fall to winter, including contour feathers, stomach, and liver components. They also have greater lean pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle and liver and kidney tissues compared with Purple Sandpipers in winter. This demonstrates a combined emphasis on digestive processes and thermogenesis, whereas Purple Sandpipers primarily augment organs associated with digestive processes. The high winter fat loads and increased lean tissues of Rock Sandpipers in Cook Inlet reflect the region’s persistent cold and abundant but sporadically unavailable food resources.

  17. Confined Disposal Facility at Pointe Mouillee for Detroit and Rouge Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    34. Dunlin (Erolia alpina ) 35. Sanderling (Crocethia alba) 36. White-rumped Sandpiper (Erolia fuscicollis) 37. Knot (Calidris canutus) 38. Pectoral...thistle (Cirsium arvense) Golden Glow (Rudbeckia laciniata) Horsetail rush (Equisetum fluviatile) Skullcap ( Scutellaria sp) Water lily, white (Nymphaea

  18. Shrub-Scrub Habitat Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conversion of the current shrub-scrub habitats west of Sandpiper Road and north of the Back BayNational Wildlife Refuge, into recreational facilities for a new hotel...

  19. Archaeological Investigations at Rathbun Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    nent resident Spotted sandpiper Along freshwater shorelines Actitis marcularis Starling Cosmopolitan, permanent resident Sturnus vulgasis 24 Species...Habitat Tufted titmouse Deciduous woodlands, swamps Parus bicolor Turkey Open Woodland Meleagris gallogavo Turkey vulture The open sky near woodlands

  20. Environmental Assessment of the 445th Airlift Wing Conversion from C-5 to C-17 Aircraft at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    sodalis – Indiana bat, State endangered, Federal endangered 24 • Bartramia longicauda – Upland Sandpiper, threatened 25 • Carex mesochorea...Midland Sedge , endangered 26 27 The Biodiversity Database was also searched for locations of the Indiana bat within a five mile radius of 28 the...Myotis soda/is- Indiana Bat, state endangered, federal endangered 4. Bartramia /ongicauda - Upland Sandpiper, threatened 5. Carex mesochorea

  1. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  2. Body mass and lipid content of shorebirds overwintering on the south Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three species of shorebirds were collected at bimonthly intervals in 1979-1980, from the time of their arrival in early autumn to mid-February, on the south Texas coast. Female Long-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were heavier (P 0.05) between sexes in any of the three species. During the wintering period, fat stores in Long-billed Dowitchers and Western Sandpipers declined 70% and 44%, respectively, but not in American Avocets. Lipid content was highly correlated (P body mass in all three species, providing further evidence that fat accumulation is responsible for the major variation in total mass of some shorebird species.

  3. Behavioural evidence for heat-load problems in Great Knots in tropical Australia fuelling for long-distance flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.

    2003-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds that live in the tropics prior to embarking on long (> 5000 km) flights may face heat-load problems. The behaviour of a large sandpiper, the Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), was studied in Roebuck Bay, north-west Australia, from February to April 2000. We determined the incid

  4. 76 FR 1190 - Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA; Final... National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In this final CCP, we describe how we will manage this refuge for the next... CONTACT: Jared Brandwein, Refuge Manager, Back Bay NWR, 4005 Sandpiper Road, Virginia Beach, VA......

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Aeromedical Evacuation Formal Training Unit, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    endangered  Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), threatened  Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), species of concern  Henslow’s sparrow...tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum), potentially threatened  Pigeon grape (Vitis cinerea), potentially threatened Additionally, the midland sedge ... Carex mesochorea) is known to exist from just outside the Base boundary in Greene County and is listed as threatened in Ohio. This species is quite

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Consolidation of 88th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Operations, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    National Historical Park- National Park Service 1. Bartramia longicauda - Upland Sandpiper, threatened 2. Carex mesochorea- Midland Sedge ...its range in the eastern United States, Eastern Massasaugas are found in wet prairies, sedge meadows and early successional fields. Preferred...wetland habitats are marshes and fens. They avoid open water and seem to prefer the cover of broad-leafed plants, emergents, and sedges . Natural

  7. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  8. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  9. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  10. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  11. Seasonally chancing preen-wax composition : Red Knots' (Calidris canutus) flexible defense against feather-degrading bacteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Schneider, Amy M.; Piersma, Theunis; Burtt, Edward H.; James, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    During incubation, ground-breeding sandpipers such as Red Knots (Calidris canutus) create a warm, humid micro-climate in the nest, conditions that favor the growth of feather-degrading bacteria present in their plumage. just before incubation, the composition of waxes secreted by the uropygial gland

  12. Within-population variation in mating system and parental care patterns in the sanderling (Calidris alba) in northeast Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; van Veelen, Pieter; van der Velde, Marco; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Sandpipers and allies (Scolopacidae) show an astounding diversity in mating and parental care strategies. Comparative studies have tried to interpret this variation in terms of phylogenetic constraints and ecological shaping factors. In such analyses, mating and parental care systems are necessarily

  13. Within-population variation in mating system and parental care patterns in the Sander ling (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J.; van Veelen, P.; van der Velde, M.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Sandpipers and allies (Scolopacidae) show an astounding diversity in mating and parental care strategies. Comparative studies have tried to interpret this variation in terms of phylogenetic constraints and ecological shaping factors. In such analyses, mating and parental care systems are necessarily

  14. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  15. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  16. Are population dynamics of shorebirds affected by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) while on their non-breeding grounds in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Patrick D.; Haase, Ben J. M.; Elner, Robert W.; Smith, Barry D.; Kenyon, Jamie K.

    2007-08-01

    Declines in avian populations are a global concern, particularly for species that migrate between Arctic-temperate and tropical locations. Long-term population studies offer opportunities to detect and document ecological effects attributable to long-term climatic cycles such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we report possible population-level effects of such climatic cycles on shorebird species that use two non-breeding season sites in Ecuador (Santa Elena peninsula area, near La Libertad). During our 9-year study period (1991/1992-1999/2000), there was a particularly strong ENSO warm phase event during 1997/1998. Population trend data for three species of shorebird, Western Sandpipers ( Calidris mauri), Semipalmated Sandpipers ( C. pusilla), and Least Sandpipers ( C. minutilla), indicated abundances generally declined during the 1990s, but there was an increase in the proportion of first-year birds and their abundance in the years following the 1997/1998 ENSO warm phase. There was some support for variation in apparent survivorship associated with the onset of the ENSO warm phase event in our population models, based on capture-mark-recapture data. Following the 1997/1998 ENSO event onset, individuals for all three species were significantly lighter during the non-breeding season ( F1,3789 = 6.6, p = 0.01). Least-squares mean mass (controlling for size, sex and day of capture) for first-year birds dropped significantly more than for adults following ENSO (first-year mass loss = 0.69 ± 0.12 g; adult mass loss = 0.34 ± 0.11 g, F1,3789 = 5.31, p = 0.021), and least-squares mean mass dropped most during the period when sandpipers prepare for northward migration by gaining mass and moulting into breeding plumage. Least Sandpipers may have declined the most in mean mass following ENSO (0.76 ± 0.19 g), whereas Semipalmated Sandpipers were 0.52 ± 0.12 g lighter, and Western Sandpipers 0.40 ± 0.13 g lighter, but overall variation among

  17. Patterns of organic contaminants in eggs of an insectivorous, an omnivorous, and a piscivorous bird nesting on the Hudson River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon), spotted sandpiper (Actitus macularia), and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs were collected in 2004 from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA. This area is one of the most polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated locations in North America. Multivariate analyses indicated among species differences in the concentration and composition of PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), and dibenzofuran (PCDF, PCDD-F when combined with PCDDs) congeners, and chlorinated pesticides. Total PCB concentrations followed the typical food chain biomagnification paradigm of higher concentrations in piscivorous bird eggs and lower concentrations in eggs of species that feed at lower trophic levels. Concentrations in the insectivorous swallows (geometric mean=6.8μg/g wet wt) were approximately half the concentrations present in the piscivorous kingfisher (11.7μg/g) or omnivorous sandpiper (12.6μg/g). In contrast, PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) were higher in swallows (1,790 pg/g wet wt) than in either kingfishers (776pg/g) or sandpipers (881pg/g). This difference can be mainly attributed to higher PCB77 concentrations in swallows relative to the other two species. Also contrary to the accepted food-chain paradigm, the sum of PCDD-F concentrations and the sum of their TEQs were higher in swallows than in either sandpipers or kingfishers. Metabolic pathway differences in the respective food chains of the three species probably accounted for the differences observed in PCB TEQ, total PCDD-F, and PCDD-F TEQ concentrations among species.

  18. Integrating spatial data and shorebird nesting locations to predict the potential future impact of global warming on coastal habitats: A case study on Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alrashidi, Monif; Shobrak, Mohammed; Al-Eissa, Mohammed S.; Székely, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    One of the expected effects of the global warming is changing coastal habitats by accelerating the rate of sea level rise. Coastal habitats support large number of marine and wetland species including shorebirds (plovers, sandpipers and allies). In this study, we investigate how coastal habitats may be impacted by sea level rise in the Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We use Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus – a common coastal breeding shorebird – as an ecological model species ...

  19. Environmental Assessment for Management of South End of Runway Wetlands, Moody AFB, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    receptor, receptor sensitivity, and time of day. How an individual responds to the sound source will determine if the sound is viewed as music to...potentially attract different species of birds that prefer foraging on exposed mud, such as sandpipers. Ditches lined with rip rap could help prevent...the growth of vegetation and are a difficult substrate for wading birds to walk on. Rip rap -lined ditches are used much less frequently on Moody AFB

  20. Expression of annual cycles in preen wax composition in red knots: Constraints on the changing phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2007-01-01

    Birds living in seasonal environments change physiology and behavior in correspondence to temporally changing environmental supplies, demands and opportunities. We recently reported that the chemical composition of uropygial gland secretions of sandpipers (Scolopacidae, order Charadriformes) changes during the breeding season from mixtures of monoesters to diesters, which fulfill specific functions related to incubation. A proper temporal match between the expression of diester preen waxes an...

  1. Seasonal dynamics of flight muscle fatty acid binding protein and catabolic enzymes in a migratory shorebird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Christopher G; Haunerland, Norbert H; Hochachka, Peter W; Williams, Tony D

    2002-05-01

    We developed an ELISA to measure heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in muscles of the western sandpiper (Calidris mauri), a long-distance migrant shorebird. H-FABP accounted for almost 11% of cytosolic protein in the heart. Pectoralis H-FABP levels were highest during migration (10%) and declined to 6% in tropically wintering female sandpipers. Premigratory birds increased body fat, but not pectoralis H-FABP, indicating that endurance flight training may be required to stimulate H-FABP expression. Juveniles making their first migration had lower pectoralis H-FABP than adults, further supporting a role for flight training. Aerobic capacity, measured by citrate synthase activity, and fatty acid oxidation capacity, measured by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities, did not change during premigration but increased during migration by 6, 12, and 13%, respectively. The greater relative induction of H-FABP (+70%) with migration than of catabolic enzymes suggests that elevated H-FABP is related to the enhancement of uptake of fatty acids from the circulation. Citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were positively correlated within individuals, suggesting coexpression, but enzyme activities were unrelated to H-FABP levels.

  2. A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gavin H

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds is an ideal model group in which to study a wide range of behavioural, ecological and macroevolutionary processes across species. However, comparative studies depend on phylogeny to control for the effects of shared evolutionary history. Although numerous hypotheses have been presented for subsets of the Charadriiformes none to date include all recognised species. Here we use the matrix representation with parsimony method to produce the first fully inclusive supertree of Charadriiformes. We also provide preliminary estimates of ages for all nodes in the tree. Results Three main lineages are revealed: i the plovers and allies; ii the gulls and allies; and iii the sandpipers and allies. The relative position of these clades is unresolved in the strict consensus tree but a 50% majority-rule consensus tree indicates that the sandpiper clade is sister group to the gulls and allies whilst the plover group is placed at the base of the tree. The overall topology is highly consistent with recent molecular hypotheses of shorebird phylogeny. Conclusion The supertree hypothesis presented herein is (to our knowledge the only complete phylogenetic hypothesis of all extant shorebirds. Despite concerns over the robustness of supertrees (see Discussion, we believe that it provides a valuable framework for testing numerous evolutionary hypotheses relating to the diversity of behaviour, ecology and life-history of the Charadriiformes.

  3. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  4. Use of Aquaculture Ponds and Other Habitats by Autumn Migrating Shorebirds Along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E.; Krementz, David G.

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper ( Calidris minutilla), Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper ( Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper ( C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs ( Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  5. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis.

  6. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  7. 了解你

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慧眼

    2005-01-01

    1965年在美国上映了一部名为《春风无限恨》(Sandpiper)的电影,这部影片的情节基本上出自作家马丁·兰索霍夫的作品《真主的花园》。这部电影是如此的偏门并且老旧,以至于到了今天,估计已经没有几个影迷知道并且看过它了。但是,该片中有一首由维斯特(P.F.Webster)作词、约翰尼·曼德尔(Johnny Mandel)作曲的主题歌《你的笑影》(The Shadow Of Your Smile)。

  8. A Lesser Yellowlegs hunts for food in the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A sandpiper-like Lesser Yellowlegs eyes the water for food in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The gray-streaked wader is found in marshy ponds, lake and river shores, and mud flats in Alaska and Canada; it winters in the southern United States to southern South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  9. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  10. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  11. Ways to be different: foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly-wintering shorebird compared to a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion, and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 degrees of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: Calidris p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N), and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (~40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioural, physiological, and sensory aspects of foraging, and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. Ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates, and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10-14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis likely resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the two subspecies' metabolic capacities, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioural or sensory aspects.

  12. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  13. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  14. Wind assistance: A requirement for migration of shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R.W.; Williams, T.D.; Warnock, N.; Bishop, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the importance of wind-assisted flight for northward (spring) migration by Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) along the Pacific Coast of North America. Using current models of energy costs of flight and recent data on the phenology of migration, we estimated the energy (fat) requirements for migration in calm winds and with wind-assisted flight for different rates of fat deposition: (1) a variable rate, assuming that birds deposit the minimum amount of fat required to reach the next stopover site; (2) a constant maximum rate of 1.0 g/day; and (3) a lower constant rate of 0.4 g/day. We tested these models by comparing conservative estimates of predicted body mass along the migration route with empirical data on body mass of Western Sandpipers at different stopover sites and upon arrival at the breeding grounds. In calm conditions, birds would have to deposit unrealistically high amounts of fat (up to 330% of observed values) to maintain body mass above absolute lean mass values. Fat-deposition rates of 1.0 g/day and 0.4 g/day, in calm conditions, resulted in a steady decline in body mass along the migration route, with predicted body masses on arrival in Alaska of only 60% (13.6 g) and 26% (5.9 g) of average lean mass (22.7 g). Conversely, birds migrating with wind assistance would be able to complete migration with fat-deposition rates as low as 0.4 g/day, similar to values reported for this size bird from field studies. Our results extend the conclusion of the importance of winds for large, long-distance migrants to a small, short-distance migrant. We suggest that the migratory decisions of birds are more strongly influenced by the frequency and duration of winds aloft, i.e. by events during the flight phase, than by events during the stopover phase of migration, such as fat-deposition rate, that have been the focus of much recent migration theory.

  15. Wildlife Impact Assessment : Bonneville, McNary, The Dalles, and John Day Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick

    1990-10-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions of the US Army Corps of Engineers Bonneville project in Oregon and Washington. The project directly impacted 20,749 acres of wildlife habitat. Seven evaluation species were selected with losses and gains expressed in Habitat Units (HU's). One HU is equivalent to 1 acre of prime habitat. The evaluation estimated a gain of 2671 HU's of lesser scaup wintering habitat. Losses of 4300 HU's of great blue heron habitat, 2443 HU's of Canada goose habitat, 2767 HU's of spotted sandpiper habitat, 163 HU's of yellow warbler habitat, 1022 HU's black-capped chickadee habitat, and 1622 HU's of mink habitat occurred as a result of the project. This amounts to a total combined loss of 12,317 HU's. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  18. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; de Goeij, Petra; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avianinteractions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebirdhabitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areasat night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. This suggests that nighttime avoidance of nearshore places is a response to increased danger of predation. When mist-netting during autumn 2005 on nearshore intertidal habitats along South Spit, Egegik Bay (Alaska Peninsula), Alaska, we discovered that shorebirds that occurred there in large numbers during daytime low tides and roosted there during daytime high tides (especially Dunlin Calidris alpina, Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola, and Surfbirds Aphriza virgata), were absent at night. Their avoidance of the area correlated with Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus concurrently hunting over the beach and adjacent intertidal habitats. Spotlighting over nearby expansive intertidal mudflats confirmed that the same suite of species continued to forage or roost nearby at night. To bring the story full circle, the morning following one mist-netting effort we found a Short-eared Owl on the beach that had been killed earlier by a Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus. In the owl’s stomach were remains of a freshly devoured Dunlin.

  19. Bird Diversity and Distribution in relation to Urban Landscape Types in Northern Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gatesire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon’s diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni, was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos, the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata, and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus. Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina. The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  20. Bird diversity and distribution in relation to urban landscape types in northern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesire, T; Nsabimana, D; Nyiramana, A; Seburanga, J L; Mirville, M O

    2014-01-01

    Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon's diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni), was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus). Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  1. Integrating spatial data and shorebird nesting locations to predict the potential future impact of global warming on coastal habitats: A case study on Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Monif; Shobrak, Mohammed; Al-Eissa, Mohammed S; Székely, Tamás

    2012-07-01

    One of the expected effects of the global warming is changing coastal habitats by accelerating the rate of sea level rise. Coastal habitats support large number of marine and wetland species including shorebirds (plovers, sandpipers and allies). In this study, we investigate how coastal habitats may be impacted by sea level rise in the Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We use Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus - a common coastal breeding shorebird - as an ecological model species to predict the influence of sea level rise. We found that any rise of sea level is likely to inundate 11% of Kentish plover nests. In addition, 5% of the coastal areas of Farasan Islands, which support 26% of Kentish plover nests, will be flooded, if sea level rises by one metre. Our results are constrained by the availability of data on both elevation and bird populations. Therefore, we recommend follow-up studies to model the impacts of sea level rise using different elevation scenarios, and the establishment of a monitoring programme for breeding shorebirds and seabirds in Farasan Islands to assess the impact of climate change on their populations.

  2. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  3. Population size and stopover duration estimation using mark–resight data and Bayesian analysis of a superpopulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Kendall, William; Royle, J. Andrew; Converse, Sarah J.; Andres, Brad A.; Buchanan, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel formulation of a mark–recapture–resight model that allows estimation of population size, stopover duration, and arrival and departure schedules at migration areas. Estimation is based on encounter histories of uniquely marked individuals and relative counts of marked and unmarked animals. We use a Bayesian analysis of a state–space formulation of the Jolly–Seber mark–recapture model, integrated with a binomial model for counts of unmarked animals, to derive estimates of population size and arrival and departure probabilities. We also provide a novel estimator for stopover duration that is derived from the latent state variable representing the interim between arrival and departure in the state–space model. We conduct a simulation study of field sampling protocols to understand the impact of superpopulation size, proportion marked, and number of animals sampled on bias and precision of estimates. Simulation results indicate that relative bias of estimates of the proportion of the population with marks was low for all sampling scenarios and never exceeded 2%. Our approach does not require enumeration of all unmarked animals detected or direct knowledge of the number of marked animals in the population at the time of the study. This provides flexibility and potential application in a variety of sampling situations (e.g., migratory birds, breeding seabirds, sea turtles, fish, pinnipeds, etc.). Application of the methods is demonstrated with data from a study of migratory sandpipers.

  4. Trigo duro: comportamento de genótipos no estado de São Paulo Durum wheat: evaluation of genotypes for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 25 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., um cultivar de triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack e quatro cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L. em seis experimentos em condição de irrigação por aspersão, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. As linhagens de trigo duro 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" e 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", de porte baixo a médio, foram resistentes às ferrugens-do-colmo (com exceção da 21 e da-folha, moderadamente resistentes ao oídio, suscetíveis à mancha foliar, e destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos em solos com baixa acidez, não diferindo nem do trigo comum IAC-60, o mais cultivado atualmente no Estado de São Paulo, nem do triticale Álamos. Em condições de campo, a linhagem de trigo duro 19 (Mindum/Kingfisher "S"//Sandpiper apresentou imunidade às ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha e foi moderadamente resistente ao oídio. O triticale Álamos e o trigo comum IAC-29 foram imunes ao oídio. Todos os genótipos avaliados foram altamente suscetíveis à mancha foliar, com exceção da linhagem 6 (Dackiye/Gerardo Vezio 394, moderadamente resistente.Twenty-five durum wheat (Triticum durum L. lines, one triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar and four wheat (T aestivum L. cultivars were evaluated in six trials under sprinkler irrigation taking into account the grain yield, agronomic characteristics and disease resistance. The durum wheat lines 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" and 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", showed the following traites: resistant to stem and leaf rusts; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to leaf spot, and short to

  5. Change in numbers of resident and migratory shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA (1985–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Morgan A.; Collazo, Jaime; Colon, Jose A.; Ramos Alvarez, Katsi R.; Diaz, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    North American migratory shorebirds have declined markedly since the 1980s, underscoring the importance of population surveys to conduct status and trend assessments. Shorebird surveys were conducted during three multi-year periods between 1985 and 2014 and used to assess changes in numbers and species composition at the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats, Puerto Rico, USA, a site of regional importance in the eastern Caribbean. Eight fewer species (total = 21) were recorded in 2013–2014 as compared to the 29 from 1985–1992; all eight species were Nearctic migrants. Small calidrids had the highest population counts; however, this suite of species and all others experienced a ≥ 70% decline. Combined counts from the salt flats and neighboring wetlands in 2013–2014 were lower than counts only from the Cabo Rojo Salt Flats in two previous multi-year survey periods, which indicated a real change in numbers not just a shift in wetland use. Invertebrate prey density was lower in 2013–2014 than in 1994. Body fat condition of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), an index of habitat quality, did not differ between 1985–1992 and 2013–2014. These findings do not exclude the possibility that other species might be affected by lower prey density, or that local declines in numbers reflect changes at hemispheric, not local, scales. The magnitude of change between local and hemispheric scales closely matched for some species. Continued monitoring at the salt flats is warranted to help gauge the status of shorebirds in Puerto Rico and discern the probable cause of declines. Monitoring other sites in the Caribbean is needed for stronger inferences about regional status and trends.

  6. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  7. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  8. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  9. Investigating avian influenza infection hotspots in old-world shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gaidet

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in the transmission rates of pathogens across hosts or environments may produce disease hotspots, which are defined as specific sites, times or species associations in which the infection rate is consistently elevated. Hotspots for avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds are largely unstudied and poorly understood. A striking feature is the existence of a unique but consistent AIV hotspot in shorebirds (Charadriiformes associated with a single species at a specific location and time (ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres at Delaware Bay, USA, in May. This unique case, though a valuable reference, limits our capacity to explore and understand the general properties of AIV hotspots in shorebirds. Unfortunately, relatively few shorebirds have been sampled outside Delaware Bay and they belong to only a few shorebird families; there also has been a lack of consistent oropharyngeal sampling as a complement to cloacal sampling. In this study we looked for AIV hotspots associated with other shorebird species and/or with some of the larger congregation sites of shorebirds in the old world. We assembled and analysed a regionally extensive dataset of AIV prevalence from 69 shorebird species sampled in 25 countries across Africa and Western Eurasia. Despite this diverse and extensive coverage we did not detect any new shorebird AIV hotspots. Neither large shorebird congregation sites nor the ruddy turnstone were consistently associated with AIV hotspots. We did, however, find a low but widespread circulation of AIV in shorebirds that contrast with the absence of AIV previously reported in shorebirds in Europe. A very high AIV antibody prevalence coupled to a low infection rate was found in both first-year and adult birds of two migratory sandpiper species, suggesting the potential existence of an AIV hotspot along their migratory flyway that is yet to be discovered.

  10. Identification of coastal wetlands of international importance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005–2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingquan Bai; Jianzhong Chen; Zhihong Chen; Guotai Dong; Jiangtian Dong; Wenxiao Dong; Vivian Wing Kan Fu; Yongxiang Han; Gang Lu; Jing Li; Yang Liu; Zhi Lin; Derong Meng; Jonathan Martinez; Guanghui Ni; Kai Shan; Renjie Sun; Suixing Tian; Fengqin Wang; Zhiwei Xu; Yat-tung Yu; Jin Yang; Zhidong Yang; Lin Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xiangwu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Background:China’s coastal wetlands belong to some of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide.The loss and degradation of these wetlands seriously threaten waterbirds that depend on wetlands.Methods:The China Coastal Waterbird Census was organized by volunteer birdwatchers in China’s coastal region.Waterbirds were surveyed synchronously once every month at 14 sites,as well as irregularly at a further 18 sites,between September 2005 and December 2013.Results:A total of 75 species of waterbirds met the 1 % population level Ramsar listing criterion at least once at one site.The number of birds of the following species accounted for over 20 % of the total flyway populations at a single site:Mute Swan(Cygnus olor),Siberia Crane(Grus leucogeranus),Far Eastern Oystercatcher(Haematopus osculans),Bar-tailed Godwit(Limosa lapponica),Spotted Greenshank(Tringa guttifer),Great Knot(Calidris tenuirostris),Spoon-billed Sandpiper(Calidris pygmeus),Saunders’ s Gull(Larus saundersi),Relict Gull(Larus relictus),Great Cormorant(Phalacrocorax carbo),Eurasian Spoonbill(Platalea leucorodia),Black-faced Spoonbill(Platalea minor) and Dalmatian Pelican(Pelecanus crispus).A total of 26 sites supported at least one species of which their number met the1 % criterion.Forty-two species met the 1 % criterion in the Yellow River Delta,Shandong;29 at the Cangzhou coast,Hebei and 26 species at the Lianyungang coast,Jiangsu.Conclusions:The results highlight the international importance of China’s coastal wetlands for waterbirds.This study also demonstrates that participation of local birdwatchers in waterbird surveys results in data that are invaluable not only for understanding the current status of waterbirds in China’s coastal regions but also for waterbird conservation and management.

  11. Identification of coastal wetlands of international importance for waterbirds:a review of China Coastal Waterbird Surveys 2005-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Yang Liu; Zhi Lin; Derong Meng; Jonathan Martinez; Guanghui Ni; Kai Shan; Renjie Sun; Suixing Tian; Fengqin Wang; Jianzhong Chen; Zhiwei Xu; Yat-tung Yu; Jin Yang; Zhidong Yang; Lin Zhang; Ming Zhang; Xiangwu Zeng; Zhihong Chen; Guotai Dong; Jiangtian Dong; Wenxiao Dong; Vivian Wing Kan Fu; Yongxiang Han; Gang Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background:China’s coastal wetlands belong to some of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. The loss and degradation of these wetlands seriously threaten waterbirds that depend on wetlands. Methods:The China Coastal Waterbird Census was organized by volunteer birdwatchers in China’s coastal region. Waterbirds were surveyed synchronously once every month at 14 sites, as well as irregularly at a further 18 sites, between September 2005 and December 2013. Results:A total of 75 species of waterbirds met the 1%population level Ramsar listing criterion at least once at one site. The number of birds of the following species accounted for over 20%of the total flyway populations at a single site:Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), Siberia Crane (Grus leucogeranus), Far Eastern Oystercatcher (Haematopus osculans), Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica), Spotted Greenshank ( Tringa guttifer), Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Calidris pygmeus), Saunders’s Gull (Larus saundersi), Relict Gull (Larus relictus), Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), Black-faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor) and Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus). A total of 26 sites supported at least one species of which their number met the 1 % criterion. Forty-two species met the 1 % criterion in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong; 29 at the Cangzhou coast, Hebei and 26 species at the Lianyungang coast, Jiangsu. Conclusions: The results highlight the international importance of China’s coastal wetlands for waterbirds. This study also demonstrates that participation of local birdwatchers in waterbird surveys results in data that are invaluable not only for understanding the current status of waterbirds in China’s coastal regions but also for waterbird conservation and management.

  12. Modeling Bird Migration in Changing Habitats: Space-based Ornithology using Satellites and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding bird migration and avian biodiversity is one of the most compelling and challenging problems of modern biology with major implications for human health and conservation biology. Migration and conservation efforts cross national boundaries and are subject to numerous international agreements and treaties presenting challenges in both geographic space and time. Space based technology, coupled with geographic information systems, yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At NASA, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. In our work, we use individual organism biophysical models and drive these models with satellite observations and numerical weather predictions of the spatio-temporal gradients in climate and habitat. Geographic information system technology comprises one component of our overall simulation framework, especially for characterizing the changing habitats and conditions encountered by en-route migratory birds. Simulation provides a tool for studying bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. Such models yield an understanding of how a migratory flyway and its component habitats function as a whole and link stop-over ecology with biological conservation and management. We present examples of our simulation of shorebirds, principally, pectoral sandpipers, along the central flyways of the United States and Canada from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska.

  13. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  14. RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within Charadriiform birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Tara A; Baker, Allan J; Groth, Jeff G; Barrowclough, George F

    2003-11-01

    The Charadriiformes is a large and diverse order of shorebirds currently classified into 19 families, including morphologically aberrant forms that are of uncertain phylogenetic placement within non-passerine birds in general. Recent attempts using morphological characters have failed to recover a well-supported phylogeny depicting higher level relationships within Charadriiformes and the limits to the order, primarily because of inconsistency and homoplasy in these data. Moreover, these trees are incongruent with the relationships presented in the DNA hybridization tapestry of, including the location of the root and the branching order of major clades within the shorebirds. To help clarify this systematic confusion we therefore sequenced the large RAG-1 nuclear exon (2850 bp) from 36 species representing 17 families of shorebirds for which DNA was available. Trees built with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or Bayesian methods are topologically identical and fully resolved, with high support at basal nodes. This further attests to the phylogenetic utility of the RAG-1 sequences at higher taxonomic levels within birds. The RAG-1 tree is topologically similar to the DNA hybridization tree in depicting three major subordinal clades of shorebirds, the Charadrii (thick-knees, sheathbills, plovers, oystercatchers, and allies), Scolopaci (sandpipers and jacanas) and the Lari (coursers, pratincoles, gulls, terns, skimmers, and skuas). However, the basal split in the RAG-1 tree is between Charadrii and (Scolopaci+Lari), whereas in the DNA hybridization tree Scolopaci is the sister group to the (Charadrii+Lari). Thus in both of these DNA-based trees the Alcidae (auks, murres, and allies) are not basal among shorebirds as hypothesized in morphological trees, but instead are placed as a tip clade within Lari. The enigmatic buttonquails (Turnicidae), variously hypothesized as being allied to either the Galliformes, Gruiformes, or Charadriiformes, are shown to be a basal

  15. Modeling Bird Migration under Climate Change: A Mechanistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2009-01-01

    How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this

  16. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  17. Roberts Bank: Ecological crucible of the Fraser River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Terri F.; Elner, Robert W.; O'Neill, Jennifer D.

    2013-08-01

    relationship was found between biofilm components (chlorophyll and silt), polydora, and harpacticoid copepod abundance, which, together with cumaceans, are food for Western Sandpipers, Calidris mauri. Finally, 52% of the intercauseway variation was explained by direct correlations between eelgrass attributes and fauna consisting of bivalves, caprellids, and harpacticoid copepods (root biomass, leaf area index), the latter being prey for juvenile salmon which depend on eelgrass beds as rearing habitat. These habitats are vulnerable to changes in tidal flow patterns, tidal elevation, sediment transport, and water clarity that could be caused by future port development and/or sea level rise in response to climate change.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  19. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  20. Bird Migration Under Climate Change - A Mechanistic Approach Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Blattner, Tim; Messmer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    migratory shorebirds in the central fly ways of North America. We demonstrated the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers consisting of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations using an individual based migration model driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data and biological field data. With the advent of new computing capabilities enabled hy recent GPU-GP computing paradigms and commodity hardware, it now is possible to simulate both larger ensemble populations and to incorporate more realistic mechanistic factors into migration models. Here, we take our first steps use these tools to study the impact of long-term drought variability on shorebird survival.

  1. Bird Banding Studies in the East Coasto Chongming Island%崇明东滩鸻鹬类迁徒的环志研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤臣栋

    2012-01-01

    位于长江口的崇明东滩是东亚—澳大利西亚候鸟迁飞路线上一个重要的候鸟迁徙停歇地.保护区的环志工作始于1986年,自2002年,每年春季和秋季都进行较系统的环志工作.至2010年底,已环志鸻鹬类46种36 800余只,其中超过95%的鸟佩带了代表长江口地区标识的黑白色足旗.其中大滨鹬、黑腹滨鹬和翘嘴鹬是崇明东滩环志数量最多的3种鸟类,环志数量分别为10631、3 056和2746只.为了便于野外个体识别,保护区于2006年起在环志时尝试使用编码足旗,到2010年,共有9种1 758只鸟佩戴了编码足旗.在环志过程中,总计有20种441只来自不同国家地区的环志鸟被回收.回收鸟中超过一半的鸟为大滨鹬,而且70%的回收鸟是在西北澳洲被环志的,表明崇明东滩与西北澳洲对于迁徙涉禽的保护上有非常紧密的联系.崇明东滩环志研究所获得的数据对于了解东亚—澳大利西亚迁徙涉禽的迁徙研究提供了宝贵资料.%The east coast of Chongming Island at the Yangtze River estuary is an important stopover site for migratory birds in the East Asia-Australasia Fiyway. Bird banding in the nature reserve started in 1986, and regular bird banding was conducted in every spring and autumn since 2002. Up to the end of 2010 more than 36,800 shorebirds of 46 species have been banded and more than 95% of these birds have been marked with leg flags (black and white which designating the region of the Yangtze River estuary) at the east coast of Chongming. Great Knot, Dunlin, and Terek Sandpiper were the three most abundant banded birds, with 10631, 3056, and 2746 individuals being banded respectively. Since 2006, engraved leg flags were attached to 1,758 birds of 9 species. A total of 441 individuals of 20 species from different countries or regions were recaptured during the bird banding period. More than half of these birds were Great Knots and more than 70% were originally banded in