Different patterns of glycolipid antigens are expressed following differentiation of TERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells induced by retinoic acid, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) or bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR).
Andrews, P W; Nudelman, E; Hakomori, S; Fenderson, B A
NTERA-2 cl.D1 human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells were induced to differentiate by either bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), and also by retinoic acid. Following exposure to each of these inducers, the globoseries glycolipid antigens stage-specific embryonic antigens -3 and -4 (SSEA-3 and -4) and the glycoprotein antigen TRA-1-60, all characteristic of the human EC cell surface, underwent a marked reduction in expression within about 7 days. At the same time, the lactoseries glycolipid antigen SSEA-1, and ganglioseries antigens A2B5 (GT3) and ME311 (9-0-acetyl GD3) were induced in BUdR- and retinoic acid-treated cells. However, these antigens did not appear during the first 7-14 days of HMBA-induced differentiation. The observations of cell surface antigen expression were paralleled by analysis of glycolipids isolated from the cells by thin-layer chromatography. This analysis, in which the new monoclonal antibodies VINIS-56 and VIN-2PB-22 were included, also revealed expression of gangliosides GD3 and GD2 in all differentiated cultures, albeit at much lower levels following HMBA exposure than following retinoic acid or BUdR-exposure. Further, disialylparagloboside was detected in retinoic acid and BUdR-induced, but not HMBA-induced, cultures. Taken with morphological observations, the results suggest that HMBA induces differentiation of NTERA-2 cl.D1 EC cells along a pathway distinct from the pathway(s) induced by retinoic acid and BUdR.
Gardelle, O; Roelcke, U; Vontobel, P; Crompton, NEA; Guenther, [No Value; Blauenstein, P; Schubiger, AP; Blattmann, H; Ryser, JE; Leenders, KL; Kaser-Hotz, B
5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) provides in vitro measures of tumor cell proliferation. We used positron emission tomography to study tissue and plasma kinetics of [Br-76]BUdR in tumor-bearing animals. In order to account for the slow washout of the major plasma metabolite, [Br-76]bromide, a mathematical
Andrews, P W; Gönczöl, E; Plotkin, S A; Dignazio, M; Oosterhuis, J W
Retinoic acid induces the differentiation of NTERA-2 cl. D1 human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells into neurons, cells permissive for the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and other cell types that cannot as yet be classified but are distinguishable from the stem cells. We tested several additional agents for their ability to induce the differentiation of these EC cells. No differentiation was induced by butyrate, cyclic AMP, cytosine arabinoside, the tumor promoter 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), or the chemotherapeutic agent cis-diaminedichloroplatinum, although morphological changes were detected at the highest concentrations of these agents that permitted cell survival. However, retinal, retinol, 5-bromouracil 2'deoxyribose (BUdR), 5-iodouracil 2'deoxyribose (IUdR), hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), dimethylacetamide (DMA), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) all induced some neuronal differentiation, but to a lesser extent than retinoic acid. Also, BUdR, IUdR, HMBA, and DMA induced the appearance of many cells permissive for the replication of HCMV. Differentiation was, in all cases, accompanied by the loss of SSEA-3, a globoseries glycolipid antigen characteristically expressed by human EC cells. However, another glycolipid antigen, A2B5, which appears in 60%-80% of differentiated cells 7 days following retinoic acid induction, was detected in less than 20% of the cells induced by the other agents studied. This implies that the HCMV-permissive cells induced by retinoic acid are not identical to those induced by BUdR, IUdR, and DMA.
Beck, S L
CD-1 mice were exposed in utero to one of 14 treatment regimes, several of them being replicated, with close agreement between series. Prenatal exposure to a teratogenic dose at a sensitive time enabled detection of 10 of 14 teratogen regimes by alterations in frequency or severity of a substantial number of the 88 variants in the Skeletal Variant Assay System (SVAS) screen when examined at 60-65 days post natal (DPN). These included 2,4,5-T (245T), Trifluralin (TFL), Maneb (MNB), Decamethrin (DMT), Acetazolamide (ACZM) either at 8 days post-coitus (DPC) or days 9-11 PC, trypan blue (TB), or 5' Bromodeoxyuridine (BUDR) on either 7 DPC, 8 DPC, or 9 DPC. Most of these observations have been reported elsewhere. All of the treatment regimes mentioned above, and another group of treatments, could be detected in the exposed CD-1 cohorts when additional endpoints were employed. One such endpoint was "frequently responding variants." These were: Interfrontals (IF), Parted Frontals (PF), Preoptic Sutures (PS), Foramina Transversaria Imperfecta of the first cervical (C) vertebra (FTI C1), FTI of the axis (C2), Accessory (Acc) Transverse Foramina (TF) of C3-C6, malformations of C3-C7, Fourteen (14) Ribs, Carpal Fusions (Fus), Lumbar Fus, 27-Presacral Vertebrae (PSV), and Sacral Fus. This endpoint revealed significant differences in the initial group of 10, plus Captan (CAPT) and Phenytoin (DPH). Yet another useful endpoint reported here was the existence of high magnitude effects (i.e., dramatic alterations in frequency of occurrence of a variant). These included IF in TB and ACZM; PF in ACZM; PS in BUDR; FTI-C1 in TB and 245T; FTI-C2 in 245T; 14 Ribs in ACZM, BUDR, and TFL; Carpal Fus in TB; 27-PSV in ACZM; Fewer than (<) 30 Caudal Vertebrae (Vert) in 245T, TFL; Caudal Fus in TB, ACZM-D9. Eight treatment regimes in all could be detected by the existence of 3 or more high magnitude effects (245T, MNB, TB, ACZM8, ACZM9-11, phenytoin, and possibly BUDR on days 7 or 8, each seen
Bianchi, V.; Zantedeschi, A.; Levis, A.G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata); Ronchese, F. (Inst. of Pathological Anatomy, Padua (Italy))
The induction of DNA repair synthesis by UV-radiation and methylmethanesulphonate (MMS) was studied in mouse lymphocytes and leukemic cells by means of autoradiography and scintillation counting, after labelling in vitro with tritiated thymidine ((/sup 3/H)dThd). Repair stimulation was detected by both procedures in LSTRA AND YC8 leukemic cell lines as well as in primary fibroblasts of BALB/c and BALB/Mo mice. No stimulation was observed in primary cultures of lymphocytes from the spleen, thymus and lymph-nodes of the same mice. In primary lymphocytes neither stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) nor pre-incubation with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) were effective in making evident DNA repair. The data put into question the reliability of the repair test for the prediction of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.
BhBCLP 6270- BLR - L*B*BCLR 6280- BUDR - L*BCLDR 6290- BLDA - L*BCLDA 6300- BLDDT - L*BCLDDT 6310- BLDC - L*BCLDC 292 6320- YB *Y*CYB 6330- BYR - Y*B...YDDT 6520- 2220 FORMAT(2X,*NDDT - *,G13.6,7X,*LDDT - *,Gl3.6,3X,*YDDT - *,G13.6) 6530- WRITE(6,2230) BNDC, BLDC ,YDC 6540- 2230 FORIIAT(3X,*NDC...BLDR)/D 6640- PBNDA - (BNDA + R1*BLDA)/D 6650- PBNDDT -(BNDDT + R1*BLDDT)/D 6660- PBNDC - (BNDC + RL* BLDC )/D 6670- PBLB - (BLB + R2*BNB)/D 6680- PBLP
Jingu, Kenichi [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohmagari, Junichi; Uehara, Satoru [and others
The local control rates in 112 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus, initially treated at Kyushu University from 1976 to 1991 using radiotherapy alone, FAR-therapy (radiation with 5FU and Vitamin-A) or BUdR-FAR-therapy (BUdR followed by FAR-therapy), were retrospectly analyzed from pathological and clinical standpoints, to ascertain their respective effectiveness. The local control rates of T2 patients treated using radiotherapy alone, FAR-therapy and BUdR-FAR-therapy were 5%, 3% and 20% at Time-Dose-Factor(TDF) 30, 30%, 65% and 74% at TDF 50, and 80%, 99% and 97% at TDF 80, respectively. The local control rates of T3 patients were 1%, 1% and 0% at TDF 30, 18%, 46% and 22% at TDF 50, and 62%, 98% and 90% at TDF 80, respectively. Those of T4 patients were 0%, 0% and 0% at TDF 30, 7%, 13% and 9% at TDF 50, and 36%, 72% and 60% at TDF 80, respectively. The local control rates achieved by chemo-radiotherapy (FAR-therapy and BUdR-FAR-therapy) were higher than those achieved using radiotherapy alone, although the difference was small. (author).
Zhou, J; Crawford, L; McLean, L; Sun, X Y; Stanley, M; Almond, N; Smith, G L
The L1 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) driven by the vaccinia virus major late 4b gene promoter has been inserted into three different sites of the vaccinia virus genome. Insertion into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene was achieved by selection of TK- mutants in BUdR on TK- cells. Insertion into two vaccinia virus serine protease inhibitor (serpin) genes was achieved by co-insertion of the Escherichia coli xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene linked to the vaccinia virus 7.5K promoter and selection of mycophenolic acid-resistant recombinant viruses. Each recombinant virus expressed a 57K L1 protein at similar levels and with similar kinetics. However, immunization of mice with these recombinant viruses induced different levels of antibody to the L1 protein. Viruses lacking serpin genes B13R and B24R induced significantly higher antibody levels than did viruses lacking the TK gene. The presence of functional B13R and B24R gene products is therefore somehow immunosuppressive at least for antibody responses to the L1 protein of HPV-16.
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To study the efficacy of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT with radiosensitizer in comparison with WBRT alone for patients with brain metastases in terms of overall survival, disease progression, response to treatment and adverse effects of treatment. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed in order to compare WBRT with radiosensitizer for brain metastases and WBRT alone. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, in addition to Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were researched. Significant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently. Results A total of 8 RCTs, yielding 2317 patients were analyzed. Pooled results from this 8 RCTs of WBRT with radiosensitizer have not shown a meaningful improvement on overall survival compared to WBRT alone OR = 1.03 (95% CI0.84–1.25, p = 0.77. Also, there was no difference in local brain tumor response OR = 0.8(95% CI 0.5 – 1.03 and brain tumor progression (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.9 – 1.3 when the two arms were compared. Conclusion Our data show that WBRT with the following radiosentizers (ionidamine, metronidazole, misonodazole, motexafin gadolinium, BUdr, efaproxiral, thalidomide, have not improved significatively the overall survival, local control and tumor response compared to WBRT alone for brain metastases. However, 2 of them, motexafin- gadolinium and efaproxiral have been shown in recent publications (lung and breast to have positive action in lung and breast carcinoma brain metastases in association with WBRT.
Namba, Y; Jegasothy, B V; Waksman, B H
The conditions neccessary for production of inhibitor of DNA synthesis (IDS) by rat lymphocytes were investigated. In concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymph node cell (LNC) cultures, IDS production was not detected in the culture supernatant during the first 24 hr, and it increased gradually after that to reach a maximum at 3 to 4 days. When the cells were pretreated with mitomycin C, IDS was not produced, suggesting that DNA synthesis of LNC or a LNC subpopulation is necessary for IDS production. In contrast, Con A-stimulated spleen cells priduced a high level of IDS within 24 hr, and its production fell off sharply thereafter. Con A-stimulated rat thymocytes also produced IDS reaching a maximum at 2 to 3 dyas. However, thymus cells from rats treated with hydrocortisone 48 hr previously did not produce IDS. This finding implies that cortisol-sensitive (cortical) thymocytes are capable of producing IDS and cortisol-resistant (medullary) thymocytes are not. IDS production by lymphoblasts was proportional to cell number and unaffected eith by cell density (1 to 10 x 106/ml) or by the concomitant presence of normal cells from spleen, lymph node, or thymus. Thus Con A-stimulated cells, after becoming blasts, appear to produce IDS automatically wihtout affecting or being affected by other cells. Both spleen and thymus cells from rats injected with a large dose of antigen (ovalbumin, 100 mg, i.p.) 24 hr in advance produced substantial amounts of IDS in culture within 24 hr in the absence of mitogen or additional antigen, but not the cells from rats injected with an immunizing dose (1 mg) of the same antigen. The cells producing IDS in the spleen were shown to be adherent to glass wool, and those in the thymus were partially so. IDS production by antigen-stimulated spleen cells was abrogated by injecting rats with bromodexyuridine (BUdR) at 0 and 12 hr after the ovalbumin. These findings suggest that a subpopulation ofadherent spleen cells (possibly resembling cortical
国纪垒; 刁有祥; 薛聪; 王蛟; 李建侠; 唐熠; 程彦丽
从山东省自然发生疑似鸡包涵体肝炎的商品肉鸡群中分离到4株病毒。这些毒株的复制可被5-溴尿嘧啶2-脱氧核苷抑制，表明毒株的核酸类型为DNA；对乙醚和氯仿有抵抗力；耐酸不耐碱；对热敏感。根据已发表的Ⅰ群禽腺病毒hexon基因的保守区域设计合成了2对引物。用这2对引物对4株病毒的核酸模板进行PCR扩增，结果均扩增出与设计片段大小一致的片段。测序分析表明，4株分离株为Ⅰ群禽腺病毒。用本实验室自制的Ⅰ群禽腺病毒12个血清型参考毒株的抗血清进行双向琼脂扩散试验，证明4株病毒中1株为血清2型，其余3株为血清8型。%Four strains of aviadenovirus group Ⅰ were isolated from inclusion body hepatitis of suspected and named respectively Shandong Zhangqiu strain (SDZQ), Shandong Feixian strain (SDFX), Shandong Rizhao strain (SDRZ) and Shandong Weifang strain (SDWF). These strain's copy can be restrained from the BUDR, indicating the nucleic acid type for DNA. The AAV-Ⅰ should be resistant to ether and chloroform, acid-resigting, susceptible to base and heat. The primers were from the conserved hexon sequence data of published aviadenovirus group Ⅰ . An avian adeno virus specific bp product was amplified by the primers from hexon gene. These results confirmed that the 4 isolates were members caused by aviadenovirus group Ⅰ . Using rabbit antisera against all the 12 serotypes of AAV- Ⅰ proofed that one strain was type 2, the rest for three strains was type 8.
Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)
One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was