WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget process implications

  1. THE SUBJECTS OF MEDIADISCOURSE OF BUDGET PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vyacheslavovna Sulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the media discourse of the budget process in its subject-temporal dimension. Place and role of the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are determined on the basis of the analysis of budgetary legislation, practical implementation of the budgeting process in the executive and legislative bodies and its reflection in the media. Public discourse of budgeting process includes not only participants, who are legally empowered, but also other actors involved in the formation of the informational agenda regarding the budget. For example, the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are executive and legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, recipients of budgetary funds, political parties, professional and expert communities, civil society activists. Sociocommunicative description of the budgeting process and its subjects is presented based on analytical and inductive methods. At the same time political journalism is not only a space for the formation of media discourse and reflection of the budgetary process, but also one of the indicators of the state of the political system as a whole. The conclusions present methodological aids for the media discourse analysis of specific cases of the budgeting process and may be used for scientific and practical research.

  2. THE CONCEPTUAL CONTENT OF STATE BUDGET PROCESS IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Žubule, Ērika; Puzule, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the role of the budget in economy we may declare that the budget process should favour the social economic development of the state. The aim of the research is to explore and evaluate theoretical aspects of the state budget process as a component of the state financial policy and to work out proposals for improvement of the state budget process, based on the theoretical and empirical findings. The main objectives of the research were to study the foreign economic scientific literat...

  3. A Historical Analysis of the Biennial Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    impaired. The malady of the program phase also infected the budget phase. Decision making late in the budget process becomes shrouded in urgency...chair.(b Iude o s t dote bi nniu e alatly, aiebu deIt reviewedlon annuimicfo ally mratf ilont Commite and f~iwsoeemmntatiee, caipminted bytj ’peuh r...Budget Committee, became infected . In 1984, he observed "I dn think there needs to be some (budget) reform. But there is no reform that can substitute fur

  4. Budgeting and Acquisition Business Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Nichols Act reforms (1986) were intended to rectify this situation. Then, with the drawdown after the fall of the Soviet Union, budget offices were...significant constraint as a variable in analyses of the effectiveness and suitability of systems. CAIV is intended to reduce acquisition costs. After ...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns

  5. SHADOW PROCESSES INSTATE BUDGET: CURRENT CONDITION AND DETERMINING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most significant factors that move state budget into the shadow are determined. Current condition of shadow processes in state budget is highlighted. The paper also provides an analysis of relationship between political processes and shadow economy in public sector of Ukraine.

  6. Budget and budgetary process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gherghina DRILA

    2010-01-01

    The unitary system of budgets was an important moment in the evolution of public finances, creating the framework for more effective management and control over allocated funds, public finances becoming those interactive tools used to match the requirements of economic and social environment, also being a catalyst for development. Romanian economy hasn’t matured yet, we are to achieve satisfactory participation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which, concerning the budget, should be translated...

  7. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

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    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  8. TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING PROJECTS RISK IN CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real problems that can arise in capital budgeting process. Trough case study in article we analyzed risks that may emerge from different techniques. Conclusion that emerges from analyzing different methods of risk techniques is that only with right combination of these techniques corporate manager could decide correctly to choose optimal capital project.

  9. Draving Up a Budget Using The Activity Based Budgeting Methodology Through The Simulation Of Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Janíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a connection between financial and quality management systems. These departments only rarely cooperate on projects, which could be a loss, because this connection has many improvement opportunities. The author shows through the simple example of catering deliveries a possible procedure of how to reach a more realistic evaluation of production costs for each product and how to connect budgeting and process analysis.

  10. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  12. An Analysis of the Role of the Budget Committees in the Congressional Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Quarterly, 10 Jan. 1987, pp. 44-50. 17. Ibid., p. 44 67 18. Stephen Gettinger, "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate...New in $1 Trillion 1988 Budget Request." Congressional Quarterly, (10 Jan. 1987). "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate

  13. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  14. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  15. 17 CFR 202.11 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; (vii) Descriptions of the operations, processes, staff skills, information and other technologies..., including advances in technology, could have on program operations and administration. (10) Supplemental..., budget justification, supplemental budget and other report or communication in compliance with...

  16. Carbon Budget for Basic Needs: Implications of International Equity and Sustainability%Carbon Budget for Basic Needs: Implications of International Equity and Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiahua

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental way of satisfying the basic needs of human development is to secure the basic needs, limit luxurious and wasteful emissions, and ensure the fulfillment of climate targets, so as to achieve intra- and intergenerational equity. In this paper, the author discusses and analyzes a series of challenges that the development has to face, such as poverty elimination, urbanization, and industrialization, and the problems of increased consumption that is brought about by the improvement of living standards; the author distinguishes the stock emission, which does not need annual updating, and the flow emission of regular consumption; the author also defines the standards of energy consumption and carbon emissions that can meet the basic needs. On this basis, the author proposes the concept and method of carbon budget, compares this method with other means, and in particular, studies and analyzes the implications of international equity and sustainability of carbon budget as part of the international climate regime design.

  17. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  18. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  19. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1989-08-01

    We are now beginning a long term exploration of environmental constraints on continent-wide growth and reproduction in ectotherms and endotherms. We have begun to study a new lizard species, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, an active forager with a wide geographic distribution. Our state-of-the-art vacuum gas analysis system continues to function well, and we are using doubly labeled wear routinely in our research to test our first principle calculations of field metabolism and water loss. The computer controlled respirometer system routinely measures respiratory gases and body temperatures in small living mammals. We have just added two more species of mammals, Gerbillus allenbyi and Gerbillus pyramidum from Israel, to the list of 9 species of mammals and two species of birds for which we have successfully tested the dry fur model. We use gas respirometry in the laboratory and doubly labeled water in the field to verify the calculations of our models. We continue to focus on the dynamics of interactions between environmental and animal variance and their implications for growth and reproduction and the links between environmental effects on organisms and population dynamics. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Processes linking the hydrological cycle and the atmospheric radiative budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueglistaler, Stephan; Dinh, Tra

    2016-04-01

    We study the response of the strength of the global hydrological cycle to changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) using the HiRAM General Circulation Model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), with the objective to better connect the well-known energetic constraints to physical processes. We find that idealized model setups using a global slab ocean and annual mean insolation give similar scalings as coupled atmosphere-ocean models with realistic land and topography. Using the surface temperatures from the slab ocean runs, we analyse the response in the atmospheric state and hydrological cycle separately for a change in CO2 (but fixed surface temperature), and for a change in surface temperature (but fixed CO2). The former perturbation is also referred to as the "fast" response, whereas the latter is commonly used to diagnose a model's climate sensitivity. As expected from the perspective of the atmospheric radiative budget, an increase in CO2 at fixed surface temperature decreases the strength of the hydrological cycle, and an increase in surface temperature increases the strength of the hydrological cycle. However, the physical processes that connect the atmospheric radiative energy budget to the sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface remain not well understood. The responses to the two perturbations are linearly additive, and we find that the experiment with fixed surface temperature and changes in CO2 is of great relevance to understanding the total response. This result points to the importance of local radiative heating rate changes rather than just the net atmospheric radiative loss of energy. Although larger in magnitude, the response to changes in surface temperature is dominated by the temperature dependence of the water vapor pressure, but in both cases changes in near-surface relative humidity are very important.

  1. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  2. Ecosystem Modeling of Biological Processes to Global Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Potter S.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    biosphere effects on atmospheric composition is the ecosystem level. These assumptions are the foundation for developing modern emission budgets for biogenic gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, isoprene, nitrous and nitric oxide, and ammonia. Such emission budgets commonly include information on seasonal flux patterns, typical diurnal profiles, and spatial resolution of at least one degree latitude/longitude for the globe. On the basis of these budgets, it is possible to compute 'base emission rates' for the major biogenic trace gases from both terrestrial and ocean sources, which may be useful benchmarks for defining the gas production rates of organisms, especially those from early Earth history, which are required to generate a detectable signal on a global atmosphere. This type of analysis is also the starting point for evaluation of the 'biological processes to global gas budget' extrapolation procedure described above for early Earth ecosystems.

  3. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.

    2011-01-01

    concentrations and deposition predictions with the predictions of two continental-scale air quality models, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and A Unified Regional Air-quality Modeling System (AURAMS) that utilize complete inventories of emissions and chemical budgets. The results of this comparison indicated that the predictive relationship provides an accurate representation of SO2 concentrations and S deposition for the region that is generally consistent with these models, and thus provides confidence that our approach could be used to develop accurate watershed S budgets for these 15 sites. Most watersheds showed large net losses of SO42- on an annual basis, and the watershed mass balances were grouped into five categories based on the relative value of mean annual net losses or net gains. The net annual fluxes of SO42- showed a strong relationship with hydrology; the largest net annual negative fluxes were associated with years of greatest precipitation amount and highest discharge. The important role of catchment hydrology on S budgets suggests implications for future predicted climate change as it affects patterns of precipitation and drought. The sensitivity of S budgets is likely to be greatest in watersheds with the greatest wetland area, which are particularly sensitive to drying and wetting cycles. A small number of the watersheds in this analysis were shown to have substantial S sources from mineral weathering, but most showed evidence of an internal source of SO42-, which is likely from the mineralization of organic S stored from decades of increased S deposition. Mobilization of this internal S appears to contribute about 1-6 kg S ha-1 year-1 to stream fluxes at these sites and is affecting the rate and extent of recovery from acidification as S deposition rates have declined in recent years. This internal S source should be considered when developing critical deposition loads that will promote ecosystem recovery from acidification and the depl

  4. Pedogenetic processes and carbon budgets in soils of Queretaro, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Calderón, Norma Eugenia; Fuentes Romero, Elizabeth; Hernandez Silva, Gilberto

    2014-05-01

    Pedogenetic processes have been investigated in two different physiographic regions of the state of Querétaro in order to assess the carbon budget of soils, looking into the gains and losses of organic and inorganic carbon: In the mountain region of the natural reserve Sierra Gorda (SG) with soils developed on cretaceous argillites and shales under sub-humid temperate to semi-arid conditions, and in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) with soils developed on acid and intermediate igneous rocks under humid temperate climate in the highlands and semi-arid and subhumid subtropical conditions in the lowlands. The analyses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) of the SG region, including additional physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations were based on 103 topsoils in an area of 170 km2. The analyses in the TMVB region were based on the profiles of a soil toposequence from high mountainous positions down to the plains of the lowlands. The results show a SOC accumulation from temperate to semi-arid forest environments, based on processes of humification and clay formation including the influence of exchangeable Ca and the quantity and quality of clay minerals. The turnover rates of SOC and SIC depended largely on the rock parent materials, especially the presence of carbonate rocks. Moreover, we found that the SOC content and distribution was clearly depending on land use, decreasing from forests to agricultural land, such as pasture and cropping areas and were lowest under mining sites. The highest SIC pools were found in accumulation horizons of soils under semi-arid conditions. On all investigated sites SOC decreased the mobility of cations and especially that of heavy metals, such as As, Hg, Sb, Pb, and Cd.

  5. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    influence on the mechanisms that generate economic stability and economic development effort. For example, on the short-term, the budget deficit reduces the national saving, leads to decreased supply of market funds, which increases the interest rates. In this context, the volume of investment decreases, the consumption is reduced, affecting the volume of economic activities and employment. The psychological influences combined with the economic boost caused by budget deficits act directly on financial markets, leading to falling down the values of capital markets and the depreciation of the currencies sometimes sudden for the national currency. Even if the depreciation of the exchange rate is often a method used to equilibrate the commercial balance, an uncontrolled amplification of budgetary deficits can sometimes lead to monetary depreciation. These, over a certain level, can neutralize the benefits obtained in the external plan by strong worsening of the internal imbalances, mainly through the increased inflationary pressures in the economy. So, in current circumstances, when you want to identify and encourage those branches and sub-branches of national economy which can be developed in the global economy, one of the basic decisions regarding the interpretation of economic processes is the adoption of a dynamic and creative concept which considers both requirements to use the fiscal levers in economic development policy and the possibility of modifying the structure of budgetary revenues and expenses.

  6. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  7. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  8. Participative Budgeting as a Communication Process: A Model and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Partici- pative Budgeting on Managerial Behavior. New York: National Association of Accountants , 1975. Vroom , Victor H . Some Personality...Determinants of the Effects of Participation. Englewood Cliffs , N.J.: Prentice—Hall , Inc., 1960. Vroom , Victor H . and Yetton , Philli p W. Leadership and...about which you are concerned 3. Does your immediate superior ask your opi nion when a p rcb lem comes up that involves your work 16Victor H . Vroom

  9. Neuronet Modelling of the Processes of Budgeting and Use of Labour Resources at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlіnska Olha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues of efficient budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It proves expediency of use of modern neuronet, namely, multilayer perceptron, for solution of tasks of modelling the process of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It shows that Statistika is the best software package for creation of neuronets of the multilayer perceptron architecture. On the basis of analysis and comparative characteristic the article selects the topology and builds a neuronet model of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises.

  10. Health sector operational planning and budgeting processes in Kenya-"never the twain shall meet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Operational planning is considered an important tool for translating government policies and strategic objectives into day-to-day management activities. However, developing countries suffer from persistent misalignment between policy, planning and budgeting. The Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) was introduced to address this misalignment. Kenya adopted the MTEF in the early 2000s, and in 2005, the Ministry of Health adopted the Annual Operational Plan process to adapt the MTEF to the health sector. This study assessed the degree to which the health sector Annual Operational Plan process in Kenya has achieved alignment between planning and budgeting at the national level, using document reviews, participant observation and key informant interviews. We found that the Kenyan health sector was far from achieving planning and budgeting alignment. Several factors contributed to this problem including weak Ministry of Health stewardship and institutionalized separation between planning and budgeting processes; a rapidly changing planning and budgeting environment; lack of reliable data to inform target setting and poor participation by key stakeholders in the process including a top-down approach to target setting. We conclude that alignment is unlikely to be achieved without consideration of the specific institutional contexts and the power relationships between stakeholders. In particular, there is a need for institutional integration of the planning and budgeting processes into a common cycle and framework with common reporting lines and for improved data and local-level input to inform appropriate and realistic target setting. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Army Corps of Engineers: Budget Formulation Process Emphasizes Agencywide Priorities, but Transparency of Budget Presentation Could be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    used for specific projects, and projects are classified mainly into these accounts. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program ( FUSRAP ) is...weapons and relatively small size (the fiscal year 2010 budget request for the Corps included 24 FUSRAP projects). To understand the Corps’ budget

  12. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Sarah E; Finlay, Jacques C; Janke, Benjamin D; Nidzgorski, Daniel A; Millet, Dylan B; Baker, Lawrence A

    2017-04-03

    Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and pet waste dominated N and P inputs, respectively, underscoring the importance of household actions in influencing urban watershed nutrient budgets. Watersheds retained only 22% of net P inputs versus 80% of net N inputs (watershed area-weighted averages, where net inputs equal inputs minus biomass removal) despite relatively low P inputs. In contrast to many nonurban watersheds that exhibit high P retention, these urban watersheds have high street density that enhanced transport of P-rich materials from landscapes to stormwater. High P exports in storm drainage networks and yard waste resulted in net P losses in some watersheds. Comparisons of the N/P stoichiometry of net inputs versus storm drain exports implicated denitrification or leaching to groundwater as a likely fate for retained N. Thus, these urban watersheds exported high quantities of N and P, but via contrasting pathways: P was exported primarily via stormwater runoff, contributing to surface water degradation, whereas N losses additionally contribute to groundwater pollution. Consequently, N management and P management require different strategies, with N management focusing on reducing watershed inputs and P management also focusing on reducing P movement from vegetated landscapes to streets and storm drains.

  13. ACCOUNTING REPORTS AND BUDGET PROCESS IN THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC SECTOR BETWEEN CONVERGENCE AND CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena\tHLACIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the 1 of January 2014, the Romanian public sector has undergone a long transformation process: the change in the order of the organization and management of public institutions accounting, the chart of accounts and the instructions for its implementation, the implementation of an electronic reporting system for financial statements, the automatic verification within the system of whether the payments are within the budget or not, providing information on revenue achievement and payments made. Other measures are to be implemented such as the electronic signing by the credit release authorities of the revenue and expense budget. Even if these measures were for testing purposes in 2014, they influenced the work of the public sector professional accountant, on the one hand, and the public sector as a whole, on the other hand. In the present paper, we will present the effects of these changes on the budget transparency and especially on budgetary efficiency and the accounting reports.

  14. Spatiotemporal Variability of the Urban Water Budget and Implications for Distributed Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In seeking to understand the feedbacks between urban development and water availability, we are in the process of coupling an integrated hydrologic model with an urban growth model, both of the Baltimore, Maryland, USA region. We are implementing ParFlow.CLM as the integrated hydrologic model (a subsurface-surface flow/land surface processes model) for the 13,000 sq km Baltimore metropolitan area. This work requires an understanding of the distribution of flows and making decisions on how to best model the short-circuiting of water and other phenomena unique to urban systems. In order to assess the attributes of available data, we conducted a study of the urban water budget from 2000 to 2009 and across an urban to rural gradient of development. For 65 watersheds in the Baltimore metropolitan area we quantified both natural (precipitation, evapotranspiration and streamflow) and engineered or piped (wastewater infiltration and inflow, lawn irrigation, water supply pipe leakage and reservoir withdrawals) water budget components on a monthly basis. We used monthly PRISM grids for precipitation, the land surface model GLDAS- Noah for gridded evapotranspiration estimates and streamflow from USGS gage records. For piped components, we used Baltimore City's comprehensive wastewater monitoring program data, which has infiltration and inflow estimates for most of the city's sewer basins, as well as estimates of lawn irrigation from fine-scale land cover data and lawn watering estimates, and water supply pipe leakage based on system wide values and the distribution of water supply pipes. We found that when solely considering natural components, urban watersheds generally appeared to have excess water, although the spatial variability was much higher for urban watersheds as compared to rural ones. This apparent excess water was more than accounted for by the most significant piped component, the export of groundwater and rainwater by cracks and improper connections to the

  15. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  16. BUDGET PLANNING IN COSTA RICAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: IT’S IMPLICATION IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaños Garita, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The political, legal, administrative and conceptual dimensions that shape and determine budget planning in Costa Rica, understood as the alignment of public budgets to National Development Plan and their breakdowns of second, third and fourth grade; constitute a whole range to be fully aware of Executive, starting with the President (maximum administrator and national ruler) and the Ministers of National Planning and Economic Policy, Finance and makers reach Budgetary Programs as well. Simila...

  17. Supporting Education... Building Canada: Child Poverty and Schools. Federal Budget 2009. Summary/Implications for Teachers and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Teachers' Federation (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In November The Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF), as part of the pre-budget consultation process, made a submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance. Entitled "Supporting Education... Building Canada: Child Poverty and Schools" the brief outlined why teachers saw child poverty as such an important issue to be…

  18. Understanding the Budget Process Bütçe Sürecini Anlamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline J. Daubert

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Line-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget. During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons. Kütüphanelerde bir çok farklı bütçeleme tekniği kullanılabilir ve bu tekniklerin bazı kombinasyonları, hemen hemen her özel durum için uygundur. Kalem, Program, Performans, Formül, Değişken ve Sıfır-tabanlı bütçelerinin hepsi, bir bütçenin hazırlanmasında yararlı olacak özelliklere sahiptirler. Bütçeler aynı zamanda kısa ve uzun vadeli parasal planlamaları ve belli bir zaman sürecinde para idaresini sağlamak gibi çeşitli işlere hizmet ederler. Kısa vadeli projeler, cari bütçede yansıtılırken, uzun vadeli planlar yatırım bütçede yansıtılırlar. Nakitin kurumun kullanımına hazır olduğu zamanlarla, ödemelerin yapılacağı zamanlar genellikle çakışmadığından, bir nakit b

  19. The Missing Source of Glyoxal (CHOCHO) over China and Its Implications on Organic Aerosol Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Recent comparisons between satellite observed and global model simulated glyoxal (CHOCHO) have consistently revealed a large unknown source of glyoxal over China [1, 2, 3]. We explore this missing glyoxal source by analyzing SCIAMACHY observed glyoxal columns using a Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM). This missing source, which is quantified by the difference between SCIAMACHY observed and REAM simulated glyoxal columns (ΔCHOCHO), is found to mostly exist over regions with low emissions of biogenic glyoxal precursors (mainly isoprene) and collocate with dense population and high anthropogenic aromatic VOC emissions. We apply inverse modeling to constrain glyoxal precursor emissions based on SCIAMACHY measurements and find that this missing source is most likely caused by substantially underestimated aromatics (up to 20 times, varying spatially) in VOC emission inventories over China used in current regional and global models [4]. Analyses of in situ observations at ground level in Beijing assist to confirm this finding. The top-down estimated aromatics emission is 13.4 Tg/yr in total, about 6 times of the bottom-up estimate (2.4 Tg/yr), and leads to ~50% increase (from 23.2Tg/yr to 34.2 Tg/yr) of the total VOC emissions over China. The associated impact on regional oxidant levels is large, e.g. ~100% increase of PAN and ~30% increase of O3 in the afternoon. Furthermore, since aromatics are important precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), such significant low bias of aromatics over China in current models could also contribute to the underestimated organic aerosols (OA) over the region found in previous modeling studies [5]. The implications of the quite uncertain emissions of SOA precursors over China on regional and global OA budgets are discussed. [1] Fu et al., 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15303, doi:10.1029/2007JD009505. [2] Myriokefalitakis et al.,2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4965-4981. [3] Stavrakou et al.,2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 8431

  20. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-03-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  1. A Public Choice Theory of Budgets: Implications for Education in Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The rate of growth in government spending (particularly, slow growth or decline) has an important impact on the effectiveness of resource allocation. Data from 47 developing nations was used to test a model, based on public choice theory, of interest-group behavior and educational budget growth/decline. Government spending trends were related to…

  2. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  3. Prediction of Suspended Sediment in Rivers Using Artificial Neural Networks: Implications for Development of Sediment Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshaw, S. D.; Underwood, K.; Rizzo, D.; Wemple, B. C.; Dewoolkar, M.

    2013-12-01

    Over 1,000 river miles in Vermont are either impaired or stressed by excessive sedimentation. The higher streamflows and incised river channels have resulted in increased bed and bank erosion. As the climate in Vermont is expected to feature greater and more frequent precipitation events and winter rainfall, the potential for increased sediment loading from erosion processes in the watershed and along the channel are high and a major concern for water resource managers. Typical sediment monitoring comprises periodic sampling during storm events and is often limited to gauged streams with flow data. Continuous turbidity monitoring enhances our understanding of river dynamics by offering high-resolution, temporal measurements to better quantify the total sediment loading occurring during and between storm events. Artificial neural networks, that mimic learning patterns of the human brain, have been effective at predicting flow in small, ungauged rivers using local climate data. This study advances this technology by using an ANN algorithm known as a counter-propagation neural network (CPNN) to predict discharge and suspended sediment in small streams. The first distributed network of continuous turbidity sensors (DTS-12) was deployed in Vermont in the Mad River Watershed, located in Central Vermont. The Mad River and five tributaries were selected as a test bed because seven years of periodic turbidity sampling data are available, it represents a range of watershed characteristics, and because the watershed is also being used for hydrologic model development using the Distributed-Hydrology-Soils-Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Comparison with the DHSVM simulations will allow estimation of the most-likely sources of sediment from the entire watershed and individual subwatersheds. In addition, recent field studies have commenced the quantification of erosion occurring from unpaved roads and streambanks in the same watershed. Periodic water quality sampling during storm

  4. Carbon budgets for two Portuguese estuaries: implications for the management and conservation of coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    The results presented illustrate that Tagus and Sado estuaries represent an important land/ocean boundary for carbon transformation and emission, and confirm the anthropogenic pressure that these estuaries are subject to. Carbon budgets vary markedly within and between these two estuaries reflecting the human pressure. Anthropogenic inputs, autochthonous carbon production and primary production are indicated as the main responsible for the carbon production within the estuaries. Both estuaries export carbon to the ocean and to the atmosphere. The inorganic carbon faction has a major role in the carbon budget, enriching the ocean in carbon dioxide, contributing this for the greenhouse effect. Our understanding of organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in Tagus and Sado estuaries is vital for an efficient protection and preservation of such ecosystems being helpful in limit human-caused damage and in restoring damaged estuarine/coastal ecosystems. In addition, the economic impact of the carbon fluxes to the atmosphere, estimated as €375,000 per year, creates the appropriate incentives to reduce emissions and shift them to higher-value uses. Suggesting, therefore, a coastal management re-oriented towards a more adaptive approach through the use of carbon market-based policies. This study is a contribution to the integration of coastal and global carbon cycles. However, additional efforts are required to fully merge other components subsystems, such as salt marshes, with these budgets. Moreover, a fully comprehension of the community metabolism in these estuaries will greatly improve this integration.

  5. Microseepage in drylands: Flux and implications in the global atmospheric source/sink budget of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, Giuseppe; Klusman, Ronald W.

    2010-07-01

    Drylands are considered a net sink for atmospheric methane and a main item of the global inventories of the greenhouse gas budget. It is outlined here, however, that a significant portion of drylands occur over sedimentary basins hosting natural gas and oil reservoirs, where gas migration to the surface takes place, producing positive fluxes of methane into the atmosphere. New field surveys, in different hydrocarbon-prone basins, confirm that microseepage, enhanced by faults and fractures in the rocks, overcomes the methanotrophic consumption occurring in dry soil throughout large areas, especially in the winter season. Fluxes of a few units to some tens of mg m - 2 day - 1 are frequent over oil-gas fields, whose global extent is estimated at 3.5-4.2 million km 2; higher fluxes (> 50 mg m - 2 day - 1 ) are primarily, but not exclusively, found in basins characterized by macro-seeps. Microseepage may however potentially exist over a wider area (˜ 8 million km 2, i.e. 15% of global drylands), including the Total Petroleum Systems, coal measures and portions of sedimentary basins that have experienced thermogenesis. Based on a relatively large and geographically dispersed data-set (563 measurements) from different hydrocarbon-prone basins in USA and Europe, upscaling suggests that global microseepage emission exceeding 10 Tg year - 1 is very likely. Microseepage is then only one component of a wider class of geological sources, including mud volcanoes, seeps, geothermal and marine seepage, which cannot be ignored in the atmospheric methane budget.

  6. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  7. A perspective on the states` role in the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management budget process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; Hinman, P. [Carter, Brock & Hinman, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responding in 1994 to proposed budget reductions and predicted funding shortfalls, the Office of Environmental Management at the Department of Energy began working closely with its regulators and stakeholders to prioritize activities. In a series of national and site specific meetings held with representatives of states, the Environmental Protection Agency, Indian tribes and the public, the Department of Energy brought regulators and other stakeholders into its budget development process in a {open_quotes}bottoms up{close_quotes} approach to the prioritization of activities at each of its sites. This paper presents an overview of this process which began last year and will highlight its unique cooperative nature. This paper will assess ways of institutionalizing this process. It also identifies issues to be addressed in resolving matters related to future budgets. Areas of concern to the Department of Energy`s host states and their regulators will be identified as they relate to waste management, cleanup and facility transition activities.

  8. Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

  9. Microwave annealing, a low-thermal-budget process for dopant activation in phosphorus-implanted MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheol-Min; Cho, Won-Ju

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigated a low-thermal-budget dopant activation process based on microwave annealing (MWA) of phosphorus ions implanted by plasma doping and compared the proposed technique with the conventional furnace annealing and the rapid thermal annealing processes. We fabricated p-n junction diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on silicon and silicon-on-insulator substrates, respectively, in order to examine the dopant activation resulting from MWA. The investigated low-thermal-budget MWA technique proved effective for implanted dopant atom activation and diffusion suppression. In addition, a good interface property between the gate oxide and the silicon channel was achieved. Thus, low-thermal-budget MWA is a promising and effective method for the fabrication of highly-integrated semiconductor devices.

  10. Implications of land use change on the national terrestrial carbon budget of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Pontus

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, the loss of forests now contributes almost 20% of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. There is an immediate need to reduce the current rates of forest loss, and the associated release of carbon dioxide, but for many areas of the world these rates are largely unknown. The Soviet Union contained a substantial part of the world's forests and the fate of those forests and their effect on carbon dynamics remain unknown for many areas of the former Eastern Bloc. For Georgia, the political and economic transitions following independence in 1991 have been dramatic. In this paper we quantify rates of land use changes and their effect on the terrestrial carbon budget for Georgia. A carbon book-keeping model traces changes in carbon stocks using historical and current rates of land use change. Landsat satellite images acquired circa 1990 and 2000 were analyzed to detect changes in forest cover since 1990. Results The remote sensing analysis showed that a modest forest loss occurred, with approximately 0.8% of the forest cover having disappeared after 1990. Nevertheless, growth of Georgian forests still contribute a current national sink of about 0.3 Tg of carbon per year, which corresponds to 31% of the country anthropogenic carbon emissions. Conclusions We assume that the observed forest loss is mainly a result of illegal logging, but we have not found any evidence of large-scale clear-cutting. Instead local harvesting of timber for household use is likely to be the underlying driver of the observed logging. The Georgian forests are a currently a carbon sink and will remain as such until about 2040 if the current rate of deforestation persists. Forest protection efforts, combined with economic growth, are essential for reducing the rate of deforestation and protecting the carbon sink provided by Georgian forests.

  11. Relationship between organizational life cycle and budgeting process in mechanical metal company of high and middle Valley Itajaí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was investigate the relationship of the different stages of organizational life cycle of companies in the field of mechanical metal in Alto and Médio Vale do Itajaí, with the profile of the budgeting process. The methodology used was characterized as descriptive performed by means of a survey, with a quantitative approach. We used a questionnaire with 54 questions divided into four blocks, adapted from Frezatti et al. (2010. The life cycle model in the implement of research is to Miller and Friesen (1984. Questionnaires were sent to 193 companies in the metal mechanic industry of the Alto and Médio Vale do Itajaí. We obtained 31 answers who were treated statistically by means of descriptive statistics, discriminant analysis and correlation analysis. The results show that most companies are in stages of birth and rejuvenation. It was also found that the budgeting process most commonly used by companies is budgetary control. It was identified that there is a relationship between budgeting process artifacts and the stage of life cycle that the company is, but this use occurs differently in each stage. Thus it is concluded that, as the company becomes more complex and advanced stages of the life cycle, the greater is the use of budgeting process, with significant drop in the use of these artifacts when the company is at the stage of decline.

  12. Exploring the Dynamics and Modeling National Budget as a Supply Chain System: A Proposal for Reengineering the Budgeting Process and for Developing a Management Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Depression, it was generally accepted that the budget should be balanced, Keynes proposed that budget deficits may be desirable in periods of recession to...debt matter? As aforementioned, balanced budgets was the prevailing strategy, until Keynes developed his theory according to which deficits may be...schools of economic thought seems to have started on October 1932. In particular, Keynes and five more economists (MacGregor, Pigou, Layton, Salter and

  13. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  14. Survey the Process of Collection and Turnover of Receivables, Yearly Budget Laws in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study:  The evaluation of financial performance is one of the main tasks of the manager that is very important. Any decision-making and rational planning in order to increase the productivity and survey the effect of adopted decision on the organization performance is in relation to the accurate assessment of financial performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of collection and turnover of receivables and rules of hospital budget in Qom University of medical sciences during the fourth and fifth development plans. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study. It was used from researcher-made forms for collecting data. The data after collection from financial filing unit entered to the excel software and then the period of receivables collection, circulation of receivables,average daily sales and average intake accounts were analyzed,using activity ratios formula. Results: Our findings show that during the fourth and fifth development programs, the turnover of receivables decreased from four times to three times in the year and it is less than the least standard that is five times in the year. The period of receivables collection increased from 72 days to 147 days and it is more than the maximum standard that is 67 days. This issue is the indication of bad situations of insurance companies of under-contract with hospitals in paying of their obligations during study period. Conclusion: The period of collection and turnover of receivables of selected hospitals takes distance from the standard amount that needs to intervention at the macro level of decision-making. This study showed that resorting to legal leverage over the fourth and fifth development plan have not any impact on the improvement of reimbursement process. Therefore, the practical action of politicians about reformation of insurance’s structure and review of the ways of financing can be effective.

  15. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS ON THE BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEFAULT ON ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL STEFAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the audit/control missions, there were registered inaccurate situations which concern the correct registration of financial and exceptional operation revenues and expenditures, based on documents attesting their way and content. Thus, in the relation between the local budget of the administrative-territorial unit and two trading companies of local interest, with regard to the granting of subventions to the two companies, there were identified certain value discrepancies between the amounts approved by the local budget, in less and those provided in the budgets of the entities under discussion. The discrepancies of the budgets mentioned above had direct consequences on the reality of financial statements of the respective partners, on their budgets and on the fiscal regimes of the local subordination entities.

  16. Sediment budget for a polluted Hawaiian reef using hillslope monitoring and process mapping (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. D.; Rosener, M.; Schmidt, K. M.; Hanshaw, M. N.; Brooks, B. A.; Tribble, G.; Jacobi, J.

    2010-12-01

    Pollution from coastal watersheds threatens the ecology of the nearshore, including tropical reefs. Suspended sediment concentrations off the reefs of Molokai, Hawaii, chronically exceed a toxic 10 mg/L, threatening reef ecosystems. We hypothesize that historic conversion of hillslope processes from soil creep to overland flow increased both magnitude and frequency of erosion. To create a process sediment budget, we used surficial and ecological mapping, hillslope and stream gages, and novel sensors to locate, quantify and model the generation of fine sediments polluting the reef. Ecological and geomorphic mapping from LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery located overland flow areas with vegetation cover below a threshold preventing erosion. Here, feral goat grazing exposed volcanic soils whose low matrix hydraulic conductivities (1-25 mm/hour) promote Horton overland flow. We instrumented steep, barren hillslopes with soil moisture sensors, overland flow meters, Parshal flumes, ISCO sediment samplers, and a rain gage and conducted repeat Tripod LiDAR and infiltration tests. To characterize soil resistance to overland flow erosion, we used a Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) to simulate water stress. At the 13.5 km 2 watershed mouth we used a USGS stream gage with an ISCO sediment sampler to estimate total load. Over 3 years, storms triggered overland flow during rainfall intensities above 10-15 mm/hr. Overland flow meters indicate such flows can be up to 3 cm deep, with a tendency to deepen downslope. CSM tests indicate that these depths are insufficient to erode soils where vegetation is dense, but far above threshold values of 2-3 mm for bare soils. Sediment ratings curves for both hillslope and downstream catchment gages show clock-wise hysteresis during the first intense storms in the fall, becoming linear later in the season. During fall storms, sediment concentration is often 10X higher at a given stage. Revised annual lowering rates from experimental hillslopes are

  17. An Examination of the Decision-Making Processes Used by Superintendents in Reducing School District Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance of Harvey et al.'s (1997) 13 problem-solving strategies for making retrenchment decisions on school district budgets as perceived by California superintendents of medium-sized school districts. Methodology: The subjects in the present study were 86 superintendents of…

  18. U.S. Budgeting for the United Nations: Process, Policy, and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    be charged if based on UN regular budget percentages. A complex formula of special discounts by many nations further biased the system ( Crossette ...planning ( Crossette , 2000). 31 3. Peacekeeping Recommendations In addition to instances of financial and other scandals, the UN peacekeeping...started in 30 days instead of several months, and the use of expert advance teams to regions with complex military and political situations ( Crossette

  19. Triannual Review Processes Need Improvement at Three Naval Budget Submitting Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    ERP ); and { Defense Industrial Financial Management System. USMC: • delivers combine-arms task forces to global crises and operates under DoN; and...the 60 obligations reviewed. NAVAIR funds holders provided purchase order history screen prints from Navy ERP and Defense Industrial Fund Management ...used different Navy accounting systems, Navy ERP and Defense Industrial Financial Management System, Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting

  20. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  1. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  2. Use of a process-based model for assessing the methane budgets of global terrestrial ecosystems and evaluation of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the global terrestrial budget of methane (CH4 by using a process-based biogeochemical model (VISIT and inventory data for components of the budget that were not included in the model. Emissions from wetlands, paddy fields, biomass burning, and plants, as well as oxidative consumption by upland soils, were simulated by the model. Emissions from ruminant livestock and termites were evaluated by using an inventory approach. These CH4 flows were estimated for each of the model's 0.5° × 0.5° grid cells from 1901 to 2009, while accounting for atmospheric composition, meteorological factors, and land-use changes. Estimation uncertainties were examined through ensemble simulations using different parameterization schemes and input data (e.g., different wetland maps and emission factors. From 1996 to 2005, the average global terrestrial CH4 budget was estimated on the basis of 1152 simulations, and terrestrial ecosystems were found to be a net source of 308.3 ± 20.7 Tg CH4 yr−1. Wetland and livestock ruminant emissions were the primary sources. The results of our simulations indicate that sources and sinks are distributed highly heterogeneously over the Earth's land surface. Seasonal and interannual variability in the terrestrial budget was also assessed. The trend of increasing net emission from terrestrial sources and its relationship with temperature variability imply that terrestrial CH4 feedbacks will play an increasingly important role as a result of future climatic change.

  3. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  4. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

  5. Amphibole-rich intrusive mafic and ultramafic rocks in arc settings: implications for the H2O budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiepolo, M.; Langone, A.; Morishita, T.; Esna-Ashari, A.; Tribuzio, R.

    2011-12-01

    Although amphibole is rarely a phenocryst of arc lavas, many intermediate and silicic magmas in arc settings are considered residual after cryptic amphibole crystallization at mid-low crustal levels (e.g., Davidson et al., 2007). Amphibole-rich mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks (hornblendites, amphibole-gabbros to amphibole-diorites) are reported worldwide in orogenic settings. These amphibole-rich plutonics could be the "hidden" amphibole reservoir invoked in the arc crust. They usually possess chemical and textural heterogeneities recording the magmatic processes occurring in the mid to low crust (e.g., Tiepolo et al., 2011). Being amphibole-rich, these intrusive rocks are an important source of information on the possible role played by amphibole in arc magma petrogenesis. In particular, for the capability of amphibole to incorporate H2O and elements with a marked affinity for the fluid phase, these rocks are also useful to track the origin and evolution of subduction related fluids. We present here geochemical and geochronologic data on amphibole-rich ultramafic intrusive rocks from different localities worldwide: i) Alpine Orogen (Adamello Batholith and Bregell intrusions); ii) Ross Orogen (Husky Ridge intrusion - Antarctica); iv) Japan Arc (Shikanoshima Island intrusion); v) Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Central Iran (Aligoordaz granitoid complex). The coupling of textural information, micro-chemical data and "in situ" zircon geochronology has allowed us to show that these ultramafic intrusive rocks share striking petrologic and geochemical similarities. They are thus the expression of a common magmatic activity that is independent from the age and from the local geological setting and thus related to a specific petrogenetic process. Amphibole-rich mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks are retained a common feature of collisional-systems worldwide. Amphibole is thus expected to play a major role in the differentiation of arc magmas and in particular in the H2O

  6. The problematic aspects of processes of introduction and using the program–purposeful method of budgeting for programs of supporting and development of small business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Vatamanyuk–Zelinska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main principles of using the program-purposeful method in budget process of Ukraine is researched. The opportunities of multifunctional using of enterprises of small business according to their program-financial support are researched. The aim of research is putting the connection between the budget appropriation and results of using the budget funds for increasing the entrepreneurial potential of the territory. The results of made research are connected with the consequences of influence of using the program-purposeful method (PPM on the next development of budget planning system; analysis of practical experience of program-purposeful planning of expenses and management in sphere of small business and determining of trends of next improving of these processes

  7. Process technology implications of procurement process: some initial observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ellmer, E.; Emmerich, W.; Finkelstein, A

    1998-01-01

    We report on a study of procurement processes in a large organization. The purpose of the study was to identify problems in the organization’s procurement processesand to suggestimprovement actions.Procurement processesdetermine the characteristics of software processes. Procurement processes are themselves complex and amenable to process technology. Cost and scheduling benefits can be realised if procurement and contracting organizations integrate their respective processes...

  8. The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

  9. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  10. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  11. Storm- Time Dynamics of Ring Current Protons: Implications for the Long-Term Energy Budget in the Inner Magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The ring current energy budget plays a key role in the global electrodynamics of Earth's space environment. Pressure gradients developed in the inner magnetosphere can shield the near-Earth region from solar wind-induced electric fields. The distortion of Earth's magnetic field due to the ring current affects the dynamics of particles contributing both to the ring current and radiation belts. Therefore, understanding the long-term evolution of the inner magnetosphere energy content is essential. We have investigated the evolution of ring current proton pressure (7 - 600 keV) in the inner magnetosphere based on data from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard Van Allen Probe B throughout the year 2013. We find that although the low-energy component of the protons (governed by convective timescales and is very well correlated with the Dst index, the high-energy component (>100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no or anti-correlation with the Dst index. Interestingly, the contributions of the high- and low-energy protons to the total energy content are comparable. Our results indicate that the proton dynamics, and as a consequence the total energy budget in the inner magnetosphere (inside geosynchronous orbit), is not strictly controlled by storm-time timescales as those are defined by the Dst index.

  12. Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications: se

  13. Understanding changes in the Arctic basin sea ice mass budget as simulated by CCSM4: Implications from melt season characteristics and the surface albedo feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, D. A.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Observations reveal alarming drops in Arctic sea ice extent, and climate models project that further changes will occur that could have global repercussions. An important aspect of this change is the surface albedo feedback, driven by the contrast between the albedos of snow/ice and the open ocean. In response to warming, this feedback enhances ice melt and amplifies surface warming in the Arctic. The newly released, fully coupled Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) is used to assess long-term changes in the Arctic sea ice mass budget. Analysis of monthly-averaged mass budget time series from the 20th and 21st centuries revealed drastic changes from 1980-2050, the focus years of this study. While numerous factors determine the Arctic sea ice mass budget, we focus on the surface melt terms as they are most closely related to the surface albedo feedback. During the study period, annually averaged difference plots of sea ice thickness and area both revealed substantial decreases across the entire Arctic domain. Helping to clarify these long-term changes, new daily output data from this model allowed for the examination of melt season characteristics such as melt onset and cessation dates as well as season duration. One of the most interesting aspects was the shift to earlier melt onset dates throughout the Arctic Basin. This shift, coupled with the seasonal solar cycle has substantial implications. Earlier onset dates imply an earlier decrease of albedo that overlaps with the seasonal maximum of downward shortwave radiation. This leads to increases in shortwave absorption and results in amplified ice melt that directly impacts the strength of the surface albedo feedback. The strong relationship between earlier melt onset dates and increased absorbed radiation therefore is a key factor influencing Arctic amplification. This figure is created from daily model output and displays changes in melt season duration, end date, and onset date from the first and

  14. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  15. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  16. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  17. Energy budgets of animals: behavioral and ecological implications. Progress report. [Egg laying in laboratory by desert lizards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1975-05-01

    Climate effects on biomass requirements for mammal and reptile maintenance, growth, and reproduction and implications for climate-influenced population dynamics were explored using computer simulations. The simulations revealing critical shortages of appropriate data have led to the design of experiments to acquire the needed information. The development of a technique to induce repeated egg laying in the laboratory for reproduction studies of some desert lizards was accomplished this year. (CH)

  18. The global infrared energy budget of the thermosphere from 1947 to 2016 and implications for solar variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Russell, James M.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mertens, Christopher J.; Thompson, R. Earl

    2016-12-01

    We present an empirical model of the global infrared energy budget of the thermosphere over the past 70 years. The F10.7, Ap, and Dst indices are used in linear regression fits to the 14.5 year time series of radiative cooling by carbon dioxide and nitric oxide measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the TIMED satellite. Databases of these indices are used to develop the radiative cooling time series from 1947. No consistent relation between the occurrence of peak sunspot number and peak infrared cooling is found over the past six solar cycles. The total infrared energy radiated by the thermosphere, integrated over a solar cycle, is nearly constant over five complete solar cycles studied. This is a direct consequence of the geoeffective solar energy also being nearly constant over the same intervals. These results provide a new metric for assessing the terrestrial context of the long-term record of solar-related indices.

  19. Measurements of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide during the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation Project: Implications for the global COS budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide COS concentrations were measured by three analytical systems during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project. The three systems all used cryogenic sample preconcentration and gas chromatographic (GC) separation but differed in the method of detection. The FPD system used a flame photometric detector, the MS system used a mass selective detector, and the ECD-S system used a fluorinating catalyst followed by an electron capture detector. With the FPD system, we found a mean COS concentration of 510 ppt over the North Atlantic and 442 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. With the ECD-S system, we found a mean COS concentration of 489 ppt over the North Atlantic and 419 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. All three systems registered a latitudinal gradient in atmospheric COS of between 1.6 and 2.0 ppt per degree of latitude, with increasing COS concentrations northward which was similar to the gradient measured by Bingemer et al. (1990). It is difficult to reconcile the measured latitudinal concentration gradient with present theories of the global COS budget since the largest sink of COS is thought to be a flux to land plants, most of which are in the northern hemisphere.

  20. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  1. Psychological processes and paranoia: implications for forensic behavioural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentall, Richard P; Taylor, Jayne L

    2006-01-01

    Paranoid delusions have recently become the focus of empirical research. In this article, we review studies of the psychological mechanisms that might be involved in paranoid thinking and discuss their implications for forensic behaviour science. Paranoia has not been consistently associated with any specific neuropsychological abnormality. However, evidence supports three broad types of mechanism that might be involved in delusional thinking in general and paranoia in particular: anomalous perceptual experiences, abnormal reasoning, and motivational factors. There is some evidence that paranoia may be associated with hearing loss, and good evidence that paranoid patients attend excessively to threatening information. Although general reasoning ability seems to be unaffected, there is strong evidence that a jumping- to-conclusions style of reasoning about data is implicated in delusions in general, but less consistent evidence specifically linking paranoia to impaired theory of mind. Finally, there appears to be a strong association between paranoia and negative self-esteem, and some evidence that attempts to protect self-esteem by attributing negative events to external causes are implicated. Some of these processes have recently been implicated in violent behaviour, and they therefore have the potential to explain the apparent association between paranoid delusions and offending.

  2. Goldratt's thinking process applied to the budget constraints of a Texas MHMR facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lloyd J; Churchwell, Lana

    2004-01-01

    Managers for years have known that the best way to run a business is to constantly be looking for ways to improve the way to do business. The barrier has been the ability to identify and solve the right problems. Eliyahu Goldratt (1992c), in his book The Goal, uses a love story format to illustrate his "Theory of Constraints." In Goldratt's (1994) next book, It's Not Luck, he further illustrates this powerful technique called "The Thinking Process" which is based on the Socratic method, using the "if ... then" reasoning process, The first step is to identify UDEs or undesirable effects within the organization and then use these UDEs to create a Current Reality Tree (CRT) which helps to identify the core problem. Next, use an Evaporating Cloud to come up with ideas and a way to break the constraint. Finally, use the injections in the Evaporating Cloud to create a Future Reality Tree, further validating the idea and making sure it does not create any negative effects. In this article, the "Thinking Process" will be used to identify and solve problems related to the General Medical Department of an MHMR State Hospital.

  3. Thoughts on the Whole Process Auditing of Budget Management in Colleges and Universities%高校预算管理审计的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江进

    2016-01-01

    高校预算管理是学校财务管理的核心,是学校经济活动的前提和保障之一。预算管理审计则是评价高校预算管理行为、强化预算管理监督,促进资源优化配置、提高办学资金使用效益的重要手段。通过分析对比国内外高校预算管理审计现状及存在的问题,结合新形势下对预算管理审计的要求,探讨了事前、事中和事后审计相结合的预算管理全过程审计思路、模式及方法,以期对高校预算管理工作的完善、预算管理审计工作的推进有所裨益。%The budget management of colleges and universities is the core of financial management,and is one of economic activities for the premise and guarantee of the school. Budget management audit is the evaluation of university budget managementbehavior,and strengthening budget management,supervision,can promote the optimized allocation of resources and be an important means to ensure the efficient use of funds. Comparing colleges and universities at home and abroad,through analysis of the status quo and existing problems of budget implementation audit in our country,and combining with the new situation of budget management audit,the author discusses in advance,the combination of matter and afterwards audit budget management process audit idea,mode and method,hoping to perfect the budget management work in colleges and universities,and boost budget management audit work.

  4. 20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  5. 20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  6. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE, NECESSITY AND USAGE OF MULTIANNUAL BUDGETS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăpăduşi Mihaela Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The material is intended to be an easy to read one, structured in a way to be a theoreticalframework concerning the importance, necessity and usage of multi-annual budgets inRomania. The article puts particular emphasis on explaining the terminology specific to thedomain regarding multi-annual budgeting, on principles and less on methodology, whichonce learned and applied, can lead to the improvement of the financing mechanismsthrough multi-annual budgets. Without constituting a monograph of the legislation in force,the article refers also to the legal regulation that will be applied. In Romania budgets arevoted on annually, and this short time horizon has often been criticized that it wouldadversely affect the efficient management of expenditures. Decisions on resource allocationare taken without an overall vision, ignoring the implications of past decisions or set on atime horizon longer than one year. Most European countries have implemented in one formor another, multi-annual budgets, to counter the disadvantages of annual budgets. For themost part, universities that will apply multi-annual budgets will build a direct relationshiprelated to expectations regarding the evolution of the activity, not with the objectives set bythe university. In the case in which the expectations regarding the evolution of theuniversity are not expressed in clearly stated objectives, and are not employed indeveloping budgets, the answers received by performing an efficiency analysis of theuniversity, from the verification analysis of the projected and budgeted amounts, are verysimple and do not give added value to the budget process.

  7. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  8. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  9. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.

    Described is the federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D). The report includes: an overview of R&D in context of the total budget, a review of R&D budget data, identification of recurring issues and issues concerning the analysis of R&D budgets, an analysis of the FY 1977 budget, and a…

  10. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of the carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including the impacts of land-use conversion. The observed aboveground biomass in the seasonal dry tropical forest in Thailand (226.3 t C ha−1 and the rainforest in Malaysia (201.5 t C ha−1 indicate that tropical forests of Southeast Asia are among the most C-abundant ecosystems in the world. The model simulation results in rainforests were consistent with field data, except for the NEP, however, the VISIT model tended to underestimate C budget and stock in the seasonal dry tropical forest. The gross primary production (GPP based on field observations ranged from 32.0 to 39.6 t C ha−1 yr−1 in the two primary forests, whereas the model slightly underestimated GPP (26.5–34.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the proportion of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after the deforestation event. According to the model simulation, the total C stock (total biomass and soil C of the oil palm plantation was about 35% of the rainforest's C stock at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation. However, there were few field data of C budget and stock, especially in oil palm plantation. The C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over the long term using both the model simulations and observations to

  11. Determinants of Defense Budget Process in Post-Communist Poland: From the Warsaw Pact to the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    by the 1997 Constitution and why were they made? • What is the significance of the Public Finance Act of 26 November 1998? • What were the...three fundamental reforms of public finance caused overheating of the state budget.55 “The new pension and healthcare systems ran a huge deficit, which...

  12. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2 and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in hydrothermal/volcanic environments has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t d-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t d-1; La Fossa crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in the hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at the global scale.

  13. Global-scale water circulation in the Earth's mantle: Implications for the mantle water budget in the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Spiegelman, Marc W.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the influence of the mantle water content in the early Earth on that in the present mantle using numerical convection simulations that include three processes for redistribution of water: dehydration, partitioning of water into partially molten mantle, and regassing assuming an infinite water reservoir at the surface. These models suggest that the water content of the present mantle is insensitive to that of the early Earth. The initial water stored during planetary formation is regulated up to 1.2 OMs (OM = Ocean Mass; 1.4 ×1021 kg), which is reasonable for early Earth. However, the mantle water content is sensitive to the rheological dependence on the water content and can range from 1.2 to 3 OMs at the present day. To explain the evolution of mantle water content, we computed water fluxes due to subducting plates (regassing), degassing and dehydration. For weakly water dependent viscosity, the net water flux is almost balanced with those three fluxes but, for strongly water dependent viscosity, the regassing dominates the water cycle system because the surface plate activity is more vigorous. The increased convection is due to enhanced lubrication of the plates caused by a weak hydrous crust for strongly water dependent viscosity. The degassing history is insensitive to the initial water content of the early Earth as well as rheological strength. The degassing flux from Earth's surface is calculated to be approximately O (1013) kg /yr, consistent with a coupled model of climate evolution and mantle thermal evolution.

  14. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2, and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-08-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in volcanic-hydrothermal environment has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted (between April 2013 and March 2014) at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross-sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The so-calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t day-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t day-1; "La Fossa" crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at global scale.

  15. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2, and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pedone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in volcanic-hydrothermal environment has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted (between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece, Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy. At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross-sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The so-calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t day−1; Krýsuvík to moderate (524 ± 108 t day−1; "La Fossa" crater, Vulcano. Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at global scale.

  16. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; Harvey, Judson W.; Marion, Andrea; Packman, Aaron I.; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca; Anders, Wörman

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed."

  17. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  18. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  19. Technological Innovation: Concept, Process, Typology and Implications in the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of technological innovation in the economy, at the microand macroeconomic level, viewing the organization's ability to generate new ideas in support of increasing production, employment and environmental protection, starting from the concepts of innovation, innovation process and, respectively, from the innovation typology analysis.

  20. The Role of Heterotrophic Microbial Communities in Estuarine C Budgets and the Biogeochemical C Cycle with Implications for Global Warming: Research Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O Roger

    2016-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and economically important marine ecosystems at the land-ocean interface and contribute significantly to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Estuarine microbial communities are major links in the biogeochemical C cycle and flow of C in food webs from primary producers to higher consumers. Considerable attention has been given to bacteria and autotrophic eukaryotes in estuarine ecosystems, but less research has been devoted to the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes. Current research is reviewed here on the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes in C biogeochemistry and ecology of estuaries, with particular attention to C budgets, trophodynamics, and the metabolic fate of C in microbial communities. Some attention is given to the importance of these processes in climate change and global warming, especially in relation to sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 , while also documenting the current paucity of research on the role of eukaryotic microbes that contribute to this larger question of C biogeochemistry and the environment. Some recommendations are made for future directions of research and opportunities of applying newer technologies and analytical approaches to a more refined analysis of the role of C in estuarine microbial community processes and the biogeochemical C cycle.

  1. Isoprene and monoterpene fluxes from Central Amazonian rainforest inferred from tower-based and airborne measurements, and implications on the atmospheric chemistry and the local carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kuhn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the isoprene and monoterpene source strengths of a pristine tropical forest north of Manaus in the central Amazon Basin using three different micrometeorological flux measurement approaches. During the early dry season campaign of the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001, a tower-based surface layer gradient (SLG technique was applied simultaneously with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system. Airborne measurements of vertical profiles within and above the convective boundary layer (CBL were used to estimate fluxes on a regional scale by application of the mixed layer gradient (MLG technique. The mean daytime fluxes of organic carbon measured by REA were 2.1 mg C m−2 h−1 for isoprene, 0.20 mg C m−2 h−1 for α-pinene, and 0.39 mg C m−2 h−1 for the sum of monoterpenes. These values are in reasonable agreement with fluxes determined with the SLG approach, which exhibited a higher scatter, as expected for the complex terrain investigated. The observed VOC fluxes are in good agreement with simulations using a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM.

    In contrast, the model-derived mixing ratios of VOCs were by far higher than observed, indicating that chemical processes may not be adequately represented in the model. The observed vertical gradients of isoprene and its primary degradation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR suggest that the oxidation capacity in the tropical CBL is much higher than previously assumed. A simple chemical kinetics model was used to infer OH radical concentrations from the vertical gradients of (MVK+MACR/isoprene. The estimated range of OH concentrations during the daytime was 3–8×106 molecules cm−3, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than is estimated for the tropical CBL by current state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry and transport models

  2. Isoprene and monoterpene fluxes from Central Amazonian rainforest inferred from tower-based and airborne measurements, and implications on the atmospheric chemistry and the local carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kuhn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the isoprene and monoterpene source strengths of a pristine tropical forest north of Manaus in the central Amazon Basin using three different micrometeorological flux measurement approaches. During the early dry season campaign of the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001, a tower-based surface layer gradient (SLG technique was applied simultaneously with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system. Airborne measurements of vertical profiles within and above the convective boundary layer (CBL were used to estimate fluxes on a landscape scale by application of the mixed layer gradient (MLG technique. The mean daytime fluxes of organic carbon measured by REA were 2.1 mg C m−2 h−1 for isoprene, 0.20 mg C m−2 h−1 for α-pinene, and 0.39 mg C m−2 h−1 for the sum of monoterpenes. These values are in reasonable agreement with fluxes determined with the SLG approach, which exhibited a higher scatter, as expected for the complex terrain investigated. The observed VOC fluxes are in good agreement with simulations using a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM.

    In contrast, the model-derived mixing ratios of VOCs were by far higher than observed, indicating that chemical processes may not be adequately represented in the model. The observed vertical gradients of isoprene and its primary degradation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR suggest that the oxidation capacity in the tropical CBL is much higher than previously assumed. A simple chemical kinetics model was used to infer OH radical concentrations from the vertical gradients of (MVK+MACR/isoprene. The estimated range of OH concentrations during the daytime was 3–8×106 molecules cm−3, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than is estimated for the tropical CBL by current state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry and transport models

  3. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ulta-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells Budget Period 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; Siv Aasland; Kjersti Kleveland; Ann Hooper; Leo Bonnell; John Hemmings; Jack Chen; Bart A. Van Hassel

    2004-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1, 2003 through December 31,2004 in the following task areas: Task 1--Materials Development; Task 2--Composite Development; Task 4--Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8--Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; and Task IO: Program Management. Most of the key technical objectives for this budget period were achieved. Only partial success was achieved relative to cycle testing under pressure Major improvements in material performance and element reliability have been achieved. A breakthrough material system has driven the development of a compact planar reactor design capable of producing either hydrogen or syngas. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and costs compared to either steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery or autothermal reforming. The fuel and engine testing program is complete The single cylinder test engine evaluation of UCTF fuels begun in Budget Period 2 was finished this budget period. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCl engine was completed.

  4. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems, including the impacts of land-use conversion, in Southeast Asia. Observations and VISIT model simulations indicated that the primary forests had high photosynthetic uptake: gross primary production was estimated at 31.5–35.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. In the VISIT model simulation, the rainforest had a higher total C stock (plant biomass and soil organic matter, 301.5 t C ha−1 than that in the seasonal dry forest (266.5 t C ha−1 in 2008. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis implied that the ratio of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after deforestation events. The C stock of the oil palm plantation was about 46% of the rainforest's C at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation, when the ratio of remaining residual debris was assumed to be about 33%. These results show that adequate forest management is important for reducing C emission from soil and C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over a long term using both the model simulations and observations.

  5. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  6. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  7. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  8. The role of consultant-researchers in the design and implementation process of a programme budget in a local government organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, H.J.; van Helden, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with our role as consultant-researchers in the improvement trajectory of a programme budget used in a Dutch province. For the 2009s programme budget the newly designed budget format was used in two pilot programmes. One year later we participated in the implementation of this format

  9. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  10. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; And Others

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the genesis of the FY 1978 budget; (2) a brief look at the overall budgets for FY 1978; (3) a description of the policies underlying the R&D budgets for FY 1978; (4) a discussion of the future…

  11. The interconnection of wet and dry deposition and the alteration of deposition budgets due to incorporation of new process understanding in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.; Foley, K. M.; Gilliam, R.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition is affected by the chemical and physical processes represented in the regional models as well as source strength. The overall production and loss budget (wet and dry deposition) is dynamically connected and adjusts internally to changes in process representation. In addition, the scrubbing of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is one of several processes that remove pollutants, creating a coupling with the atmospheric aqueous and gas phase chemistry that can influence wet deposition rates in a nonlinear manner. We explore through model sensitivities with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model the influence on wet and dry deposition, and the overall continental nitrogen budget, of changes in three process representations in the model: (1) incorporation of lightning generated NO, (2) improved representation of convective precipitation, and (3) replacement of the typical unidirectional dry deposition of NH3 with a state of the science representation of NH3 bi-directional air-surface exchange. Results of the sensitivity studies will be presented. (1) Incorporation of lightning generated NO significantly reduces a negative bias in summer wet nitrate deposition, but is sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization. (2) Use of a less active trigger of convective precipitation in the WRF meteorological model to reduce summertime precipitation over prediction bias reduces the generation of NO from lightning. It also reduces the wet deposition of nitrate and increases the dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen, as well as changing (reducing) the surface level exposure to ozone. Improvements in the convective precipitation processes also result in more non-precipitating clouds leading to an increase in SO4 production through the aqueous pathway resulting in improvements in summertime SO4 ambient aerosol estimates.(3) Incorporation of state of the science ammonia bi-directional air surface exchange affects both the dry

  12. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  13. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  14. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  15. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism (P.105-118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principaland agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in depthinterviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989 Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values   in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget. Keywords: budget, capitalist, symbolic interactionism,principal,agent

  16. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-05

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  17. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  18. Low-Thermal-Budget Photonic Processing of Highly Conductive Cu Interconnects Based on CuO Nanoinks: Potential for Flexible Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rager, Matthew S; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M; Joshi, Pooran

    2016-01-27

    In the developing field of printed electronics, nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation before and during the sintering process that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal-budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll (R2R)-compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of ink-jet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditions on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration, and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints were obtained in flexible polymer substrate.

  19. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  1. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  2. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  3. Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing inflammatory changes that include continuous chronic pain in the pharyngeal region. Mechanical stresses stretching the second brachial arch during fetal development probably induce variable involvement of Reichert’s cartilage in morphogenesis of the styloid process. It is important that clinicians especially dentists and otolaryngologists are aware of the natural variations of the styloid process and do not consider the styloid process with a length of 30 mm as an abnormality or as an anomaly.

  4. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  5. Parallel distributed processing: Implications for cognition and development. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J.L.

    1988-07-11

    This paper provides a brief overview of the connectionist or parallel distributed processing framework for modeling cognitive processes, and considers the application of the connectionist framework to problems of cognitive development. Several aspects of cognitive development might result from the process of learning as it occurs in multi-layer networks. This learning process has the characteristic that it reduces the discrepancy between expected and observed events. As it does this, representations develop on hidden units which dramatically change both the way in which the network represents the environment from which it learns and the expectations that the network generates about environmental events. The learning process exhibits relatively abrupt transitions corresponding to stage shifts in cognitive development. These points are illustrated using a network that learns to anticipate which side of a balance beam will go down, based on the number of weights on each side of the fulcrum and their distance from the fulcrum on each side of the beam. The network is trained in an environment in which weight more frequently governs which side will go down. It recapitulates the states of development seen in children, as well as the stage transitions, as it learns to represent weight and distance information.

  6. Implications of the Admixture Process in Skin Color Molecular Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar Silva; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Ramallo, Virgínia; Volasko-Krause, Carla Daiana; Barbosa, Ana Angélica Leal; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Dornelles, Rodrigo Ciconet; Longo, Danaê; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; González-José, Rolando; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Callegari-Jacques, Sídia Maria; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Cátira Bortolini, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The present study was designed to help fill this gap. Our objective was to evaluate possible associations of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within nine genes, and one pseudogene with the Melanin Index (MI) in two admixed Brazilian populations (Gaucho, N = 352; Baiano, N = 148) with different histories of geographic and ethnic colonization. Of the total sample, four markers were found to be significantly associated with skin color, but only two (SLC24A5 rs1426654, and SLC45A2 rs16891982) were consistently associated with MI in both samples (Gaucho and Baiano). Therefore, only these 2 SNPs should be preliminarily considered to have forensic significance because they consistently showed the association independently of the admixture level of the populations studied. We do not discard that the other two markers (HERC2 rs1129038 and TYR rs1126809) might be also relevant to admixed samples, but additional studies are necessary to confirm the real importance of these markers for skin pigmentation. Finally, our study shows associations of some SNPs with MI in a modern Brazilian admixed sample, with possible applications in forensic genetics. Some classical genetic markers in Euro-North American populations are not associated with MI in our sample. Our results point out the relevance of considering population differences in selecting an appropriate set of SNPs as phenotype predictors in forensic practice. PMID:24809478

  7. Implications of Building Information Modeling on Interior Design Education: The Impact on Teaching Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roehl, MFA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, major shifts occur in design processes effecting business practices for industries involved with designing and delivering the built environment. These changing conditions are a direct result of industry adoption of relatively new technologies called BIM or Building Information Modeling. This review of literature examines implications of these changing processes on interior design education.

  8. Psychocentricity and participant profiles: Implications for lexical processing among multilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eLibben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over forty years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production.

  9. Possible implications of large scale radiation processing of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    Large scale irradiation has been discussed in terms of the participation of processing cost in the final value of the improved product. Another factor has been taken into account and that is the saturation of the market with the new product. In the case of succesful projects the participation of irradiation cost is low, and the demand for the better product is covered. A limited availability of sources makes the modest saturation of the market difficult with all food subjected to correct radiation treatment. The implementation of the preservation of food needs a decided selection of these kinds of food which comply to all conditions i.e. of acceptance by regulatory bodies, real improvement of quality and economy. The last condition prefers the possibility of use of electron beams of low energy. The best fullfilment of conditions for succesful processing is observed in the group of dry food, in expensive spices in particular.

  10. Central pain processing in osteoarthritis: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hafiz; Walsh, David A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and is characterized by loss of articular cartilage integrity, synovitis and remodeling of subchondral bone. However, OA pain mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Pain severity does not always correlate with the extent of joint damage. Furthermore, many people with OA continue to experience pain despite optimal use of standard therapies that target the joints, including joint-replacement surgery. There is compelling evidence that altered central pain processing plays an important role in maintaining pain and increasing pain severity in some people with OA. A key challenge is to identify this subgroup of patients with abnormal central pain processing in order to improve their clinical outcomes by developing and targeting specific analgesic treatments.

  11. Model driven product line engineering : core asset and process implications

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza Sesé, Maider

    2011-01-01

    Reuse is at the heart of major improvements in productivity and quality in Software Engineering. Both Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) are software development paradigms that promote reuse. Specifically, they promote systematic reuse and a departure from craftsmanship towards an industrialization of the software development process. MDE and SPLE have established their benefits separately. Their combination, here called Model Driven Product Line Engin...

  12. Mud-dominated basin margin progradation: processes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Poyatos-Moré, M; Jones, GD; Brunt, RL; Hodgson, DM; Wild, RJ; Flint, SS

    2016-01-01

    The accretion of coarse-grained material at the shelf-edge rollover has been emphasized in studies of basin margin progradation, despite fine grained sediment (clay and silt) representing a volumetrically more significant component of subaqueous clinothems. The timing and processes of fine-grained sediment transport across the shelf and onto the slope remains an understudied facet of sedimentary basin stratigraphy. Three exhumed basin margin-scale clinothems of the Permian Waterford Formation...

  13. Measurement of pharyngeal sensory cortical processing: technique and physiologic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein E Bernd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication of different diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. Pharyngeal sensory impairment is one of the main features of neurogenic dysphagia. Therefore an objective technique to examine the cortical processing of pharyngeal sensory input would be a helpful diagnostic tool in this context. We developed a simple paradigm to perform pneumatic stimulation to both sides of the pharyngeal wall. Whole-head MEG was employed to study changes in cortical activation during this pharyngeal stimulation in nine healthy subjects. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Our results revealed bilateral activation of the caudolateral primary somatosensory cortex following sensory pharyngeal stimulation with a slight lateralization to the side of stimulation. Conclusion The method introduced here is simple and easy to perform and might be applicable in the clinical setting. The results are in keeping with previous findings showing bihemispheric involvement in the complex task of sensory pharyngeal processing. They might also explain changes in deglutition after hemispheric strokes. The ipsilaterally lateralized processing is surprising and needs further investigation.

  14. Basics for sensorimotor information processing: some implications for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Franck; Meckler, Cédric; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In sensorimotor activities, learning requires efficient information processing, whether in car driving, sport activities or human-machine interactions. Several factors may affect the efficiency of such processing: they may be extrinsic (i.e., task-related) or intrinsic (i.e., subjects-related). The effects of these factors are intimately related to the structure of human information processing. In the present article we will focus on some of them, which are poorly taken into account, even when minimizing errors or their consequences is an essential issue at stake. Among the extrinsic factors, we will discuss, first, the effects of the quantity and quality of information, secondly, the effects of instruction and thirdly motor program learning. Among the intrinsic factors, we will discuss first the influence of prior information, secondly how individual strategies affect performance and, thirdly, we will stress the fact that although the human brain is not structured to function errorless (which is not new) humans are able to detect their errors very quickly and (in most of the cases), fast enough to correct them before they result in an overt failure. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors are important to take into account for learning because (1) they strongly affect performance, either in terms of speed or accuracy, which facilitates or impairs learning, (2) the effect of certain extrinsic factors may be strongly modified by learning and (3) certain intrinsic factors might be exploited for learning strategies.

  15. Si surface passivation by Al2O3 thin films deposited using a low thermal budget atomic layer deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguini, G.; Cianci, E.; Wiemer, C.; Perego, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza MB (Italy); Saynova, D.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-05

    High-quality surface passivation of crystalline Si is achieved using 10 nm thick Al2O3 films fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition at 100C. After a 5 min post deposition annealing at 200C, the effective carrier lifetime is 1 ms, indicating a functional level of surface passivation. The interplay between the chemical and the field effect passivation is investigated monitoring the density of interface traps and the amount of fixed charges with conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques. The physical mechanisms underlying the surface passivation are described. The combination of low processing temperatures, thin layers, and good passivation properties facilitate a technology for low-temperature solar cells.

  16. The influence of critical zone processes on the Mg isotope budget in a tropical, highly weathered andesitic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapela Lara, María; Buss, Heather L.; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Schuessler, Jan A.; Moore, Oliver W.

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the effects of critical zone processes on Mg concentrations and isotopic signatures of tropical streams, we studied a well constrained, highly weathered andesitic volcaniclastic catchment in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico. Our results indicate that dissolved Mg concentrations and isotope ratios in the regolith pore water are mainly controlled by rain input, with weathering inputs being more important at sites with thinner regolith (2.7-0.9 m deep) and at depth (>8 m) on a thick ridgetop regolith (∼10 m). In addition to mixing of precipitation and weathering-sourced Mg, an isotopic fractionation process is taking place between dissolved Mg and the regolith, likely during dissolution or recrystallisation of Fe(III)-(hydro)oxides under alternating redox conditions. Bulk regolith is isotopically heavier than both the bedrock and the exchangeable fraction (δ26Mgregolith-bedrock = +0.03 to +0.47‰), consistent with the preferential incorporation of heavy 26Mg into secondary minerals with some exchange of sorbed Mg with isotopically lighter pore water. Magnesium concentrations in the stream show a typical dilution behaviour during a storm event, but the [Mg] - δ26Mg pattern cannot be explained by mixing of rain and pore water; the data are best explained by a steady-state fractionation model with α = 1.00115. During baseflow the stream has δ26Mg = +0.01‰, higher than any of the water samples or the bedrock. In-situ analysis of the Mg isotopic composition of bedrock minerals points at the dissolution of Mg-rich chlorite (δ26Mg = +0.19‰) as the most likely source of this isotopically heavy Mg, with mass balance calculations indicating chlorite dissolution is also the main source of Mg to the stream. Overall, our study highlights the importance of atmospheric input of nutrients to the vegetation in tropical areas covered by thick, highly leached regolith, whereas the Mg flux and Mg isotopic signature of watershed exports

  17. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated.

  18. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  19. Some implications of the technology assessment function for the effective public decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary provisional assessment of the prospects for the establishment of an adequate technology assessment function and the implications of the assessment function for the public decision process are presented. Effects of the technology assessment function on each phase of the public decision process and briefly explored. Significant implications during the next decade are projected with respect to the following phases: invention and development of alternative means (technological configurations); evaluation, selection and promotion of preferred courses of action; and modification of statutory scheme or social action program as an outcome of continuing monitoring and appraisal.

  20. Sexuality and reproduction: implications in the process of healthy adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelita Campos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of adolescents about their process of healthy adolescence with regard to sexuality and reproduction. This is a qualitative research of exploratory type, involving 10 teenagers, in a state school in southern Rio Grande do Sul, between August and October 2007. To collect the data, were used semi-structured interviews, whose contents were subjected to thematic analysis, emerging the theme: sexuality and reproduction in adolescence. At the data, it was noticed the need to provide more guidelines to a healthy adolescence, in the sense of strengthening and promoting the necessary security for the exercise of adolescent sexuality and reproduction. It also showed the need to prepare the adolescent by professionals of health, of education or the family, to face some situations, such as: unwanted pregnancy, first sexual intercourse, self-medication, fear of talking to parents about sexuality and reproduction, among others.

  1. KYNICISM, CYNICISM AND IMPLICATION FOR THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MATEI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars state that one of the biggest problems facing our democracies today is cynicism.Inspired from the ancient Greek philosophy, cynicism is different from the ancient kynicism. Whilekynicism claims a life lived according to nature, in complete harmony of body and soul, cynicisminvolves a life lived in suspicions and distrust. Kynicism and cynicism both criticize the politicalprocess; both do not trust politics or political figures. The distinction between kynicism andcynicism is due to the fact that a cynical person rejects any kind of convention and despises whathe considers to be false judgement, insisting on living his life according to nature, while cynical aperson has not initially rejected social conventions and the system of values shared by society; theeducation process in our society makes him confused and skeptic regarding the value system sharedby society and makes him notice the relativity of social conventions. The way chosen by a kynicimplies a life lived according to a specific ethics with specific moral laws, while the way chosen bya cynic implies a life with no morality and lack of values.

  2. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  3. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  4. Elaboration of Public Budget – A Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a different way to manage public money, and to engage people in government. Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. It enables taxpayers to work with government to make the budget decisions that affect their lives.

  5. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  6. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  7. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle

    2016-04-01

    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  8. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  9. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  10. Information Search Process: A Summary of Research and Implications for School Library Media Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes a series of five studies on students' perspectives of information seeking in response to a research assignment. Feelings, thoughts, and actions commonly experienced in the information search process are described in six stages. Implications of the findings for further research and their impact on school library media programs are…

  11. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  12. Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Differences in Learning Strategy Use: Implications for Language Processing, Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines English as foreign language college interdisciplinary and intercultural differences in learning strategy use and their implications for language processing. Positivism underpins this research at the levels of ontology (standardized variables), epistemology (detachment from the subjects) and methodology, using nomothetic…

  13. Interactions between the Lateral Habenula and the Hippocampus: Implication for Spatial Memory Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Goutagny, Romain; Loureiro, Michael; Jackson, Jesse; Chaumont, Joseph; Williams, Sylvain; Isope, Philippe; Kelche, Christian; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Lecourtier, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure connected with both the basal ganglia and the limbic system and that exerts a major influence on midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The current view is that LHb receives and processes cortical information in order to select proper strategies in a variety of behavior. Recent evidence indicates that LHb might also be implicated in hippocampus-dependent memory processes. However, if and how LHb functionally interacts with the dorsal hippocampus ...

  14. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  15. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  16. A Model of Process-Based Automation: Cost and Quality Implications in the Medication Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Trent Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand how a set of systems, as defined by the business process, creates value. The three studies contained in this work develop the model of process-based automation. The model states that complementarities among systems are specified by handoffs in the business process. The model also provides theory to…

  17. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  18. Current and future carbon budget at Takayama site, Japan, evaluated by a regional climate model and a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Noh, Nam-Jin; Saitoh, Taku M.; Ito, Akihiko; Wakazuki, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO2. In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan. Then, we simulated the future (around 2085) changes in canopy phenology and carbon budget of the forest by incorporating high-resolution meteorological data downscaled by a regional climate model. The ecosystem model overestimated GPP and ER when we inputted low-resolution data, which have warming biases over mountainous landscape. But, it reproduced canopy phenology and carbon budget well, when we inputted high-resolution data. Under the future climate, earlier leaf expansion and delayed leaf fall by about 10 days compared with the present state was simulated, and also, GPP, ER and NEP were estimated to increase by 25.2%, 23.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the increase of NEP in June and October would be mainly caused by rising temperature, whereas that in July and August would be largely attributable to CO2 fertilization. This study suggests that the downscaling of future climate data enable us to project more reliable carbon budget of forest ecosystem in mountainous landscape than the low-resolution simulation due to the better predictions of leaf expansion and shedding.

  19. Deficit of the budget: essence, reasons and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashko, Andriy Ivanovych

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of deficit of the state budget in the conditionsof forming the socially directed market economy. The economic essence and the basic factors ofexistence of negative balance of the budget have been interpreted and identified. The conditions ofthe use of deficit of the state budget as the instrument of influence on economic processes have beendetermined.The purpose lies in principles of forming the deficit of budget and developingrecommendations in relation to the increasing management efficiency.The basic task of the scientific article is to investigate the economic essence and identify theprincipal reasons for deficit of budget.

  20. The Optimization of Budget Outcome to Create Trust in Public Expenditure Allocation on Local Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Koeswara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning and budgeting process is the most crucial process in the administration of local government. Results of previous studies in Solok, the increase in the total budget is not accompanied by spending management capabilities. Expenditure of public service has always fluctuated, but ideally should always increasing. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of the budget in the allocation of public spending in an effort to realize the presence of trust on the budget in Solok West Sumatra Province. This study uses qualitative research methods with the type of research that is selected using descriptive type. While the techniques of data collection are done through an interview, observation and documentation study. This study further highlights the emic perspective, is the voice of the informant, not the personal opinion of the researchers (etic. Then, the data analysis is done categorically and chronologically, viewed repeatedly, and will continue to be encoded. To test the verification of data, triangulation is done by comparing the results of interviews with documents obtained in the field and testing of concepts used by researchers with the information given by the informant. The results showed that the pathology was found that budget allocations reflect inefficiencies as a failure of the link between policy, planning, and budgeting as a fragmented system. But on the other hand, it must be admitted there has been “trust” among policymaking actors in allocating public expenditure budget in playing the role in the budget policy.

  1. Methods for Determining the Advertising Budget and its Distribution in Different Media

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Comanescu Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining and establishing the necessary advertising budget is approached based on the situations that precede it. There will be virtually no easy task for marketers, with the risk overvaluation or undervaluation of the budget. To avoid broader range of situations, the company uses specific tools and methods for determining the advertising budget. An advertising budget is established for each product.

  2. Perceived environmental uncertainty : understanding the implications for strategy development processes across Barclays Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Jansen

    2005-01-01

    The managerial issue being addressed in this research is perceived environmental uncertainty (experienced by corporate strategists) and its implications for strategy development processes at the strategic business unit level (or business-level strategy) across Barclays Bank PLC. The objectives of the research are achieved through: an extensive review of the strategy and uncertainty literature (Project 1); a series of semi-structured interviews with fifteen members of the Group ...

  3. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  4. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  5. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution.

  6. Budgets of substances as a basis for the technical, economic and ecological assessment of production processes and products; Stoffbilanzen als Grundlage fuer die technische, oekonomische und oekologische Beurteilung von Produktionsprozessen und Produkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyerer [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde; Schuckert, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde; Pfleiderer, I. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde; Bohnacker, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde; Kreissig, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde; Harsch, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde; Saur, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde

    1996-12-31

    At the end of the 20th century, environmental destruction, climate change and forest die-back demonstrate that ecological issues, besides economic and technical ones, need to be considered in political and economic decision-making as criteria of equal rank. Complete budgeting, which takes into account all three aspects, by following up the entire life cycle of a product or span of a process can deal with this field of tension. Complete budgeting projects require budgets of individual substances, which are given here for various materials. All the same, this paper can only provide an overview; detailed, product-specific data are beyond its scope. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Ende des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts zeigen Umweltzerstoerung, Klimaveraenderungen und Waldsterben, dass oekologische Fragestellungen neben oekonomischen und technischen Problemstellungen als gleichartige Kriterien in die Entscheidungen von Politik und Wirtschaft miteinbezogen werden muessen. Die Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung als ein Instrument, das alle drei Punkte gleichermassen beruecksichtigt, hat durch die detaillierte Behandlung des gesamten Lebenszykluses eines Produktes oder eines Verfahrens die Moeglichkeit, dieses Spannungsfeld zu loesen. Eine Voraussetzung zur Durchfuehrung von Ganzheitlichen Bilanzierungen sind Stoffbilanzen, die hier im naeheren fuer verschiedene Werkstoffe beschrieben werden. Es ist dabei allerdings nur an einen Ueberblick gedacht, da detaillierte lieferantenspezifische Angaben den Rahmen hier sprengen wuerden. (orig.)

  7. Thinking Strategically about Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    1999-01-01

    Describes some processes to prepare for times when budgetary resources may be inadequate to accomplish all of a school district's goals. A school district should address the following issues: program performance, district implications, community support, and program evaluation. (MLF)

  8. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

  9. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  10. The effect of literacy on oral language processing: Implications for aphasia tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye, Mulugeta Tarekegne; De Bleser, Ria; Iribarren, Carolina

    2011-06-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of literacy on oral language processing have shown that literacy provides phonological awareness skills in the processing of oral language. The implications of these results on aphasia tests could be significant and pose questions on the adequacy of such tools for testing non-literate individuals. Aiming at examining the impact of literacy on oral language processing and its implication on aphasia tests, this study tested 12 non-literate and 12 literate individuals with a modified Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis and Amberber, 1991, Bilingual Aphasia Test. Amharic version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.). The problems of phonological awareness skills in oral language processing in non-literates are substantiated. In addition, compared with literate participants, non-literate individuals demonstrated difficulties in the word/sentence-picture matching tasks. This study has also revealed that the Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test may be viable for testing Amharic-speaking non-literate individuals with aphasia when modifications are incorporated.

  11. The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

    2014-12-01

    Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness.

  12. Geochemical Implication of Rare Earth Elements in Process of Soil Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成敏; 龚子同

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics and behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in soils developed on the basalts in the northern part of Hainan Island erupted in different time were studied as well as the REE partition in the soil-formation process and its implication on soil development degree. The results show that the total REE content in soils is correlative with soil age significantly and can be selected as the index to show soil evolution. With the soil developing intensively, light rare earth elements (LREE) gain and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) lose. The trends of positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly are remarkable with soil development.

  13. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  14. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  15. Considerations of the productive restructuring process in Brazil and its implications for workers and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Griggio Hotz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the profile that is required of workers in current forms of production. This is done by considering the productive restructuring process that took place in Brazil since the 1990’s. This process presents implications to different social organizations, especially to the State and the institutions related to it, for example the schools. The analysis of the primary and secondary sources related to the basic education reforms implemented in the same decade reveals the valuing of work competencies such as flexibility and the capacity to adapt. The article presents reflections on the rhetoric used to justify educational reforms, pointing out its underlying ideology and the actions performed by the Brazilian State, as well as the structural limits of the capitalist system for the social inclusion of the whole population.

  16. Junction-less poly-Ge FinFET and charge-trap NVM fabricated by laser-enabled low thermal budget processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shieh, Jia-Min; Shen, Chang-Hong; Huang, Tzu-En; Wang, Hsing-Hsiang; Yang, Chih-Chao; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Hsieh, Jin-Long; Yeh, Wen-Kuan

    2016-06-01

    A doping-free poly-Ge film as channel material was implemented by CVD-deposited nano-crystalline Ge and visible-light laser crystallization, which behaves as a p-type semiconductor, exhibiting holes concentration of 1.8 × 1018 cm-3 and high crystallinity (Raman FWHM ˜ 4.54 cm-1). The fabricated junctionless 7 nm-poly-Ge FinFET performs at an Ion/Ioff ratio over 105 and drain-induced barrier lowering of 168 mV/V. Moreover, the fast programming speed of 100 μs-1 ms and reliable retention can be obtained from the junctionless poly-Ge nonvolatile-memory. Such junctionless poly-Ge devices with low thermal budget are compatible with the conventional CMOS technology and are favorable for 3D sequential-layer integration and flexible electronics.

  17. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  18. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  19. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  20. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  1. An algorithm to estimate the heating budget from vertical hydrometeor profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Lang, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometeor profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a nonhydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algoritm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

  2. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  3. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated.

  4. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, Matthias; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  5. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöck, Matthias; Andersen, David; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  6. Trace element differences between Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crustal components: Implications for crustal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarney, J.; Wyborn, L. E. A.; Sheraton, J. W.; Wyborn, D.

    1988-01-01

    Critical to models for continental crust growth and recycling are the processes through which crustal growth takes place. In particular, it is important to know whether these processes have changed fundamentally with time in response to the earth's thermal evolution, and whether the crustal compositions generated are compatible with crustal remobilization, crustal recycling, or represent primary additions. There are some significant and consistent differences in the major and trace element compositions of crustal components with time which have important implications for crustal growth processes. These will be illustrated with reference to Archean rocks from a number of shield areas, Proterozoic granitoids from Australia and elsewhere, Palaeozoic granitoids from Australia and Scotland, and Mesozoic - recent granitoids from present continental margin belts. Surprisingly some rather simple and consistent patterns energy using this technique. There are then significant differences in compositions of granitoid crustal additions throughout geological time, with a particular type of granitoid apparently dominating a particular time period. This implies that the tectonic processes giving rise to granite generation have changed in response to the earth's thermal evolution.

  7. Assessment of health implications related to processing and use of natural wool insulation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, E; Loxton, C; Elias, R M; Ormondroyd, G A

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses possible health implications related to dust particles released during the manufacture of sheep's wool-based non-woven insulation material. Such insulation may replace traditional synthetic insulation products used in roofs, wall cavities, etc. A review of the literature concerning organic dusts in general and sheep's wool fiber summarizes dust exposure patterns, toxicological pathways and the hazards imposed by inhalation and explosion risk. This paper highlights a need for more research in order to refrain from overgeneralizing potential pulmonary and carcinogenic risks across the industries. Variables existing between industries such as the use of different wool types, processes, and additives are shown to have varying health effects. Within the final section of the paper, the health issues raised are compared with those that have been extensively documented for the rock and glass wool industries.

  8. A neurocognitive model of the ethical decision-making process: implications for study and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Scott J

    2006-07-01

    The field of business ethics is entrenched in a cognitive approach that portrays the ethical decision-making process as a completely deliberate and reasoned exercise. In light of growing concerns about the veracity of this approach, I build upon current knowledge of how the brain functions to present a neurocognitive model of ethical decision making. The model suggests that ethical decision making involves 2 interrelated yet functionally distinct cycles, a reflexive pattern matching cycle and a higher order conscious reasoning cycle, and thereby describes not only reasoned analysis, but also the intuitive and retrospective aspects of ethical decision making. The model sparks research in new areas, holds significant implications for the study of ethical decision making, and provides suggestions for improving ethical behavior in organizations.

  9. Formation and fate of marine snow : small-scale processes with large-scale implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    to the aggregate. Also, suspended bacteria may enjoy the elevated concentration of organic solutes in the plume. I explore these small-scale formation and degradation processes by means of models, experiments and field observations. The larger scale implications for the structure and functioning of pelagic food......Marine snow aggregates are believed to be the main vehicles for vertical material transport in the ocean. However, aggregates are also sites of elevated heterotrophic activity, which may rather cause enhanced retention of aggregated material in the upper ocean. Small-scale biological......-physical interactions govern the formation and fate of marine snow. Aggregates may form by physical coagulation: fluid motion causes collisions between small primary particles (e.g. phytoplankton) that may then stick together to form aggregates with enhanced sinking velocities. Bacteria may subsequently solubilise...

  10. Aligning Learning Space Design and Student Work: Research Implications for Design Processes and Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andrea Lisa

    2009-01-01

    In these troubled economic times, members of college and university communities must provide effective learning environments to support ever-changing curricula while reducing budgets. At the same time, a growing body of literature points to shifting needs of the variously named digital natives, Millennials or the Net Generation. This article…

  11. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  12. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  13. The particulate 7Be/210Pbxs and 234Th/210Pbxs activity ratios as tracers for tidal-to-seasonal particle dynamics in the Gironde estuary (France): implications for the budget of particle-associated contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Hanna-Kaïsa; Schmidt, Sabine; Castaing, Patrice; Blanc, Gérard; Sautour, Benoît; Masson, Olivier; Cochran, J Kirk

    2010-09-15

    The short-lived natural radionuclides (7)Be (T(1/2)=53 days), (234)Th(xs) (T(1/2)=24.1 days) and (210)Pb(xs) (T(1/2)=22.3 years), i.e. (234)Th and (210)Pb in excesses of that supported within particles by the decay of their parent isotopes, were analysed in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to study the particle dynamics in the Gironde fluvial estuarine system (France), strongly impacted by heavy metal pollution. From surveys of this land-ocean interface in 2006 and 2007, we established a times series of these radioisotopes and of their activity ratios ((7)Be/(210)Pb(xs) and (234)Th/(210)Pb(xs) ARs) in particles sampled under different hydrological conditions. The particulate (7)Be/(210)Pb(xs) AR varies along the fluvial estuarine system mainly due to variations in (7)Be activities, controlled by riverine, oceanic and atmospheric inputs and by resuspension of old (7)Be-deficient sediments. These processes vary with river discharge, tidal cycle and season. Therefore, seasonal particle transport processes can be described using variations of the SPM (7)Be/(210)Pb(xs) ARs. During high river discharge, the SPM (7)Be/(210)Pb(x) ARs decrease from river to the ocean. The turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) is dispersed and the particles, and the associated contaminants, are rapidly transported from river to coastal waters, without significant retention within the TMZ. During low river discharge, the TMZ intrudes into the fluvial estuary, and the lowest (7)Be/(210)Pb(x) ARs are observed there due to resuspension of (7)Be-deficient sediments. Away from the TMZ, from the middle to lower estuary, SPM (7)Be/(210)Pb(x) ARs increase, indicating that the particles have been recently tagged with (7)Be. We explain this trend as being caused by marine input of dissolved radionuclides, as traced by SPM (234)Th/(210)Pb(xs) ARs, followed by scavenging in the estuary. This result indicates that particle transport models based on (7)Be and trace-metal budgets must consider oceanic dissolved

  14. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: Implications from connectionist modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMatsunaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (LeNTS was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  15. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: implications from connectionist modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Rie; Hartono, Pitoyo; Abe, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (Learning Network for Tonal Schema, LeNTS) was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical 'scale' sensitivity early and 'harmony' sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a) the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b) the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and

  16. Corporate capital structure and how soft budget constraints may affect it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    This survey paper examines existing theories of capital structure and related empirical tests with the aim to derive theoretical as well empirically testable predictions about the implications of the soft budget constraint for corporate capital structure. We show that the soft budget constraint synd

  17. Sensitivity of Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the modern carbon budget to early human land use: analyses with a process-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Joos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Dynamic Global Vegetation model coupled to a simplified Earth system model is used to simulate the impact of anthropogenic land cover changes (ALCC on Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the contemporary carbon cycle. The model results suggest that early agricultural activities cannot explain the mid to late Holocene CO2 rise of 20 ppm measured on ice cores and that proposed upward revisions of Holocene ALCC imply a smaller contemporary terrestrial carbon sink. A set of illustrative scenarios is applied to test the robustness of these conclusions and to address the large discrepancies between published ALCC reconstructions. Simulated changes in atmospheric CO2 due to ALCC are less than 1 ppm before 1000 AD and 30 ppm at 2004 AD when the HYDE 3.1 ALCC reconstruction is prescribed for the past 12 000 years. Cumulative emissions of 69 GtC at 1850 and 233 GtC at 2004 AD are comparable to earlier estimates. CO2 changes due to ALCC exceed the simulated natural interannual variability only after 1000 AD. To consider evidence that land area used per person was higher before than during early industrialisation, agricultural areas from HYDE 3.1 were increased by a factor of two prior to 1700 AD (scenario H2. For the H2 scenario, the contemporary terrestrial carbon sink required to close the atmospheric CO2 budget is reduced by 0.5 GtC yr−1. Simulated CO2 remains small even in scenarios where average land use per person is increased beyond the range of published estimates. Even extreme assumptions for preindustrial land conversion and high per-capita land use do not result in simulated CO2 emissions that are sufficient to explain the magnitude and the timing of the late Holocene CO2 increase.

  18. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  19. Implications of internal processes in the interpretation of Titan's volatile inventory measured by Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, Gabriel; Gautier, D.; Hersant, F.; Lunine, J. I.

    2010-04-01

    Based on a series of data collected by Cassini-Huygens, we constrain the composition of the primordial bricks that formed Titan and quantify the chemical exchanges that occurred on Titan between the interior and the atmosphere since its accretion. Assuming that the bricks that formed Titan had a composition close to that of Enceladus and that of the planetesimals in the feeding zone of Saturn, we show that accretional melting generate an CH4-CO2-H2S - dominated atmosphere of more than 10 bars in equilibrium with a water ocean. The partial atmospheric pressure of ammonia remains low (ammonia into nitrogen is possible just after accretion but requires the water ocean remains in contact with the atmosphere during at least 10-50 millions of years. We show that most of the gas species, except N2 and 36Ar, released during accretion are likely to be re-incorporated in the interior during the post-accretional cooling phase, owing to efficient clathration at the water/ocean interface. During this process, xenon is predicted to be almost entirely removed from the primitive atmosphere and to be stored in the form of clathrate hydrate in the interior. The composition of gases released during the rest of the evolution is determined by the stability of each gas species relative to the clathrate phase and is expected to be dominated by CH4 and CO2, and to contain small amounts of argon and CO. It can be anticipated from our analysis that flows and deposits of CO2-rich materials would be associated to cryovolcanic events. Although the detection of 40Ar clearly support that interaction with the silicate phase has occurred during Titan's history, it is still unclear if significant chemical exchanges has occurred with the rocky core. Only detection of 38Ar and of the other noble gas isotopes by a future mission will permit to determine how the silicate phase has contributed to the volatile budget of Titan. Isotopic ratios in the surface materials (H2O, CO2 ice, organic matters, gas

  20. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: Implications for developmental language disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Holly Fitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood. As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate – both developmentally and functionally – with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human "term," but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood when induced in a "preterm" window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations. Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  1. Differential implication of dorsolateral and dorsomedial srtiatum in encoding and recovery processes of latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Estrella; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Quintero, Esperanza; Gonzalo de la Casa, Luis; O'Donnell, Patricio; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The dorsal striatum has been ascribed to different behavioral roles. While the lateral area (dls) is implicated in habitual actions, its medial part (dms) is linked to goal expectancy. According to this model, dls function includes representation of stimulus-response associations, but not of goals. Dls function has been typically analyzed with regard to movement, and there is no data indicating whether this region could processes specific stimulus-outcome associations. To test this possibility, we analyzed the effects of dls and dms inactivation on the retrieval phase, and dms lesion on the acquisition phase of a latent inhibition procedure using two conditions, long and short presentations of the future conditioned stimulus. Contrary to current theories of basal ganglia function, we report evidence in favor of the dls involvement in cognitive processes of learning and retrieval. Moreover, we provide data about the sequential relationship between dms and dls, in which the dms could be involved, but it would not be critical, in new learning and the dls could be subsequently involved in consolidating cognitive routines.

  2. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  3. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  4. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  5. The institutional logics of local government budget in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palupi Ade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study asks how and why a local government settings budget. It aims to deliver an understanding on how a government entity perceives that budget is important element to manage public expenditures. It uses the S local government in Indonesia as a case study. This study applies Institutional Logics Theory as a theoretical framework in order to analyze data. Data is collected by interviewing seven key persons who directly involves in budgeting process. This research shows that the budgeting process includes determining the purposes of annual budget, setting up planned programs and actvities, determining the amount of revenue that will be collected, allocating resources to expenditures and setting up standar pricing. Some important points in the budgeting process are identified. Those are considering political aspect to determine local tax rate, focusing on competition with other local governments, fulfilling the political promise of local government leader to the constituents, involving community to determine planned program and activities, and allocating resources based on community basic needs. This study concludes that those points develop the institutional logics of politic and managerial in budget setting process.

  6. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  7. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic.

  8. Talent or Talents: Intellectual Exceptionality Approaches and their Implications in the Educational Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Javier Barraza-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the importance that, in the practice, the educational system gives to the academic talent, leaving in a second place other forms of talent, for example, those comprised in the multiple intelligence or emotional intelligence theories. The purpose of this paper is to present different underlying approaches of talent coexisting in education at various levels, demonstrating some of their potential implications in the educational practice and in the academic achievement of students. In this regard, the emergence of recent theories –as the multiple intelligence Gardner (2001, and the emotional intelligence Mayer and Salovey (1997 theories– has put into question the traditional intelligence approaches, which have influenced the concept and practice of teachers concerning a successful formal education. All of this tends to increase the gap between “smart” and “normal”, perpetuating the segregation culture through academic means. Based on this, this paper exposes the need to take into consideration the students’ different skills and talents when planning and evaluating the teaching-learning process, and enhance teaching training through didactic and evaluation methodologies to achieve such integration. For this, the present study provides some evaluation and classroom methodologies. The study also highlights the need to develop, systematize, and validate a broader range of teaching-learning methodologies that can be transmitted to the faculty, in order to gradually move towards a more inclusive, higher quality education.

  9. Implications of Using Thermal Desorption to Remediate Contaminated Agricultural Soil: Physical Characteristics and Hydraulic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Derby, Nathan E; Wick, Abbey F

    2016-07-01

    Given the recent increase in crude oil production in regions with predominantly agricultural economies, the determination of methods that remediate oil contamination and allow for the land to return to crop production is increasingly relevant. Ex situ thermal desorption (TD) is a technique used to remediate crude oil pollution that allows for reuse of treated soil, but the properties of that treated soil are unknown. The objectives of this research were to characterize TD-treated soil and to describe implications in using TD to remediate agricultural soil. Native, noncontaminated topsoil and subsoil adjacent to an active remediation site were separately subjected to TD treatment at 350°C. Soil physical characteristics and hydraulic processes associated with agricultural productivity were assessed in the TD-treated samples and compared with untreated samples. Soil organic carbon decreased more than 25% in both the TD-treated topsoil and the subsoil, and total aggregation decreased by 20% in the topsoil but was unaffected in the subsoil. The alteration in these physical characteristics explains a 400% increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity in treated samples as well as a decrease in water retention at both field capacity and permanent wilting point. The changes in soil properties identified in this study suggest that TD-treated soils may still be suitable for sustaining vegetation, although likely at a slightly diminished capacity when directly compared with untreated soils.

  10. Language as a multimodal phenomenon: implications for language learning, processing and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Perniss, Pamela; Vinson, David

    2014-09-19

    Our understanding of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of language has traditionally been firmly based on spoken Indo-European languages and on language studied as speech or text. However, in face-to-face communication, language is multimodal: speech signals are invariably accompanied by visual information on the face and in manual gestures, and sign languages deploy multiple channels (hands, face and body) in utterance construction. Moreover, the narrow focus on spoken Indo-European languages has entrenched the assumption that language is comprised wholly by an arbitrary system of symbols and rules. However, iconicity (i.e. resemblance between aspects of communicative form and meaning) is also present: speakers use iconic gestures when they speak; many non-Indo-European spoken languages exhibit a substantial amount of iconicity in word forms and, finally, iconicity is the norm, rather than the exception in sign languages. This introduction provides the motivation for taking a multimodal approach to the study of language learning, processing and evolution, and discusses the broad implications of shifting our current dominant approaches and assumptions to encompass multimodal expression in both signed and spoken languages.

  11. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  12. Boric acid permeation in forward osmosis membrane processes: modeling, experiments, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue; Tang, Chuyang Y; Gu, Yangshuo; She, Qianhong; Qi, Saren

    2011-03-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) is attracting increasing interest for its potential applications in desalination. In FO, permeation of contaminants from feed solution into draw solution through the semipermeable membrane can take place simultaneously with water diffusion. Understanding the contaminants transport through and rejection by FO membrane has significant technical implications in the way to separate clean water from the diluted draw solution. In this study, a model was developed to predict boron flux in FO operation. A strong agreement between modeling results and experimental data indicates that the model developed in this study can accurately predict the boron transport through FO membranes. Furthermore, the model can guide the fabrication of improved FO membranes with decreased boron permeability and structural parameter to minimize boron flux. Both theoretical model and experimental results demonstrated that when membrane active layer was facing draw solution, boron flux was substantially greater compared to the other membrane orientation due to more severe internal concentration polarization. In this investigation, for the first time, rejection of contaminants was defined in FO processes. This is critical to compare the membrane performance between different membranes and experimental conditions.

  13. Five schools of thought about complexity: Implications for design and process science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warfield, J.N. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The prevalence of complexity is a fact of life in virtually all aspects of system design today. Five schools of thought concerning complexity seem to be present in areas where people strive to gain more facility with difficult issues: (1) Interdisciplinary or Cross-Disciplinary {open_quotes}approaches{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}methods{close_quotes} (fostered by the Association for Integrative Studies, a predominantly liberal-arts faculty activity), (2) Systems Dynamics (fostered by Jay Forrester, Dennis Meadows, Peter Senge, and others closely associated with MIT), (3) Chaos Theory (arising in small groups in many locations), (4) Adaptive Systems Theory (predominantly associated with the Santa Fe Institute), and (5) The Structure-Based school (developed by the author, his colleagues and associates). A comparison of these five schools of thought will be offered, in order to show the implications of them upon the development and application of design and process science. The following criteria of comparison will be used: (a) how complexity is defined, (b) analysis versus synthesis, (c) potential for acquiring practical competence in coping with complexity, and (d) relationship to underlying formalisms that facilitate computer assistance in applications. Through these comparisons, the advantages and disadvantages of each school of thought can be clarified, and the possibilities of changes in the educational system to provide for the management of complexity in system design can be articulated.

  14. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  15. The neurobiology of pleasure, reward processes, addiction and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2004-08-01

    Modern science begins to understand pleasure as a potential component of salutogenesis. Thereby, pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. Further, health implications related to pleasurable activities are analyzed. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors, i.e., motivational toxicity. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, endorphin and endogenous morphinergic mechanisms may play a role. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways. Thus, the concrete outcome of pleasant experiences may be a question of dose. Moderate pleasurable experiences are able to enhance biological flexibility and health. Hence, pleasure can be a resistance resource or may serve salutogenesis. Natural rewards are mediated by sensory organ stimulation, thereby exhibiting a potential association with complementary medical approaches. Trust and belief can be part of a self-healing potential connected with rewarding stimuli. Further, the placebo response physiologically resembles pleasure phenomena, since both involve brain's reward circuitry stimulation and subjective feelings of well-being. Pleasurable activities can stimulate

  16. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  17. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  18. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  19. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  20. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  1. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  3. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des processus de transport depuis la couche-limite sur la variabilite et le bilan d'ozone tropospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A

    2005-12-15

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  4. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  6. Same but different: Comparative modes of information processing are implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca Rachael; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2017-01-11

    An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort. Findings shed new light upon the processes underpinning construction of perceptions related to autonomy support and yield new insights into how to increase the predictive validity of models that use autonomy support as a determinant of motivation and psychological well-being.

  7. Revisiting Nature vs. Nurture: Implications for the Teaching/Learning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Child development theories conclude that nature and nurture interactively shape individual development. Implications for education are that children learn better when they feel wanted and are in a supportive environment. Teaching needs to go beyond pure content and focus on learning how to learn. Assessment should focus on the use of knowledge…

  8. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  9. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  10. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  11. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  12. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  13. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  14. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  15. The Role of Attention in Information Processing Implications for the Design of Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    effectiveness in applying human factors principles "continues to depend upon his own experience and intuition" (Meister, 1984; Kantowitz , 1985). On the other...terms of practical implications and then extrapolate to design decisions that would otherwise be completely ad hoc. Kantowitz (1985) asserts that the...intuition (Meister, 1984; Kantowitz , 1985), it is important to provide system designers with better theories and models of human attention mechanisms

  16. Retention of Silica Nanoparticles in a Lab-Scale Membrane Bioreactor: Implications for Process Performance and Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Larracas Sibag

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In conventional activated sludge (CAS involving aerobic biological processes, the retention of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs has no detrimental effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N removal. However, for the membrane bioreactor (MBR system, which is also based on the activated sludge process in addition to the membrane separation process, it has implications not only on the process performance but also on membrane fouling. To investigate these two implications in lab-scale experiments, we continuously operated a control MBR and two experimental MBRs, in which the 28 nm SiO2 NPs and 144 nm SiO2 NPs were added separately to the influent at a final concentration of 100 mg/L. Although the retention of SiO2 NPs in the MBR, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS analysis, did not compromise the COD and NH3–N removal, it resulted in substantial increases in the transmembrane pressure (TMP suggesting the onset of membrane fouling. Analyses by batch-dead end filtration revealed the same fouling trend as observed during the continuous MBR experiments; membrane fouling is aggravated in the presence of SiO2 NPs. This was evident from permeate flux decline of between 30% and 74% at very low TMP (5 kPa and the further increases in the total resistance.

  17. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  18. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  19. Processing deficits in monitoring analog and digital displays: Implications for attentional theory and mental-state estimation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David G.; Gunther, Virginia A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Subjects performed short term memory tasks, involving both spatial and verbal components, and a visual monitoring task involving either analog or digital display formats. These two tasks (memory vs. monitoring) were performed both singly and in conjunction. Contrary to expectations derived from multiple resource theories of attentional processes, there was no evidence that when the two tasks involved the same cognitive codes (i.e., either both spatial or both verbal/linguistics) there was more of a dual task performance decrement than when the two tasks employed different cognitive codes/processes. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of attentional processes and also for research in mental state estimation.

  20. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities.

  1. A closed-loop forward osmosis-nanofiltration hybrid system: Understanding process implications through full-scale simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-12-30

    This study presents simulation of a closed-loop forward osmosis (FO)-nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system using fertiliser draw solution (DS) based on thermodynamic mass balance in a full-scale system neglecting the non-idealities such as finite membrane area that may exist in a real process. The simulation shows that the DS input parameters such as initial concentrations and its flow rates cannot be arbitrarily selected for a plant with defined volume output. For a fixed FO-NF plant capacity and feed concentration, the required initial DS flow rate varies inversely with the initial DS concentration or vice-versa. The net DS mass flow rate, a parameter constant for a fixed plant capacity but that increases linearly with the plant capacity and feed concentration, is the most important operational parameter of a closed-loop system. Increasing either of them or both increases the mass flow rate to the system directly affecting the final concentration of the diluted DS with direct energy implications to the NF process. Besides, the initial DS concentration and flow rates are also limited by the optimum recovery rates at which NF process can be operated which otherwise also have direct implications to the NF energy. This simulation also presents quantitative analysis of the reverse diffusion of fertiliser nutrients towards feed brine and the gradual accumulation of feed solutes within the closed system.

  2. Capital Budgeting Management Practices in Japan : A Focus on the Use of Capital Budgeting Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shinoda, Tomonari

    2010-01-01

    Capital budgeting is one of the most important factors in the process of corporate decision-making. Data from numerous previous studies show that managers prefer the simple payback period method (non-discounted payback model) over the net present value method (discounted cash flow model), which academics consider as superior. In particular, almost all investigative research in Japan has shown that the managers of Japanese firms tend to prefer a non-discounted cash flow model, such as a simple...

  3. Processing of immunoisolated pancreatic islets. Implications for histological analyses of hydrated tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, BJ; van Goor, H; De Vos, P

    2002-01-01

    Routine tissue: processing is usually associated with histological artifacts, as a consequence of shrinkage and distortion during dehydration required for embedding. With hydrated specimens such as lung, embryonic, and tissues in hydrophilic membranes, tissue processing can induce severe artifacts t

  4. Silicon Valley's Processing Needs versus San Jose State University's Manufacturing Systems Processing Component: Implications for Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing professionals within universities tend to view manufacturing systems from a global perspective. This perspective tends to assume that manufacturing processes are employed equally in every manufacturing enterprise, irrespective of the geography and the needs of the people in those diverse regions. But in reality local and societal…

  5. Methodology and Implications of Reconstruction and Automatic Processing of Natural Language of the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Marjorie; Barron, Nancy

    This paper discusses in some detail the procedural areas of reconstruction and automatic processing used by the Classroom Interaction Project of the University of Missouri's Center for Research in Social Behavior in the analysis of classroom language. First discussed is the process of reconstruction, here defined as the "process of adding to…

  6. The budget of the community in the system of interbudgetary relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Максимовна Боголиб

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a new approaches to the formation of the budget of the territorial community, which is based on decentralization of local governments; methodological approaches to the monitoring of the planning process and execution of revenues and expenditures of the local community; methodological approaches to the planning of the budget of the community; the approaches for developing a balanced budget for the community; improved approaches to perspective in the forecasting of the revenues of the community

  7. Dual psychological processes underlying public stigma and the implications for reducing stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Pryor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g, shame and lowered self-esteem or public stigma (e.g, the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized. This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based processes take longer to manifest themselves and involve deliberate thinking. Associative and rule-based thinking require different assessment instruments, follow a different time course and lead to different effects (e.g, stigma-by-association vs attributional processing that results in blame. Of greatest importance is the fact that each process may require a different stigma-prevention strategy.

  8. The global methane budget 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Poulter, Ben; Peregon, Anna; Ciais, Philippe; Canadell, Josep G.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Bastviken, David; Houweling, Sander; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Castaldi, Simona; Jackson, Robert B.; Alexe, Mihai; Arora, Vivek K.; Beerling, David J.; Bergamaschi, Peter; Blake, Donald R.; Brailsford, Gordon; Brovkin, Victor; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crevoisier, Cyril; Crill, Patrick; Covey, Kristofer; Curry, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Gedney, Nicola; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Ishizawa, Misa; Ito, Akihiko; Joos, Fortunat; Kim, Heon-Sook; Kleinen, Thomas; Krummel, Paul; Lamarque, Jean-François; Langenfelds, Ray; Locatelli, Robin; Machida, Toshinobu; Maksyutov, Shamil; McDonald, Kyle C.; Marshall, Julia; Melton, Joe R.; Morino, Isamu; Naik, Vaishali; O'Doherty, Simon; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Shushi; Peters, Glen P.; Pison, Isabelle; Prigent, Catherine; Prinn, Ronald; Ramonet, Michel; Riley, William J.; Saito, Makoto; Santini, Monia; Schroeder, Ronny; Simpson, Isobel J.; Spahni, Renato; Steele, Paul; Takizawa, Atsushi; Thornton, Brett F.; Tian, Hanqin; Tohjima, Yasunori; Viovy, Nicolas; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; van Weele, Michiel; van der Werf, Guido R.; Weiss, Ray; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Wilton, David J.; Wiltshire, Andy; Worthy, Doug; Wunch, Debra; Xu, Xiyan; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Qiuan

    2016-12-01

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (˜ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003-2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr-1, range 540-568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50-65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios

  9. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    Measurements in a pharmaceutical industry are usually carried out to ascertain the quality of a product or the control of a process; in either case the measurement result serves to demonstrate that the value of the measurand is within specified limits. No method is without bias, and no result...... of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  10. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes HM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in a number of areas including: definition and characterization, incidence and prevalence rates, associated neuronal processes, and implications for treatment, prevention, and patient-specific considerations. It is concluded that there is no consensual definition for IA. Prevalence rates among nationally representative samples across several countries vary greatly (from 1% to 18.7%, most likely reflecting the lack of methodological consistency and conceptual rigor of the studies. The overlaps between IA and other more traditional substance-based addictions and the possible neural substrates implicated in IA are also highlighted. In terms of treatment and prevention, both psychological and pharmacological treatments are examined in light of existing evidence alongside particular aspects inherent to the patient perspective. Based on the evidence analyzed, it is concluded that IA may pose a serious health hazard to a minority of people. Keywords: Internet addiction, review, behavioral addictions, prevalence, neuronal processes, treatment

  11. Penning trap mass measurements of $^{99-109}$Cd with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer, and implications for the rp process

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Beck, D; Blaum, K; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H-J; Kowalska, M; Lunney, D; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Schatz, H; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L

    2009-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on neutron-deficient Cd isotopes $^{99-109}$Cd have been performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN, all with relative mass uncertainties below $3 \\times 10^{-8}$. A new mass evaluation has been performed. The mass of $^{99}$Cd has been determined for the first time which extends the region of accurately known mass values towards the doubly magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. The implication of the results on the reaction path of the $rp$ process in stellar X-ray bursts is discussed. In particular, the uncertainty of the abundance and the overproduction created by the $rp$-process for the mass A = 99 is demonstrated by reducing the uncertainty of the proton-separation energy of $^{100}$In $S_{p}(^{100}$In) by a factor of 2.5.

  12. Application of Focal Conflict Theory to Psychoeducational Groups: Implications for Process, Content, and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champe, Julia; Rubel, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Group psychoeducation is a common group type used for a range of purposes. The literature presents balancing content and process as a challenge for psychoeducational group leaders. While the significance of group psychoeducation is supported, practitioners are given little direction for addressing process in these groups. Focal Conflict Theory…

  13. Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Processes: Implications for School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations have been found in cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. These cognitive processes improve during the day and decrease during the night and early hours of the morning. Sleep deprivation further decreases these cognitive…

  14. Context-Process Authenticity in Learning: Implications for Identity Enculturation and Boundary Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper posits that authenticity is an aspect of both the context and the process of learning. These two aspects cannot be seen in isolation and must be analyzed as one unity. We refer to this coupling relationship as the context-process authenticity. Existing learning and instructional approaches associated with authenticity, such as…

  15. Selecting a CSR Model: Quality and Implications of the Model Adoption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Zhang, Yu; Kurki, Anja; Herrmann, Suzannah

    2006-01-01

    The process through which a school adopts a comprehensive school reform (CSR) model has been suggested to be a key element in the lifecycle of school reform, contributing to stakeholder buy in and subsequent implementation. We studied the model adoption process, both on a national scale with survey data and in more depth with qualitative case…

  16. Neuroscience Meets Music Education: Exploring the Implications of Neural Processing Models on Music Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, neuroscientists have been fascinated by the way the brain processes music. Using new technologies, neuroscientists offer us a better understanding of the human brain's structures and functions. They have further proposed explanatory models for how the brain processes music. While these models shed light on how the…

  17. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  18. Biogeochemical budgets for Tapi Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bapardekar, M.V.; DeSousa, S.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    .1 psu within a distance of 35-40 km. In the present study, the data used for budgeting purpose was collected during November-December, 1983 and May, 1984, covering the entire dry season. We have no data for the monsoon season. However, due to the heavy...

  19. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  20. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  1. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  2. Line-item Budgeting and Film-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the role of line-item budgeting in film production in an effort to illustrate the positive effects that budgetary constraints can have on creativity. Design/methodology/approach – Using Elster’s (2000) constraint theory as a basis for the research, this paper...... options from hampering the creative process. Originality/value – The paper contributes to management control research in two ways. By addressing calls to provide more insight into the positive effects management control constraints might have on creativity, this study explores somewhat ignored aspects...... of line-item budgeting, adding greater insight into the interrelations between creativity and control. By exploring the ways in which line-item budgeting might take on the role of pre-commitment advice and devices in the creative process, this paper further exposes the links between accounting constraints...

  3. INTEGRATION OF SHIP HULL ASSEMBLY SEQUENCE PLANNING, SCHEDULING AND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Romuald Iwańkowicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.

  4. Research on a New Approach of R&D Budgeting based on Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce value chain and uses stage-gate model, which is widely used in programming, to find a new approach of R&D budgeting based on value chain. The expense of R&D of contemporary enterprises is taking larger and larger part of the whole production cost, so R&D budgeting, as a forward feed management mode, has been paid great attention to. R&D budgeting model is a management system that contains relevant basic concepts, procedures and methods correspondingly. The present model most enterprises are using follows the budgeting method in the field of manufacturing, which is more difficult to adapt to the characteristics of R&D activities, leading to adverse effects on R&D budget slack, as well as low management efficiency. Actually, the process of budgeting is the allocation of scarce resources to organize all kinds of work.

  5. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  6. Um modelo multiobjetivo de otimização aplicado ao processo de orçamento de capital A multicriteria optimization model applied to the capital budgeting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Oliveira Abensur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de orçamento de capital envolve a análise e seleção de projetos de longo prazo de maturação. Essas decisões de investimento são tradicionalmente feitas pela aplicação simultânea de vários métodos financeiros com uso de fluxo de caixa descontado como, por exemplo, o Valor Presente Líquido (VPL e a Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Apesar da longa e ampla disseminação dessas técnicas, são notórios os problemas de avaliação especialmente quando consideradas funções mono-objetivas e projetos mutuamente excludentes. Em se tratando de decisões financeiras, parece ilusório falar em otimização sem considerar múltiplos objetivos e atributos. O objetivo deste trabalho é propor um modelo matemático multiobjetivo prático que auxilie na seleção de projetos de investimento submetidos simultaneamente a vários indicadores de desempenho que incorpora uma nova medida de risco (GAFT. Os testes foram feitos sobre uma amostra de quarenta e cinco projetos e os resultados demonstram que o modelo proposto é uma ferramenta gerencial prática e promissora.The capital budgeting process involves the analysis and selection of projects committed over long periods of time. These investment decisions are traditionally made by the simultaneous application of various financial techniques using discounted cash flow, such as the Net Present Value (NPV and Internal Rate of Return (IRR. Despite the long-term and wide dissemination of these techniques, there are major problems of inconsistency especially in mono-criterion functions and mutually exclusive projects. When dealing with financial decisions, it seems illusory to address optimization without taking multiple objectives and attributes into account. The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical model that allows the multi-criteria selection of investment projects submitted to various financial indicators; the mathematical model incorporates a new measure of risk (GAFT. Forty

  7. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...... of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively...

  8. Microimpact phenomena on Australasian microtektites: Implications for ejecta plume characteristics and lunar surface processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Sudhakar, M.

    . The microimpacts are a consequence of interparticle collisions within the ejecta plume (as suggested by their chemistry) subsequent to a major impact and, therefore, reveal processes inherent in an impact-generated plume. All the impact phenomena observed here have...

  9. Implications of critical chain methodology for business process flexible automation projects in economic organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul BRUDARU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Business processes flexible automation projects involve the use of methods and technologies from Business Processes Management area (BPM that aim at increasing the agility of organizations in changing the business processes as response to environmental changes. BPM-type projects are a mix between process improvement projects and software development which implies a high complexity in managing them. The successful implementation of these projects involves overcoming problems inherent as delays in the activities of projects, multi-tasking, lack of focus which can not be solved by traditional project management tools. An approach which takes account of the difficulties of BPM projects is critical chain methodology. Using critical chain method provides the methodology fundament necessary for the successful completion of BPM-type projects.

  10. Industrial processing of condiments and seasonings and its implications for micronutrient fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mejia, Elvira González; Aguilera-Gutiérrez, Yolanda; Martin-Cabrejas, Maria Angeles; Mejia, Luis A

    2015-11-01

    Opportunities exist for micronutrient fortification of condiments and seasonings to combat vitamin or mineral deficiencies. This paper reviews the available technologies for industrial processing of condiments and seasonings and their fortification with micronutrients. The industrial processes to manufacture commonly consumed condiments and seasonings, such as soy sauce, bouillon cubes, fish sauce, spices, and other relevant products, are described. The impact of processing on fortification is evaluated, considering both the type of vehicle and the fortificant used. The analyzed technologies represent effective strategies for mineral fortification, particularly with iodine and iron. However, fortification with vitamins has been more challenging, owing to sensory changes of the finished product and a poor stability of the fortificant when using certain vehicles. Therefore, more studies are needed in this area in collaboration with governments, the food industry, and vitamin suppliers. Despite the technical difficulties encountered, the current processing technologies for the production of condiments and seasonings can be adapted and refined to allow their successful fortification with micronutrients.

  11. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M A G; van de Ven, T; Opthof, T

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fraud case' and raise some ethical concerns about the issue. Finally, we pay attention to plagiarism, autoplagiarism and double publications. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:25-9.).

  12. Occurrence of Arcobacter in Iranian poultry and slaughterhouse samples implicates contamination by processing equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, R; Tabatabaei, M; Shirzad Aski, H; Seifi, S

    2014-01-01

    1. The occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and three pathogenic species of Arcobacter from Iranian poultry carcasses was investigated at different steps of broiler processing to determine critical control points for reducing carcass contamination. 2. Samples were collected from (a) cloaca immediately before processing, (b) different points during processing and (c) at different stations in a processing plant of a slaughterhouse in southern Iran. 3. After enrichment steps in Arcobacter selective broth, DNA of the samples was extracted and three significant pathogen species of Arcobacter were identified based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16S rRNA and specific species PCR. 4. Out of a total of 540 samples, 244 (45%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. Arcobacter butzleri was more frequently detected (73% ± 13.9%) than A. cryaeophilus (9% ± 13.9%) and A. skirrowii (4.1%). In addition, co-colonisation (A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus) occurred in 13.9% of the positive samples. 5. The results indicate a high prevalence of Arcobacter in the investigated slaughterhouse and broiler carcasses and that Arcobacter is not a normal flora of the broilers. Evidence for the presence of Arcobacter in the environment and water of processing plants suggests that these are sources of contamination of poultry carcasses. In addition, contamination of the poultry carcasses can spread between poultry meats in different parts and processes of the slaughterhouse (pre-scalding to after evisceration).

  13. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  14. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  15. Implication of dorsostriatal D3 receptors in motivational processes: a potential target for neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Mathieu; Carcenac, Carole; Drui, Guillaume; Vachez, Yvan; Boulet, Sabrina; Savasta, Marc; Carnicella, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Beyond classical motor symptoms, motivational and affective deficits are frequently observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD), dramatically impairing the quality of life of patients. Using bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in rats, we have been able to reproduce these neuropsychiatric/non-motor impairments. The present study describes how bilateral 6-OHDA SNc lesions affect the function of the main striatal dopaminergic (DA) receptor subtypes. Autoradiography was used to measure the levels of striatal DA receptors, and operant sucrose self-administration and neuropharmacological approaches were combined to investigate the causal implication of specific DA receptors subtypes in the motivational deficits induced by a dorsostriatal DA denervation. We found that D3 receptors (D3R) exclusively are down-regulated within the dorsal striatum of lesioned rats. We next showed that infusion of a D3R antagonist (SB-277011A) in non-lesioned animals specifically disrupts preparatory, but not consummatory behaviors. Our findings reveal an unexpected involvement of dorsostriatal D3R in motivational processes. They strongly suggest an implication of dorsostriatal D3R in the neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in PD, highlighting this receptor as a potential target for pharmacological treatment. PMID:28134302

  16. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions. The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that deposition increases at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning account for 27% at the most, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization. Deposition fluxes are dominated by gaseous dry deposition processes (58% of the total, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems ranges from 8.6 to 10.9 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the other 70% attributed to NHx. The average emission flux ranges from 7.8 to 9.7 kgN ha−1 yr−1, dominated by NH3 volatilization (67% and biogenic emission from soils (24%. The annual budget is then

  17. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  18. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  19. The use of technologies for the process of picking: implications and propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arnaldo Troche Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present, businesses are facing numerous challenges with regard to their competitiveness in a global and complex marketplace, being required an ongoing review and evaluation of their management processes. The process of picking in Warehouses is one of the most critical, both for its complexity either by its high cost, so high levels of efficiency are necessary and desirable. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a research about the technologies on picking process in warehouses. They were developed a conceptual model and a methodology to support the choice of technological solutions for picker-to-part’s strategy. The proposed approach incorporates the various dimensions of decision process for assessment and selection of picking technologies based both, in the literature review, as from empirical contributions obtained from a provider of order picking technologies. In the decision process highlights the highly complexity, as it involves several levels of decision and several dimensions that pass through the layout of the warehouse, the methodology of picking, the level of traceability wanted, the coding model of products, among others determinant factors, beyond the cost of the technological solution itself.

  20. Progress in centralised ethics review processes: Implications for multi-site health evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel; Gibson, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, public sector programmes respond to complex social problems that intersect specific fields and individual disciplines. Such responses result in multi-site initiatives that can span nations, jurisdictions, sectors and organisations. The rigorous evaluation of public sector programmes is now a baseline expectation. For evaluations of large and complex multi-site programme initiatives, the processes of ethics review can present a significant challenge. However in recent years, there have been new developments in centralised ethics review processes in many nations. This paper provides the case study of an evaluation of a national, inter-jurisdictional, cross-sector, aged care health initiative and its encounters with Australian centralised ethics review processes. Specifically, the paper considers progress against the key themes of a previous five-year, five nation study (Fitzgerald and Phillips, 2006), which found that centralised ethics review processes would save time, money and effort, as well as contribute to more equitable workloads for researchers and evaluators. The paper concludes with insights for those charged with refining centralised ethics review processes, as well as recommendations for future evaluators of complex multi-site programme initiatives.

  1. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  2. Modelling interstellar physics and chemistry: implications for surface and solid-state processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Viti, Serena

    2013-07-13

    We discuss several types of regions in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies in which the chemistry appears to be influenced or dominated by surface and solid-state processes occurring on or in interstellar dust grains. For some of these processes, for example, the formation of H₂ molecules, detailed experimental and theoretical approaches have provided excellent fundamental data for incorporation into astrochemical models. In other cases, there is an astrochemical requirement for much more laboratory and computational study, and we highlight these needs in our description. Nevertheless, in spite of the limitations of the data, it is possible to infer from astrochemical modelling that surface and solid-state processes play a crucial role in astronomical chemistry from early epochs of the Universe up to the present day.

  3. LEGITIMATION IMPLICATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING AN ERP SYSTEM IN A HOLDING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Theiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the legitimation of the process of implementing an ERP system in a holding company. The conceptual model is based on the New Institutional Sociology, with the evaluation of the legitimation of a new information system in the organization studied. The data collection procedures employed interviews, questionnaires, as well as the analysis of documents provided by the company. As the system is already part of the company’s processes and the employees have already accepted the changes, it provides evidence of legitimation of the ERP system in the business.

  4. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  5. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  6. School-Based Budgeting in New York City: Perceptions of School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes results of surveys and interviews of community members from 29 New York City schools involved in school-level budgeting during 1995-96. Analyzes respondents' knowledge about school budgets, ideas about resource decision making, perceptions of budgetary power, and suggestions. Fully 80% of respondents supported a participatory process.…

  7. Teacher Education Budget Cuts in Romania and the US: Points of Contrast and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, B.; Alama, M.; Mosora, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Budgets for teacher education programmes have been substantially reduced as a result of the global economic crisis. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the teacher education budget cutting processes and procedures for universities in Romania versus one university in the United States. Sample: The data were collected from…

  8. A qualitative appraisal of stakeholder reactions to a tool for burden of disease–based health system budgeting in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Koku Awoonor-Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the Ghana Health Service launched a program of cooperation with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare that was designed to adapt Tanzania's PLANREP budgeting and reporting tool to Ghana's primary health care program. The product of this collaboration is a system of budgeting, data visualization, and reporting that is known as the District Health Planning and Reporting Tool (DiHPART. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the design and implementation processes (technical, procedures, feedback, maintenance, and monitoring of the DiHPART tool in northern Ghana. Design: This paper reports on a qualitative appraisal of user reactions to the DiHPART system and implications of pilot experience for national scale-up. A total of 20 health officials responsible for financial planning operations were drawn from the national, regional, and district levels of the health system and interviewed in open-ended discussions about their reactions to DiHPART and suggestions for systems development. Results: The findings show that technical shortcomings merit correction before scale-up can proceed. The review makes note of features of the software system that could be developed, based on experience gained from the pilot. Changes in the national system of financial reporting and budgeting complicate DiHPART utilization. This attests to the importance of pursuing a software application framework that anticipates the need for automated software generation. Conclusions: Despite challenges encountered in the pilot, the results lend support to the notion that evidence-based budgeting merits development and implementation in Ghana.

  9. Habituation and the Response to Discrepancy: Implications for Memory, Retrieval, and Processing Perceptual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B.

    Function of attention in infants is explored. Assuming (1) that infants respond differently to novel situations than to familiar ones; (2) that the infant's pattern of response is a partial reflection of the process of acquiring a perceptual memory of the stimulus, and (3) that sex differences may occur in the rate of habituation, 120 infants…

  10. Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Levinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The core niche for language use is in verbal interaction, involving the rapid exchange of turns at talking. This paper reviews the extensive literature about this system, adding new statistical analyses of behavioural data where they have been missing, demonstrating that turn-taking has the systematic properties originally noted by Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974; hereafter SSJ. This system poses some significant puzzles for current theories of language processing: the gaps between turns are short (of the order of 200 ms, but the latencies involved in language production are much longer (over 600 ms. This seems to imply that participants in conversation must predict (or ‘project’ as SSJ have it the end of the current speaker’s turn in order to prepare their response in advance. This in turn implies some overlap between production and comprehension despite their use of common processing resources. Collecting together what is known behaviourally and experimentally about the system, the space for systematic explanations of language processing for conversation can be significantly narrowed, and we sketch some first model of the mental processes involved for the participant preparing to speak next.

  11. Cognitive Processes Embedded in Self-Explanations of Solving Technical Problems: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, George R.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the cognitive processes embedded in self-explanations of automobile and motorcycle service technicians performing troubleshooting tasks and solving technical problems. In-depth interviews were conducted with twelve service technicians who have obtained the designation of "master technician" or equivalent within…

  12. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and th

  13. Quality Control of Boar Sperm Processing : Implications from European AI Centres and Two Spermatology Reference Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riesenbeck, A; Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Henning, H; Waberski, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increased automatization has resulted in a higher efficiency of boar semen processing in AI laboratories. Sophisticated laboratory management and efficient quality control programmes are needed for current tendencies in major pork-producing countries to reduce the sperm number per A

  14. Repetition and Focus on Form in Processing L2 Spanish Words: Implications for Pronunciation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Situated in the context of learning second language (L2) pronunciation, this article discusses from information-processing and pedagogical perspectives the role of repetitive practice with L2 input and of explicit focus on its form-related (phonological) properties. First, we report the results of an auditory word-priming experiment with 60 L2…

  15. DMS cyclone separation processes for optimization of plastic wastes recycling and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Torno, Susana

    2011-06-01

    It is demonstrated that substantial reductions in plastics presently disposed of in landfills can be achieved by cyclone density media separation (DMS). In comparison with the size fraction of plastics presently processed by industrial density separations (generally 6.4 to 9.5 mm), cyclone DMS methods are demonstrated to effectively process a substantially greater range of particle sizes (from 0.5 up to 120 mm). The purities of plastic products and recoveries obtained with a single stage separation using a cylindrical cyclone are shown to attain virtually 100% purity and recoveries >99% for high-density fractions and >98% purity and recoveries were obtained for low-density products. Four alternative schemas of multi-stage separations are presented and analyzed as proposed methods to obtain total low- and high-density plastics fraction recoveries while maintaining near 100% purities. The results of preliminary tests of two of these show that the potential for processing product purities and recoveries >99.98% of both density fractions are indicated. A preliminary economic comparison of capital costs of DMS systems suggests cyclone DMS methods to be comparable with other DMS processes even if the high volume capacity for recycling operations of these is not optimized.

  16. Convergence and Divergence of Process and Portfolio Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In the L2 writing literature, there has been a rich history of scholarship in theory, research and practice since the 1960s. Two of the most prominent L2 writing approaches are process and portfolio pedagogy. The former approach promotes the use of diverse writing strategies (e.g. pre-writing) to enhance student writers' expression and fluency.…

  17. Some implications of the technology assessment function for the effective public decision making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to analyze ways in which the institutionalization of the assessment function can affect the following phases of the public decision process: problem perception, problem definition, data assembly, invention of alternatives, evaluation of options, authorization, implementation, operation, appraisal, and modification.

  18. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  19. The recharge process in alluvial strip aquifers in arid Namibia and implication for artificial recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Diganta; Xu, Yongxin

    2016-10-01

    Alluvial strip aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers are important groundwater supply sources that sustain numerous settlements and ecological systems in arid Namibia. More than 70 % of the population in the nation's western and southern regions depend on alluvial aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers. Under natural conditions, recharge occurs through infiltration during flood events. Due to the characteristic spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in arid regions, recharge is irregular making the aquifers challenging to manage sustainably and they are often overexploited. This condition is likely to become more acute with increasing water demand and climate change, and artificial recharge has been projected as the apparent means of increasing reliability of supply. The article explores, through a case study and numerical simulation, the processes controlling infiltration, significance of surface water and groundwater losses, and possible artificial recharge options. It is concluded that recharge processes in arid alluvial aquifers differ significantly from those processes in subhumid systems and viability of artificial recharge requires assessment through an understanding of the natural recharge process and losses from the aquifer. It is also established that in arid-region catchments, infiltration through the streambed occurs at rates dependent on factors such as antecedent conditions, flow rate, flow duration, channel morphology, and sediment texture and composition. The study provides an important reference for sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems in similar regions.

  20. Implications of Human Pattern Processing for the Design of Artificial Knowledge Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    This paper presents evidence that four design principles commonly embodied in artificial knowledge systems are inconsistent with human cognitive capabilities. Because these principles are widely accepted as characteristics of human knowledge processing, common theoretical properties related to cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence which…

  1. Sad mood increases pain sensitivity upon thermal grill illusion stimulation: implications for central pain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Schwier, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In different fields of neuroscience research, illusions have successfully been used to unravel underlying mechanisms of stimulus processing. One such illusion existing for the field of pain research is the so-called thermal grill illusion. Here, painful sensations are elicited by interlacing warm and cold bars, with stimulus intensities (temperatures) of these bars being below the respective heat pain or cold pain thresholds. To date, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not completely understood. There is some agreement, however, that the sensation evoked by this stimulation is generated by central nervous interactions. Therefore, we followed two approaches in this study: firstly, we aimed at developing and validating a water-driven device which might be used in fMRI scanners in future studies - subject to minor adaptations. Secondly, we aimed to interfere with this illusion by induction of a sad mood state, a procedure which is suggested to influence central nervous structures that are also involved in pain processing. The newly developed device induced thermal grill sensations similar to those reported in the literature. Induction of sad, but not neutral mood states, resulted in higher pain and unpleasantness ratings of the painful illusion. These findings might be of importance for the understanding of pain processing in healthy volunteers, but putatively even more so in patients with major depressive disorder. Moreover, our results might indicate that central nervous structures involved in the affective domain or cognitive domain of pain processing might be involved in the perception of the illusion.

  2. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases.

  3. Individual Variation in Infant Speech Processing: Implications for Language Acquisition Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does language acquisition recruit domain-general processing mechanisms? In this dissertation, evidence concerning this question is garnered from the study of individual differences in infant speech perception and their predictive value with respect to language development in early childhood. In the first experiment, variation in the…

  4. Information Processing: A Review of Implications of Johnstone's Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Botton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current review is concerned with an information processing model used in science education. The purpose is to summarise the current theoretical understanding, in published research, of a number of factors that are known to influence learning and achievement. These include field independence, working memory, long-term memory, and the use of…

  5. Beyond feedback control: the interactive use of performance management systems. Implications for process innovation in Italian healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Chiara; Mella, Piero

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how the use of performance management systems affects managers' perception of satisfaction, the effectiveness of the control system and the performance related to process innovation. An exploratory empirical research has been conducted on 85 managers operating in Italian healthcare organizations. Empirical findings put forward that the interactive--as opposed to diagnostic--use of performance management systems enhances managerial satisfaction with the control system and managerial perception of effectiveness. The present study then showed that it is not the control itself that is an obstacle to innovation in organizations in general (and in health organizations in particular) but the diagnostic use of the control mechanisms, which impedes the interaction between the control personnel and those subject to the control. Finally, this paper addresses managerial implications and further research avenues.

  6. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  8. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  9. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  10. Mothers' daily person and process praise: implications for children's theory of intelligence and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Eva M; Kempner, Sara G

    2013-11-01

    This research examined if mothers' day-to-day praise of children's success in school plays a role in children's theory of intelligence and motivation. Participants were 120 children (mean age = 10.23 years) and their mothers who took part in a 2-wave study spanning 6 months. During the first wave, mothers completed a 10-day daily interview in which they reported on their use of person (e.g., "You are smart") and process (e.g., "You tried hard") praise. Children's entity theory of intelligence and preference for challenge in school were assessed with surveys at both waves. Mothers' person, but not process, praise was predictive of children's theory of intelligence and motivation: The more person praise mothers used, the more children subsequently held an entity theory of intelligence and avoided challenge over and above their earlier functioning on these dimensions.

  11. Feedback processes in cellulose thermal decomposition. Implications for fire-retarding strategies and treatments

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Brindley, J

    2002-01-01

    A simple dynamical system that models the competitive thermokinetics and chemistry of cellulose decomposition is examined, with reference to evidence from experimental studies indicating that char formation is a low activation energy exothermal process and volatilization is a high activation energy endothermal process. The thermohydrolysis chemistry at the core of the primary competition is described. Essentially, the competition is between two nucleophiles, a molecule of water and an -OH group on C_6 of an end glucosyl cation, to form either a reducing chain fragment with the propensity to undergo the bond-forming reactions that ultimately form char or a levoglucosan-end-fragment that depolymerizes to volatile products. The results of this analysis suggest that promotion of char formation under thermal stress can actually increase the production of flammable volatiles. Thus we would like to convey an important safety message in this paper: in some situations where heat and mass transfer is restricted in cell...

  12. Microbial export of lactic and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid: implications for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maris, Antonius J A; Konings, Wil N; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T

    2004-10-01

    Lactic acid and 3-hydroxypropanoic acid are industrially relevant microbial products. This paper reviews the current knowledge on export of these compounds from microbial cells and presents a theoretical analysis of the bioenergetics of different export mechanisms. It is concluded that export can be a key constraint in industrial production, especially under the conditions of high product concentration and low extracellular pH that are optimal for recovery of the undissociated acids. Under these conditions, the metabolic energy requirement for product export may equal or exceed the metabolic energy yield from product formation. Consequently, prolonged product formation at low pH and at high product concentrations requires the involvement of alternative, ATP-yielding pathways to sustain growth and maintenance processes, thereby reducing the product yield on substrate. Research on export mechanisms and energetics should therefore be an integral part of the development of microbial production processes for these and other weak acids.

  13. Alteration assemblages in Martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, J.C.; Catling, D.C.; Saxton, J M; Swindle, T. D.; Lyon, I C; Grady, M.M

    2001-01-01

    The SNC (Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny) meteorites have recorded interactions between martian crustal fluids and the parent igneous rocks. The resultant secondary minerals – which comprise up to 1 vol.% of the meteorites – provide information about the timing and nature of hydrous activity and atmospheric processes on Mars. We suggest that the most plausible models for secondary mineral formation involve the evaporation of low temperature (25 – 150 °C) brines. This is consistent with the simple ...

  14. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  15. Novel test structures for dedicated temperature budget determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik J.; Wolters, Rob A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for determining the temperature budget of the process side of silicon substrates and chips, based on well-known silicide formation reactions of metal–Si systems and (four-point probe) resistance measurements. In this paper, we focus on the Pd–Si system that is most temperat

  16. Community Colleges and the State Budget: The Nuts and Bolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Scott

    2003-01-01

    This article provides insight into the California state budget process and gives an overview of California's growing deficit. The author examines the decline in personal income gained from stock options and capital gains as a means of illustrating the economic factors that resulted in a $28 billion deficit. Next, the author turns his attention to…

  17. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: implications for self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, M. C.; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rosario Rueda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs), and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4–6, 7–9, and 10–13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation. PMID:24795676

  18. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZongXiu; LI Tao; ZHANG Jin; LIU YongQing; MA ZongJin

    2008-01-01

    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20-30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the different time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transformation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  19. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air.

  20. A study of starch gelatinisation behaviour in hydrothermally-processed plant food tissues and implications for in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Campbell, Grant M; Gaisford, Simon; Royall, Paul G; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the plant food matrix in influencing the extent of starch gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing, and its implications for starch digestibility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to provide a detailed examination of the gelatinisation behaviour of five distinct size fractions (diameters food materials. We observed clear differences in the gelatinisation behaviour of matched size-fractions of chickpeas and durum wheat. In chickpea materials, the TEG values (34-100%) were inversely related to particle size, whereas in durum wheat, no size-dependent limitations on TEG were observed. The TEG values were completely consistent with the extent of starch amylolysis in all size fractions of both durum wheat and chickpea. Microstructural analysis following hydrothermal processing confirmed the presence of some partially gelatinised birefringent starch within intact chickpea cells. Birefringent starch granules were not present in any of the processed fractions of durum wheat. The differences in gelatinisation behaviour of these plant species seem to reflect the individual cell wall properties of these materials. These findings demonstrate the applicability of DSC to real food materials to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the food matrix (particularly the plant cell walls) influences gelatinisation, and consequently, starch amylolysis.

  1. Implications of Br(\\mu -> e \\gamma) and \\Delta a_\\mu on Muonic Lepton Flavor Violating Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Chun-Khiang

    2012-01-01

    We study the implications of the experimental results on the \\mu -> e\\gamma decay rate and the muon anomalous magnetic moment, on muonic lepton flavor violating processes, such as \\mu -> 3 e and \\mu N -> e N. We use a model independent approach in this analysis, where these processes are considered to be loop induced by exchanging spin 1/2 and spin 0 particles. We explore two complementary cases, which has no or has an internal (built-in) cancellation mechanism in amplitudes. Our main results are as following. (a) Bounds from rates are used to constrain parameters, such as coupling constants and masses. These constraints can be easily updated by simple scalings, if the experimental situations change. (b) The muon g-2 data favors non-chiral interactions. (c) In \\mu -> 3 e and \\mu N -> e N processes, Z-penguin diagrams may play some role, while box diagrams contributions are highly constrained. (d) In the first case (without any built-in cancellation mechanism), using the recent \\mu -> e\\gamma bound, we find th...

  2. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  3. Dynamic processes in regulation and some implications for biofeedback and biobehavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Eddie, David

    2013-06-01

    Systems theory has long been used in psychology, biology, and sociology. This paper applies newer methods of control systems modeling for assessing system stability in health and disease. Control systems can be characterized as open or closed systems with feedback loops. Feedback produces oscillatory activity, and the complexity of naturally occurring oscillatory patterns reflects the multiplicity of feedback mechanisms, such that many mechanisms operate simultaneously to control the system. Unstable systems, often associated with poor health, are characterized by absence of oscillation, random noise, or a very simple pattern of oscillation. This modeling approach can be applied to a diverse range of phenomena, including cardiovascular and brain activity, mood and thermal regulation, and social system stability. External system stressors such as disease, psychological stress, injury, or interpersonal conflict may perturb a system, yet simultaneously stimulate oscillatory processes and exercise control mechanisms. Resonance can occur in systems with negative feedback loops, causing high-amplitude oscillations at a single frequency. Resonance effects can be used to strengthen modulatory oscillations, but may obscure other information and control mechanisms, and weaken system stability. Positive as well as negative feedback loops are important for system function and stability. Examples are presented of oscillatory processes in heart rate variability, and regulation of autonomic, thermal, pancreatic and central nervous system processes, as well as in social/organizational systems such as marriages and business organizations. Resonance in negative feedback loops can help stimulate oscillations and exercise control reflexes, but also can deprive the system of important information. Empirical hypotheses derived from this approach are presented, including that moderate stress may enhance health and functioning.

  4. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes in sediments of urban river networks: Spatiotemporal variations and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lv; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Ye; Liu, Sai; Hu, Xiaoting

    2016-12-01

    Urbanizations have increased the loadings of reactive nitrogen in urban riverine environments. However, limited information about dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes and associated contributions to nitrogen removal is available for urban riverine environments. In this study, sediment slurry experiments were conducted with nitrogen isotope-tracing technique to investigate the potential rates of denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and their contributions to nitrate reduction in sediments of urban river networks, Shanghai. The potential rates of denitrification, anammox and DNRA measured in the study area ranged from 0.193 to 98.7 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) dry weight (dw), 0.0387-23.7 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) dw and 0-10.3 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) dw, respectively. Denitrification and DNRA rates were higher in summer than in winter, while anammox rates were greater in winter than in summer for most sites. Dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, sulfide, Fe(II) and Fe(III) were found to have significant influence on these nitrate reduction processes. Denitrification contributed 11.5-99.5%% to total nitrate reduction, as compared to 0.343-81.6% for anammox and 0-52.3% for DNRA. It is estimated that nitrogen loss of approximately 1.33 × 10(5) t N year(-1) was linked to both denitrification and anammox processes, which accounted for about 20.1% of total inorganic nitrogen transported annually into the urban river networks of Shanghai. Overall, these results show the potential importance of denitrification and anammox in nitrogen removal and provide new insight into the mechanisms of nitrogen cycles in urban riverine environments.

  5. Formation of asymmetrical structured silica controlled by a phase separation process and implication for biosilicification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH34 as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL and dodecylamine (DA were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, infrared spectra (IR, and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines, phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification.

  6. Mantle flow in subduction systems: The mantle wedge flow field and implications for wedge processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Maureen D.; Wirth, Erin A.

    2013-02-01

    The mantle wedge above subducting slabs is associated with many important processes, including the transport of melt and volatiles. Our understanding of mantle wedge dynamics is incomplete, as the mantle flow field above subducting slabs remains poorly understood. Because seismic anisotropy is a consequence of deformation, measurements of shear wave splitting can constrain the geometry of mantle flow. In order to identify processes that make first-order contributions to the pattern of wedge flow, we have compiled a data set of local S splitting measurements from mantle wedges worldwide. There is a large amount of variability in splitting parameters, with average delay times ranging from ~0.1 to 0.3 s up to ~1.0-1.5 s and large variations in fast directions. We tested for relationships between splitting parameters and a variety of parameters related to subduction processes. We also explicitly tested the predictions made by 10 different models that have been proposed to explain splitting patterns in the mantle wedge. We find that no simple model can explain all of the trends observed in the global data set. Mantle wedge flow is likely controlled by a combination of downdip motion of the slab, trench migration, ambient mantle flow, small-scale convection, proximity to slab edges, and slab morphology, with the relative contributions of these in any given subduction system controlled by the subduction kinematics and mantle rheology. There is also a likely contribution from B-type olivine and/or serpentinite fabric in many subduction zones, governed by the local thermal structure and volatile distribution.

  7. Environmental tracers for elucidating the weathering process in a phosphogypsum disposal site: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Bolívar, Juan P.

    2015-10-01

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and tracing the weathering of phosphogypsum wastes stack-piled directly on salt-marshes of the Tinto River (Estuary of Huelva, SW Spain). With that purpose, different types of highly-polluted acid solutions were collected in the stack. Connection between these solutions and the estuarine environment was studied by geochemical tracers, such as rare earth elements (REE) and their North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized patterns and Cl/Br ratios. Phosphogypsum-related wastewaters include process water stored on the surface, pore-water contained in the phosphogypsum profile and edge outflow water emerging from inside the stack. Edge outflow waters are produced by waterlogging at the contact between phosphogypsum and the nearly impermeable marsh surface and discharge directly into the estuary. Process water shows geochemical characteristics typical of phosphate fertilizers, i.e. REE patterns with an evident enrichment of heavy-REE (HREE) with respect to middle-REE (MREE) and light-REE (LREE). By contrast, REE patterns of deeper pore-water and edge outflows are identical to those of Tinto River estuary waters, with a clear enrichment of MREE relative to LREE and HREE denoting influence of acid mine drainage. Cl/Br ratios of these solutions are very close to that of seawater, which also supports its estuarine origin. These findings clearly show that process water is not chemically connected with edge outflows through pore-waters, as was previously believed. Phosphogypsum weathering likely occurs by an upward flow of seawater from the marsh because of overpressure and permeability differences. Several recommendations are put forward in this study to route restoration actions, such as developing treatment systems to improve the quality of the edge outflow waters before discharging to the receiving environment.

  8. Process Dependent Sivers Function and Implication for Single Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Gamberg, Zhong-Bo Kang

    2011-01-01

    We study the single transverse spin asymmetries in the single inclusive particle production within the framework of the generalized parton model (GPM). By carefully analyzing the initial- and final-state interactions, we include the process-dependence of the Sivers functions into the GPM formalism. The modified GPM formalism has a close connection with the collinear twist-3 approach. Within the new formalism, we make predictions for inclusive {pi}{sup 0} and direct photon productions at RHIC energies. We find the predictions are opposite to those in the conventional GPM approach.

  9. Implications of the main mathematical methods on marketing decision making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis incorporates both the awareness of decision makers, which is located between total confidence and total ignorance and action values assigned to outcomes variants, meaning decision makers preferences. Marketing actions are often insecure. Under these conditions, to achieve the desired result, the company management shall have decision analysis models based on mathematical theories developed in recent decades. Decision analysis is the procedural and formal logic highlights include decision makers a situation and a number of techniques that determine the selection of a solution which solves the problem. Methodological approach of this process serves to form makers options.

  10. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    fermentation at high solids loading, in terms of maximized final conversion yield, is the overall aim of the work conducted. This thesis also revisits the knowledge already acquired in light of new enzymatic activities recently discovered i.e. lytic polysaccharides mono oxygenases (LPMOs), and how these ffects...... cellulosic ethanol processing at high solids conditions. Moreover for the first time in literature the activity of LPMOs on real lignocellulosic substrate and during cellulosic ethanol production is characterized. Hence describing the enzymatic scale dynamics when resembling in planta conditions, i...

  11. In vitro RNase and nucleic acid binding activities implicate coilin in U snRNA processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna J Broome

    Full Text Available Coilin is known as the marker protein for Cajal bodies (CBs, subnuclear domains important for the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs which function in pre-mRNA splicing. CBs associate non-randomly with U1 and U2 gene loci, which produce the small nuclear RNA (snRNA component of the respective snRNP. Despite recognition as the CB marker protein, coilin is primarily nucleoplasmic, and the function of this fraction is not fully characterized. Here we show that coilin binds double stranded DNA and has RNase activity in vitro. U1 and U2 snRNAs undergo a processing event of the primary transcript prior to incorporation in the snRNP. We find that coilin displays RNase activity within the CU region of the U2 snRNA primary transcript in vitro, and that coilin knockdown results in accumulation of the 3' pre-processed U1 and U2 snRNA. These findings present new characteristics of coilin in vitro, and suggest additional functions of the protein in vivo.

  12. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax.

  13. Responses in Arctic marine carbon cycle processes: conceptual scenarios and implications for ecosystem function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is one of the fastest changing oceans, plays an important role in global carbon cycling and yet is a particularly challenging ocean to study. Hence, observations tend to be relatively sparse in both space and time. How the Arctic functions, geophysically, but also ecologically, can have significant consequences for the internal cycling of carbon, and subsequently influence carbon export, atmospheric CO2 uptake and food chain productivity. Here we assess the major carbon pools and associated processes, specifically summarizing the current knowledge of each of these processes in terms of data availability and ranges of rates and values for four geophysical Arctic Ocean domains originally described by Carmack & Wassmann (2006: inflow shelves, which are Pacific-influenced and Atlantic-influenced; interior, river-influenced shelves; and central basins. We attempt to bring together knowledge of the carbon cycle with the ecosystem within each of these different geophysical settings, in order to provide specialist information in a holistic context. We assess the current state of models and how they can be improved and/or used to provide assessments of the current and future functioning when observational data are limited or sparse. In doing so, we highlight potential links in the physical oceanographic regime, primary production and the flow of carbon within the ecosystem that will change in the future. Finally, we are able to highlight priority areas for research, taking a holistic pan-Arctic approach.

  14. Implication of Secure Micropayment System Using Process Oriented Structural Design by Hash chaining in Mobile Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Kiran N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system presents a novel approach of designing a highly secured and robust process oriented architecture for micropayment system in wireless adhoc network. Deployment of any confidential transaction over dynamic nature of wireless adhoc network will strike a high amount of security challenges which is very difficult to identify which poses a great difficulty in designing and effective countermeasures. The current work designs the security process using hash chain and Simple Public Key Infrastructure to be implemented on newly designed digital agreement of broker along with paving new secure routing for secure m-transaction as an efficient alternative for digital coin. The system stimulates the intermediate nodes to cooperate for facilitating secure and reliable transaction from source to destination nodes. The system consists of high end encryption using hash function is also independent of any Trusted Third Party when the network topology frequency changes, thereby it is flexible, lightweight, and reliable for secure micropayment systems. The analysis result shows the system is highly robust and secure ensuring anonymity, privacy, non-repudiation offline payment system over wireless adhoc network.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Microphysical Process and Water Vapor Budget in a Spring Heavy Rainfall Process in Henan Province%河南春季一次强降水过程水汽收支和微物理过程数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华; 马鑫鑫; 邵宇翔; 田万顺

    2011-01-01

    利用ARPS模式对2007年3月3-4日河南一次大范围强降水过程进行了数值模拟,并在此基础上,分析了该暴雨过程的天气形势和水汽条件,计算了暴雨发生过程中选定区域内水汽输送、水汽收支和空中各相态水物质的量值大小及其转化关系。结果表明:这次强降水主要是受850 hPa西南涡和地面江淮气旋影响;水汽来自孟加拉湾和南海;计算区域上空的水汽收支、中低层水汽的垂直输送与地面雨强的变化有很好的对应关系,中、低层持续的较强西南暖湿气流水汽输送和明显的水汽辐合是导致河南这次强降水的重要条件。数值模拟结果显示,降水发展不同时段,云内微观结构、各种湿物质之间的转化关系和雨水形成机制都存在明显差异。%A wide range heavy rainfall process on 3-4 March 2007 in Henan province was simulated by ARPS numerical model.On the basis of accurate simulation results,the weather situation and vapor conditions was analyzed.At the same time,the author calculated water vapor transportation,water vapor budget,the concentration and transformation of each phase water during the rainfall process.The results indicated that Southwest Vortex at 850 hPa and surface Jianghuai cyclone were the main influence system.The vapor comes from Bengal Bay and South China Sea.The water vapor budget,the vertical transportation of vapor on middle and low levels correspond well with rainfall intensity.The sustained strong transportation of southwest warm wet air and the significant convergence were important condition caused this heavy rainfall process.The numerical simulation indicated the microstructure in cloud,transformation of each phase water and formation mechanisms of rain in different periods were of significant differences.

  16. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  17. Source process and tectonic implication of the January 20, 2007 Odaesan earthquake, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.; Kim, K. Y.; Fnais, M. S.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The source process for the 20th of January 2007, Mw 4.5 Odaesan earthquake in South Korea is investigated in the low- and high-frequency bands, using velocity and acceleration waveform data recorded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Seismographic Network at distances less than 70 km from the epicenter. Synthetic Green functions are adopted for the low-frequency band of 0.1-0.3 Hz by using the wave-number integration technique and the one dimensional velocity model beneath the epicentral area. An iterative technique was performed by a grid search across the strike, dip, rake, and focal depth of rupture nucleation parameters to find the best-fit double-couple mechanism. To resolve the nodal plane ambiguity, the spatiotemporal slip distribution on the fault surface was recovered using a non-negative least-square algorithm for each set of the grid-searched parameters. The focal depth of 10 km was determined through the grid search for depths in the range of 6-14 km. The best-fit double-couple mechanism obtained from the finite-source model indicates a vertical strike-slip faulting mechanism. The NW faulting plane gives comparatively smaller root-mean-squares (RMS) error than its auxiliary plane. Slip pattern event provides simple source process due to the effect of Low-frequency that acted as a point source model. Three empirical Green functions are adopted to investigate the source process in the high-frequency band. A set of slip models was recovered on both nodal planes of the focal mechanism with various rupture velocities in the range of 2.0-4.0 km/s. Although there is a small difference between the RMS errors produced by the two orthogonal nodal planes, the SW dipping plane gives a smaller RMS error than its auxiliary plane. The slip distribution is relatively assessable by the oblique pattern recovered around the hypocenter in the high-frequency analysis; indicating a complex rupture scenario for such moderate-sized earthquake, similar to those reported

  18. THE IMPLICATIONS OF INNOVATION PROCESS ON THE MARKETING OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALASESCU SIMONA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of the Open Innovation Model on the marketing activity developed by the companies from the high-technology industry. In this area, the technology is advancing continuously and new products are appearing rapidly. Competition on high-tech market is very tough and not all companies have the resources to cope with change. For these companies, the ideal solution is to apply the Open Innovation Model. The paper includes some results of a qualitative marketing research which had as main objective finding the opinions of managers from high-tech industry regarding the need for innovation process and the choice of the most effective innovation strategies.

  19. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules.

  20. Attachment and object relations in patients with narcissistic personality disorder: implications for therapeutic process and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Diana; Meehan, Kevin B

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a therapeutic approach for patients with severe personality disorders, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), a manualized evidence-based treatment, which integrates contemporary object relations theory with attachment theory and research. Case material is presented from a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient in TFP whose primary presenting problems were in the arena of sexuality and love relations, and whose attachment state of mind showed evidence of oscillation between dismissing and preoccupied mechanisms. Clinical process material is presented to illustrate the tactics and techniques of TFP and how they have been refined for treatment of individuals with NPD. The ways in which conflicts around sexuality and love relations were lived out in the transference is delineated with a focus on the interpretation of devalued and idealized representations of self and others, both of which are key components of the compensatory grandiose self that defensively protects the individual from an underlying sense of vulnerability and imperfection.

  1. Conditional analysis of mixed Poisson processes with baseline counts: implications for trial design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard J; Wei, Wei

    2003-07-01

    The design of clinical trials is typically based on marginal comparisons of a primary response under two or more treatments. The considerable gains in efficiency afforded by models conditional on one or more baseline responses has been extensively studied for Gaussian models. The purpose of this article is to present methods for the design and analysis of clinical trials in which the response is a count or a point process, and a corresponding baseline count is available prior to randomization. The methods are based on a conditional negative binomial model for the response given the baseline count and can be used to examine the effect of introducing selection criteria on power and sample size requirements. We show that designs based on this approach are more efficient than those proposed by McMahon et al. (1994).

  2. Electron-transfer processes in dendrimers and their implication in biology, catalysis, sensing and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Didier

    2012-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the design and synthesis of dendrimers has allowed scientists to locate redox sites at precise positions (core, focal points, branching points, termini, cavities) of these perfectly defined macromolecules, which have generation-controlled sizes and topologies matching those of biomolecules. Redox-dendrimer engineering has led to fine modelling studies of electron-transfer metalloproteins, in which the branches of the dendrimers hinder access to the active site in a manner reminiscent of that of the protein. It has also enabled the construction of remarkable catalysts, sensors and printboards, including by sophisticated design of the interface between redox dendrimers and solid-state devices -- for example by functionalizing electrodes and other surfaces. Electron-transfer processes between dendrimers and a variety of other molecules hold promising applications in diverse areas that range from bio-engineering to sensing, catalysis and energy materials.

  3. Socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage processes across the life course: implications for health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2012-02-01

    Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients.

  4. Biomedical implications of altered product composition in advanced coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Pelroy, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chemical and toxicologic characteristics of direct coal liquefaction materials are highly dependent upon the specific process operations by which the coal liquids were produced, including, in particular, those that affect boiling point range and degree of hydrogen incorporation. Recent advances in direct coal liquefaction technology, such as the use of catalytic hydrogenation, reduced liquefaction severity and lowering the upper temperature cut point for the distillation of fuels, have resulted in products with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios and lower heteroatom content. These higher-quality fuels tend to be less mutagenic and carcinogenic in laboratory assays than earlier coal liquefaction products. It is likely that application of postproduction hydrotreatment, as well as restriction of upper distillation temperature, for coal-based fuel products could result in materials that exhibit mutagenic or carcinogenic activity which is no greater than that of their petroleum-derived counterparts. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs.

  5. Investigation of the impact of cleaning on the adhesive bond and the process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; ADKINS,CAROL L. JONES; CURRO,JOHN G.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LOPEZ,EDWIN P.; LEMKE,PAUL A.

    2000-05-01

    While surface cleaning is the most common process step in DOE manufacturing operations, the link between a successful adhesive bond and the surface clean performed before adhesion is not well understood. An innovative approach that combines computer modeling expertise, fracture mechanics understanding, and cleaning experience to address how to achieve a good adhesive bond is discussed here to develop a capability that would result in reduced cleaning development time and testing, improved bonds, improved manufacturability, and even an understanding that leads to improved aging. A simulation modeling technique, polymer reference interaction site model applied near wall (Wall PRISM), provided the capability to include contaminants on the surface. Calculations determined an approximately 8% reduction in the work of adhesion for 1% by weight of ethanol contamination on the structure of a silicone adhesive near a surface. The demonstration of repeatable coatings and quantitative analysis of the surface for deposition of controlled amounts of contamination (hexadecane and mineral oil) was based on three deposition methods. The effect of the cleaning process used on interfacial toughness was determined. The measured interfacial toughness of samples with a Brulin cleaned sandblasted aluminum surface was found to be {approximately} 15% greater than that with a TCE cleaned aluminum surface. The sensitivity of measured fracture toughness to various test conditions determined that both interfacial toughness and interface corner toughness depended strongly on surface roughness. The work of adhesion value for silicone/silicone interface was determined by a contact mechanics technique known as the JKR method. Correlation with fracture data has allowed a better understanding between interfacial fracture parameters and surface energy.

  6. Colocalization of Fc gamma RI-targeted antigen with class I MHC: implications for antigen processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyre, C A; Barreda, M E; Swink, S L; Fanger, M W

    2001-02-15

    The high-affinity receptor for IgG (CD64 or FcgammaRI) is constitutively expressed exclusively on professional APCs (monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells). When Ag is targeted specifically to FcgammaRI, Ag presentation is markedly enhanced, although the mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. In an effort to elucidate the pathways involved in FcgammaRI targeting, we developed a model targeted Ag using enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). This molecule, wH22xeGFP, consists of the entire humanized anti-FcgammaRI mAb H22 with eGFP genetically fused to the C-terminal end of each CH3 domain. wH22xeGFP binds within the ligand-binding region by its Fc end, as well as outside the ligand-binding region by its Fab ends, thereby cross-linking FcgammaRI. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that wH22xeGFP was rapidly internalized by the high-FcgammaRI-expressing cell line U937 10.6, but did not associate with intracellular proteins Rab4, Rab5a, or Lamp-1, suggesting that the targeted fusion protein was not localized in early endosomes, recycling vesicles, or lysosomes. Interestingly, wH22xeGFP was found colocalized with intracellular MHC class I, suggesting that FcgammaRI-targeted Ags may converge upon a class I processing pathway. These data are in agreement with studies in the mouse showing that FcgammaRI targeting can lead to Ag-specific activation of cytotoxic T cells. Data obtained from these studies should lead to a better understanding of how Ags targeted to FcgammaRI are processed and under what conditions they lead to presentation of antigenic peptides in MHC class I, as a foundation for the use of FcgammaRI-targeted Ags as vaccines.

  7. Implications of membrane fouling toward the removal of the pharmaceutical sulfamethoxazole by nanofiltration processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander SIMON; William PRICE; Long Duc NGHIEM

    2011-01-01

    The influence of membrane fouling on the retention of the trace organic contaminant sulfamethoxazole by a nanofiltration (NF) process was investigated.Organic fouling caused a severe flux decline possibly due to pore blocking and adsorption directly after the commencement of the fouling layer development.Such membrane-foulant interactions were absent for colloidal fouling,which resulted in a more gradual flux decline.Membrane charge played a significant role in the separation process of inorganic salts,where the retention was the highest in a caustic environment (high pH) due to more swollen membrane material caused by the higher negative charge on the membrane.Organic fouling and a combination of colloidal and organic fouling led to a significant increase in the membrane negative charge.The influence of membrane fouling on solute retention was dependent on the fouling behaviour and the physicochemical properties of the model foulants,where the model foulants probably contributed to an increase in the retention of charged solutes due to enhanced electrostatic interactions.Organic fouling caused an increase in the retention of inorganic salts and sulfamethoxazole due to pore blocking.In contrast,colloidal fouling caused a decrease in the retention of inorganic salts due to cake-enhanced concentration polarisation.However,the presence of a colloidal fouling layer did not reduce the retention of sulfamethoxazole.A mixture of colloidal and organic matter improved the retention of inorganic salts.A similar conclusion can be inferred for sulfamethoxazole at pH 4 when the compound exists in a neutral form.

  8. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  9. Differentially Expressed Genes Distributed Over Chromosomes and Implicated in Certain Biological Processes for Site Insertion Genetically Modified Rice Kemingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu, Yunhe Li, Jie Zhao, Xiuping Chen, Guiliang Jian, Yufa Peng, Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of genetically modified (GM plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11. The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis.

  10. A Research on Annual Budget Report at the Beginning of Fiscal Year in the Commonwealth of Australia and Its Implication for China%澳大利亚年初预算报告研究及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美多; 金笑驰

    2013-01-01

      澳大利亚联邦政府具有较为完善的预算报告体系。其年初预算报告包括:预算陈词、预算一览、预算概述、预算战略和展望、预算措施、政府间财政关系、机构资源和拨款议案八个重要组成部分。这些预算文件具有全面性、结果导向、中期规划和亲和性的鲜明特征,为我国完善中央年初预算报告提供了有益的借鉴。此外,分阶段完成年初预算报告的具体性、全面性、全局性和规划性四个步骤的改革,将有助于提高我国的预算信息公开程度,从而“创造条件让人民监督、批评政府”。%  The Commonwealth of Australia has a consummate budget reporting system. One of the most important is the annual budget report at the beginning of the fiscal year including eight parts:budget speech, budget at glance, budget overview, budget strategy and outlook, budget measures, Australia’s federal relations, agency resourcing, and appropriation bills. These budget papers are comprehensive, result-oriented, medium term planning, and reader-friendly. They provide helpful experiences for China and we could promote open and transparent budget information by improving our annual budget report with four stages, which will create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government.

  11. Physical Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer with Implications for Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Barry D., II

    Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant dependent on complex photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is sensitive to meteorological conditions that govern solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed/direction (Stockwell, 2011). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has classified O 3 as one of the six criteria pollutants that is considered harmful to both plants and human health (Hollingsworth, 2007). The current study investigates the influence of the diurnal cycle of the BL on the surface air pollutants. Specifically, it examines how the nighttime and transition period turbulence impacts the concentration of ozone at the surface and in the atmospheric column during the following day. In order to complete the study, a series of models including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Comprehensive Air Quality model with Extensions (CAMx) are used to simulate atmospheric conditions in the Maryland and Texas areas. BL processes such as the minimum diffusivity or BL parameterization within CAMx are investigated. The Blackadar scheme was found to artificially suppress the nocturnal BL height and appears to be the cause of a 15 ppbv high model bias. An experiment is then conducted where a minimum BL height of 160 m and an improvement of 7% in the median model bias are found in the Maryland area. With Maryland being in a NOx-limited regime, the same process of setting a minimum height is tested in the Texas area using the YSU scheme but minimal differences produced minuscule changes in the vertical diffusivity. The use of the Ri number improved the model bias by another 5 ppbv or 13% over using the Blackadar BL scheme. A new algorithm to predict the nocturnal BL depth is implemented into the WRF YSU scheme, which scales the Ribc with the Obukhov length adding a dependency on near surface properties of the flow. The algorithm is tested using meteorological surface measurements and tower

  12. Comprehensive budget management of Rongzhen Garden Company%荣振园林公司全面预算管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田春雷; 冯荣; 郭媛媛

    2014-01-01

    针对企业全面预算管理问题,以荣振园林公司实施全面预算管理的全过程为分析背景,运用综合归纳和对比分析的方法,从预算组织体系和预算流程两个方面分析了荣振园林公司实施全面预算管理的情况,公司存在预算组织体系不完善、预算编制模式单一、预算执行较差等问题。提出了增加预算监督部门和完善全面预算管理流程等相应的改进方案。%In view of enterprise problems in comprehensive budget management, compre-hensive induction and comparative analyses were carried out to study the present situation of overall budget management of Rongzhen Garden Company from budget organization sys-tem and budget process against the background of the whole process of overall budget management of Rongzhen Garden Company. Findings reveal problems of imperfect organiza-tion system of company budget, monotonous budgeting mode, poor budget execution. Im-provement schemes are put forward in increasing budget supervision departments and im-proving the comprehensive budget management process.

  13. Ten-year experience with mission-based budgeting in the faculty of medicine of Dalhousie University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedy, John; MacDonald, Noni E; MacDougall, Brian

    2003-11-01

    The Faculty of Medicine of Dalhousie University (the Faculty) has applied a mission-based approach to the allocation of the academic budget since 1993. Over the ensuing decade, large shifts in budgets to academic departments have been effected, and two goals that required special emphasis-the successful implementation of a tutorial-based undergraduate medical curriculum and an increase in research activity-have been achieved. This has occurred despite significant reductions in the overall academic budget over the ten-year period. The budgeting process provided the Faculty with a tangible means of supporting its mission and also gave each department a transparent report of its relative contribution to the overall mission of the Faculty, which helped instill pride. In some years, misunderstandings of the budget process arose because of confusion over the impact of the overall total academic budget reductions experienced by the Faculty in that year. This meant that recognition of a department's contribution resulted, in most instances, in a relatively smaller reduction in budget rather than a budget increase. Further misunderstandings have arisen because of confusion between mission-based and activity-based budgeting. This confusion was reinforced because the assessments of education outcomes were measurements of activity rather than of outcomes. However, these measures were chosen to be the best-available indirect measures of the desired educational outcome. After ten years, the fundamentals of the mission-based process introduced in 1993 remain unchanged as the basis for allocation of the academic budget for the Faculty.

  14. Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications – a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rydin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Although peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's land surface, boreal and subarctic peatlands store about 15–30% of the world's soil carbon as peat. Despite their potential for large positive feedbacks to the climate system through sequestration and emission of greenhouse gases, peatlands are not explicitly included in global climate models and therefore in predictions of future climate change. In April 2007 a symposium was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, to advance our understanding of peatland C cycling through integration across disciplines and research approaches and to develop a more synthetic picture of the present and future role of peatlands in the global C cycle and their interactions with the climate system. This paper aims to synthesize the main findings of the symposium, focusing on (i small-scale processes, (ii C fluxes at the landscape scale, and (iii peatlands and climate. The paper concludes with a summary of the main drivers of the C balance of peatlands, and proposes directions for new research to reduce key uncertainties in our knowledge of C cycling in peatlands in order to facilitate the explicit inclusion of these ecosystems in a new generation of earth system models.

  15. Immune-mediated processes implicated in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Justin G; Makker, Preet G S; Tonkin, Ryan S; Abdulla, Munawwar; Park, Susanna B; Goldstein, David; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain are challenging complications of cancer treatment. Many of the major classes of chemotherapeutics can cause neurotoxicity and significantly modulate the immune system. There is ongoing investigation regarding whether reciprocal crosstalk between the nervous and immune systems occurs and, indeed, contributes to neuropathic pain during treatment with chemotherapeutics. An emerging concept is that neuroinflammation is one of the major mechanisms underlying CIPN. Here, we discuss recent findings, which provide insight into this complex process of neuroimmune interactions. Findings show limited infiltration of leukocytes into the nervous system of CIPN animals and varying degrees of peripheral and central glial activation depending on the chemotherapeutic drug, dose, schedule, and timing. Most evidence suggests an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and changes in immune signalling pathways. There is, however, limited evidence available from human studies and it remains unclear whether neuroinflammatory responses are the cause of neuropathy or a bystander effect of the chemotherapy treatment.

  16. Thermal Transition Properties of Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae and Ling (Genypterus blacodes Skin Collagens: Implications for Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Newberry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae and ling (Genypterus blacodes are cold-water fish caught in New Zealand waters. Their skins are a major component of the post-processing waste stream. Valuable products could be developed from the skins, as they are primarily composed of collagen, which has many commercial applications. We prepared acid soluble collagens (ASC from hoki and ling skins, and analyzed their thermal denaturation properties using a Rapid Visco™ Analyzer. At slower heating rates the denaturation temperature (TD of hoki and ling collagens decreased. This result is consistent with the model of irreversible rate kinetics for the denaturation of collagen. We determined the effects of solvents that disrupt hydrogen bonding on ASC stability. Increasing concentrations of urea from 0.1 M to 1.0 M and acetic acid from 0.1 M to 0.5 M decreased TD. This resulted from the effects of these reagents on the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the collagen triple helix.

  17. The effects of microstructural changes caused by welding on microbiologically influenced corrosion: Material and process implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.W.; Willis, E.R.; Van Diepen, T. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Materials Engineering Dept.

    1995-10-01

    The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) susceptibility of a material is inextricably linked to its microstructure. The thermomechanical cycle associated with welding produces extensive microstructural change in the vicinity of the weld. This work tested the hypothesis that fabrication procedure would alter MIC susceptibility. This study examined the effect of systematic variation in the amounts of cerium, sulfur and silicon on the corrosion susceptibility of welded AISI 8630 material in aqueous, anaerobic solutions. Samples were exposed to both sterile and biologically solutions. Biologically active solutions were invariably more aggressive. The changes in corrosion susceptibility were correlated to the changes in the microstructure of the weld fusion zone, the partially melted zone (PMZ) and the base material, as affected by minor element content. Significant correlations between total numbers of pits/maximum pit depth and minor element content/location of attack were found in this study. The creation of extensive subgrain boundary coupled with solute redistribution in the fusion zone as well as extensive continuous grain boundary films in the partially melted zone foster MIC in these locations. Mitigation strategies treating material selection and weld process/procedure selection are discussed.

  18. Code-switching across brainstorming sessions: implications for the revised hierarchical model of bilingual language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Kevin J; Zárate, Michael A; Paulus, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    The revised hierarchical model (RHM) of bilingual language processing posits independent word form representations for the dominant language (L1) and the nondominant language (L2), facilitated translation from L2 words to L1 words, access to common concepts for L1 and L2, and stronger activation of concepts for L1 than for L2. Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals brainstormed for two sessions; half switched languages (L1-L2 or L2-L1) and half stayed in the same language (L1-L1 or L2-L2) across sessions. In both sessions, L1 brainstorming resulted in more efficient idea productivity than L2 brainstorming, supporting stronger concept activation for L1, consistent with the RHM. Switching languages from L2 to L1 resulted in the most efficient idea productivity in Session 2, suggesting that switching to L1 not only permits strong concept activation, but also the activation of concepts that are relatively different than those activated by L2, inconsistent with the RHM. Switching languages increased the proportion of Session 1 ideas repeated during Session 2, despite instructions not to repeat. This finding suggests that there is activation of concepts as well as word forms in same language brainstorming and that this dual activation aids in following instructions not to repeat, consistent with the RHM. It is suggested that the RHM be re-specified to accommodate the notion that L1 and L2 access relatively different concepts.

  19. The relationship between drainage density, erosion rate, and hilltop curvature: Implications for sediment transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Fiona J.; Mudd, Simon M.; Attal, Mikaël.; Milodowski, David T.; Grieve, Stuart W. D.

    2016-10-01

    Drainage density is a fundamental landscape metric describing the extent of the fluvial network. We compare the relationship between drainage density (Dd) and erosion rate (E) using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) numerical model. We find that varying the channel slope exponent (n) in detachment-limited fluvial incision models controls the relationship between Dd and E, with n > 1 resulting in increasing Dd with E if all other parameters are held constant. This result is consistent when modeling both linear and nonlinear hillslope sediment flux. We also test the relationship between Dd and E in five soil-mantled landscapes throughout the USA: Feather River, CA; San Gabriel Mountains, CA; Boulder Creek, CO; Guadalupe Mountains, NM; and Bitterroot National Forest, ID. For two of these field sites we compare Dd to cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN)-derived erosion rates, and for each site we use mean hilltop curvature as a proxy for erosion rate where CRN-derived erosion rates are not available. We find that there is a significant positive relationship between Dd, E, and hilltop curvature across every site, with the exception of the San Gabriel Mountains, CA. This relationship is consistent with an n exponent greater than 1, suggesting that at higher erosion rates, the transition between advective and diffusive processes occurs at smaller contributing areas in soil-mantled landscapes.

  20. Debris flows on the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska: Implications for analogous processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Donald M.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.

    2014-02-01

    We observed niveo-aeolian deposits, denivation features, and small meltwater-induced debris flows that had formed at the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, northwestern interior Alaska in late March 2010. This high-latitude, cold-climate dune field is being studied as a planetary analog to improve our understanding of factors that may trigger debris flows on the lee slopes of martian aeolian dunes. Debris flows consisted of a sand and liquid water mixture that cascaded down the lee slopes of two barchanoid dunes on days when measured ground surface temperatures were below freezing. We hypothesize that relatively dark sand on snow caused local hot spots where solar radiation could be absorbed by the sand and conducted into the underlying snow, enabling meltwater to form and sand to be mobilized. This investigation provides insights into the interactions between niveo-aeolian deposition, slope aspect and insolation, thawing, and initiation of alluvial processes. These debris flows are morphologically similar to those associated with seasonal gullies or erosion tracks visible on the slopes of mid- to high-latitude dune fields in both martian hemispheres. Localized heating and thawing at scales too small for orbital sensors to identify may yield martian debris flows at current climate conditions.

  1. Systematic review of SMART Recovery: Outcomes, process variables, and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison K; Forbes, Erin; Baker, Amanda L; Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Hunt, David; Kelly, John F

    2017-02-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART Recovery) and 12-step models of mutual aid as important sources of long-term support for addiction recovery. Methodologically rigorous reviews of the efficacy and potential mechanisms of change are available for the predominant 12-step approach. A similarly rigorous exploration of SMART Recovery has yet to be undertaken. We aim to address this gap by providing a systematic overview of the evidence for SMART Recovery in adults with problematic alcohol, substance, and/or behavioral addiction, including (i) a commentary on outcomes assessed, process variables, feasibility, current understanding of mental health outcomes, and (ii) a critical evaluation of the methodology. We searched six electronic peer-reviewed and four gray literature databases for English-language SMART Recovery literature. Articles were classified, assessed against standardized criteria, and checked by an independent assessor. Twelve studies (including three evaluations of effectiveness) were identified. Alcohol-related outcomes were the primary focus. Standardized assessment of nonalcohol substance use was infrequent. Information about behavioral addiction was restricted to limited prevalence data. Functional outcomes were rarely reported. Feasibility was largely indexed by attendance. Economic analysis has not been undertaken. Little is known about the variables that may influence treatment outcome, but attendance represents a potential candidate. Assessment and reporting of mental health status was poor. Although positive effects were found, the modest sample and diversity of methods prevent us from making conclusive remarks about efficacy. Further research is needed to understand the clinical and public health utility of SMART as a viable recovery support option. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Complex Nucleation Process of Large North Chile Earthquakes, Implications for Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Meneses, G.; Sobiesiak, M.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the nucleation process of Northern Chile events that included the large earthquakes of Tocopilla 2007 Mw 7.8 and Iquique 2014 Mw 8.1, as well as the background seismicity recorded from 2011 to 2013 by the ILN temporary network and the IPOC and CSN permanent networks. We built our catalogue of 393 events starting from the CSN catalogue, which has a completeness of magnitude Mw > 3.0 in Northern Chile. We re-located and computed moment magnitude for each event. We also computed Early Warning (EW) parameters - Pd, Pv, τc and IV2 - for each event including 13 earthquakes of Mw>6.0 that occurred between 2007-2012. We also included part of the seismicity from March-April 2014 period. We find that Pd, Pv and IV2 are good estimators of magnitude for interplate thrust and intraplate intermediate depth events with Mw between 4.0 and 6.0. However, the larger magnitude events show a saturation of the EW parameters. The Tocopilla 2007 and Iquique 2014 earthquake sequences were studied in detail. Almost all events with Mw>6.0 present precursory signals so that the largest amplitudes occur several seconds after the first P wave arrival. The recent Mw 8.1 Iquique 2014 earthquake was preceded by low amplitude P waves for 20 s before the main asperity was broken. The magnitude estimation can improve if we consider longer P wave windows in the estimation of EW parameters. There was, however, a practical limit during the Iquique earthquake because the first S waves arrived before the arrival of the P waves from the main rupture. The 4 s P-wave Pd parameter estimated Mw 7.1 for the Mw 8.1 Iquique 2014 earthquake and Mw 7.5 for the Mw 7.8 Tocopilla 2007 earthquake.

  3. Aggregation and sampling in deterministic chaos: implications for chaos identification in hydrological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Salas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature reveals conflicting results regarding the existence and inherent nature of chaos in hydrological processes such as precipitation and streamflow, i.e. whether they are low dimensional chaotic or stochastic. This issue is examined further in this paper, particularly the effect that certain types of transformations, such as aggregation and sampling, may have on the identification of the dynamics of the underlying system. First, we investigate the dynamics of daily streamflows for two rivers in Florida, one with strong surface and groundwater storage contributions and the other with a lesser basin storage contribution. Based on estimates of the delay time, the delay time window, and the correlation integral, our results suggest that the river with the stronger basin storage contribution departs significantly from the behavior of a chaotic system, while the departure is less significant for the river with the smaller basin storage contribution. We pose the hypothesis that the chaotic behavior depicted on continuous precipitation fields or small time-step precipitation series becomes less identifiable as the aggregation (or sampling time step increases. Similarly, because streamflows result from a complex transformation of precipitation that involves accumulating and routing excess rainfall throughout the basin and adding surface and groundwater flows, the end result may be that streamflows at the outlet of the basin depart from low dimensional chaotic behavior. We also investigate the effect of aggregation and sampling using series derived from the Lorenz equations and show that, as the aggregation and sampling scales increase, the chaotic behavior deteriorates and eventually ceases to show evidence of low dimensional determinism.

  4. Coupled Environmental Processes in the Mojave Desert and Implications for ET Covers as Stable Landforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shafer; M. Y oung; S. Zitzer; E. McDonald; T. Caldwell

    2006-01-18

    Monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) covers are the baseline method for closure of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed LLW, and transuranic (TRU) waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The regulatory timeline is typically 1,000 years for LLW and 10,000 years for TRU waste. Covers for such waste have different technical considerations than those with shorter timelines because they are subject to environmental change for longer periods of time, and because the environmental processes are often coupled. To evaluate these changes, four analog sites (approximately 30, 1,000 to 2,000, 7,000 to 12,500, and 125,000 years in age) on the NTS were analyzed to address the early post-institutional control period (the youngest site), the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of LLW, and the 10,000-year period for TRU waste. Tests included soil texture, structure, and morphology; surface soil infiltration and hydraulic conductivity; vegetation and faunal surveys; and literature reviews. Separate measurements were made in plant undercanopy and intercanopy areas. The results showed a progressive increase in silt and clay content of surface soils with age. Changes in soil texture and structure led to a fivefold decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity in intercanopy areas, but no change in undercanopies, which were subject to bioturbation. These changes may have been responsible for the reduction in total plant cover, most dramatically in intercanopy areas, primarily because more precipitation either runs off the site or is held nearer to the surface where plant roots are less common. The results suggest that covers may evolve over longer timeframes to stable landforms that minimize the need for active maintenance.

  5. An internal model architecture for novelty detection: implications for cerebellar and collicular roles in sensory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Anderson

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is thought to implement internal models for sensory prediction, but details of the underlying circuitry are currently obscure. We therefore investigated a specific example of internal-model based sensory prediction, namely detection of whisker contacts during whisking. Inputs from the vibrissae in rats can be affected by signals generated by whisker movement, a phenomenon also observable in whisking robots. Robot novelty-detection can be improved by adaptive noise-cancellation, in which an adaptive filter learns a forward model of the whisker plant that allows the sensory effects of whisking to be predicted and thus subtracted from the noisy sensory input. However, the forward model only uses information from an efference copy of the whisking commands. Here we show that the addition of sensory information from the whiskers allows the adaptive filter to learn a more complex internal model that performs more robustly than the forward model, particularly when the whisking-induced interference has a periodic structure. We then propose a neural equivalent of the circuitry required for adaptive novelty-detection in the robot, in which the role of the adaptive filter is carried out by the cerebellum, with the comparison of its output (an estimate of the self-induced interference and the original vibrissal signal occurring in the superior colliculus, a structure noted for its central role in novelty detection. This proposal makes a specific prediction concerning the whisker-related functions of a region in cerebellar cortical zone A(2 that in rats receives climbing fibre input from the superior colliculus (via the inferior olive. This region has not been observed in non-whisking animals such as cats and primates, and its functional role in vibrissal processing has hitherto remained mysterious. Further investigation of this system may throw light on how cerebellar-based internal models could be used in broader sensory, motor and cognitive

  6. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.

  7. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  8. The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawes Martha C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes, by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with

  9. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  10. Reorienting programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA towards disinvestment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remarkable progress has been made over the past 40 years in developing rational, evidence-based mechanisms for the allocation of health resources. Much of this progress has centred on mechanisms for commissioning new medical devices and pharmaceuticals. The attention of fund-managers and policy-makers is only now turning towards development of mechanisms for decommissioning, disinvesting or redeploying resources from currently funded interventions. While Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis would seem well-suited to this purpose, past applications include both successes and failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release. Discussion Drawing on recent successes/failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release via PBMA, this paper identifies four barriers/enablers to disinvestment via PBMA: (i specification of the budget constraint, (ii scope of the programme budget, (iii composition and role of the advisory group, and (iv incentives for/against contributing to a 'shift list' of options for disinvestment and resource release. A number of modifications to the PBMA process are then proposed with the aim of reorienting PBMA towards disinvestment. Summary The reoriented model is differentiated by four features: (i hard budget constraint with budgetary pressure; (ii programme budgets with broad scope but specific investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals with similar input requirements; (iii advisory/working groups that include equal representation of sectional interests plus additional members with responsibility for advocating in favour of disinvestment, (iv 'shift lists' populated and developed prior to 'wish lists' and investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals within a relatively narrow budget area. While the argument and evidence presented here suggest that the reoriented model will facilitate disinvestment and resource release, this remains an empirical question. Likewise

  11. Budget analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupaki, Pramod; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Beletsky, Dmitry; Schwab, David J; Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli (EC) concentrations at two beaches impacted by river plume dynamics in southern Lake Michigan were analyzed using three-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models. The relative importance of various physical and biological processes influencing the fate and transport of EC were examined via budget analysis and a first-order sensitivity analysis of model parameters. The along-shore advective flux of EC (CFU/m(2).s) was found to be higher compared to its cross-shore counterpart; however, the sum of diffusive and advective components was of a comparable magnitude in both directions showing the importance of cross-shore exchange in EC transport. Examination of individual terms in the EC mass balance equation showed that vertical turbulent mixing in the water column dominated the overall EC transport for the summer conditions simulated. Dilution due to advection and diffusion accounted for a large portion of the total EC budget in the nearshore, and the net EC loss rate within the water column (CFU/m(3).s) was an order of magnitude smaller compared to the horizontal and vertical transport rates. This result has important implications for modeling EC at recreational beaches; however, the assessment of the magnitude of EC loss rate is complicated due to the strong coupling between vertical exchange and depth-dependent EC loss processes such as sunlight inactivation and settling. Sensitivity analysis indicated that solar inactivation has the greatest impact on EC loss rates. Although these results are site-specific, they clearly bring out the relative importance of various processes involved.

  12. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  13. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  14. Water Budget, 1983-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Mark (Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1986-10-01

    This report encompasses the first three years (1983, 1984, and 1985) of operation. It includes: (1) background and history of the development of the Water Budget concept including a discussion of Water Budget manager positions; (2) implementation of the Water Budget since its formulation by the Council in 1983; (3) a discussion of the research and monitoring funded by BPA; and (4) a discussion of Section 304 of the Council's Program.

  15. Low Budget,Big Box Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers are refining the art of turning a profit from small budget films ORGANIZERS of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys,to encourage a generation of young,talented directors producing low budget films. Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small and Medium-Budget Film Prize at the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,later in the year.

  16. Budgeting for a district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lewallen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Core concepts of a strong VISION 2020 programme Many eye care professionals view the prospect of budgeting with about as much pleasure as a visit to the dentist! Nevertheless, if VISION 2020 is going to succeed, programme managers will have to acquire some basic skills in budgeting. First, it is useful to identify some of the core concepts of a strong, practical VISION 2020 programme to be considered when preparing a budget.

  17. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND GDP IN ROMANIA COMPARED TO SWEDEN

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modality in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the indebtedness degree and its implications on the social wellness are representing a big actuality at national level as also at European Union level. In this paper is presented a comparative analysis between Romania and Sweden in what regards the dependence between public debt and budget deficit...

  18. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  19. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  20. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  1. Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research.

  2. Introduction to special section on phenomenology, underlying processes, and hazard implications of aseismic slip and nonvolcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the special section on the "phenomenology, underlying processes, and hazard implications of aseismic slip and nonvolcanic tremor" by highlighting key results of the studies published in it. Many of the results indicate that seismic and aseismic manifestations of slow slip reflect transient shear displacements on the plate interface, with the outstanding exception of northern Cascadia where tremor sources have been located on and above the plate interface (differing models of the plate interface there also need to be reconciled). Slow slip phenomena appear to result from propagating deformation that may develop with persistent gaps and segment boundaries. Results add to evidence that when tectonic deformation is relaxed via slow slip, most relaxation occurs aseismically but with seismic signals providing higher-resolution proxies for the aseismic slip. Instead of two distinct slip modes as suggested previously, lines between "fast" and "slow" slip more appropriately may be described as blurry zones. Results reported also show that slow slip sources do not coincide with a specific temperature or metamorphic reaction. Their associations with zones of high conductivity and low shear to compressional wave velocity ratios corroborate source models involving pore fluid pressure buildup and release. These models and spatial anticorrelations between earthquake and tremor activity also corroborate a linkage between slow slip and frictional properties transitional between steady state and stick-slip. Finally, this special section highlights the benefits of global and multidisciplinary studies, which demonstrate that slow phenomena are not confined to beneath the locked zone but exist in many settings.

  3. Arms Transfers to Venezuela: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of the Acquisition Process (1980-1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Budget (Oficina Central de Presupuesto [OCEPRE]), which is the presidential agency with overall responsibility to formulate the national budget...Budget (Oficina Central de Presupuesto OCEPRE), and they receive a special treatment in the Venezuelan Budgetary process. The OCEPRE is the...the Central Office of Budget (Oficina Central de Presupuesto , OCEPRE). This occurs when funds for weapons acquisitions come from the ordinary budget

  4. Anticipatory processes in brain state switching - evidence from a novel cued-switching task implicating default mode and salience networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Wiersema, Jan R; Roeyers, Herbert; Krebs, Ruth M; Vassena, Eliana; Fias, Wim; Brass, Marcel; Achten, Eric; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-09-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is the core brain system supporting internally oriented cognition. The ability to attenuate the DMN when switching to externally oriented processing is a prerequisite for effective performance and adaptive self-regulation. Right anterior insula (rAI), a core hub of the salience network (SN), has been proposed to control the switching from DMN to task-relevant brain networks. Little is currently known about the extent of anticipatory processes subserved by DMN and SN during switching. We investigated anticipatory DMN and SN modulation using a novel cued-switching task of between-state (rest-to-task/task-to-rest) and within-state (task-to-task) transitions. Twenty healthy adults performed the task implemented in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. Increases in activity were observed in the DMN regions in response to cues signalling upcoming rest. DMN attenuation was observed for rest-to-task switch cues. Obversely, DMN was up-regulated by task-to-rest cues. The strongest rAI response was observed to rest-to-task switch cues. Task-to-task switch cues elicited smaller rAI activation, whereas no significant rAI activation occurred for task-to-rest switches. Our data provide the first evidence that DMN modulation occurs rapidly and can be elicited by short duration cues signalling rest- and task-related state switches. The role of rAI appears to be limited to certain switch types - those implicating transition from a resting state and to tasks involving active cognitive engagement.

  5. Lexico-semantic and acoustic-phonetic processes in the perception of noise-vocoded speech: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn eMcGettigan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise-vocoding is a transformation which, when applied to speech, severely reduces spectral resolution and eliminates periodicity, yielding a stimulus that sounds like a harsh whisper (Scott, Blank et al. 2000. This process simulates a cochlear implant, where the activity of many thousand hair cells in the inner ear is replaced by direct stimulation of the auditory nerve by a small number of tonotopically-arranged electrodes. Although a cochlear implant offers a powerful means of restoring some degree of hearing to profoundly deaf individuals, the outcomes for spoken communication are highly variable (Moore and Shannon 2009. Some variability may arise from differences in peripheral representation (e.g. the degree of residual nerve survival but some may reflect differences in higher-order linguistic processing. In order to explore this possibility, we used noise-vocoding to explore speech recognition and perceptual learning in normal-hearing listeners tested across several levels of the linguistic hierarchy: segments (consonants and vowels, single words, and sentences. Listeners improved significantly on all tasks across two test sessions. In the first session, individual differences analyses revealed two independently varying sources of variability: one lexico-semantic in nature and implicating the recognition of words and sentences, and the other an acoustic-phonetic factor associated with words and segments. However, consequent to learning, by the second session there was a more uniform covariance pattern concerning all stimulus types. A further analysis of phonetic feature recognition allowed greater insight into learning-related changes in perception and showed that, surprisingly, participants did not make full use of cues that were preserved in the stimuli (e.g. vowel duration. We discuss these findings in relation cochlear implantation, and suggest auditory training strategies to maximise speech recognition performance in the absence of

  6. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning After Solis 2004, 28 However, the story that these diagrams...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation: would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns...notes that after nearly twenty years of reform since the Packard Commission Report and Goldwater-Nichols, “major weapons systems still cost too much

  7. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    that complex geomorphological processes, consisting of a glacier advance and followed by glacier lake outbursts and ice avalanches, contributed to the formation of the hummocky debris landforms. The Kit-ke-Jerav and Yishkuk Glaciers in the upper Chapursan Valley seem to have experienced extraordinary fluctuations in historical and recent times. The new findings on past processes forming large-scaled debris accumulations have wider implications for the recent hazard potential of settlements located in glaciated high mountain regions, especially in seismic active regions.

  8. Gas properties of winter lake ice in Northern Sweden: biogeochemical processes and implication for carbon gas release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Boereboom

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes gas composition, total gas content and bubbles characteristics in winter lake ice for four adjacent lakes in a discontinuous permafrost area. Our gas mixing ratios suggest that gas exchange occurs between the bubbles and the water before entrapment in the ice. Comparison between lakes enabled us to identify 2 major "bubbling events" shown to be related to a regional drop of atmospheric pressure. Further comparison demonstrates that winter lake gas content is strongly dependent on hydrological connections: according to their closed/open status with regards to water exchange, lakes build up more or less greenhouse gases (GHG in their water and ice cover during the winter, and release it during spring melt. These discrepancies between lakes need to be taken into account when establishing a budget for permafrost regions. Our analysis allows us to present a new classification of bubbles, according to their gas properties. Our methane emission budget (from 6.52 10−5 to 12.7 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 for the three months of winter ice cover is complementary to the other budget estimates, taking into account the variability of the gas distribution in the ice and between the various types of lakes.

    Most available studies on boreal lakes have focused on quantifying GHG emissions from sediment by means of various systems collecting gases at the lake surface, and this mainly during the summer "open water" period. Only few of these have looked at the gas enclosed in the winter ice-cover itself. Our approach enables us to integrate, for the first time, the history of winter gas emission for this type of lakes.

  9. Strategy to Arrange Gender Responsive Budget in ex Besuki Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistio Adiwinarto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the participation of women in development planning meeting, knowing the form of gender responsive policies, identifying the cause of the gender responsive policy problem, and strategy formulation of the budget in ex Besuki Residency such as Jember, Bondowoso, Situbondo, and Banyuwangi which still not responsive to the needs of women. In the first year, this study intends to identify the process of formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the local budget in Ex Besuki residency conducted by the respective local governments. Based on the research in the first year, researchers will formulate development strategies in the formulation of gender-responsive policies. The method of research is quantitative descriptive study, study documentation, primary and secondary data analysis, interviews and focus group discussions. In the second year of the study are expected to form a strategy and policy formulation concept of gender responsive budgeting through a combination previously existing concepts, adapted to the results of the first year of study at the study site. How To Cite: Adiwinarto, S., & Nusanto, B. (2015. Strategy to Arrange Gender Responsive Budget in ex Besuki Residency. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 65-78. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.5

  10. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. Aan de Brugh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension. We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95% and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%. We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match, while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  11. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  12. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  13. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  14. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent uncertaintie

  15. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  16. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  17. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  18. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  19. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands: Beyond Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); J.J.A. Posseth (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its applicat

  20. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  1. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  2. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  3. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations and from simulated dry deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta. Uncertainties are calculated for each contribution of the budget.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions.The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that emission and deposition increase at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning of oxidized compounds account for 0 to 13% at the most at the annual scale, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization from soils. At the annual scale, the average gaseous dry deposition accounts for 47% of the total estimated deposition flux, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average estimated wet plus dry deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems is 7.5±1.8 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with approximately 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the rest attributed

  4. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  5. Physical processes around a cuspate foreland:. implications to the evolution and long-term maintenance of a cape-associated shoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNinch, Jesse E.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2000-12-01

    Understanding across-margin transport has long been recognized as crucial for wise management of our coastline and shelf waters. Issues related to sewage outfalls, nutrient and pollutant dispersal, carbon export, and shoreline sediment budgets all require an understanding of these processes. Across-margin transport of water and sediment at cuspate foreland headlands has been largely unrecognized, and the processes responsible for this export unappreciated. We examined physical process on Cape Lookout Shoal, a cape-associated shoal on the North Carolina continental shelf, through numerical modeling and field observations of near-bottom currents. The cuspate foreland setting of the northern South Atlantic Bight has been previously characterized as wave-dominated with a principal alongshore directed sediment transport and physical circulation forced by wave and wind-driven currents along the inner and mid-shelf. Our findings instead suggest that a seaward-directed, tidal-driven headland flow many play a significant role in the direction of net sediment transport on the shoal and ultimately its location and long-term maintenance. The shoal's location relative to the promontory-induced residual eddies and the region of active deposition differs from traditionally held ideas on sedimentary processes at headland-related sand banks. In addition, the headland flows may also serve as a first-order mechanism for rapidly exporting nearshore and estuarine waters to the outer-shelf.

  6. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  7. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  8. Forecasting Foreign Currency Exchange Rates for Air Force Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    performs no worse than the univariate time series models, unconstrained VAR, or candidate structural models in forecasting real exchange rates (Meese... forecast a budgeted rate for that currency for that year. The process was then repeated for each year and currency. For example, the time series ... forecasted rate MAPE against the status quo MAPE from FY06 to FY14. For example, the time series of annual FRB H.10 foreign exchange rates until

  9. Considering the role of time budgets on copy-error rates in material culture traditions: an experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Kerstin; Mesoudi, Alex; Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research highlights that there are constraints placed on the time available to produce cultural artefacts in differing circumstances. Given that copying error, or cultural 'mutation', can have important implications for the evolutionary processes involved in material culture change, it is essential to explore empirically how such 'time constraints' affect patterns of artefactual variation. Here, we report an experiment that systematically tests whether, and how, varying time constraints affect shape copying error rates. A total of 90 participants copied the shape of a 3D 'target handaxe form' using a standardized foam block and a plastic knife. Three distinct 'time conditions' were examined, whereupon participants had either 20, 15, or 10 minutes to complete the task. One aim of this study was to determine whether reducing production time produced a proportional increase in copy error rates across all conditions, or whether the concept of a task specific 'threshold' might be a more appropriate manner to model the effect of time budgets on copy-error rates. We found that mean levels of shape copying error increased when production time was reduced. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 20 minute and 15 minute conditions. Significant differences were only obtained between conditions when production time was reduced to 10 minutes. Hence, our results more strongly support the hypothesis that the effects of time constraints on copying error are best modelled according to a 'threshold' effect, below which mutation rates increase more markedly. Our results also suggest that 'time budgets' available in the past will have generated varying patterns of shape variation, potentially affecting spatial and temporal trends seen in the archaeological record. Hence, 'time-budgeting' factors need to be given greater consideration in evolutionary models of material culture change.

  10. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  11. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  12. An energy-budget-based glacier melting model for the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baohong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Yingying

    2013-04-01

    There have been rapid glacier retreats during the past few decades on the Tibetan Plateau, which not only have far-reaching impacts on the water resources in this region, but also potentially threat the downstream by glacial lake outburst floods. It is therefore important to model the physical link between glacier melting and climate changes and its implication in water resources. There have been a few studies on glacier melting models, of which the applicability is limited to some areas and the simulation capability also needs to be improved. This paper presents a new energy-budget-based model for the melting of the mountainous glaciers. Enthalpy, rather than temperature, is used in the energy balance equations to simplify the computation for the energy transfer through water phase transition and within-snow liquid water movement. Heat transfer is computed in both snow and ice layers, and the inhomogeneous layering method is employed to describe the temperature profiles better, especially at the interface between snow and atmosphere as well as that between snow and ice. A new parameterization scheme is introduced into the model to calculate turbulent heat transfer over glacier surfaces. This model was validated based on the data collected from a field experiment which was implemented in the melting zone of the Parlung No. 4 Glacier in the southeastern TP from May to August in 2009. The result shows that the RMSE of the simulated hourly surface temperature is about 0.97 degree centigrade and the R2 is 0.81. The RMSE of the simulated hourly latent heat flux and hourly sensible heat flux are 14.5W m^-2 and 23.5W m^-2 respectively, and R2 are 0.92 and 0.93. In general, this energy-budget-based model could reasonably simulate the glacier melting process. The model is still under development for a better simulation of the glacier melting and its contribution to the water resources.

  13. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  14. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  15. KINETIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE SYNGAS-TO-DME REACTION SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO PROCESS AND ECONOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-12-01

    syngas generation technologies (dry reforming, steam methane reforming and partial oxidation) were developed. The feasibility of these schemes was illustrated by simulations using realistic kinetics, thermodynamics, and commercial conditions. Finally, this report discusses the implications of the kinetic understanding and the resulting process schemes to the process economics. It was recognized that, for the overall process, the cost saving in the synthesis loop due to the reaction synergy is counteracted by the cost addition due to CO{sub 2} formation and the resulting costly separation.

  16. Large differences in the diabatic heat budget of the tropical UTLS in reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT and lower stratosphere (LS as simulated by five reanalysis models: MERRA, ERA-Interim, CFSR, JRA-25/JCDAS, and NCEP/NCAR. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Although they may be expected given difficulties in representing moist convection in models, the discrepancies in latent heating are still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention.

  17. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  18. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  19. Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført en kvalitativ ...

  20. FY 1990/FY 1991 Biennial Budget Descriptive Summaries for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    dcet pericd. In this budget suozsson.a single =rcjeot, the 3ccs-. S.rveill__ance Tracking System , is shown .: he e~ roaram elm:.SM O’s Five-Year...NN:AL ZT! Z DES IPTVE SUARY Procram Element: 0603220C Budget Activity: 02 Advanced Tte: Surveillance, Acquisition. Technology tevelcpmeat Tracking and...encompass signal and data processing ’c 4iscrimination of threatening reentry vehicles from other objects and backgrc ds. The SATMA system is complex and must

  1. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  2. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  3. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  4. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Document Server

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  5. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  6. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  7. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  8. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  9. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  10. 中国预算改革:未来的挑战%The Challenges for Budget Reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 林慕华

    2012-01-01

    1999年以来,中国启动了一场意义深远的预算改革,目标是建立现代公共预算制度。十余年的预算改革,取得了显著的成绩,中国基本上建立起现代公共预算制度的基本框架。但同时,也在预算权力结构、综合预算、总额控制、绩效预算、现金和债务管理、会计改革等方面面临着挑战。未来,中国应更加深入地推进预算改革,建立现代公共预算制度。%Since 1999, China started a budget reform with significant implications. The goal of the reform is to establish a modem pub- lic budgeting. After more than ten years of reform, significant achievements have been made. China has created a basic frame of modem public budgeting. However, there are many challenges ahead, such as power relations, comprehensive budget, aggregate control, performance budgeting, cash and debt management, and accounting reform. In the future, China must deep its efforts in budget reforms so as to create a modem public budgeting.

  11. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  12. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  13. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC, including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002–2011, EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1PgC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. GATM was low in 2011

  14. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9–3.5% in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr−1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1

  15. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  16. The particulate {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} and {sup 234}Th/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} activity ratios as tracers for tidal-to-seasonal particle dynamics in the Gironde estuary (France): Implications for the budget of particle-associated contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Hanna-Kaisa [Universite de Bordeaux, UMR5805 EPOC, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Schmidt, Sabine, E-mail: s.schmidt@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [CNRS, UMR5805 EPOC, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Castaing, Patrice; Blanc, Gerard [Universite de Bordeaux, UMR5805 EPOC, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sautour, Benoit [Universite de Bordeaux, UMR5805 EPOC, Station Marine d' Arcachon, F-33120 Arcachon (France); Masson, Olivier [IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Cochran, J. Kirk [Marine Sciences Research Center, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The short-lived natural radionuclides {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53 days), {sup 234}Th{sub xs} (T{sub 1/2} = 24.1 days) and {sup 210}Pb{sub xs} (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 years), i.e. {sup 234}Th and {sup 210}Pb in excesses of that supported within particles by the decay of their parent isotopes, were analysed in suspended particulate matter (SPM) to study the particle dynamics in the Gironde fluvial estuarine system (France), strongly impacted by heavy metal pollution. From surveys of this land-ocean interface in 2006 and 2007, we established a times series of these radioisotopes and of their activity ratios ({sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} and {sup 234}Th/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} ARs) in particles sampled under different hydrological conditions. The particulate {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} AR varies along the fluvial estuarine system mainly due to variations in {sup 7}Be activities, controlled by riverine, oceanic and atmospheric inputs and by resuspension of old {sup 7}Be-deficient sediments. These processes vary with river discharge, tidal cycle and season. Therefore, seasonal particle transport processes can be described using variations of the SPM {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} ARs. During high river discharge, the SPM {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub x} ARs decrease from river to the ocean. The turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) is dispersed and the particles, and the associated contaminants, are rapidly transported from river to coastal waters, without significant retention within the TMZ. During low river discharge, the TMZ intrudes into the fluvial estuary, and the lowest {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub x} ARs are observed there due to resuspension of {sup 7}Be-deficient sediments. Away from the TMZ, from the middle to lower estuary, SPM {sup 7}Be/{sup 210}Pb{sub x} ARs increase, indicating that the particles have been recently tagged with {sup 7}Be. We explain this trend as being caused by marine input of dissolved radionuclides, as traced by SPM {sup 234}Th/{sup 210}Pb{sub xs} ARs

  17. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  18. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  19. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  20. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  1. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  2. Income of Local Budgets as a Tool of Ensuring Powers of Self-Governance Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamskyy Maksym D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study, analysis and assessment of the state of income of local budgets. The article identifies main sources of income of local budgets in Ukraine and their importance in formation of main money funds of the local self-governance bodies. It studies problems of scantiness of the income part of budgets in the process of performance of powers by the local bodies of authority. It identifies and analyses changes and reforms after introduction of the Tax Code, which did not provide solution of the issue of sufficiency of the income part of the financial resource of local self-governance. In the result of the study the article gives recommendations with respect to a possibility of expansion of the income base of local budgets for financing both the social and economic directions by local authorities. It develops specific proposals on strengthening the financial base of regions.

  3. A nitrogen budget for Denmark; developments between 1990 and 2010, and prospects for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2014-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) budget for Denmark has been developed for the years 1990 to 2010, describing the inputs and outputs at the national scale and the internal flows between relevant sectors of the economy. Satisfactorily closing the N budgets for some sectors of the economy was not possible, due...... to missing or contradictory information. The budgets were nevertheless considered sufficiently reliable to quantify the major flows. Agriculture was responsible for the majority of inputs, though fisheries and energy generation also made significant contributions. Agriculture was the main source of N input...... processing industries and there is a cascade of N through the consumer to solid and liquid waste management systems. The budget was used to frame a discussion of the potential for further reductions in losses of reactive N to the environment. These will include increasing the recycling of N between economic...

  4. A study on the effect of performance based budgeting using activity based cost method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Mohammadipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, management of funds in different governmental organizations plays essential role in accessing desirable objectives and in controlling operations efficiently and effectively. Performance-based budgeting (PBB is the practice of developing budgets based on the relationship between planned funding levels and anticipated results from the plan. The performance-based budgeting process is a technique where the administrators can apply to manage more cost-efficient and effective budgeting programs. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find out whether it is possible to apply PBB in various Iranian municipalities or not. The proposed study detects different barriers in terms of strategy, execution and monitoring through a questionnaire and investigations whether removing the important trouble making issues could help management team apply PBB with an adaptation of activity based cost method or net. The results indicate that management of some Iranian municipalities could successfully implement PBB within organization when major barriers are removed.

  5. Processing of low carbon content interstellar ice analogues by cosmic rays: implications for the chemistry around oxygen-rich stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, A. L. F.; da Silveira, E. F.; Pilling, S.; Domaracka, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.

    2014-03-01

    Radiolysis of a homogeneous H2O:H2CO:CH3OH (100:2:0.8) ice mixture by fast heavy ions is performed in the laboratory in an attempt to simulate the interaction of cosmic rays with frozen surfaces at 15 K. Bombarded by 220-MeV 16O7 + ions, the ice layer is thin enough to be traversed by projectiles at approximately constant velocity and with charge states close to the equilibrium one. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveals that the molecular species formed are CH4, CO2, CO, HCO, HCOO- and CH3OCHO. The formation and dissociation cross-sections of all observed daughter molecules are determined. As a control procedure, a carbon budget is performed as the beam fluence increases. The observed radiation effects lead to a general observation that the destruction cross-sections of condensed gases by heavy ions are ruled by a power law that is a function of the electronic stopping power: σd ˜ Sn_e, where n is approximately 3/2. This relation is observed for the destruction of precursor H2CO molecules and for the formation of daughter species. The present results help our understanding of the chemical and physicochemical interactions induced by heavy cosmic rays in cold astrophysical environments with low carbon contents, such as those around oxygen-rich stars.

  6. AGRICULTURE, THE STRUCTURAL FUNDS AND THE BUDGET AFTER ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rollo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine how the legacy of the, often bruising, negotiations at Copenhagen and subsequently over agriculture will affect the political economy of the European Union and specifically the challenges facing the CAP, the Structural Funds in the next decade. The EU Budget for the remainder of the 2000-2006 Framework was fixed by the EU-15 at the Brussels Summit of October 2002 (European Council, 2002b and is very unlikely to change. That is why the first real battle over resources engaging the new members will turn out to be the Financial Framework post 2006. This article will discuss the general context, before examining agriculture policy and structural funds after Copenhagen summit and finally the implications for the next Financial Framework.

  7. The Collaborative Financial Budget Management in Colleges and Universities%高校协作型财务预算管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵善庆

    2011-01-01

    The types of colleges and universities' budget consist of many forms such as summary-type, block-type, down-up type, up-down and collaborative type budget. The main points of the implementation of collaborative budget management in- clude budgeting method, budgeting process, budgeting communication, budget amount determination, fair and clear budget, bud- get control and management, budget schedule and budget evaluation etc. Each part should be linked together so as to achieve the goal of the budget management.%高校预算编制的类型有汇总型预算、分块型预算、自下而上型预算、自上而下型预算、协作型预算等方式,实施协作型预算管理的要点主要包括预算编制方法、预算编制程序、预算编制沟通、预算金额确定、预算公平透明、预算控制管理、预算执行进度、预算考核评价等,必须环环相扣,才能达到预算管理的目的。

  8. On Standards of Budget Funding and Adjusting the Fees in State Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Klyachko; Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the implications of the financial regulations implementing a state order (standards of budget financing based on one student) in the higher education system and the use of them to regulate fees in the universities. It is demonstrated that the establishment of standards in the field of budgetary financing (field of study) does not allow to pay attention to differences in historical property complexes, schools, differences in socio-economic position of the Russian Federation ...

  9. How Budget Deficit Impairs Long-Term Growth and Welfare under Perfect Capital Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of the size of budget deficit in the open economy under perfect mobility of capital. For that purpose we construct a general equilibrium model with consumers maximizing the discounted utility of consumption, and firms maximizing profits. Government sets the size of the deficit relative to GDP and controls the structure of public debt. Using standard methods of optimal control theory we solve the model, i.e. we find explicit formulas for all trajectorie...

  10. Implementing Performance-Based Budgeting in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciubotaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a research on budgeting based performance, and proposes a system of performance indicators that assess the linkage between the policies and annual budget law, the compliance of global budgeting performance to European principles in the area of public financial management, and the impact of public financing on economic growth. The analysis of performance indicators shows the linkages between the policies, and budgeting, as well as budgeting performance in compliance with European principles in this area.

  11. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  12. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  13. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  14. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  15. Toward an integrative understanding of narrative and emotion processes in Emotion-focused therapy of depression: implications for theory, research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.

  16. An Analysis of the Managerial Responsibilities and Educational Needs of Word Processing Managers with Implications for Future Word Processing Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the perceived managerial preparedness of word processing managers in selected Ohio businesses and compared the findings with current literature, word processing curricula in two-and four-year colleges and universities, and the curricular elements in the IBM Word Processing Managers' Seminar. Developed specific training topics for word…

  17. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  18. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  19. Momentum and Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budgets Within the Park Avenue Street Canyon During the Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Klein, Petra

    2011-07-01

    Very few attempts have so far been made to quantify the momentum and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budgets within real urban canopies. In this study, sonic anemometer data obtained during the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign in Oklahoma City, U.S.A. were used for calculating the momentum and TKE budgets within a real-world urban street canyon. Sonic anemometers were deployed on multiple towers in the lower half of the canyon. Gradients in all three principal directions were included in the analyses. The storage and buoyancy terms were found to have negligible contributions to both the momentum and TKE budgets. The momentum budgets were generally found to be more complex than a simple balance of two physical processes. The horizontal terms were found to have significant and sometimes dominant contributions to the momentum and TKE budgets.

  20. Frequency Effects in Language Processing: A Review with Implications for Theories of Implicit and Explicit Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how language processing is intimately tuned to input frequency. Examples are given of frequency effects in the processing of phonology, phonotactics, reading, spelling, lexis, morphosyntax, formulaic language, language comprehension, grammaticality, sentence production, and syntax. (Author/VWL)

  1. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  2. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Meteorites: Implications for Weathering Rates, Meteorite Flux, and Early Solar System Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, P. A. [Open University, Planetary Science Research Institute (United Kingdom); Berry, F. J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Jull, A. J. T. [University of Arizona, NSF Accelerator Facility for Radioisotope Analyses (United States); Smith, T. B. [Open University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Bevan, A. W. R. [Western Australian Museum, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (Australia); Cadogan, J. M. [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia); Sexton, A. S.; Franchi, L. A.; Pillinger, C. T. [Open University, Planetary Science Research Institute (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-15

    Ordinary chondrite finds, terrestrial age dated using {sup 14}C analyses, from different meteorite accumulation sites, have been examined by Moessbauer spectroscopy to quantitatively determine terrestrial oxidation. We observe differences in weathering rates between sites, and also between different chondrite groups. A comparison of weathering over time, and its effect in 'eroding' meteorites, together with the number and mass distribution of meteorites in each region, enables us to derive estimates of the number of meteorite falls over a given mass per year. Studies of how the oxygen isotopic composition of samples varies with weathering indicate that incipient alteration may occur without a pronounced isotopic effect, possibly due to weathering of silicates to topotactically oriented smectite confined spaces where the water volume is limited. This finding has profound implications for the use of oxygen isotopes as a tool in understanding water-rock interaction. It also may reconcile previously contradictory data regarding the nebular or asteroidal location of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration. Finally, Moessbauer spectroscopy is also found to be a useful tool in determining mineral abundance in carbonaceous chondrites, where a fine-grained matrix makes traditional approaches inapplicable. Again, the results have implications for the modification of chondritic materials in the early solar system.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM BUDGETING IN SELF-GOVERNING REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Šoltés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The foundation enabling the management of each public administration entity is the budget. Public administration bodies in the Slovak Republic also include self‑governing regions among others. Budgets for these regions are categorized into two parts—revenue and expenditure. Expenditures are broken down into different areas (programs that pursue common goals and objectives. Programs are usually divided into sub‑programs and components. Part of the program budgeting deployment incorporated issuance of methodological procedures; these described model cases on how to create the program budget. Yet, these procedures are not binding. As a part of the research in 2013, the final accounts of self‑governing regions of the Slovak Republic were analyzed. Division of individual programs and the amount of funding were determined. It is considered appropriate to create some form of general binding regulation defining programs content. This is to be done by considering the clarity and further statistical processing. Given the findings and bearing in mind five years’ worth of program budgeting operation in local government bodies, it is only appropriate to consider the implementation of changes in program budgeting and provide enhanced transparency.

  4. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  5. Night Heron Time Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  6. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  8. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  9. Ensuring Community and Staff Support in Budget Adjustments: Participatory Management in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James

    A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…

  10. 76 FR 30940 - Information Collection Being Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... COMMISSION Information Collection Being Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for Emergency Review.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Commission is requesting emergency OMB processing of the information collection... mechanism removes some of the burden from the complaint process, which is often too slow to...

  11. R&D in the Federal Budget: FY 1979, R&D, Industry, and the Economy. Research & Development, AAAS Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; Phillips, Don I.

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the FY 1979 R&D budget; (2) a statistical overview of the budget and a critique of the administration's policies on R&D; (3) a general picture of R&D in industry; and (4) a discussion of some of…

  12. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  13. Simulation of Prebiotic Processing by Comet and Meteoroid Impact: Implications for Life on Early Earth and Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a reacting flow model to simulate the shock induced chemistry of comets and meteoroids entering planetary atmospheres. Various atmospheric compositions comprising of simpler molecules (i.e., CH4, CO2, H2O, etc.) are investigated to determine the production efficiency of more complex prebiotic molecules as a function of composition, pressure, and entry velocity. The possible role of comets and meteoroids in creating the inventory of prebiotic material necessary for life on Early Earth is considered. Comets and meteoroids can also introduce new materials from the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to planetary atmospheres. The ablation of water from comets, introducing the element oxygen into Titan's atmosphere will also be considered and its implications for the formation of organic and prebiotic material.

  14. The three-step process of self-objectification: potential implications for adolescents' body consciousness during sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave panel study with intervals of six months was conducted to examine the relationships between internalization of appearance ideals, body surveillance, valuing appearance over competence, and body consciousness during sexual activity among 238 Belgian adolescents who had engaged in sexual intercourse. Consistent with predictions, structural equation modeling indicated that greater internalization of appearance ideals at Wave 1 contributed to increased body surveillance and valuing appearance over competence at Wave 2. Body surveillance at Wave 2 and internalization at Wave 1 predicted higher body consciousness during sexual activity at Wave 3. Gender did not moderate these results, as model paths were similar in strength for girls and boys. These results further implicate the consequences of internalizing sociocultural practices that objectify boys and girls regarding adolescents' initial sexual experiences.

  15. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  16. Endothelial cell processing and alternatively spliced transcripts of factor VIII: potential implications for coagulation cascades and pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Shovlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII deficiency leads to haemophilia A. Conversely, elevated plasma levels are a strong predictor of recurrent venous thromboemboli and pulmonary hypertension phenotypes in which in situ thromboses are implicated. Extrahepatic sources of plasma FVIII are implicated, but have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemistry of normal human lung tissue, and confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA quantification of conditioned media from normal primary endothelial cells were used to examine endothelial expression of FVIII and coexpression with von Willebrand Factor (vWF, which protects secreted FVIII heavy chain from rapid proteloysis. FVIII transcripts predicted from database mining were identified by RT-PCR and sequencing. FVIII mAb-reactive material was demonstrated in CD31+ endothelial cells in normal human lung tissue, and in primary pulmonary artery, pulmonary microvascular, and dermal microvascular endothelial cells. In pulmonary endothelial cells, this protein occasionally colocalized with vWF, centered on Weibel Palade bodies. Pulmonary artery and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells secreted low levels of FVIII and vWF to conditioned media, and demonstrated cell surface expression of FVIII and vWF Ab-reacting proteins compared to an isotype control. Four endothelial splice isoforms were identified. Two utilize transcription start sites in alternate 5' exons within the int22h-1 repeat responsible for intron 22 inversions in 40% of severe haemophiliacs. A reciprocal relationship between the presence of short isoforms and full-length FVIII transcript suggested potential splice-switching mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pulmonary endothelium is confirmed as a site of FVIII secretion, with evidence of synthesis, cell surface expression, and coexpression with vWF. There is complex alternate transcription initiation from the FVIII gene. These findings provide a

  17. Beyond budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast : hvilken sammenheng har styringsmodellen beyond budgeting og ledelse?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført...

  18. 新预算法下高校预算管理优化举措探析%On Budget Management Optimization Measures under New Budget Law in Higher Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑智烽

    2016-01-01

    新预算法的出台有利于促进高校实施全口径、全面、全过程预算,有利于促进高校预算的细化和公开,有利于进一步高校财务收支活动。高校作为公共财政预算范筹,要按照新预算法改革的新要求做好预算管理工作。本文就新预算法对规范高校预算管理,提高预算管理水平等方面的影响以及高校预算管理优化措施进行分析与阐述。%The introduction of new budget law is conducive to promoting the implementation of the full aperture, the whole process of comprehensive budget, is conducive to promoting the refinement and publicity of the university budget, is conducive to further financial income and expenditure of universities. Colleges and universities as a public budget scope, we should make budget management in accordance with the new requirements of the new budget law reform. This article made an analysis and explanation a-bout the influences on regulating the university budget management of the new budget law and improve budget management level and so on, as well as the university budget management optimization measures.

  19. Widespread tungsten isotope anomalies and W mobility in crustal and mantle rocks of the Eoarchean Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: Implications for early Earth processes and W recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Touboul, Mathieu; Ishikawa, Akira; Walker, Richard J.; Graham Pearson, D.

    2016-08-01

    Well-resolved 182W isotope anomalies, relative to the present mantle, in Hadean-Archean terrestrial rocks have been interpreted to reflect the effects of variable late accretion and early mantle differentiation processes. To further explore these early Earth processes, we have carried out W concentration and isotopic measurements of Eoarchean ultramafic rocks, including lithospheric mantle rocks, meta-komatiites, a layered ultramafic body and associated crustal gneisses and amphibolites from the Uivak gneiss terrane of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada. These analyses are augmented by in situ W concentration measurements of individual phases in order to examine the major hosts of W in these rocks. Although the W budget in some rocks can be largely explained by a combination of their major phases, W in other rocks is hosted mainly in secondary grain-boundary assemblages, as well as in cryptic, unidentified W-bearing 'nugget' minerals. Whole rock W concentrations in the ultramafic rocks show unexpected enrichments relative, to elements with similar incompatibilities. By contrast, W concentrations are low in the Uivak gneisses. These data, along with the in situ W concentration data, suggest metamorphic transport/re-distribution of W from the regional felsic rocks, the Uivak gneiss precursors, to the spatially associated ultramafic rocks. All but one sample from the lithologically varied Eoarchean Saglek suite is characterized by generally uniform ∼ + 11 ppm enrichments in 182W relative to Earth's modern mantle. Modeling shows that the W isotopic enrichments in the ultramafic rocks were primarily inherited from the surrounding 182W-rich felsic precursor rocks, and that the W isotopic composition of the original ultramafic rocks cannot be determined. The observed W isotopic composition of mafic to ultramafic rocks in intimate contact with ancient crust should be viewed with caution in order to plate constraints on the early Hf-W isotopic evolution of the

  20. Chemical evolution of 244Pu in the solar vicinity and its implications for the properties of r-process production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Bekki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Meteoritic abundances of r-process elements are analyzed to deduce the history of chemical enrichment by the r-process, from the beginning of disk formation to the present time in the solar vicinity. Our analysis combines the abundance information from short-lived radioactive nuclei such as 244Pu with the abundance information from stable r-process nuclei such as Eu. These two types of nuclei can be associated with one r-process event and an accumulation of events until the formation of the solar system, respectively. With the help of the observed local star formation (SF) history, we deduce the chemical evolution of 244Pu and obtain three main results: (i) the last r-process event occurred 130–140 Myr before the formation of the solar system; (ii) the present-day low 244Pu abundance as measured in deep-sea reservoirs results from the low recent SF rate compared to ∼4.5‑5 Gyr ago; and (iii) there were ∼15 r-process events in the solar vicinity from the formation of the Galaxy to the time of solar system’s formation and ∼30 r-process events to the present time. Then, adopting the hypothesis that a neutron star (NS) merger is the r-process production site, we find that the ejected r-process elements are extensively spread out and mixed with interstellar matter, with a mass of ∼ 3.5× {10}6 M⊙, which is about 100 times larger than that for supernova ejecta. In addition, the event frequency of r-process production is estimated to be 1 per ~1400 core-collapse supernovae, which is identical to the frequency of NS mergers estimated from the analysis of stellar abundances.

  1. The Proposed Homeland Security Budget for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. CBO 6 THE PROPOSED HOMELAND SECURITY BUDGET FOR 2013 CBOFigure 2. Homeland Security Funding Requested by the...Marshals Service Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Federal Bureau of Investigation Miscellaneousa Food and Drug Administration...Administration National Security Division Food and Drug Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Firearms, and Explosives Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco

  2. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  3. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  4. Alternate Budgetary Sources during Budget Rescissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes revenue-generating and cost-saving strategies that student affairs divisions may consider during periods of budget rescissions and categorizes them according to the decision-making entities involved in each. The chapter also explains why particular examples are well suited to individual institutions.

  5. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  6. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan de Brugh, J.M.J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.J.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.A.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestima

  7. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget C

  8. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  9. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and t

  10. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Soest, van Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate an

  11. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  12. Tungsten isotopes in bulk meteorites and their inclusions—Implications for processing of presolar components in the solar protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, J. C.; Paton, C.; Wielandt, D.; Bizzarro, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present high precision, low- and high-resolution tungsten isotope measurements of iron meteorites Cape York (IIIAB), Rhine Villa (IIIE), Bendego (IC), and the IVB iron meteorites Tlacotepec, Skookum, and Weaver Mountains, as well as CI chondrite Ivuna, a CV3 chondrite refractory inclusion (CAI BE), and terrestrial standards. Our high precision tungsten isotope data show that the distribution of the rare p-process nuclide 180W is homogeneous among chondrites, iron meteorites, and the refractory inclusion. One exception to this pattern is the IVB iron meteorite group, which displays variable excesses relative to the terrestrial standard, possibly related to decay of rare 184Os. Such anomalies are not the result of analytical artifacts and cannot be caused by sampling of a protoplanetary disk characterized by p-process isotope heterogeneity. In contrast, we find that 183W is variable due to a nucleosynthetic s-process deficit/r-process excess among chondrites and iron meteorites. This variability supports the widespread nucleosynthetic s/r-process heterogeneity in the protoplanetary disk inferred from other isotope systems and we show that W and Ni isotope variability is correlated. Correlated isotope heterogeneity for elements of distinct nucleosynthetic origin (183W and 58Ni) is best explained by thermal processing in the protoplanetary disk during which thermally labile carrier phases are unmixed by vaporization thereby imparting isotope anomalies on the residual processed reservoir. PMID:27445452

  13. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  14. High-pressure processing of berry and other fruit products: implications for bioactive compounds and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Daryaei, Hossein; Krishnamurthy, Kathiravan; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2014-05-07

    Fruits contain a variety of nutrients and polyphenols that are associated with health benefits. Year-round availability of fresh fruits is limited due to perishability. Processing fruits extends shelf life. Individual quick-frozen fruit is the most common for fruits, but nowadays, processing fruits into beverages offers extended shelf life and new market opportunities. Conventional thermal processing is an effective method for producing safe, extended shelf life, and shelf-stable products, including beverages. However, the high temperatures negatively affect nutritive quality by destroying essential nutrients and biologically active "non-essential" components such as polyphenols. Therefore, novel technologies that can preserve nutrient quality while ensuring food safety are warranted. In this review, the application of high-pressure processing (HPP) for preserving nutrients and phytochemicals while ensuring microbiological safety in beverages and other foods containing fruits is discussed.

  15. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  16. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  17. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  18. The Scope and Structure of the General EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the scope and structure of the general budget of the European Union. EU general budget is constructed in accordance with the budgetary principles that are set out in Regulation No 966/2012. The scope of the budget is related to entities whose income and expenses are accounted for in the budget. It is connected with the principle of unity and budget accuracy. The structure and content of the budget, however, are associated with the data exhibited in the budget and the way they are presented. Of particular importance in the context of the structure and content of the budget are principles such as universality, balance, specification.

  19. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  20. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...