WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget process implications

  1. A Punctuated Equilibrium in French Budgeting Processes

    OpenAIRE

    B. Baumgartner, Frank; Foucault, Martial; François, Abel

    2006-01-01

    We use data on French budgeting to test models of friction, incrementalism and punctuated equilibrium. Data include the overall state budget since 1820; ministerial budgets for seven ministries since 1868; and a more complete ministerial series covering ten ministries since 1947. Our results in every case are remarkably similar to the highly leptokurtic distributions that Jones and Baumgartner (2005) demonstrated in US budgeting processes. This suggests that general characteristics of adminis...

  2. BUDGETING IMPLICATIONS IN "HEALTHY"FINANCIAL PLANS

    OpenAIRE

    SOLOVASTRU, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this section is the budget - a plan expressed in financial terms - and why it is important for your activity and the organization. An organization uses budgets in different ways as part of its systems planning, information, performance measurement and control. The impact of budgets in these systems is important. In this section we will see how budgets acquire meanings if are interpreted in terms of organizational objectives, culture management and staff. This section seeks to c...

  3. LOCAL BUDGET PROCESS AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinel Ichim

    2009-01-01

    The local budget process is in close connection with the economic development of the territorial-administrative units, firstly because the former implies the collection of budget revenues based on which local authorities provide public services to citizens and ensure the provision of such services by third parties. Also, through the implementation of expenditure, local government creates and maintains a favorable climate for local citizens and local traders for them to thrive and stimulates t...

  4. THE CONCEPTUAL CONTENT OF STATE BUDGET PROCESS IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Žubule, Ērika; Puzule, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the role of the budget in economy we may declare that the budget process should favour the social economic development of the state. The aim of the research is to explore and evaluate theoretical aspects of the state budget process as a component of the state financial policy and to work out proposals for improvement of the state budget process, based on the theoretical and empirical findings. The main objectives of the research were to study the foreign economic scientific literat...

  5. SHADOW PROCESSES INSTATE BUDGET: CURRENT CONDITION AND DETERMINING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most significant factors that move state budget into the shadow are determined. Current condition of shadow processes in state budget is highlighted. The paper also provides an analysis of relationship between political processes and shadow economy in public sector of Ukraine.

  6. Techniques for managing projects risk in capital budgeting process

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Bogdan; Suzana Baresa; Goran Karanovic

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real proble...

  7. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  8. TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING PROJECTS RISK IN CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real problems that can arise in capital budgeting process. Trough case study in article we analyzed risks that may emerge from different techniques. Conclusion that emerges from analyzing different methods of risk techniques is that only with right combination of these techniques corporate manager could decide correctly to choose optimal capital project.

  9. Draving Up a Budget Using The Activity Based Budgeting Methodology Through The Simulation Of Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Janíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a connection between financial and quality management systems. These departments only rarely cooperate on projects, which could be a loss, because this connection has many improvement opportunities. The author shows through the simple example of catering deliveries a possible procedure of how to reach a more realistic evaluation of production costs for each product and how to connect budgeting and process analysis.

  10. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    spanned the winter runoff seasons of Water Years 2006 and 2007. These were unusually wet and dry years, respectively, providing perspective on the range of measured sediment yield in relation to sediment budget estimates. The measured suspended sediment yields were substantially lower than predicted by sediment budget methods. Variation in geomorphic processes over time and space and methodological problems of sediment budgets may be responsible for these apparent discrepancies. The implications for water quality policy are discussed.

  11. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  12. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  14. Carbon Budget for Basic Needs: Implications of International Equity and Sustainability%Carbon Budget for Basic Needs: Implications of International Equity and Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiahua

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental way of satisfying the basic needs of human development is to secure the basic needs, limit luxurious and wasteful emissions, and ensure the fulfillment of climate targets, so as to achieve intra- and intergenerational equity. In this paper, the author discusses and analyzes a series of challenges that the development has to face, such as poverty elimination, urbanization, and industrialization, and the problems of increased consumption that is brought about by the improvement of living standards; the author distinguishes the stock emission, which does not need annual updating, and the flow emission of regular consumption; the author also defines the standards of energy consumption and carbon emissions that can meet the basic needs. On this basis, the author proposes the concept and method of carbon budget, compares this method with other means, and in particular, studies and analyzes the implications of international equity and sustainability of carbon budget as part of the international climate regime design.

  15. The Federal Budget Process: Necessary Knowledge for Social Policy Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current and future projections for the federal budget and the two processes affecting fiscal policy: authorization/appropriation measures and budget resolution/reconciliation. Knowledge of the federal budget process shows social-work students how fiscal constraints have been used as weapons against social-welfare programs, and allows…

  16. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  17. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  18. Processes linking the hydrological cycle and the atmospheric radiative budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueglistaler, Stephan; Dinh, Tra

    2016-04-01

    We study the response of the strength of the global hydrological cycle to changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) using the HiRAM General Circulation Model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), with the objective to better connect the well-known energetic constraints to physical processes. We find that idealized model setups using a global slab ocean and annual mean insolation give similar scalings as coupled atmosphere-ocean models with realistic land and topography. Using the surface temperatures from the slab ocean runs, we analyse the response in the atmospheric state and hydrological cycle separately for a change in CO2 (but fixed surface temperature), and for a change in surface temperature (but fixed CO2). The former perturbation is also referred to as the "fast" response, whereas the latter is commonly used to diagnose a model's climate sensitivity. As expected from the perspective of the atmospheric radiative budget, an increase in CO2 at fixed surface temperature decreases the strength of the hydrological cycle, and an increase in surface temperature increases the strength of the hydrological cycle. However, the physical processes that connect the atmospheric radiative energy budget to the sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface remain not well understood. The responses to the two perturbations are linearly additive, and we find that the experiment with fixed surface temperature and changes in CO2 is of great relevance to understanding the total response. This result points to the importance of local radiative heating rate changes rather than just the net atmospheric radiative loss of energy. Although larger in magnitude, the response to changes in surface temperature is dominated by the temperature dependence of the water vapor pressure, but in both cases changes in near-surface relative humidity are very important.

  19. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  20. Pedogenetic processes and carbon budgets in soils of Queretaro, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Calderón, Norma Eugenia; Fuentes Romero, Elizabeth; Hernandez Silva, Gilberto

    2014-05-01

    Pedogenetic processes have been investigated in two different physiographic regions of the state of Querétaro in order to assess the carbon budget of soils, looking into the gains and losses of organic and inorganic carbon: In the mountain region of the natural reserve Sierra Gorda (SG) with soils developed on cretaceous argillites and shales under sub-humid temperate to semi-arid conditions, and in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) with soils developed on acid and intermediate igneous rocks under humid temperate climate in the highlands and semi-arid and subhumid subtropical conditions in the lowlands. The analyses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) of the SG region, including additional physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations were based on 103 topsoils in an area of 170 km2. The analyses in the TMVB region were based on the profiles of a soil toposequence from high mountainous positions down to the plains of the lowlands. The results show a SOC accumulation from temperate to semi-arid forest environments, based on processes of humification and clay formation including the influence of exchangeable Ca and the quantity and quality of clay minerals. The turnover rates of SOC and SIC depended largely on the rock parent materials, especially the presence of carbonate rocks. Moreover, we found that the SOC content and distribution was clearly depending on land use, decreasing from forests to agricultural land, such as pasture and cropping areas and were lowest under mining sites. The highest SIC pools were found in accumulation horizons of soils under semi-arid conditions. On all investigated sites SOC decreased the mobility of cations and especially that of heavy metals, such as As, Hg, Sb, Pb, and Cd.

  1. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    influence on the mechanisms that generate economic stability and economic development effort. For example, on the short-term, the budget deficit reduces the national saving, leads to decreased supply of market funds, which increases the interest rates. In this context, the volume of investment decreases, the consumption is reduced, affecting the volume of economic activities and employment. The psychological influences combined with the economic boost caused by budget deficits act directly on financial markets, leading to falling down the values of capital markets and the depreciation of the currencies sometimes sudden for the national currency. Even if the depreciation of the exchange rate is often a method used to equilibrate the commercial balance, an uncontrolled amplification of budgetary deficits can sometimes lead to monetary depreciation. These, over a certain level, can neutralize the benefits obtained in the external plan by strong worsening of the internal imbalances, mainly through the increased inflationary pressures in the economy. So, in current circumstances, when you want to identify and encourage those branches and sub-branches of national economy which can be developed in the global economy, one of the basic decisions regarding the interpretation of economic processes is the adoption of a dynamic and creative concept which considers both requirements to use the fiscal levers in economic development policy and the possibility of modifying the structure of budgetary revenues and expenses.

  2. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  3. Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatially averaged annual carbon budget is one of the key information to understand ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Water availability is a primary constraint of carbon uptake in many ecosystems and therefore the estimation of transpiration (T may serve as an alternative to quantify carbon budget. To apply this concept, we estimated long-term steady state water budget for the Han River basin (~26 000 km2 in Korea and examined its implication for catchment scale carbon exchange. For this, the catchment scale evapotranspiration (ET was derived from the long term precipitation (P and discharge (Q data. Then, using stable isotope data of P and Q along with hydrometeorological information, ET was partitioned into evaporation from soil and water surfaces (ES, evaporation from intercepted rainfall (El, and transpiration. ES was identified as a minor component of ET in the study areas regardless of the catchment scales. T was estimated from ET after accounting for El and ES. For the Han River basin, the estimated annual T from 1966 to 2007 was 22–31% of annual P and the proportion decreased with increasing P. Assuming that T further constrains catchment scale carbon uptake in terms of water use efficiency (WUE, we examined the possibility of using T as a relative measure for the strength and temporal changes of carbon uptake capacity. The proposed relations provide a simple and practical way to assess the distribution and strength of carbon sink.

  4. NOx and ammonium isotopic fingerprints of anammox in natural and engineered systems: Implications for N isotope budgets and the use of NOx isotopes to diagnose process stability in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. F.; Stöcklin, N.; Brunner, B.; Frame, C. H.; Joss, A.; Kipf, M.; Kuhn, T.; Wunderlin, P.

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) has been identified as a very important fixed nitrogen (N) sink, accounting for a large fraction of global fixed N loss in marine, freshwater, and semi-terrestrial environments. In engineered systems, combined nitritation-anammox is an efficient process to remove N from ammonium-rich wastewater, with nitrite as the central intermediate. During the anammox process, nitrate is being produced, providing reducing equivalents for carbon fixation. Measuring the N isotope ratios in fixed N species (i.e., ammonium, nitrite, nitrate) has proven to be a valuable tool to track N cycling in freshwater and marine ecosystems, yet its application in wastewater treatment as a tool to diagnose nitrate production pathways is novel. In this presentation we will elucidate, and compare, the N isotope effects associated with anammox 1) in vitro, 2) in a lacustrine setting, and 3) in a small-scale batch reactor for wastewater treatment. We demonstrate that the anammox nitrite/nitrate isotopic signatures are modulated by the superposition of strong kinetic (normal and inverse) and equilibrium (nitrite-nitrate) N isotope fractionation. The ammonium N isotope effect is driven by kinetic N isotope fractionation, and is similar to that of nitrification. We will discuss the possible controls on the expression of the anammox N isotope effects in the natural environment. We will also evaluate the use of nitrate/nitrite N (and O) isotope signatures to distinguish between nitrate production by anammox versus nitrite oxidation, which is important for optimizing process efficiency during wastewater treatment.

  5. Managing trade-offs makes budgeting processes pay off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Dean; Sullivan, Denis

    2005-11-01

    Trade-off management is a management system that leverages new technology to enable hospitals to reduce costs while simultaneously delivering exceptional service and quality care. It provides the means to more effectively engage managers in establishing targets that balance what hospitals seek to achieve with what they can afford to spend, while also addressing clinical and operational constraints. It is not a replacement for budgeting, balanced scorecard, or activity-based costing, but rather an approach for integrating them with clinical and operational systems into a more effective management system.

  6. Health sector operational planning and budgeting processes in Kenya-"never the twain shall meet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Operational planning is considered an important tool for translating government policies and strategic objectives into day-to-day management activities. However, developing countries suffer from persistent misalignment between policy, planning and budgeting. The Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) was introduced to address this misalignment. Kenya adopted the MTEF in the early 2000s, and in 2005, the Ministry of Health adopted the Annual Operational Plan process to adapt the MTEF to the health sector. This study assessed the degree to which the health sector Annual Operational Plan process in Kenya has achieved alignment between planning and budgeting at the national level, using document reviews, participant observation and key informant interviews. We found that the Kenyan health sector was far from achieving planning and budgeting alignment. Several factors contributed to this problem including weak Ministry of Health stewardship and institutionalized separation between planning and budgeting processes; a rapidly changing planning and budgeting environment; lack of reliable data to inform target setting and poor participation by key stakeholders in the process including a top-down approach to target setting. We conclude that alignment is unlikely to be achieved without consideration of the specific institutional contexts and the power relationships between stakeholders. In particular, there is a need for institutional integration of the planning and budgeting processes into a common cycle and framework with common reporting lines and for improved data and local-level input to inform appropriate and realistic target setting. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. ACCOUNTING REPORTS AND BUDGET PROCESS IN THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC SECTOR BETWEEN CONVERGENCE AND CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena\tHLACIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the 1 of January 2014, the Romanian public sector has undergone a long transformation process: the change in the order of the organization and management of public institutions accounting, the chart of accounts and the instructions for its implementation, the implementation of an electronic reporting system for financial statements, the automatic verification within the system of whether the payments are within the budget or not, providing information on revenue achievement and payments made. Other measures are to be implemented such as the electronic signing by the credit release authorities of the revenue and expense budget. Even if these measures were for testing purposes in 2014, they influenced the work of the public sector professional accountant, on the one hand, and the public sector as a whole, on the other hand. In the present paper, we will present the effects of these changes on the budget transparency and especially on budgetary efficiency and the accounting reports.

  8. Global physician budgets as common-property resources: some implications for physicians and medical associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, J; Card, R

    1996-01-01

    Since 1990 payment for physician services in the fee-for-service sector has shifted from an open-ended system to fixed global budgets. This shift has created a new economic context for practising medicine in Canada. A global cap creates a conflict between physicians' individual economic self-interest and their collective interest in constraining total billings within the capped budget. These types of incentive problems occur in managing what are known in economics as "common-property resource...

  9. Progress At Risk: California's Budget and the Implications for Teaching Quality. CenterView.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The budget crises will have far reaching impacts on education in California. This CenterView focuses on the critical issues of equity and teaching quality now beginning to emerge for Californians as they struggle to offer students instruction necessary to meet the state's rigorous academic standards. It is absolutely essential for educators and…

  10. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  11. The budgeting and reporting process of a multinational organisation across regions and trade centres

    OpenAIRE

    Robusti, Fiorenza

    2012-01-01

    In the contemporary international business environment, a multinational organisation faces great challenges when it comes to budgeting and reporting. The complexity of budgeting and reporting is even greater when it implies the coordination of budgets and reports of trade centres located in other countries than the country of origin. A multinational organisation often adopts the participative budgeting method. The purpose of participative budgeting is to involve managers at lower manage...

  12. The Indonesia’s State Budget Sustainability and Its Implication for Financial System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo KUNCORO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the sustainability of the central budget and its relation to the financial stability in the case of Indonesia. The standard model of fiscal sustainability is modified to cover some financial variables. The empirical estimates are done by employing several aspects of the time series econometric literature including unit roots, co-integration, and VAR (vector auto regression. Based on the fiscal reaction function estimates of quarterly data over the period of 1999-2009, the analysis present that the government's budget is unsustainable. This finding is supported by solvency test. The impulse response test indicates that financial variables innovation has large impact both on the debt and primary balance surplus dynamics and vise versa. Eventually, the debt and primary balance have a substantial impact on financial system. Thus, the fiscal sustainability (and, of course, solvency is the key to achieve financial system stability.

  13. Microseepage in drylands: Flux and implications in the global atmospheric source/sink budget of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Etiope, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Klusman, R. W.; Dept. of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Co., 80401, United States

    2010-01-01

    Drylands are considered a net sink for atmospheric methane and a main item of the global inventories of the greenhouse gas budget. It is outlined here, however, that a significant portion of drylands occur over sedimentary basins hosting natural gas and oil reservoirs, where gas migration to the surface takes place, producing positive fluxes of methane into the atmosphere. New field surveys, in different hydrocarbonprone basins, confirm that microseepage, enhanced by faults and fr...

  14. Carbon budgets for two Portuguese estuaries: implications for the management and conservation of coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    The results presented illustrate that Tagus and Sado estuaries represent an important land/ocean boundary for carbon transformation and emission, and confirm the anthropogenic pressure that these estuaries are subject to. Carbon budgets vary markedly within and between these two estuaries reflecting the human pressure. Anthropogenic inputs, autochthonous carbon production and primary production are indicated as the main responsible for the carbon production within the estuaries. Both estuaries export carbon to the ocean and to the atmosphere. The inorganic carbon faction has a major role in the carbon budget, enriching the ocean in carbon dioxide, contributing this for the greenhouse effect. Our understanding of organic and inorganic carbon fluxes in Tagus and Sado estuaries is vital for an efficient protection and preservation of such ecosystems being helpful in limit human-caused damage and in restoring damaged estuarine/coastal ecosystems. In addition, the economic impact of the carbon fluxes to the atmosphere, estimated as €375,000 per year, creates the appropriate incentives to reduce emissions and shift them to higher-value uses. Suggesting, therefore, a coastal management re-oriented towards a more adaptive approach through the use of carbon market-based policies. This study is a contribution to the integration of coastal and global carbon cycles. However, additional efforts are required to fully merge other components subsystems, such as salt marshes, with these budgets. Moreover, a fully comprehension of the community metabolism in these estuaries will greatly improve this integration.

  15. Carbon budgets for two Portuguese estuaries: implications for the management and conservation of coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Carbon budgets vary markedly within and between Tagus and Sado estuaries reflecting the human pressure. These estuaries seem to generate carbon within a total of 0.13 MtC yr-1 for Tagus and 0.02 MtC yr-1 for Sado. Anthropogenic inputs, autochthonous carbon production and primary production are indicated as the main responsible for the carbon production within the estuaries. Carbon exported to the ocean and to the atmosphere by both estuarine systems is higher during the non-producti...

  16. RTP-processed 17.5% efficient silicon solar cells featuring a record small thermal budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.; Lautenschlager, H.; Warta, W.; Schindler, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the development and analysis of 17.5% efficient silicon solar cells on 0.9 {omega}cm PV-grade Cz-Si, featuring a record small thermal budget. The cells have been processed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) using high heating and cooling rates of 100 K/s. The involved processes consist of a 5 s RTP step at 930 C for the simultaneous formation of phosphorus emitter and aluminium back surface field and a 30 s rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) at 950 C for emitter passivation. Detailed analysis reveals that the emitter saturation current is reduced by a factor of 3-4 due to RTO passivation in spite of high carrier surface concentration of 4 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. Current cell efficiencies are limited by poor quality of the Al-BSF as PC-1D simulations show. (orig.)

  17. Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, J.; Lee, K.-S.; Kim, S.

    2010-06-01

    Spatially averaged annual carbon budget is one of the key information needed to understand ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Water availability is a primary constraint of carbon uptake in many ecosystems and therefore the estimation of ecosystem water use may serve as an alternative to quantify Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). To examine this concept, we estimated a long-term steady state water budget for the Han River basin (~26 000 km2) in Korea and examined its application for catchment scale carbon exchange. For this, the catchment scale evapotranspiration (ET) was derived from the long term precipitation (P) and discharge (Q) data. Then, using stable isotope data of P and Q along with other hydrometeorological information, ET was partitioned into evaporation from soil and water surfaces (ES), evaporation from intercepted rainfall (EI, and transpiration (T). ES was identified as a minor component of ET in the study areas regardless of the catchment scales. The annual T, estimated from ET after accounting for EI and ES for the Han River basin from 1966 to 2007, was 22~31% of annual P and the proportion decreased with increasing P. Assuming that T further constrains the catchment scale GPP in terms of water use efficiency (WUE), we examined the possibility of using T as a relative measure for the strength and temporal changes of carbon uptake capacity. The proposed relationship would provide a simple and practical way to assess the spatial distribution of ecosystem GPP, provided the WUE estimates in terms of GPP/T at ecosystem scale could be obtained. For carbon and water tracking toward a sustainable Asia, ascertaining such a spatiotemporally representative WUE and their variability is a requisite facing the flux measurement and modeling communities.

  18. Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially averaged annual carbon budget is one of the key information needed to understand ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Water availability is a primary constraint of carbon uptake in many ecosystems and therefore the estimation of ecosystem water use may serve as an alternative to quantify Gross Primary Productivity (GPP. To examine this concept, we estimated a long-term steady state water budget for the Han River basin (~26 000 km2 in Korea and examined its application for catchment scale carbon exchange. For this, the catchment scale evapotranspiration (ET was derived from the long term precipitation (P and discharge (Q data. Then, using stable isotope data of P and Q along with other hydrometeorological information, ET was partitioned into evaporation from soil and water surfaces (ES, evaporation from intercepted rainfall (EI, and transpiration (T. ES was identified as a minor component of ET in the study areas regardless of the catchment scales. The annual T, estimated from ET after accounting for EI and ES for the Han River basin from 1966 to 2007, was 22~31% of annual P and the proportion decreased with increasing P. Assuming that T further constrains the catchment scale GPP in terms of water use efficiency (WUE, we examined the possibility of using T as a relative measure for the strength and temporal changes of carbon uptake capacity. The proposed relationship would provide a simple and practical way to assess the spatial distribution of ecosystem GPP, provided the WUE estimates in terms of GPP/T at ecosystem scale could be obtained. For carbon and water tracking toward a sustainable Asia, ascertaining such a spatiotemporally representative WUE and their variability is a

  19. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  20. A perspective on the states` role in the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management budget process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; Hinman, P. [Carter, Brock & Hinman, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responding in 1994 to proposed budget reductions and predicted funding shortfalls, the Office of Environmental Management at the Department of Energy began working closely with its regulators and stakeholders to prioritize activities. In a series of national and site specific meetings held with representatives of states, the Environmental Protection Agency, Indian tribes and the public, the Department of Energy brought regulators and other stakeholders into its budget development process in a {open_quotes}bottoms up{close_quotes} approach to the prioritization of activities at each of its sites. This paper presents an overview of this process which began last year and will highlight its unique cooperative nature. This paper will assess ways of institutionalizing this process. It also identifies issues to be addressed in resolving matters related to future budgets. Areas of concern to the Department of Energy`s host states and their regulators will be identified as they relate to waste management, cleanup and facility transition activities.

  1. Drought as a Disturbance: Implications for Peatland Carbon Budgets in the Hudson Bay Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, R.; Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon feedbacks are of particular importance in high latitudes, both because of large circumpolar peatland carbon pools and because climate warming is occurring more rapidly at these latitudes. Longer-term net ecosystem exchange will be influenced by the capacity of plant communities to respond to changing conditions. The nature of community change and the factors inducing change are examined in this study of a disturbance generated by severe drought in 1994 causing widespread mortality in the dominant moss, Dicranum elongatum, occupying an upland tundra site within the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba. One quarter of this moss has recently died and become encrusted with the micro-lichen, Ochrolechia spp. Moss cushions affected in this manner exhibit strong allelopathic inhibition of seedling establishment progressing to complete moss decay. Chamber NEE growing-season flux measurements show an average net release of 642 mg C /m2/d from the dead moss compared to an average net uptake of 164 mg C /m2/d from completely healthy cushions. Between these two extremes, stressed living moss cushions support abundant seedling cover which increases in direct proportion with the fractional mortality. A proxy method for estimating the growth rates of cushions, based on the length of green living shoots, indicates that the moss community is uniform in age and established shortly after the most severe drought of historical record in 1966. Subsequent growth rates of cushions show a strong dependency on proximity to the water table (4.17-1.11 mm/y over 58 cm height interval). A growing-season moss water budget identifies the dominant water flow pathways and indicates capillary uptake (0.08 mm h-1) provides 64% of the storage gains, emphasizing the importance of groundwater for growth and survival. Maximum storage capacities are directly related to cushion biomass, leading to both enhanced moisture stress and increased susceptibility to mortality as cushion size

  2. Microwave annealing, a low-thermal-budget process for dopant activation in phosphorus-implanted MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheol-Min; Cho, Won-Ju

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigated a low-thermal-budget dopant activation process based on microwave annealing (MWA) of phosphorus ions implanted by plasma doping and compared the proposed technique with the conventional furnace annealing and the rapid thermal annealing processes. We fabricated p-n junction diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on silicon and silicon-on-insulator substrates, respectively, in order to examine the dopant activation resulting from MWA. The investigated low-thermal-budget MWA technique proved effective for implanted dopant atom activation and diffusion suppression. In addition, a good interface property between the gate oxide and the silicon channel was achieved. Thus, low-thermal-budget MWA is a promising and effective method for the fabrication of highly-integrated semiconductor devices.

  3. Medicaid Expansion and Sales Tax Reform Dominate Arizona’s Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, David

    2015-01-01

    While Arizona’s Fiscal Year 2014 budget itself offered modest changes from 2012-2013, two budget policy areas became the battleground.  With the re-election of President Barack Obama in 2012, the biggest lingering question in the Republican-dominated state government was what would happen with Medicaid expansion.  Governor Jan Brewer chose the pragmatic path of seeking Medicaid expansion and eventually had to rely on Democrats for the votes to add it to the budget over leadership objections i...

  4. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  5. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS ON THE BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEFAULT ON ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL STEFAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the audit/control missions, there were registered inaccurate situations which concern the correct registration of financial and exceptional operation revenues and expenditures, based on documents attesting their way and content. Thus, in the relation between the local budget of the administrative-territorial unit and two trading companies of local interest, with regard to the granting of subventions to the two companies, there were identified certain value discrepancies between the amounts approved by the local budget, in less and those provided in the budgets of the entities under discussion. The discrepancies of the budgets mentioned above had direct consequences on the reality of financial statements of the respective partners, on their budgets and on the fiscal regimes of the local subordination entities.

  6. An Examination of the Decision-Making Processes Used by Superintendents in Reducing School District Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance of Harvey et al.'s (1997) 13 problem-solving strategies for making retrenchment decisions on school district budgets as perceived by California superintendents of medium-sized school districts. Methodology: The subjects in the present study were 86 superintendents of…

  7. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  8. The Implications for the EU and National Budgets of the Use of EU Instruments for Macro-Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Casale, Alessandra; Giovannini, Alessandro; Gros, Daniel; Ivan, Paul; Núñez Ferrer, Jorge.; Peirce, Fabrizia

    2012-01-01

    The euro crisis has forced member states and the EU institutions to create a series of new instruments to safeguard macro-financial stability of the Union. This study describes the status of existing instruments, the role of the European Parliament and how the use of the instruments impinges on the EU budget also through their effects on national budgets. In addition, it presents a survey of other possible instruments that have been proposed in recent years (e.g. E-bonds and eurobonds), in or...

  9. Use of a process-based model for assessing the methane budgets of global terrestrial ecosystems and evaluation of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the global terrestrial budget of methane (CH4 by using a process-based biogeochemical model (VISIT and inventory data for components of the budget that were not included in the model. Emissions from wetlands, paddy fields, biomass burning, and plants, as well as oxidative consumption by upland soils, were simulated by the model. Emissions from ruminant livestock and termites were evaluated by using an inventory approach. These CH4 flows were estimated for each of the model's 0.5° × 0.5° grid cells from 1901 to 2009, while accounting for atmospheric composition, meteorological factors, and land-use changes. Estimation uncertainties were examined through ensemble simulations using different parameterization schemes and input data (e.g., different wetland maps and emission factors. From 1996 to 2005, the average global terrestrial CH4 budget was estimated on the basis of 1152 simulations, and terrestrial ecosystems were found to be a net source of 308.3 ± 20.7 Tg CH4 yr−1. Wetland and livestock ruminant emissions were the primary sources. The results of our simulations indicate that sources and sinks are distributed highly heterogeneously over the Earth's land surface. Seasonal and interannual variability in the terrestrial budget was also assessed. The trend of increasing net emission from terrestrial sources and its relationship with temperature variability imply that terrestrial CH4 feedbacks will play an increasingly important role as a result of future climatic change.

  10. THE STRATEGY OF OPTIMIZATION AND INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF BUDGETED EXPENDITURES AS PART OF REGIONAL BUDGET STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana V. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we have considered the questions of increasing the efficiency of budgeted expenditures in the boundaries of formation of the regional budget strategy. The process of reforming of government’s budget system is vectored to introduction of the new forms of budget costs’ management and increasing its effectiveness. The main budget innovations are: state and municipal assignment, budgeting, focused on result, program-targeted budgeting. The proposed classification of budget expendi...

  11. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

  12. Will Reducing Oil Taxes Spur Production? The Critical Question in Alaska's FY 2014 Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    McBeath, Jerry; Wright, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Among western states, Alaska is the most dependent on oil/gas taxes.  In late 2012 and early 2013 the its counter-cyclical economy puttered along while oil production (taxes from which provide 87 percent of the state general fund budget) continued to decline.  The main fiscal issue during the 2013 legislative session was oil severance taxes, with Governor Parnell making his second attempt (with Republican support) to lower them in hope that the industry would increase its investment in the st...

  13. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  14. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS ON THE BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEFAULT ON ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    IONEL STEFAN; FLORIN-CORNEL POPOVICI; FLORIN POPOVICI

    2012-01-01

    Following the audit/control missions, there were registered inaccurate situations which concern the correct registration of financial and exceptional operation revenues and expenditures, based on documents attesting their way and content. Thus, in the relation between the local budget of the administrative-territorial unit and two trading companies of local interest, with regard to the granting of subventions to the two companies, there were identified certain value discrepancies between the ...

  15. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  16. The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

  17. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  18. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport
    processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of
    tropospheric ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Colette, Augustin

    2005-01-01

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. The defense is thus divided in two parts.First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPT...

  19. Participatory Budgeting: a developing country process?
    A comparative analysis of the experiences of PB in Brazil, France
    and Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Drouault, Sandra,

    2007-01-01

    Janvier à Juin 2006 An increased dissatisfaction and disbelief toward modern democracy resulted in the revival of deliberative democracy and of experiments, such as participatory budgeting (PB). PB is a process of conjoint decision making through which citizens and local governments deicide on the final allocation of new public investment budget in their cities. While the Brazilian experiments of PB have been extensively researched, those in Europe have not. Therefore this research project...

  20. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  1. Storm- Time Dynamics of Ring Current Protons: Implications for the Long-Term Energy Budget in the Inner Magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The ring current energy budget plays a key role in the global electrodynamics of Earth's space environment. Pressure gradients developed in the inner magnetosphere can shield the near-Earth region from solar wind-induced electric fields. The distortion of Earth's magnetic field due to the ring current affects the dynamics of particles contributing both to the ring current and radiation belts. Therefore, understanding the long-term evolution of the inner magnetosphere energy content is essential. We have investigated the evolution of ring current proton pressure (7 - 600 keV) in the inner magnetosphere based on data from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard Van Allen Probe B throughout the year 2013. We find that although the low-energy component of the protons (100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no or anti-correlation with the Dst index. Interestingly, the contributions of the high- and low-energy protons to the total energy content are comparable. Our results indicate that the proton dynamics, and as a consequence the total energy budget in the inner magnetosphere (inside geosynchronous orbit), is not strictly controlled by storm-time timescales as those are defined by the Dst index.

  2. Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications: se

  3. Storm time dynamics of ring current protons: Implications for the long-term energy budget in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulidou, Matina; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2016-05-01

    Our investigation of the long-term ring current proton pressure evolution in Earth's inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes data shows drastically different behavior of the low- and high- energy components of the ring current proton population with respect to the SYM-H index variation. We found that while the low-energy component of the protons (100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no correlation or anticorrelation with the absolute value of SYM-H index. Our study also shows that the contributions of the low- and high- energy protons to the inner magnetosphere energy content are comparable. Thus, our results conclusively demonstrate that proton dynamics, and as a result the energy budget in the inner magnetosphere, do not vary strictly on storm time timescales as those are defined by the SYM-H index.

  4. Small budget music event production process : case: Rock n’ Flow, NPITA Club

    OpenAIRE

    Brax, Minna-Maija

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the different aspects belonging to a production process of music events that are organized with limited resources. In addition to defining these aspects, the objectives include covering the marketing area of a music production process in more detail. Thus, the goal is to investigate the most useful communication channels for the marketing process of these events and how they contributed to reaching the desired goal. During the research process, sourc...

  5. Participatory Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Innovation for Development and South-South Cooperation, IDEASS

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...

  6. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  7. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  8. Differences in heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: Implications for the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    that is stable and responds quickly to changes in the atmosphere. An implication is that sea surface temperature (SST) in the bay remains higher than 28 degrees C, thereby supporting large-scale deep convection in the atmosphere during the summer monsoon...

  9. Energy budgets of animals: behavioral and ecological implications. Progress report. [Egg laying in laboratory by desert lizards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1975-05-01

    Climate effects on biomass requirements for mammal and reptile maintenance, growth, and reproduction and implications for climate-influenced population dynamics were explored using computer simulations. The simulations revealing critical shortages of appropriate data have led to the design of experiments to acquire the needed information. The development of a technique to induce repeated egg laying in the laboratory for reproduction studies of some desert lizards was accomplished this year. (CH)

  10. Oxygen isotope study of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Implication for the oxygen-18 budget of the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.; Stievenard, M.

    1997-07-01

    New data are reported for the 18O composition of hot hydrothermal fluids from various sites with different tectonic settings. The measured δ 18O, in the range 0.53-2.3‰ confirm earlier data suggesting that mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents are a major source of 18O to the ocean. In light of this new data, we attempt to re-evaluate the marine 18O budget from direct quantification of the main sources and sinks of oceanic oxygen-18. Within the uncertainty of the flux estimates, 18O inputs and outputs are found to balance each other, showing that oceanic 18O is presently at a steady-state. Using these present fluxes, we examine the past evolution of the 18O composition of the ocean and speculate that the initial 18O oceanic content may have evolved rapidly towards its present value. This suggests, as already pointed out in previous studies, that ocean water may have had a rather constant 18O composition over most of the Earth's history and that δ 18O measurements in ancient cherts and carbonates may primarily record the evolution of the ocean temperature.

  11. Measurements of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide during the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation Project: Implications for the global COS budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide COS concentrations were measured by three analytical systems during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project. The three systems all used cryogenic sample preconcentration and gas chromatographic (GC) separation but differed in the method of detection. The FPD system used a flame photometric detector, the MS system used a mass selective detector, and the ECD-S system used a fluorinating catalyst followed by an electron capture detector. With the FPD system, we found a mean COS concentration of 510 ppt over the North Atlantic and 442 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. With the ECD-S system, we found a mean COS concentration of 489 ppt over the North Atlantic and 419 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. All three systems registered a latitudinal gradient in atmospheric COS of between 1.6 and 2.0 ppt per degree of latitude, with increasing COS concentrations northward which was similar to the gradient measured by Bingemer et al. (1990). It is difficult to reconcile the measured latitudinal concentration gradient with present theories of the global COS budget since the largest sink of COS is thought to be a flux to land plants, most of which are in the northern hemisphere.

  12. Budgeting tool for Restaurant X

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve profitability and advance a company’s commitment to organ-ize growth, details plans which are called budgets are required. A budgeting tool is a beneficial asset for a company because it helps the budgeting preparation process become easier and faster. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to create a budgeting tool for Restaurant X. This thesis is product-orientated. There are three tasks conducted in this thesis. First one is to cover all relevant theories about a budget. T...

  13. Open Budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Government initiatives to publicize budgetary information allow for greater public supervision In an unprecedented move,four ministries under the Central Government recently posted their 2010 budgets on their official websites.

  14. 20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  15. Carbon budgets for three autotrophic Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of the coastal air-water CO2 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-03-01

    Estuaries are `hot spots' in the global carbon cycle, yet data on carbon dynamics, in particular air-sea CO2 fluxes, from autotrophic systems are rare. Estuarine carbon budgets were constructed for three geomorphically distinct warm temperate Australian estuaries over an annual cycle. All three estuaries were net autotrophic, with annual net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) ranging from 8 ± 13.4 molC m-2 yr-1 to 10 ± 14 molC m-2 yr-1. There was a net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the estuaries of between 0.4 ± 0.6 molC m-2 yr-1 and 2 ± 0.9 molC m-2 yr-1. Loading of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the estuaries varied markedly within and between the estuaries, and was directly related to freshwater inflow. While NEM was similar in all three estuaries, the ratio of benthic versus pelagic contributions to NEM differed, with NEM dominated by pelagic production in the river dominated system, benthic production dominating in the intermediate estuary, and equal contributions of benthic and pelagic production in the marine dominated lagoon. All three estuaries exported more organic carbon than was imported, fueled by additional organic carbon supplied by NEM. The estuaries essentially acted as bioreactors, transforming DIC to organic carbon. Burial of organic carbon ranged from 1.2 ± 0.3 molC m-2 yr-1 to 4.4 ± 1.2 molC m-2 yr-1 and represented up to half of NEM. The annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in these systems, along with previous estimates of the global estuarine CO2flux being based predominantly on heterotrophic, large river dominated estuarine systems, indicates that the global estimate of the estuarine air-water CO2flux may be over-estimated due to the lack of studies from autotrophic marine dominated estuaries.

  16. Psychological processes and paranoia: implications for forensic behavioural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentall, Richard P; Taylor, Jayne L

    2006-01-01

    Paranoid delusions have recently become the focus of empirical research. In this article, we review studies of the psychological mechanisms that might be involved in paranoid thinking and discuss their implications for forensic behaviour science. Paranoia has not been consistently associated with any specific neuropsychological abnormality. However, evidence supports three broad types of mechanism that might be involved in delusional thinking in general and paranoia in particular: anomalous perceptual experiences, abnormal reasoning, and motivational factors. There is some evidence that paranoia may be associated with hearing loss, and good evidence that paranoid patients attend excessively to threatening information. Although general reasoning ability seems to be unaffected, there is strong evidence that a jumping- to-conclusions style of reasoning about data is implicated in delusions in general, but less consistent evidence specifically linking paranoia to impaired theory of mind. Finally, there appears to be a strong association between paranoia and negative self-esteem, and some evidence that attempts to protect self-esteem by attributing negative events to external causes are implicated. Some of these processes have recently been implicated in violent behaviour, and they therefore have the potential to explain the apparent association between paranoid delusions and offending.

  17. Role of boundary layer processes on the mixed layer CO2-budget

    OpenAIRE

    D. Pino; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2010-01-01

    The diurnal and vertical variability of temperature, humidity and specially CO2 in the atmospheric boundary layer is studied by combining detailed observations taken at Cabauw (The Netherlands), Large-Eddy simulations (LES) and mixed layer theory. The research focus on the role played by the entrainment and other boundary layer driven processes on the distribution and diurnal evolution of CO2 in the boundary layer. The relative importance of this entrained air to ventilate CO2 will be analyze...

  18. Goldratt's thinking process applied to the budget constraints of a Texas MHMR facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lloyd J; Churchwell, Lana

    2004-01-01

    Managers for years have known that the best way to run a business is to constantly be looking for ways to improve the way to do business. The barrier has been the ability to identify and solve the right problems. Eliyahu Goldratt (1992c), in his book The Goal, uses a love story format to illustrate his "Theory of Constraints." In Goldratt's (1994) next book, It's Not Luck, he further illustrates this powerful technique called "The Thinking Process" which is based on the Socratic method, using the "if ... then" reasoning process, The first step is to identify UDEs or undesirable effects within the organization and then use these UDEs to create a Current Reality Tree (CRT) which helps to identify the core problem. Next, use an Evaporating Cloud to come up with ideas and a way to break the constraint. Finally, use the injections in the Evaporating Cloud to create a Future Reality Tree, further validating the idea and making sure it does not create any negative effects. In this article, the "Thinking Process" will be used to identify and solve problems related to the General Medical Department of an MHMR State Hospital. PMID:15704641

  19. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  20. The contribution of fluvial and mass wasting processes to sedimentary budget in mountain catchments of the southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Danese, M.; Gioia, D.

    2012-04-01

    has been realized in each studied catchment through systematic aerial photo-interpretation and field survey. Moreover, a comparison between landslide volumes and total sedimentary budget has been carried out in some selected area. The collected dataset represents a basic tool to investigate the morpho-dynamics of the studied catchments and to evaluate sedimentary budget related to both fluvial and hillslope processes. This approach could also be useful to solve practical problems such as burial velocity of an artificial reservoir.

  1. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  2. The Impact of Legislature and Citizens on the Budgeting Process in Switzerland: Lessons for Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Tóth

    2005-01-01

    Scholars evaluating national and local budget procedures in Central and Eastern Europe generally advocate a greater role for legislative bodies and citizens. Mature federations and decentralised countries in Western Europe are often cited as prime examples of participatory budgeting which is supposed to lead to greater fiscal discipline, a better allocation of public resources and higher administrative efficiency. This paper investigates the strengths and weaknesses of legislative activism in...

  3. Signatures of troposphere-stratosphere momentum coupling Implications for global atmospheric angular momentum and earth rotation budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A.; Mayr, H. G.; Hartle, R. E.; Kramer, L.; Stirling, R.

    1984-01-01

    During January-August 1978, the global atmospheric angular momentum (M) exhibits distinct patterns of short term momentum interchange across latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere winter-spring season, 30-50 day modulations of M are present in which momentum enhancements at mid-latitudes (20-30 deg) are closely matched by momentum depressions at high latitudes (50-60 deg). During the same interval there are no corresponding variations in M evident in the Southern Hemisphere. Conversely, during Southern Hemisphere fall-winter, similar anti-correlations in monthly scale momentum excursions are evident between mid and high latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter-spring momentum signatures are detected throughout the atmosphere, from the lower troposphere to the stratosphere. During the Southern Hemisphere fall-winter, the modulation patterns are not evident at the higher altitudes. Structural details of the momentum signatures indicate that the coupling is sometimes effective on very short time scales, e.g., 1-2 days, or less. The evidence of distinct anti-correlation between large regions has interesting implications for studies of global atmospheric circulation, and also for studies of the excitation of variations in earth rotation in response to short term modulations of M.

  4. Open Budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ In an unprecedented move,four ministries under the Central Government recently posted their 2010 budgets on their official websites.This move has been greeted with mixed reactions,with some netizens complaining about a lack of details and explanations of different items.

  5. A note on budget procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Pisauro Giuseppe; Visco Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    In Italy the debate on procedures related to the State budget is recurrent and tends to focus on the legislation stage. There is a widespread dissatisfaction on the way the budget is discussed and approved by Parliament. We argue that the entire procedure, including the stages of preparation, legislation and execution, should be reconsidered. The budget process in Italy suffers mainly from excessive fragmentation at the preparation stage, where a bottom-up approach is followed. Conversely, th...

  6. MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL FLOWS OF CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES BASED LOGISTICS BUDGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Bubenko, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is the development of scientific knowledge and understandings of place value and essence of logistics budgeting.Proved that increasing the competitiveness of budgeting should improve mechanisms of logistics processes, which leads to the creation of new economic category logistics budgeting. We consider such economic categories as cash flow, budget, budgeting, logistics, analyzes and presents the advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and budgeting logistics enterprises...

  7. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2 and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in hydrothermal/volcanic environments has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t d-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t d-1; La Fossa crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in the hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at the global scale.

  8. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2, and implications for the global CO2 budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pedone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in volcanic-hydrothermal environment has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted (between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece, Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy. At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross-sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The so-calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t day−1; Krýsuvík to moderate (524 ± 108 t day−1; "La Fossa" crater, Vulcano. Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at global scale.

  9. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of the carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including the impacts of land-use conversion. The observed aboveground biomass in the seasonal dry tropical forest in Thailand (226.3 t C ha−1 and the rainforest in Malaysia (201.5 t C ha−1 indicate that tropical forests of Southeast Asia are among the most C-abundant ecosystems in the world. The model simulation results in rainforests were consistent with field data, except for the NEP, however, the VISIT model tended to underestimate C budget and stock in the seasonal dry tropical forest. The gross primary production (GPP based on field observations ranged from 32.0 to 39.6 t C ha−1 yr−1 in the two primary forests, whereas the model slightly underestimated GPP (26.5–34.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the proportion of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after the deforestation event. According to the model simulation, the total C stock (total biomass and soil C of the oil palm plantation was about 35% of the rainforest's C stock at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation. However, there were few field data of C budget and stock, especially in oil palm plantation. The C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over the long term using both the model simulations and observations to

  10. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Ishida, A.; Kadir, W. R.; Ladpala, P.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-09-01

    More reliable estimates of the carbon (C) stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT) was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia) and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia) to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including the impacts of land-use conversion. The observed aboveground biomass in the seasonal dry tropical forest in Thailand (226.3 t C ha-1) and the rainforest in Malaysia (201.5 t C ha-1) indicate that tropical forests of Southeast Asia are among the most C-abundant ecosystems in the world. The model simulation results in rainforests were consistent with field data, except for the NEP, however, the VISIT model tended to underestimate C budget and stock in the seasonal dry tropical forest. The gross primary production (GPP) based on field observations ranged from 32.0 to 39.6 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the two primary forests, whereas the model slightly underestimated GPP (26.5-34.5 t C ha-1 yr-1). The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the proportion of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after the deforestation event. According to the model simulation, the total C stock (total biomass and soil C) of the oil palm plantation was about 35% of the rainforest's C stock at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation. However, there were few field data of C budget and stock, especially in oil palm plantation. The C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over the long term using both the model simulations and observations to understand the effects of climate and land-use conversion on C budgets in tropical forest

  11. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    ALUNNO-BRUSCIA, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  12. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, M; Ito, A; A. Ishida; W. R. Kadir; P. Ladpala; Yamagata, Y

    2011-01-01

    More reliable estimates of carbon (C) stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT) was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia) and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia) to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems, including the impacts of...

  13. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, M; Ito, A; A. Ishida; W. R. Kadir; P. Ladpala; Yamagata, Y

    2011-01-01

    More reliable estimates of the carbon (C) stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT) was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia) and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia) to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including...

  14. Factors Contributing to the Job Satisfaction of Principals, 1978-1988. A Study of How the Participation of Principals in the Managerial Process, Specifically Budgeting, Affects Their Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ronald E.; Garrett, George W.

    This report summarizes a study investigating the relationship between the extent of elementary school principals' participation in the budgeting process and their job satisfaction. The study also explored the difference between principals' actual and desired role in budgeting. Two studies were conducted, one in 1978 and one in 1988, and were…

  15. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; Harvey, Judson W.; Marion, Andrea; Packman, Aaron I.; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca; Anders, Wörman

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed."

  16. The Role of Heterotrophic Microbial Communities in Estuarine C Budgets and the Biogeochemical C Cycle with Implications for Global Warming: Research Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O Roger

    2016-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and economically important marine ecosystems at the land-ocean interface and contribute significantly to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Estuarine microbial communities are major links in the biogeochemical C cycle and flow of C in food webs from primary producers to higher consumers. Considerable attention has been given to bacteria and autotrophic eukaryotes in estuarine ecosystems, but less research has been devoted to the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes. Current research is reviewed here on the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes in C biogeochemistry and ecology of estuaries, with particular attention to C budgets, trophodynamics, and the metabolic fate of C in microbial communities. Some attention is given to the importance of these processes in climate change and global warming, especially in relation to sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 , while also documenting the current paucity of research on the role of eukaryotic microbes that contribute to this larger question of C biogeochemistry and the environment. Some recommendations are made for future directions of research and opportunities of applying newer technologies and analytical approaches to a more refined analysis of the role of C in estuarine microbial community processes and the biogeochemical C cycle. PMID:26507684

  17. The Role of Heterotrophic Microbial Communities in Estuarine C Budgets and the Biogeochemical C Cycle with Implications for Global Warming: Research Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O Roger

    2016-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and economically important marine ecosystems at the land-ocean interface and contribute significantly to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Estuarine microbial communities are major links in the biogeochemical C cycle and flow of C in food webs from primary producers to higher consumers. Considerable attention has been given to bacteria and autotrophic eukaryotes in estuarine ecosystems, but less research has been devoted to the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes. Current research is reviewed here on the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes in C biogeochemistry and ecology of estuaries, with particular attention to C budgets, trophodynamics, and the metabolic fate of C in microbial communities. Some attention is given to the importance of these processes in climate change and global warming, especially in relation to sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 , while also documenting the current paucity of research on the role of eukaryotic microbes that contribute to this larger question of C biogeochemistry and the environment. Some recommendations are made for future directions of research and opportunities of applying newer technologies and analytical approaches to a more refined analysis of the role of C in estuarine microbial community processes and the biogeochemical C cycle.

  18. Technological Innovation: Concept, Process, Typology and Implications in the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of technological innovation in the economy, at the microand macroeconomic level, viewing the organization's ability to generate new ideas in support of increasing production, employment and environmental protection, starting from the concepts of innovation, innovation process and, respectively, from the innovation typology analysis.

  19. Implications of neutrino masses and mixing for weak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general theory is presented of weak processes involving neutrinos which consistently incorporates the possibility of nonzero neutrino masses and associated lepton mixing. The theory leads to new tests for and bounds on such masses and mixing. These tests make use of (π,K)/sub l2/ decay, nuclear β decay, and μ and tau decays, among others. New experiments at SIN and KEK to apply the tests are mentioned. Further, some implications are discussed for (1) the analysis of the spectral parameters in leptonic decays to determine the Lorentz structure of the weak leptonic couplings; (2) fundamental weak interaction constants such as G/sub μ/, G/sub V/', f/sub π/, f/sub K/, V/sub uq/, q = d or s, m/sub W/, and m/sub Z/; and (3) neutrino propagation

  20. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  1. Marbling on a Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on the art technique called marbling. Includes floating paints on water and transferring the patterns formed in the water to paper. Discusses how teachers can teach this technique with materials that fit their budgets. Describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  2. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... of the cohesion countries - have a significant role in driving the process of budgetary reform....

  3. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  4. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies......Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...... this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting...

  5. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ulta-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells Budget Period 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; Siv Aasland; Kjersti Kleveland; Ann Hooper; Leo Bonnell; John Hemmings; Jack Chen; Bart A. Van Hassel

    2004-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from January 1, 2003 through December 31,2004 in the following task areas: Task 1--Materials Development; Task 2--Composite Development; Task 4--Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8--Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; and Task IO: Program Management. Most of the key technical objectives for this budget period were achieved. Only partial success was achieved relative to cycle testing under pressure Major improvements in material performance and element reliability have been achieved. A breakthrough material system has driven the development of a compact planar reactor design capable of producing either hydrogen or syngas. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and costs compared to either steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery or autothermal reforming. The fuel and engine testing program is complete The single cylinder test engine evaluation of UCTF fuels begun in Budget Period 2 was finished this budget period. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCl engine was completed.

  6. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems, including the impacts of land-use conversion, in Southeast Asia. Observations and VISIT model simulations indicated that the primary forests had high photosynthetic uptake: gross primary production was estimated at 31.5–35.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. In the VISIT model simulation, the rainforest had a higher total C stock (plant biomass and soil organic matter, 301.5 t C ha−1 than that in the seasonal dry forest (266.5 t C ha−1 in 2008. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis implied that the ratio of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after deforestation events. The C stock of the oil palm plantation was about 46% of the rainforest's C at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation, when the ratio of remaining residual debris was assumed to be about 33%. These results show that adequate forest management is important for reducing C emission from soil and C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over a long term using both the model simulations and observations.

  7. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: approach from a process model and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Ishida, A.; Kadir, W. R.; Ladpala, P.; Yamagata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    More reliable estimation of carbon (C) stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation is one of the most urgent tasks for model researchers. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT) was applied to two types of tropical forests (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a moist forest in Malaysia) and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia) to estimate C budget of tropical ecosystems including the impacts of land use conversion in Southeast Asia. Observation and VISIT model simulation indicated that the two types of tropical forest had a comparably high photosynthetic uptakes; gross primary productions were estimated as 32.2-37.6 t C ha-1 y-1. A rain forest had a higher total C stock (plant biomass and soil organic matter, 301.5 t C ha-1) than that in a seasonal dry forest (266.5 t C ha-1). The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbance such as deforestation and land use conversions on C budget, and a sensitivity analysis implied that remaining ratios of abandoned debris would be a key parameter determining soil C budget after deforestation events. Although the model tended to overestimate oil palm biomass in comparison with field data, C stock of the oil palm plantation was about half of the forest C at 30 years following the oil palm plantation formation when the remaining rate of residual debris was about 34%. These results indicated that adequate forest management was important for reducing C emission from soil, and C budget at each ecosystem need evaluate over a long-term using model and observations.

  8. Planning to Communicate: A Budget Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Failing to have a plan to communicate with stakeholders during the budget process is a plan to fail. Without community support, getting budget approval can be difficult. Thus, school business officials must have a plan to ensure the appropriate budget message is conveyed throughout all communication channels. In fact, a communication plan is the…

  9. Advertising budgeting practices of Belgian industrial marketers.

    OpenAIRE

    François, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The author reports on the results of a survey of a random sample of 102 belgian industrial companies, which measured which budget setting processes companies use, how they set budgets and the resulting budget composition. The objective of the study was first to compare the results with international practice, and second to try to explain their budgeting practices as a function of company, product and market characteristics measured in the same survey. The major conclusions are mixed : on the ...

  10. A Guide to Participatory Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Wampler, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Participatory Budgeting (PB) programs are innovative policymaking processes. Citizens are directly involved in making policy decisions. Forums are held throughout the year so that citizens have the opportunity to allocate resources, prioritize broad social policies, and monitor public spending.

  11. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  12. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  13. The role of consultant-researchers in the design and implementation process of a programme budget in a local government organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, H.J.; van Helden, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with our role as consultant-researchers in the improvement trajectory of a programme budget used in a Dutch province. For the 2009s programme budget the newly designed budget format was used in two pilot programmes. One year later we participated in the implementation of this format

  14. The interconnection of wet and dry deposition and the alteration of deposition budgets due to incorporation of new process understanding in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.; Foley, K. M.; Gilliam, R.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition is affected by the chemical and physical processes represented in the regional models as well as source strength. The overall production and loss budget (wet and dry deposition) is dynamically connected and adjusts internally to changes in process representation. In addition, the scrubbing of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is one of several processes that remove pollutants, creating a coupling with the atmospheric aqueous and gas phase chemistry that can influence wet deposition rates in a nonlinear manner. We explore through model sensitivities with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model the influence on wet and dry deposition, and the overall continental nitrogen budget, of changes in three process representations in the model: (1) incorporation of lightning generated NO, (2) improved representation of convective precipitation, and (3) replacement of the typical unidirectional dry deposition of NH3 with a state of the science representation of NH3 bi-directional air-surface exchange. Results of the sensitivity studies will be presented. (1) Incorporation of lightning generated NO significantly reduces a negative bias in summer wet nitrate deposition, but is sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization. (2) Use of a less active trigger of convective precipitation in the WRF meteorological model to reduce summertime precipitation over prediction bias reduces the generation of NO from lightning. It also reduces the wet deposition of nitrate and increases the dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen, as well as changing (reducing) the surface level exposure to ozone. Improvements in the convective precipitation processes also result in more non-precipitating clouds leading to an increase in SO4 production through the aqueous pathway resulting in improvements in summertime SO4 ambient aerosol estimates.(3) Incorporation of state of the science ammonia bi-directional air surface exchange affects both the dry

  15. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  16. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  17. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  18. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling. PMID:26556581

  19. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  20. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  1. Findings and Implications from Data Mining the IMC Review Process

    OpenAIRE

    Beverly, Robert; Allman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review (CCR), January 2013. The computer science research paper review process is largely human and time-intensive. More worrisome, review processes are frequently questioned, and often non-transparent. This work advocates applying computer science methods and tools to the computer science review process. As an initial exploration, we data mine the submissions, bids, reviews, and decisions from a recent top-tier computer networking conference. We empiric...

  2. Basics for sensorimotor information processing: some implications for learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry eHasbroucq; Franck eVidal

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIn sensorimotor activities, learning requires efficient information processing; whether in car driving, sport activities or human-machine interactions. Several factors may affect the efficiency of such processing: they may be extrinsic (i.e. task-related) on intrinsic (i.e. subjects-related). The effects of these factors are intimately related to the structure of human information processing. In the present article we will focus on some of them, which are poorly taken into account, ev...

  3. An Analysis of the New Budget Law of Mongolia of 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lkhagvadorj, Ariunaa

    2012-01-01

    The government of Mongolia developed and passed a new Budget Law on 23 December 2011 in order to improve the legal framework for budgeting, budget relations and fiscal management by integrating the Budget Law of 2002 and Public Sector Management and Finance Law. The purpose of new Budget Law is to ensure fiscal stability, enhance the efficiency and predictability of resource allocation, and to increase citizens’ participation in the budgeting process. The new Budget Law in its 11 chapters...

  4. 2017 Budget Outlays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  5. 2017 Budget Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  6. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  7. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  8. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-01-01

    The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP) is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the N...

  9. Subnational Budget Process and Practices in Nepal : Findings and Observations from an Assessment in Three Pilot Districts

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Nepal embarked on a process of decentralization, first through the 1999 Local Self Governance Act, which introduced major policy reforms to devolve decision-making power to local bodies, and later through its 2007 interim constitution, which abol¬ished a feudal state structure and established a federal system of governance that prioritized local government. These reforms presented an impor...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the process for... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and...

  11. Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing inflammatory changes that include continuous chronic pain in the pharyngeal region. Mechanical stresses stretching the second brachial arch during fetal development probably induce variable involvement of Reichert’s cartilage in morphogenesis of the styloid process. It is important that clinicians especially dentists and otolaryngologists are aware of the natural variations of the styloid process and do not consider the styloid process with a length of 30 mm as an abnormality or as an anomaly.

  12. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  13. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  14. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  15. Implications of confining force field structures in hard hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is centered on the study of confining force field structures in hard scattering processes. Perturbative QCD provides the means of calculating any process on the parton level, but to be able accurately to describe the actual outcome of an event, one still needs a phenomenological model for how quarks and gluons transform into observable hadrons. One such model is based on the assumption that the particles are produced by the confining fields stretched between the partons. The actual particle distributions will then depend on the topology of the confining fields. We have developed a Monte Carlo program to simulate complete events in hard scattering, and we use this to study the properties of the confining field in different trigger situations. We further look at the amount of hard processes that can be expected in experiments that trigger on transverse energy sum (calorimeter experiments). Finally, we investigate charm production within our model. (author)

  16. Implications of Building Information Modeling on Interior Design Education: The Impact on Teaching Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roehl, MFA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, major shifts occur in design processes effecting business practices for industries involved with designing and delivering the built environment. These changing conditions are a direct result of industry adoption of relatively new technologies called BIM or Building Information Modeling. This review of literature examines implications of these changing processes on interior design education.

  17. Psychocentricity and participant profiles: Implications for lexical processing among multilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eLibben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lexical processing among bilinguals is often affected by complex patterns of individual experience. In this paper we discuss the psychocentric perspective on language representation and processing, which highlights the centrality of individual experience in psycholinguistic experimentation. We discuss applications to the investigation of lexical processing among multilinguals and explore the advantages of using high-density experiments with multilinguals. High density experiments are designed to co-index measures of lexical perception and production, as well as participant profiles. We discuss the challenges associated with the characterization of participant profiles and present a new data visualization technique, that we term Facial Profiles. This technique is based on Chernoff faces developed over forty years ago. The Facial Profile technique seeks to overcome some of the challenges associated with the use of Chernoff faces, while maintaining the core insight that recoding multivariate data as facial features can engage the human face recognition system and thus enhance our ability to detect and interpret patterns within multivariate datasets. We demonstrate that Facial Profiles can code participant characteristics in lexical processing studies by recoding variables such as reading ability, speaking ability, and listening ability into iconically-related relative sizes of eye, mouth, and ear respectively. The balance of ability in bilinguals can be captured by creating composite facial profiles or Janus Facial Profiles. We demonstrate the use of Facial Profiles and Janus Facial Profiles in the characterization of participant effects in the study of lexical perception and production.

  18. Dealing with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every school district in the country is dealing with the need to reduce their budget. The process used to make those decisions varies from state to state but almost always includes a combination of short and long-term approaches. In many school districts the emphasis is on reducing individual budget line items and not filling vacant…

  19. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  20. Budget support, conditionality and poverty.

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, P.; Suleiman, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of budget support aid as an anti-poverty instrument. We argue that a major determinant of this effectiveness is the element of trust – or `social capital´, as it may be seen – which builds up between representatives of the donor and recipient. Thus we model the conditionality processes attending budget support aid, not purely in the conventional way as a non-cooperative two-person game, but rather as a non-cooperative game which may mutate into a collabor...

  1. ER Protein Processing Under Oxidative Stress: Implications and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mahmoud F; Valenzuela, Carlos; Sisniega, Daniella; Skouta, Rachid; Narayan, Mahesh

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of mitochondrial nitrosative stress have been associated with the pathogenesis of both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The mechanism involves catalytic poisoning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident oxidoreductase chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and the subsequent accumulation of ER-processed substrate proteins. Using a model system to mimic mitochondrial oxidative and nitrosative stress, we demonstrate a PDI-independent mechanism whereby reactive oxygen species (ROS) compromise regeneration rates of disulfide bond-containing ER-processed proteins. Under ROS-duress, the secretion-destined traffic adopts disulfide-exposed structures making the protein flux retrotranslocation biased. We also demonstrate that ROS-compromised protein maturation rates can be rescued by the polyphenol ellagic acid (EA). Our results are significant in that they reveal an additional mechanism which could promote neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, our data reveal that EA possesses therapeutic potential as a lead prophylactic agent against oxidative/nitrosative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26983927

  2. Possible implications of large scale radiation processing of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    Large scale irradiation has been discussed in terms of the participation of processing cost in the final value of the improved product. Another factor has been taken into account and that is the saturation of the market with the new product. In the case of succesful projects the participation of irradiation cost is low, and the demand for the better product is covered. A limited availability of sources makes the modest saturation of the market difficult with all food subjected to correct radiation treatment. The implementation of the preservation of food needs a decided selection of these kinds of food which comply to all conditions i.e. of acceptance by regulatory bodies, real improvement of quality and economy. The last condition prefers the possibility of use of electron beams of low energy. The best fullfilment of conditions for succesful processing is observed in the group of dry food, in expensive spices in particular.

  3. Model driven product line engineering : core asset and process implications

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza Sesé, Maider

    2012-01-01

    Reuse is at the heart of major improvements in productivity and quality in Software Engineering. Both Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) are software development paradigms that promote reuse. Specifically, they promote systematic reuse and a departure from craftsmanship towards an industrialization of the software development process. MDE and SPLE have established their benefits separately. Their combination, here called Model Driven Product Line Engin...

  4. River Processes and Implications for Fluvial Ecogeomorphology: An European Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi M.; Wyzga B.; Dufour S.; Bertoldi W.; Gurnell A.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the state of the art of the research of fluvial processes and their linkages with ecology are presented, with a focus on European physical context. European river systems have experienced a long history of catchment-wide (land-use changes) and in-channel human disturbances (channelization, dams, sediment mining, etc.). In many rivers, the impacts on river morphology culminated in the twentieth century, particularly during recent decades, and major alterations to river functio...

  5. Sexuality and reproduction: implications in the process of healthy adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Adelita Campos Araújo; Valeria Lerch Lunardi; Rosemary Silva da Silveira; Maira Buss Thofehrn; Adrize Rutz Porto; Deisi Cardoso Soares

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the perceptions of adolescents about their process of healthy adolescence with regard to sexuality and reproduction. This is a qualitative research of exploratory type, involving 10 teenagers, in a state school in southern Rio Grande do Sul, between August and October 2007. To collect the data, were used semi-structured interviews, whose contents were subjected to thematic analysis, emerging the theme: sexuality and reproduction in adolescence. At the data, it w...

  6. Basics for sensorimotor information processing: some implications for learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eHasbroucq

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn sensorimotor activities, learning requires efficient information processing; whether in car driving, sport activities or human-machine interactions. Several factors may affect the efficiency of such processing: they may be extrinsic (i.e. task-related on intrinsic (i.e. subjects-related. The effects of these factors are intimately related to the structure of human information processing. In the present article we will focus on some of them, which are poorly taken into account, even when minimizing errors or their consequences is an essential issue at stake. Among the extrinsic factors, we will discuss, first, the effects of the quantity and quality of information, secondly, the effects of instruction and thirdly motor program learning. Among the intrinsic factors, we will discuss first the influence of prior information, secondly how individual strategies affect performance and, thirdly, we will stress the fact that although the human brain is not structured to function errorless (which is not a new humans are able to detect their errors very quickly and (in most of the cases, fast enough to correct them before they result in an overt failure.

  7. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The results yielded are contained in my monograph Translation Performance, Translation Process, and Translation Strategies. A sycholinguistic Investigation. Tübingen 1991. The second stage of the project, in which professional translators’ and, later on, bilingual children’s translation processes are analyzed, is in progress (Lörscher in preparation. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The

  9. Implications of anthropogenic acidification on forest soil processes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By anthropogenic acidification the soil forming process, podzolisation, will be perturbed. The organic acids in soil solution will form complexes with aluminium to a less degree and inorganic aluminium will be leached from the illuvial horizon. The soil acidification has not resulted in declined coniferous forest growth, which might be explained by mycorrhizal activity promoting nutrient uptake direct from minerals. Liming and wood ash applications on forest soil might enhance CO2 evolution, increase DOC concentrations and might also initially decrease pH and increase Al concentrations in soil solution

  10. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of ...

  11. Modelling evolving fault zones: Fragmentation processes, products and potential implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, K.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Exhumed fault rocks display a wide variety of textural fabrics whose signatures may provide clues to the deformation processes operating during a fault's life. In an active fault, the products of intense fracturing or the development of strong fabrics can themselves be game changers in terms of macroscopic mechanical behaviour. Here we investigate the fragmentation processes operating in evolving faults during shear and the signatures they leave behind, using a numerical model. We consider: (i) what drives the production and evolution of granular debris commonly found along faults; (ii) the nature of the fragmentation products; and (iii) the potential influence of these features on subsequent sliding. Our discrete element (DEM) 3D fault gouge fragmentation models consist of aggregate grains, composed of several thousand spherical particles stuck together with breakable elastic bonds. The aggregate grains are confined between rough fault walls that can themselves potentially breakup leading to fault roughness evolution. During shear, under a given normal stress, the aggregate gouge grains can fragment and evolve in a somewhat natural way. The grain breakage in our models appears to be driven by two distinct comminution mechanisms: grain splitting and grain abrasion. The relative importance of these mechanisms changes with the applied normal stress, the accumulated slip and the boundary roughness in the model. Grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at higher normal stresses, particularly during the initial stages of simulations. Conversely, grain abrasion prevails at lower normal stresses and is the main comminution mechanism operating in the later stages of all simulations. In terms of fragmentation products, the different mechanisms generate distinct grain size distributions. Grain splitting rapidly generates a power law size distribution, whereas grain abrasion (acting alone) tends to produce a bimodal size distribution (lacking intermediate

  12. Sexuality and reproduction: implications in the process of healthy adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelita Campos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of adolescents about their process of healthy adolescence with regard to sexuality and reproduction. This is a qualitative research of exploratory type, involving 10 teenagers, in a state school in southern Rio Grande do Sul, between August and October 2007. To collect the data, were used semi-structured interviews, whose contents were subjected to thematic analysis, emerging the theme: sexuality and reproduction in adolescence. At the data, it was noticed the need to provide more guidelines to a healthy adolescence, in the sense of strengthening and promoting the necessary security for the exercise of adolescent sexuality and reproduction. It also showed the need to prepare the adolescent by professionals of health, of education or the family, to face some situations, such as: unwanted pregnancy, first sexual intercourse, self-medication, fear of talking to parents about sexuality and reproduction, among others.

  13. Multi-scale surface-groundwater interactions: Processes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.; Harvey, J. W.; Worman, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Tank, J. L.; Stonedahl, S. H.

    2009-05-01

    Site-based investigations of stream-subsurface interactions normally focus on a limited range of spatial scales - typically either very shallow subsurface flows in the hyporheic zone, or much larger scale surface- groundwater interactions - but subsurface flows are linked across this entire continuum. Broad, multi-scale surface-groundwater interactions produce complex patterns in porewater flows, and interfacial fluxes do not average in a simple fashion because of the competitive effects of flows induced at different scales. For example, reach-scale stream-groundwater interactions produce sequences of gaining and losing reaches that can either suppress or enhance local-scale hyporheic exchange. Many individual topographic features also produce long power-law tails in surface residence time distributions, and the duration of these tails is greatly extended by interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. Simultaneous sediment transport and landscape evolution further complicates the analysis of porewater flow dynamics in rivers. Finally, inhomogeneity in important biogeochemical processes, particularly microbial processes that are stimulated near the sediment- water interface, leads to a great degree of non-linearity in chemical transformation rates in stream channels. This high degree of complexity in fluvial systems requires that careful approaches be used to extend local observations of hyporheic exchange and associated nutrient, carbon, and contaminant transformations to larger spatial scales. It is important to recognize that conventional advection-dispersion models are not expected to apply, and instead anomalous transport models must be used. Unfortunately, no generally applicable model is available for stream-groundwater interactions at the present time. Alternative approaches for modeling conservative and reactive transport will be discussed, and a strategy articulated for coping with the complexity of coupled surface-subsurface dynamics in fluvial

  14. One of a kind : from production accounting to trading and budgeting, Entero unifies data and business processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entero Corporation, a Calgary-based software developer, launched a software program in 2008 to keep track of petroleum when it comes out of the ground. It allows petroleum producers to keep track of who owns what, how much they own, what it's worth and where it's going. Founded in 1994, Entero's first energy industry software package was called EnteroVision, consisting of evTM and evFM. The evTM component focused on trading and marketing, and operations and logistics for use in inventory, risk management, terminal operations and reporting. The evFM component focused on financial management and accounting, allowing operators to view facility balance by owner, product or source. In 2003, Entero merged with software company MOSAIC Integration. The EnteroONE platform brings key Entero systems onto a shared platform that includes addition of production accounting and plant allocations. Once energy is produced, EnteroONE quickly tracks it from the wellhead through the gathering systems, doing production allocations, production and revenue accounting, managing trade deals, logistics and risk management. It also does financial accounting, such as invoicing for shipments made by any transportation mode, and a full general ledger. It eliminates multiple spreadsheets. Entero's 120 clients include exploration and production companies, trading and marketing companies, and midstream operators involved with product movement and processing. Entero is now focused on improving the functionality of its products. New workspace enhancements and reporting customization in EnteroONE financial management are expected to make troubleshooting, audit reporting more efficient. A new integrated field data capture system in EnteroONE production accounting will link field information to production accounting. A new order, scheduling and nominations workspace for EnteroONE trading and marketing will put decision-making information, including profitability, into one view. Within the next 5 years

  15. One of a kind : from production accounting to trading and budgeting, Entero unifies data and business processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2009-06-15

    Entero Corporation, a Calgary-based software developer, launched a software program in 2008 to keep track of petroleum when it comes out of the ground. It allows petroleum producers to keep track of who owns what, how much they own, what it's worth and where it's going. Founded in 1994, Entero's first energy industry software package was called EnteroVision, consisting of evTM and evFM. The evTM component focused on trading and marketing, and operations and logistics for use in inventory, risk management, terminal operations and reporting. The evFM component focused on financial management and accounting, allowing operators to view facility balance by owner, product or source. In 2003, Entero merged with software company MOSAIC Integration. The EnteroONE platform brings key Entero systems onto a shared platform that includes addition of production accounting and plant allocations. Once energy is produced, EnteroONE quickly tracks it from the wellhead through the gathering systems, doing production allocations, production and revenue accounting, managing trade deals, logistics and risk management. It also does financial accounting, such as invoicing for shipments made by any transportation mode, and a full general ledger. It eliminates multiple spreadsheets. Entero's 120 clients include exploration and production companies, trading and marketing companies, and midstream operators involved with product movement and processing. Entero is now focused on improving the functionality of its products. New workspace enhancements and reporting customization in EnteroONE financial management are expected to make troubleshooting, audit reporting more efficient. A new integrated field data capture system in EnteroONE production accounting will link field information to production accounting. A new order, scheduling and nominations workspace for EnteroONE trading and marketing will put decision-making information, including profitability, into one view

  16. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  17. KYNICISM, CYNICISM AND IMPLICATION FOR THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MATEI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars state that one of the biggest problems facing our democracies today is cynicism.Inspired from the ancient Greek philosophy, cynicism is different from the ancient kynicism. Whilekynicism claims a life lived according to nature, in complete harmony of body and soul, cynicisminvolves a life lived in suspicions and distrust. Kynicism and cynicism both criticize the politicalprocess; both do not trust politics or political figures. The distinction between kynicism andcynicism is due to the fact that a cynical person rejects any kind of convention and despises whathe considers to be false judgement, insisting on living his life according to nature, while cynical aperson has not initially rejected social conventions and the system of values shared by society; theeducation process in our society makes him confused and skeptic regarding the value system sharedby society and makes him notice the relativity of social conventions. The way chosen by a kynicimplies a life lived according to a specific ethics with specific moral laws, while the way chosen bya cynic implies a life with no morality and lack of values.

  18. The implications of conceptual critiques and empirical research on unconscious processes for psychoanalytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Morris N

    2013-12-01

    The paper examines the implications of conceptual critiques and empirical research on psychoanalytic formulations of unconscious processes. Different conceptions of unconscious processes and states are discussed: as markers for brain states, as unformulated and not-spelled-out fleeting experiences, and as implicit knowledge. The author notes and discusses the interpersonal and interactional aspects of unconscious processes in classical theory as well as in contemporary formulations. Representative examples of empirical research on unconscious processes are presented and their implications for psychoanalytic conceptions are examined. The author then discusses the conception of unconscious processes that emerges in view of conceptual critiques, empirical research findings, and clinical phenomena. Finally, the emphasis of both early and late Freudian theory on integration of various aspects of the personality rather than (or at least in addition to) on conscious versus unconscious is noted, and various ways of understanding what it means to make the unconscious conscious are discussed. PMID:24325185

  19. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  20. Problems and Countermeasures in the Process to Speed up the Water Conservancy Construction Project Budget Payment%加快水利基建项目预算支付进度中的问题与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永青

    2014-01-01

    水利预算项目支付进度问题目前是各级水利单位高度关注的事项。水利基建项目由于其投资大、周期长的特点成为完成预算支付进度任务的难点,并且在加快预算支付进度过程中出现系列问题。通过分析水利基建项目的特点和加快预算支付进度过程中存在的问题,提出相应的策略。%Payment Schedule of water conservancy project budget is highly concerned about the water conservancy institutions at all levels. Water conservancy construction project becomes a difficult budget payment schedule task because of its characteristics of large investment, long cycle,and some problems appeared in the process of speeding up the budget payment schedule. This article analyzes the characteristics of water conservancy construction project, the problems existing in the process of speeding up the budget payment schedule to find out the reasons for problems and put forward the corresponding measures.

  1. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  2. Microorganisms implication in the CO2 geologic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first result of this thesis is the building and validation of a circulation reactor named BCC (Bio-mineralization Control Cell). The reactor has the functionality of a biological reactor and allows a monitoring of physico-chemical characteristics such as Eh, pH, electrical conductivity, spectro-photochemical parameters. It also has a capability of percolation through rock cores. It is a first step toward an analogical modeling of interactions between injected CO2 and deep bio-spheric components. Moreover, a new spectro-photochemical method for monitoring reduced sulfur species has been developed which allows efficient monitoring of sulfate-reducing metabolisms. In the thesis, we have tested four metabolisms relevant to bio-mineralisation or biological assimilation of CO2: a reference ureolytic aerobic strain, Bacillus pasteurii, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio longus, a sulfate-reducing consortium (DVcons) and an homoacetogenic bacterium, Acetobacterium carbinolicum. In the case of Bacillus pasteurii, which is considered as a model for non photosynthetic prokaryotic carbonate bio-mineralization, we have demonstrated that the biological basification and carbonate bio-mineralization processes can be modelled accurately both analogically and numerically under conditions relevant to deep CO2 storage, using a synthetic saline groundwater. We have shown that salinity has a positive effect on CO2 mineral trapping by this bacterium; we have measured the limits of the system in terms of CO2 pressure and we have shown that the carbonates that nucleate on intracellular calcium phosphates have specific carbon isotope signatures. The studied deep-subsurface strains (Desulfovibrio longus and Acetobacterium carbinolicum) as well as the sulfate-reducing consortium also have capabilities of converting CO2 into solid carbonates, much less efficient though than in the case of Bacillus pasteurii. However, once inoculated in synthetic saline groundwater and subjected to

  3. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle

    2016-04-01

    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  4. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing......The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  5. Information Search Process: A Summary of Research and Implications for School Library Media Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes a series of five studies on students' perspectives of information seeking in response to a research assignment. Feelings, thoughts, and actions commonly experienced in the information search process are described in six stages. Implications of the findings for further research and their impact on school library media programs are…

  6. Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Differences in Learning Strategy Use: Implications for Language Processing, Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines English as foreign language college interdisciplinary and intercultural differences in learning strategy use and their implications for language processing. Positivism underpins this research at the levels of ontology (standardized variables), epistemology (detachment from the subjects) and methodology, using nomothetic…

  7. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  8. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  9. A two process model of burnout and work engagement: distinct implications of demands and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, M P

    2008-01-01

    A model of job burnout proposes two distinct processes. The first process concerns balance of demands to resources. A poor balance leads to chronic exhaustion, an integral aspect of the burnout syndrome. The second process concerns the congruence of individual and organizational values. The model proposes that value conflicts have implications for all three aspects of burnout. It also proposes that the impact of value conflicts has only minor implications for the exhaustion aspect of burnout; they are more relevant for the cynicism and inefficacy aspects of the syndrome. The model considers distinct processes at work that concern employees' perception of organizational justice and their trust in leadership. With a sample of 725 nurses, the analysis tested one component of the theory: the extent to which value congruence enhances the prediction of burnout beyond the prediction provided by demands and resources. Future directions are discussed. PMID:18700477

  10. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  11. Dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes: General description and their implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Oh, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes are not considered by the conventional classical adiabatic theorem. In this work a general result is derived to describe the intrinsic dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes. Interesting implications of our general result are discussed via two subtopics, namely, an intriguing adiabatic geometric phase in a dynamical model with an adiabatically moving fixed-point solution, and the possible "pollution" to Hannay's angle or...

  12. The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

  13. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  14. Reading Institutional Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Prepares two tables to illustrate how it is helpful to place worries about much smaller sums in the context of Miami University's overall academic budget; One table summarizes the academic budgets for every department during the 1997-98 academic year and a second contains the income-expense ratios for all Oxford departments over a five-year…

  15. Budget brief, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The FY DOE budge totals $12.6 billion in budget authority and $11.1 billion in budget outlays. The budget authority being requested consists of $10.3 billion in new authority and a $2.3 billion reappropriation of expiring funds for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Areas covered in the Energy budget are: energy conservation; research, development, and applications; regulation and information; direct energy production; strategic energy production; and energy security reserve. Other areas include: general science, defense activities; departmental administration; and legislative proposal - spent fuel. Budget totals are compared for 1980 and 1981. A detailed discussion of the FY 1981 activities to be undertaken to carry out these activities is provided. (MCW)

  16. Budget 2011: A budget lacking in ambition

    OpenAIRE

    Dolphin, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Growth is key to the government’s plans for the recovery. Tony Dolphin, Senior Economist at the Institute for Public Policy Research looks at this year’s budget and finds that while it may promote growth now, a broader strategy may be needed in the long term.

  17. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  18. A water and sediment budget for the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River in flood years 2008-2010: Implications for sediment discharge to the oceans and coastal restoration in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Demas, Charles R.; Ebersole, Bruce A.; Kleiss, Barbara A.; Little, Charles D.; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Powell, Nancy J.; Pratt, Thad C.; Vosburg, Brian M.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe Mississippi is the largest riverine system in North America and one of the most engineered rivers in the world. The challenges of studying the Mississippi River are due to its complex sediment-water dynamics and the multi (and often competing) uses for its resources. Flood control and navigation are primary factors that control how the river is managed. A third factor is the use of river resources, namely water and sediment, for nourishing the degrading coastal wetlands of the states of Louisiana and Mississippi. As such, these factors must be fully considered and coordinated while investigating and developing techniques to harness the sediment resources of the River for coastal restoration. This paper presents a detailed suspended sediment budget analysis for the lowermost Mississippi and Atchafalaya River systems for the flood years of 2008, 2009, and 2010. Data were derived mainly from Federal and State of Louisiana measurements of water discharge and suspended sediment load at (1) monitoring stations along the river channel and (2) boat-based measurements made during specific project studies at natural passes and man-made channel diversions. The present study was focused on flood years 2008-2010 to (1) minimize the influence on the budgets of a historical decline in sediment loads carried by the river as observed by previous investigators and (2) take advantage of recent improvements in the monitoring network. The results show that both the Mississippi and Atchafalaya distributary pathways were efficient at sequestering suspended sediments, particularly the larger (sand) size fraction. Approximately 44% of the total Mississippi + Red River suspended load (80% of the sand) reaching Old River Control structures split between the distributaries was sequestered upstream of the Gulf of Mexico by overbank storage and channel bed aggradation. Increases in bed aggradation in the Mississippi distributary are linked to a loss of stream power associated with

  19. A Model of Process-Based Automation: Cost and Quality Implications in the Medication Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Trent Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand how a set of systems, as defined by the business process, creates value. The three studies contained in this work develop the model of process-based automation. The model states that complementarities among systems are specified by handoffs in the business process. The model also provides theory to…

  20. Quantifying the thermodynamic entropy budget of the land surface: is this useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Brunsell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a system is moved away from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is induced. A possible methodology to assess these impacts is to examine the thermodynamic entropy budget and assess the role of entropy production and transfer between the surface and the atmosphere. Here, we adopted this thermodynamic framework to examine the implications of changing vegetation fractional cover on land surface energy exchange processes using the NOAH land surface model and eddy covariance observations. Simulations that varied the relative fraction of vegetation were used to calculate the resultant entropy budget as a function of fraction of vegetation. Results showed that increasing vegetation fraction increases entropy production by the land surface while decreasing the overall entropy budget (the rate of change in entropy at the surface. This is accomplished largely via simultaneous increase in the entropy production associated with the absorption of solar radiation and a decline in the Bowen ratio (ratio of sensible to latent heat flux, which leads to increasing the entropy export associated with the latent heat flux during the daylight hours and dominated by entropy transfer associated with sensible heat and soil heat fluxes during the nighttime hours. Eddy covariance observations also show that the entropy production has a consistent sensitivity to land cover, while the overall entropy budget appears most related to the net radiation at the surface. This implies that quantifying the thermodynamic entropy budget and entropy production is a useful metric for assessing biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere system interactions.

  1. Implications of the process of production in the health of workers: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work represents a conscious activity of human beings, fruit of the effort to transform the nature of products or services. The industrial revolution and how the relationship of work organization are modified resulting consequences on the health of the worker. The purpose of this paper is to present some reflections on the implications of the production process on the health of workers, addressing the discussion of management models of work. Based in analyzes of studies it was found that the methods of analysis of the work contributed to better understanding of the implications of the production process on the health of workers. All types of studies proposed found that working conditions can lead to wear biopsychic employees, becoming the main component illness.

  2. Perceived environmental uncertainty : understanding the implications for strategy development processes across Barclays Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Jansen

    2005-01-01

    The managerial issue being addressed in this research is perceived environmental uncertainty (experienced by corporate strategists) and its implications for strategy development processes at the strategic business unit level (or business-level strategy) across Barclays Bank PLC. The objectives of the research are achieved through: an extensive review of the strategy and uncertainty literature (Project 1); a series of semi-structured interviews with fifteen members of the Group ...

  3. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  4. Deficit of the budget: essence, reasons and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashko, Andriy Ivanovych

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of deficit of the state budget in the conditionsof forming the socially directed market economy. The economic essence and the basic factors ofexistence of negative balance of the budget have been interpreted and identified. The conditions ofthe use of deficit of the state budget as the instrument of influence on economic processes have beendetermined.The purpose lies in principles of forming the deficit of budget and developingrecommendations in relation to the increasing management efficiency.The basic task of the scientific article is to investigate the economic essence and identify theprincipal reasons for deficit of budget.

  5. Prolonged acute mechanical ventilation and hospital bed utilization in 2020 in the United States: implications for budgets, plant and personnel planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilberberg Marya D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients on prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (PAMV comprise 1/3 of all adult MV patients, consume 2/3 of hospital resources allocated to MV population, and are nearly twice as likely to require a discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF. Their numbers are projected to double by year 2020. To aid in planning for this growth, we projected their annualized days and costs of hospital use and SNF discharges in year 2020 in the US. Methods We constructed a model estimating the relevant components of hospital utilization. We computed the total days and costs for each component; we also applied the risk for SNF discharge to the total 2020 PAMV population. The underlying assumption was that process of care does not change over the time horizon. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to establish 95% confidence intervals (CI for the point estimates. Results Given 2020 projected PAMV volume of 605,898 cases, they will require 3.6 (95% CI 2.7–4.8 million MV, 5.5 (95% CI 4.3–7.0 million ICU and 10.3 (95% CI 8.1–13.0 million hospital days, representing an absolute increase of 2.1 million MV, 3.2 million ICU and 6.5 million hospital days over year 2000, at a total inflation-adjusted cost of over $64 billion. Expected discharges to SNF are 218,123 (95% CI 177,268–266,739, compared to 90,928 in 2000. Conclusion Our model suggest that the projected growth in the US in PAMV population by 2020 will result in annualized increases of more than 2, 3, and 6 million MV, ICU and hospital days, respectively, over year 2000. Such growth requires careful planning efforts and attention to efficiency of healthcare delivery.

  6. Threshold effects in the US budget deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Cipollini, Andrea; Fattouh, Bassam

    2002-01-01

    We contribute to the debate on whether the large U.S. federal budget deficits are sustainable in the long run. We model the U.S. government deficit per capita as a threshold autoregressive process. We find evidence that the U.S. budget deficit is sustainable in the long run and that economic policymakers will intervene to reduce per capita deficit only when it reaches a certain threshold.

  7. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  8. Microphysics-based black carbon aging in a global CTM: constraints from HIPPO observations and implications for global black carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Qi, Ling; Tao, Shu; Schwarz, Joshua P.

    2016-03-01

    We develop and examine a microphysics-based black carbon (BC) aerosol aging scheme that accounts for condensation, coagulation, and heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes in a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) by interpreting the BC measurements from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO, 2009-2011) using the model. We convert aerosol mass in the model to number concentration by assuming lognormal aerosol size distributions and compute the microphysical BC aging rate (excluding chemical oxidation aging) explicitly from the condensation of soluble materials onto hydrophobic BC and the coagulation between hydrophobic BC and preexisting soluble particles. The chemical oxidation aging is tested in the sensitivity simulation. The microphysical aging rate is ˜ 4 times higher in the lower troposphere over source regions than that from a fixed aging scheme with an e-folding time of 1.2 days. The higher aging rate reflects the large emissions of sulfate-nitrate and secondary organic aerosol precursors hence faster BC aging through condensation and coagulation. In contrast, the microphysical aging is more than 5-fold slower than the fixed aging in remote regions, where condensation and coagulation are weak. Globally, BC microphysical aging is dominated by condensation, while coagulation contribution is largest over eastern China, India, and central Africa. The fixed aging scheme results in an overestimate of HIPPO BC throughout the troposphere by a factor of 6 on average. The microphysical scheme reduces this discrepancy by a factor of ˜ 3, particularly in the middle and upper troposphere. It also leads to a 3-fold reduction in model bias in the latitudinal BC column burden averaged along the HIPPO flight tracks, with largest improvements in the tropics. The resulting global annual mean BC lifetime is 4.2 days and BC burden is 0.25 mg m-2, with 7.3 % of the burden at high altitudes (above 5 km). Wet scavenging accounts for 80.3 % of global BC

  9. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution.

  10. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  11. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2011-01-01

    Organizers of China's upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys-low budget films-to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small-and Medium-Budget Film Prize of the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,which will kick off on October 19.

  12. Gender budget pilot project

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Ursula; Pillinger, Jane; Quinn, Sheila; Cashman, Aileen

    2004-01-01

    This Report presents the findings of the first Irish research project on gender budgeting. It explores recent international and Irish experiences of strategies towards greater gender equality and develops a template for applying a gender budget approach in selected local development organisations. The research was funded by the Gender Equality Unit of the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform who have responsibility for promoting and monitoring gender mainstreaming in the Irish Natio...

  13. Methods for Determining the Advertising Budget and its Distribution in Different Media

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Comanescu Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining and establishing the necessary advertising budget is approached based on the situations that precede it. There will be virtually no easy task for marketers, with the risk overvaluation or undervaluation of the budget. To avoid broader range of situations, the company uses specific tools and methods for determining the advertising budget. An advertising budget is established for each product.

  14. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

  15. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  16. The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

    2014-12-01

    Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness.

  17. Geochemical Implication of Rare Earth Elements in Process of Soil Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成敏; 龚子同

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics and behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in soils developed on the basalts in the northern part of Hainan Island erupted in different time were studied as well as the REE partition in the soil-formation process and its implication on soil development degree. The results show that the total REE content in soils is correlative with soil age significantly and can be selected as the index to show soil evolution. With the soil developing intensively, light rare earth elements (LREE) gain and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) lose. The trends of positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly are remarkable with soil development.

  18. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  19. Planning and budgeting system with a focus on P&L statement within ABB, s.r.o

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    The final project focuses on the budgeting system with special emphasis on the income statement. The first part of the thesis provides a theoretical background of planning and budgeting processes and their main characteristics. It is particularly budgeting that is elaborated on in greater detail. The end of the theoretical part presents the master budget, the key budget in an organization, and gives special attention to budgeted income statement. In the practical part of the thesis, the theor...

  20. Accurately Model of Project Estimated Budget Based on SVM-PCA and Chaos Post Processing%基于混沌后处理的SVM-PCA精确工程预算估计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建永

    2014-01-01

    In traditional estimating method, the linear method was used and the budget estimating result was poor. An accu-rately model of project estimated budget based on SVM-PCA and chaos post processing was proposed, In the SVM model, the PCA method was used for clear and filter the number of redundant information, to ensure the contribution of the input information data, the data was output to the post-processing model, and with the chaos mixed characteristics of the data smoothing, the accuracy model of systems engineering estimated budget was achieved. Finally a team of 5 projects with 10 elements were taken as target to do experiment, the result shows that with the accurately model of project estimated budget based on SVM-PCA and chaos post processing, each engineering accurate estimates of consumption estimated core out, it has good application value.%传统的估计模型采用线性方法,预算估计结果差。提出一种基于混沌后处理的SVM-PCA精确工程预算估计模型。在SVM模型的基础上,采用PCA方法,对输入系统的一些冗余信息进行清除过滤,保证输入信息数据的贡献率,数据输出后,采用混沌后处理的方法对数据参差特性进行平滑处理,保证系统工程预算估计模型的精确性。最后采用一组10大类元素的5个工程进行预算估计实验,结果显示,采用基于混沌后处理的SVM-PCA精确工程预算估计模型后,每个工程中的核心消耗均被精确的估计出来,具有很好的工程应用价值。

  1. 基于层次分析法的项目成本预算准确性影响因素分析%Influence Factors of Proj ect Cost Budget Accuracy Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟俊娜; 万生丹

    2014-01-01

    Proj ect cost budget is the foundation of determining the construction cost of unit proj ect and individual engineering.It is also the basis of bidding,signing a construction contract and pay-ing for the proj ect.Therefore,the accuracy of the proj ect cost budget directly affects the proj ect cost control.Through the literature review and questionnaire survey,the factors which have great impact on cost budget accuracy are selected to set up a comprehensive index system of influence factors on cost budget accuracy from the perspective of contractors,owners,designers and other external environment aspects.Then Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)is used to calculate the weight of the factors.The results show that factors in contractors are the most important ones that influence cost budget accuracy.What's more,procurement of inferior materials and re-doing are the most important indicators in the second index.Lastly,constructors should pay more atten-tion to the supervision management and control of key segments (maj or influencing factors of cost budget accuracy )so as to ensure proj ect cost within budget and realize profit maximization.%项目成本预算是确定单位工程和单项工程造价的依据,是投标、签订施工合同及银行拨付工程款的依据。因此,项目成本预算的准确性将直接影响项目后期的成本控制。通过文献浏览和问卷调查,选取对成本预算准确性影响较大的因素,从施工方、业主方、设计方、其他外部环境方面建立一套较为全面的成本预算准确性影响因素指标体系,运用层次分析法确定指标权重。一级指标中,施工方因素对成本预算准确性的影响最大,二级指标中采购劣质材料、导致返工对成本预算准确性的影响最大。建议施工方做好关键环节(对成本预算准确性影响较大的因素)的监督、管理和控制工作,确保成本控制在预算之内,实现利润最大化。

  2. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be...

  3. AGF program budget 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  4. AGF program budget 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  5. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  6. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  7. Regional Budget Determination and Allocation: A Policy Revisit

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Ruben G.

    1999-01-01

    National leadership over the past three decades has recognized regional development as an important policy thrust and strategy for national development. Hence, regional allocation becomes an integral part in the national government budgeting system, which is aimed for greater efficiency and effectiveness. The practice of regional budgeting in the Philippines has started during the Marcos administration. Aquino government pursued a top-down bottom-up approach in the budgeting process. Ramos go...

  8. Outline of the Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Assessoria e Estudos Urbanos, CIDADE

    2000-01-01

    Since 1994 CIDADE has been actively involved in the Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre and has been a major instrument in the democratization of municipal budgets, which are formulated with the direct participation of the public in setting priorities for public investment. It breaks radically with the practice of elaborating the municipal budget inside official meetings, and through this method the public are part of the decision making process for management of their local area.

  9. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    OpenAIRE

    Hordijk, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs on a number of important principles of design. Building on the existing evaluations of the Peruvian nation-wide implementation of PB (2003-2007), this article addresses both the pitfalls and the t...

  10. Junction-less poly-Ge FinFET and charge-trap NVM fabricated by laser-enabled low thermal budget processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shieh, Jia-Min; Shen, Chang-Hong; Huang, Tzu-En; Wang, Hsing-Hsiang; Yang, Chih-Chao; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Hsieh, Jin-Long; Yeh, Wen-Kuan

    2016-06-01

    A doping-free poly-Ge film as channel material was implemented by CVD-deposited nano-crystalline Ge and visible-light laser crystallization, which behaves as a p-type semiconductor, exhibiting holes concentration of 1.8 × 1018 cm-3 and high crystallinity (Raman FWHM ˜ 4.54 cm-1). The fabricated junctionless 7 nm-poly-Ge FinFET performs at an Ion/Ioff ratio over 105 and drain-induced barrier lowering of 168 mV/V. Moreover, the fast programming speed of 100 μs-1 ms and reliable retention can be obtained from the junctionless poly-Ge nonvolatile-memory. Such junctionless poly-Ge devices with low thermal budget are compatible with the conventional CMOS technology and are favorable for 3D sequential-layer integration and flexible electronics.

  11. The Carbon Budget of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  12. Off-Budget Operations: Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Jul

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the planning, implementation, programming, budgeting and evaluation of extra budgetary and tax expenditures for Brazil, Chile, Ecuador and Mexico. The off-budget operations of these countries were analyzed against the best practices guidelines defined by the OECD on Off-budget and Tax Expenditures, Budget Transparency, and Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises, as well as the recommendations included in the IMF's fiscal ROSCs. This report was presented at Public ...

  13. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated.

  14. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated. PMID:24929475

  15. Theoretical Considerations On Local Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Eduard Ionescu; Cristian Constantin Oprea

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of local budgets, or otherwise highlights the importance of these tools - local budgets, in the financial autonomy mechanism. Local communities know better than central authorities, their possibilities of obtaining financial resources and needs on expenses for providing local partner services. All these resources and needs are identified in local budgets.

  16. Towards a formalization of budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; S. Nolst Trenité; M.B. van der Zwaag

    2008-01-01

    We go into the need for, and the requirements on, a formal theory of budgets. We present a simple algebraic theory of rational budgets, i.e., budgets in which amounts of money are specified by functions on the rational numbers. This theory is based on the tuplix calculus. We go into the importance o

  17. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  18. A neurocognitive model of the ethical decision-making process: implications for study and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Scott J

    2006-07-01

    The field of business ethics is entrenched in a cognitive approach that portrays the ethical decision-making process as a completely deliberate and reasoned exercise. In light of growing concerns about the veracity of this approach, I build upon current knowledge of how the brain functions to present a neurocognitive model of ethical decision making. The model suggests that ethical decision making involves 2 interrelated yet functionally distinct cycles, a reflexive pattern matching cycle and a higher order conscious reasoning cycle, and thereby describes not only reasoned analysis, but also the intuitive and retrospective aspects of ethical decision making. The model sparks research in new areas, holds significant implications for the study of ethical decision making, and provides suggestions for improving ethical behavior in organizations.

  19. Formation and fate of marine snow : small-scale processes with large-scale implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Marine snow aggregates are believed to be the main vehicles for vertical material transport in the ocean. However, aggregates are also sites of elevated heterotrophic activity, which may rather cause enhanced retention of aggregated material in the upper ocean. Small-scale biological-physical...... to the aggregate. Also, suspended bacteria may enjoy the elevated concentration of organic solutes in the plume. I explore these small-scale formation and degradation processes by means of models, experiments and field observations. The larger scale implications for the structure and functioning of pelagic food...... interactions govern the formation and fate of marine snow. Aggregates may form by physical coagulation: fluid motion causes collisions between small primary particles (e.g. phytoplankton) that may then stick together to form aggregates with enhanced sinking velocities. Bacteria may subsequently solubilise...

  20. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, Matthias; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  1. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  2. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: Implications from connectionist modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMatsunaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (LeNTS was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  3. Technology of budgeting as a tool of managing sugar beet production

    OpenAIRE

    Biryuk Olena G.; Korol Viktoriya V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers main methodical principles of development of the system of budgets of sugar beet production. The article analyses, systemises and generalises theoretical developments of scientists and takes into account practice of agricultural enterprises to prove that the most prospective of the process oriented approach to budgeting. It considers main directions of budgeting as a control tool. It identifies topical problems of the budgeting process in integration agro-industrial form...

  4. Sensitivity of Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the modern carbon budget to early human land use: analyses with a process-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Joos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Dynamic Global Vegetation model coupled to a simplified Earth system model is used to simulate the impact of anthropogenic land cover changes (ALCC on Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the contemporary carbon cycle. The model results suggest that early agricultural activities cannot explain the mid to late Holocene CO2 rise of 20 ppm measured on ice cores and that proposed upward revisions of Holocene ALCC imply a smaller contemporary terrestrial carbon sink. A set of illustrative scenarios is applied to test the robustness of these conclusions and to address the large discrepancies between published ALCC reconstructions. Simulated changes in atmospheric CO2 due to ALCC are less than 1 ppm before 1000 AD and 30 ppm at 2004 AD when the HYDE 3.1 ALCC reconstruction is prescribed for the past 12 000 years. Cumulative emissions of 69 GtC at 1850 and 233 GtC at 2004 AD are comparable to earlier estimates. CO2 changes due to ALCC exceed the simulated natural interannual variability only after 1000 AD. To consider evidence that land area used per person was higher before than during early industrialisation, agricultural areas from HYDE 3.1 were increased by a factor of two prior to 1700 AD (scenario H2. For the H2 scenario, the contemporary terrestrial carbon sink required to close the atmospheric CO2 budget is reduced by 0.5 GtC yr−1. Simulated CO2 remains small even in scenarios where average land use per person is increased beyond the range of published estimates. Even extreme assumptions for preindustrial land conversion and high per-capita land use do not result in simulated CO2 emissions that are sufficient to explain the magnitude and the timing of the late Holocene CO2 increase.

  5. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  6. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: Implications for developmental language disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Holly Fitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood. As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate – both developmentally and functionally – with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human "term," but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood when induced in a "preterm" window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations. Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  7. Quantifying the thermodynamic entropy budget of the land surface: is this useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Brunsell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As a system is moved away from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is induced. A possible methodology to assess these impacts is to examine the thermodynamic entropy budget and assess the role of entropy production and transfer between the surface and the atmosphere. Here, we adopted this thermodynamic framework to examine the implications of changing vegetation fractional cover on land surface energy exchange processes using the NOAH land surface model and eddy covariance observations. Simulations that varied the relative fraction of vegetation were used to calculate the resultant entropy budget as a function of fraction of vegetation. Results showed that increasing vegetation fraction increases entropy production by the land surface while decreasing the overall entropy budget (the rate of change in entropy at the surface. This is accomplished largely via simultaneous increase in the entropy production associated with the absorption of solar radiation and a decline in the Bowen ratio (ratio of sensible to latent heat flux, which leads to increasing the entropy export associated with the latent heat flux during the daylight hours and dominated by entropy transfer associated with sensible heat and soil heat fluxes during the nighttime hours. Eddy covariance observations also show that the entropy production has a consistent sensitivity to land cover, while the overall entropy budget appears most related to the net radiation at the surface, however with a large variance. This implies that quantifying the thermodynamic entropy budget and entropy production is a useful metric for assessing biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere system interactions.

  8. Ionizing photon budget: constraints from galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlin, Göran

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss the the production and propagation of ionizing photons in galaxies. Multi wavelength HST imaging and spectroscopy of local starbursts, including candidate Lyman continuum leakers, from the UV to the i-band plus Halpha and Hbeta are used to investigate where ionizing protons are produced and absorbed. We add IFU data, e.g. from MUSE, to further constrain the optical depth to Lyman continuum photons. I will further discuss rest frame UV observations of galaxies at higher redshifts, and their implications for the ionizing photon budget.

  9. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  10. Corporate capital structure and how soft budget constraints may affect it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    This survey paper examines existing theories of capital structure and related empirical tests with the aim to derive theoretical as well empirically testable predictions about the implications of the soft budget constraint for corporate capital structure. We show that the soft budget constraint synd

  11. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  12. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to remove nutrients and pathogens from wastewater in a sustainable way, with emphasis on describing and quantifying their pathways, transformations and budgets.From field studies, water balance terms of channe...

  13. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  14. A study of starch gelatinisation behaviour in hydrothermally-processed plant food tissues and implications for in vitro digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Campbell, Grant M.; Gaisford, Simon; Royall, Paul G.; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the plant food matrix in influencing the extent of starch gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing, and its implications for starch digestibility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to provide a detailed examination of the gelatinisation behaviour of five distinct size fractions (diameters

  15. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  16. Balancing local budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYÖRGY

    2014-01-01

    Local budgets in Romania are balanced with revenues transferred from state budget according to the criterions laid down in the Local Public Finance Act. These criterions are focusing on the financial capacity, population and surface, each local budget getting balancing amounts inversely with the administrative unit’s wellness and directly to size. The repartition algorithm is used for more than a decade, but periodically it was revised in order to be better folded to fiscal policy and economi...

  17. A Budget for the People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Redistributing income to improve people’s livelihoods becomes a priority of the central budget The government’s budget this year will top an unprecedented 10 trillion yuan ($1.52 trillion), an increase of 11.9 percent over that of 2010, according to the government’s annual budget report delivered to the Fourth Session of the 11th National People’s Congress on March 5.

  18. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  19. Talent or Talents: Intellectual Exceptionality Approaches and their Implications in the Educational Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Javier Barraza-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the importance that, in the practice, the educational system gives to the academic talent, leaving in a second place other forms of talent, for example, those comprised in the multiple intelligence or emotional intelligence theories. The purpose of this paper is to present different underlying approaches of talent coexisting in education at various levels, demonstrating some of their potential implications in the educational practice and in the academic achievement of students. In this regard, the emergence of recent theories –as the multiple intelligence Gardner (2001, and the emotional intelligence Mayer and Salovey (1997 theories– has put into question the traditional intelligence approaches, which have influenced the concept and practice of teachers concerning a successful formal education. All of this tends to increase the gap between “smart” and “normal”, perpetuating the segregation culture through academic means. Based on this, this paper exposes the need to take into consideration the students’ different skills and talents when planning and evaluating the teaching-learning process, and enhance teaching training through didactic and evaluation methodologies to achieve such integration. For this, the present study provides some evaluation and classroom methodologies. The study also highlights the need to develop, systematize, and validate a broader range of teaching-learning methodologies that can be transmitted to the faculty, in order to gradually move towards a more inclusive, higher quality education.

  20. Implications of Using Thermal Desorption to Remediate Contaminated Agricultural Soil: Physical Characteristics and Hydraulic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Derby, Nathan E; Wick, Abbey F

    2016-07-01

    Given the recent increase in crude oil production in regions with predominantly agricultural economies, the determination of methods that remediate oil contamination and allow for the land to return to crop production is increasingly relevant. Ex situ thermal desorption (TD) is a technique used to remediate crude oil pollution that allows for reuse of treated soil, but the properties of that treated soil are unknown. The objectives of this research were to characterize TD-treated soil and to describe implications in using TD to remediate agricultural soil. Native, noncontaminated topsoil and subsoil adjacent to an active remediation site were separately subjected to TD treatment at 350°C. Soil physical characteristics and hydraulic processes associated with agricultural productivity were assessed in the TD-treated samples and compared with untreated samples. Soil organic carbon decreased more than 25% in both the TD-treated topsoil and the subsoil, and total aggregation decreased by 20% in the topsoil but was unaffected in the subsoil. The alteration in these physical characteristics explains a 400% increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity in treated samples as well as a decrease in water retention at both field capacity and permanent wilting point. The changes in soil properties identified in this study suggest that TD-treated soils may still be suitable for sustaining vegetation, although likely at a slightly diminished capacity when directly compared with untreated soils. PMID:27380094

  1. Language as a multimodal phenomenon: implications for language learning, processing and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Perniss, Pamela; Vinson, David

    2014-09-19

    Our understanding of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of language has traditionally been firmly based on spoken Indo-European languages and on language studied as speech or text. However, in face-to-face communication, language is multimodal: speech signals are invariably accompanied by visual information on the face and in manual gestures, and sign languages deploy multiple channels (hands, face and body) in utterance construction. Moreover, the narrow focus on spoken Indo-European languages has entrenched the assumption that language is comprised wholly by an arbitrary system of symbols and rules. However, iconicity (i.e. resemblance between aspects of communicative form and meaning) is also present: speakers use iconic gestures when they speak; many non-Indo-European spoken languages exhibit a substantial amount of iconicity in word forms and, finally, iconicity is the norm, rather than the exception in sign languages. This introduction provides the motivation for taking a multimodal approach to the study of language learning, processing and evolution, and discusses the broad implications of shifting our current dominant approaches and assumptions to encompass multimodal expression in both signed and spoken languages.

  2. An Inquiry into the Creative Process of Butoh: With Reference to the Implications of Eastern and Western Significances

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates the creative processes of Butoh choreography. A phenomenological perspective is used in this thesis to explore the implications for choreographers of the choreographic options employed in Butoh creative processes. Phenomenology corresponds to the Japanese philosophical context which gave birth to Butoh, elucidating the worldview merging with the universe which underpins Butoh. In terms of phenomenology, merging with the universe is firstly understood as a state of int...

  3. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  4. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  5. Service Increases Fueling Budget Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Reactionary stances against pending budget cuts should be considered to be less favorable positioning for library leaders versus more proactive and anticipatory strategies. By changing the attitudinal and service posturing of library staff and services, libraries can show themselves as a more essential function to their colleges. Budget cuts…

  6. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  7. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the process for... agency)? 102-33.90 Section 102-33.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF...

  9. Stress in the lithosphere from non-tectonic loads with implications for plate boundary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Karen Marie

    Stress in the lithosphere from non-tectonic loads is calculated, making use of semi-analytic Fourier models. Sources of non-tectonic stress include coastal lithospheric bending in response to the rise in eustatic sea level since the Last Glacial Maximum, lithospheric rebound and pore pressure changes in response to the intermittent load of Ancient Lake Cahuilla in the Salton trough, stress sustained through the formation and long-term support of local short-wavelength topography, and topography created by the ejecta debris from impact craters on the surface of the icy Galilean satellites. Stresses from time varying surface water loads are calculated along major plate boundaries globally to determine to what extent, if any, these loads influence the major tectonic processes at work in plate boundary regions, such as the earthquake cycle on major faults. It is determined that the stress perturbations from these loads are generally an order of magnitude smaller than the tectonic stress accumulation rate. Their ability to noticeably affect the seismic cycle is therefore restricted to specific circumstances including when the tectonic loading rate is particularly low, such as along secondary plate boundary fault structures, when the nontectonic loading rate is particularly high, such as in the case of catastrophic flooding events, or when the fault in question is already critically stressed to a near-failure level. Stresses from local topography are calculated along the global mid-ocean ridge and along the Chilean subduction megathrust. The predicted orientations of these stresses are compared to a presumed ridge-normal and transform-strike-slip faulting regime or the focal mechanism of a single large earthquake, respectively. Quantitative constraints for the coincident tectonic stresses are subsequently established with implications for the strength of the plate boundary faults and the necessity of particular topographic and bathymetric features.

  10. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  11. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  12. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  13. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  15. Global carbon budget 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  16. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des processus de transport depuis la couche-limite sur la variabilite et le bilan d'ozone tropospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A

    2005-12-15

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  17. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  18. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF RESOURCE PLANNING, INNOVATION AND LEARNING FOR WORK PROCESSES AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Marius-Dan Dalotă; Laura Tănăsoaica

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the implementation issues associated with the innovation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) to achieve innovative large-scale change in organisations. If innovation and learning become part of a firm's leading performance indicators, this is sure to have implications for performance management (PM).

  20. "Threshold Effects in the U.S. Budget Deficit"

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Arestis; Andrea Cipollini; Bassam Fattouh

    2002-01-01

    We contribute to the debate on whether the large U.S. federal budget deficits are sustainable in the long run. We model the U.S. government deficit per capita as a threshold autoregressive process. We find evidence that the U.S. budget deficit is sustainable in the long run and that economic policymakers will intervene to reduce per capita deficit only when it reaches a certain threshold.

  1. BUDGETARY PARTICIPATION AND PROCEDURAL JUSTICE: EVIDENCE FROM STRETCH BUDGET CONDITION

    OpenAIRE

    Ertambang Nahartyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of group value element of procedural fairness in explaining how individuals take into account fairness conditions in making judgment regarding budgeting process. Furthermore, the study extends prior research in procedural fairness by observing the individual behavior in a stretch budget condition. College students serve as subjects in an experiment. Manipulations of control and group value are randomly assigned to the participants. Two dependent variables, procedu...

  2. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  3. How to budget for a nuclear retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities with operating nuclear plants have had to make modifications and improvements in recent years as a result of the Three Mile Island accident and, to a lesser extent, of operating experience. This had had an unfavorable impact on utilities' capital costs and on their operations and maintenance budgets. That means that effective budget allocations and cost-control programs should hold top priority for investor-owned electric utilities. A good cost-control program must set realistic targets based on a three-step engineering process which analyzes alternatives, then develops conceptual and detailed designs. A checklist for estimating the cost of nuclear retrofits covers material handling, work and radiation permits, worker support and protection, supervision, nonproductive support, cleanup, and closeout activities. 1 figure, 2 tables

  4. Gender-Responsive Government Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Feridoun Sarraf

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of gender-responsive government budgeting, promoted in recent years by women's nongovernmental organizations, academia, and multilateral organizations, and the extent of its implementation by national governments in both advanced and developing countries. Owing to recently developed analytical and technical tools, government budget management systems in some countries can help promote gender equality-to the extent of government involvement in gender-sensitive s...

  5. Budget priorities of the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, V D

    1992-12-11

    Changes in the federal budget over the last several decades have raised current consumption at the expense of the investment needed for stronger economic growth. These changes have occurred in the budget's fiscal policy, which has reduced national saving and private investment; in its expenditure policy, which has emphasized short-term benefits rather than public investments; and in its transfer policy, which has not adequately addressed the increasing child poverty that threatens the productivity of our future labor force. PMID:17831654

  6. Voting behavior and budget stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Vicente; Ana-María Ríos; María-Dolores Guillamón

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals) during the period 1995‑2009. Our resu...

  7. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  8. Budget variance analysis using RVUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, M F; Budzynski, M R

    1998-01-01

    This article details the use of the variance analysis as management tool to evaluate the financial health of the practice. A common financial tool for administrators has been a simple calculation measuring the difference between actual financials vs. budget financials. Standard cost accounting provides a methodology known as variance analysis to better understand the actual vs. budgeted financial streams. The standard variance analysis has been modified by applying relative value units (RVUs) as standards for the practice. PMID:10387247

  9. Implications of functional anatomy on information processing in the deep cerebellar nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Gilad A.; Dana Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The cerebellum has been implicated as a major player in producing temporal acuity. Theories of cerebellar timing typically emphasize the role of the cerebellar cortex while overlooking the role of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) that provide the sole output of the cerebellum. Here we review anatomical and electrophysiological studies to shed light on the DCN’s ability to support temporal pattern generation in the cerebellum. Specifically, we examine data on the structure of the DCN, th...

  10. Implications of Functional Anatomy on Information Processing in the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Baumel, Yuval; Jacobson, Gilad A.; Cohen, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The cerebellum has been implicated as a major player in producing temporal acuity. Theories of cerebellar timing typically emphasize the role of the cerebellar cortex while overlooking the role of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) that provide the sole output of the cerebellum. Here we review anatomical and electrophysiological studies to shed light on the DCN's ability to support temporal pattern generation in the cerebellum. Specifically, we examine data on the structure of the DCN, the biop...

  11. Assessment of heavy metals introduced into food through milling process: health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to characterised and assesss heavy metal contamination in food through milling process and their health implications. Grinding plate made from Ghana, India and Nigeria purchased from the Ghanaian open market were used for this work. Maize from the same farm was milled into flour using the three grinding plate inserted into three different corn milling machines operating on commercial bases. Th first grinding was done immediately after the insertion of the newly sharpened plates into the machines. The plates were left for continuous daily usage. Subsequent milling of the maize was done after intervals of one month. The grinding plates and maize flour was analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophometer (AAS). The resultes recorded indicated that the heavy metals content o the Ghanaian, Indian and Nigerian made plates had the e similar metal contents but varied in terms of the individual metal concentrations. Flour from the Ghanaian made plates had the highest level of contaminants with the least from that of the Indian made plates. Generally, the highest levels of contamination were observed in the fist milling for the three plates as compared to the three subsequent milling at monthly interval. The contamination levels showed a decreasing trend from the first month (first milling ) to the fourth month (fourth milling). Cu, Cr and Ni showed concentrations above the permissible limit set by FAO/WHO in milled maize using Ghanaian made plate. Copper (Cu) recorded a concentration value between 15.04 mg/kg to 10.21mg.kg, 11.25 mg/kg to 9.13mg/kg and 10.36mg/kg and 9.68mg/kg using the Ghanaian-, Indian and Nigerian made plate respectively. Chromium (Cr) recorded a concentration between 1.51 mg/kg to 0.96 mg/kg, 1.03mg/kg to 0.91 mg/kg and 0.98mg/kg to 0.80 mg/kg using Ghanaian-, Indian and Nigerian made plates respectively. Nickel (Ni) recorded a concentration value between 23.23 mg/kg to 10.43 mg/kg, 11.46mg/kg to 10.43 mg/kg and 12.55 mg

  12. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...

  13. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  14. Retention of Silica Nanoparticles in a Lab-Scale Membrane Bioreactor: Implications for Process Performance and Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Larracas Sibag

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In conventional activated sludge (CAS involving aerobic biological processes, the retention of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs has no detrimental effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N removal. However, for the membrane bioreactor (MBR system, which is also based on the activated sludge process in addition to the membrane separation process, it has implications not only on the process performance but also on membrane fouling. To investigate these two implications in lab-scale experiments, we continuously operated a control MBR and two experimental MBRs, in which the 28 nm SiO2 NPs and 144 nm SiO2 NPs were added separately to the influent at a final concentration of 100 mg/L. Although the retention of SiO2 NPs in the MBR, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS analysis, did not compromise the COD and NH3–N removal, it resulted in substantial increases in the transmembrane pressure (TMP suggesting the onset of membrane fouling. Analyses by batch-dead end filtration revealed the same fouling trend as observed during the continuous MBR experiments; membrane fouling is aggravated in the presence of SiO2 NPs. This was evident from permeate flux decline of between 30% and 74% at very low TMP (5 kPa and the further increases in the total resistance.

  15. Homeland security R&D budgets and conference overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Theodore T.

    2007-04-01

    Homeland Security R&D budgets will be summarized with an emphasis on the FY 2007 and comparisons to FY 2006 and the proposed FY 2008 budget. A summary of the federal budget process is given with insights into the specific omnibus bill funding FY 2007 for most of the federal budget and the omnibus bill's impact on organizations included in the American Competitiveness Initiative. Projections for FY 2008 Homeland Security Research, as analyzed by AAAS, show that ~80% of R&D funding is outside the Department of Homeland Security. An overview of the conference includes insights into the Drinking Water Security, Border Security, Transportation Security (including an update from the MANPADS program office), Port and Harbor Security, Health Security, and Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies sessions.

  16. Guns, Grass, and God's Wrath, Colorado's Budget, Politics, and Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The legalization of recreational marijuana and the fight over gun control grabbed the lion’s share of headlines in the state over the past year. With respect to the state budget, the tax revenue from marijuana sales should soon have significant budgetary implications. Though not as substantial, new gun control laws also have budgetary consequences since gun purchasers must now pay for the cost of background checks, where previously public funds were allocated for this purpose.

  17. An evaluation of the management of the selection process for educators at primary schools in the North West Area : theoretical and practical implications / A.T. Aphane

    OpenAIRE

    Aphane, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is about the evaluation of the management of the selection for educators at a primary school in the North West, Klerksdorp District and to consider theoretical and practical implications. Questionnaires were used as the main measuring instrument. The findings of the research revealed that some of the role players lack necessary skills and expertise to be part of the selection process. Policy implications were found to have an effect on the process. Ne...

  18. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities.

  19. Job Burnout Process and its Implications in HRM Practices: A Case Study of Trainee Doctors in Public Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana Naveed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores process of job burnout based on a case study conducted on trainee doctors in Lady Willington Hospital, Lahore. The study builds arguments from Job Demand-Resource (JD-R model and explains the process in light of Conservation of Resource (COR theory. Qualitative research methodology has been adopted in which data is collected through three focus group discussions and twenty-one semi-structured in-depth interviews. The procession development of job burnout syndrome is explored and presented in a model in which emotional exhaustion is found to be the first stage of burnout leading to depersonalized approach of doctors towards patients and colleagues which generate feelings of diminished self accomplishments. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

  20. Fission barriers for r-process nuclei and implications for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present calculations of fission-barrier heights, beta decay energies, and neutron separation energies for nuclei with 76 ≤ Z ≤ 100 and 140 ≤ N ≤ 184. For these nuclear-structure calculations they use the macroscopic-microscopic method with a Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic model and a folded-Yukawa microscopic model. The barrier-heights they finda re higher than those calculated in previous studies using the droplet macroscopic model. They discuss the implications of the new results on fission-barrier heights for astrophysics

  1. Processing of immunoisolated pancreatic islets. Implications for histological analyses of hydrated tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, BJ; van Goor, H; De Vos, P

    2002-01-01

    Routine tissue: processing is usually associated with histological artifacts, as a consequence of shrinkage and distortion during dehydration required for embedding. With hydrated specimens such as lung, embryonic, and tissues in hydrophilic membranes, tissue processing can induce severe artifacts t

  2. Budget deficits and public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ionut Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the budget deficit has become one of the characteristics of national economies. Furthermore, it finds its dimensions amplification. Despite this, more and more are the economists who dispute the need to balance the budget, arguing the need even the deficit and systematic use of in order to achieve economic equilibrium. Such guidance is substantiated by the need to promote an economic policy which ensures full use of resources and non-inflation economic growth.In these circumstances, balancing the budgest is clearly of secondary importance. In this context, it supported the need to increase expenditure at a pace faster than income growth and, implicitly , to keep budget deficits.

  3. Implications of critical chain methodology for business process flexible automation projects in economic organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Paul BRUDARU

    2009-01-01

    Business processes flexible automation projects involve the use of methods and technologies from Business Processes Management area (BPM) that aim at increasing the agility of organizations in changing the business processes as response to environmental changes. BPM-type projects are a mix between process improvement projects and software development which implies a high complexity in managing them. The successful implementation of these projects involves overcoming problems inherent as delay...

  4. Governance, accountability and participatory budget between myth and reality. The Italian case

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Russo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of participatory budget (PB), inspired by insights and reflections on public governance, accountability, participation and inclusion of citizens in the local authority expenditure decisions. Nevertheless a certain criticism is coming from the literature about the experience of participatory budget in the western countries experiences the paper shows how in Italy a positive impact of the PB implementation on the management culture of the local government dr...

  5. Silicon Valley's Processing Needs versus San Jose State University's Manufacturing Systems Processing Component: Implications for Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing professionals within universities tend to view manufacturing systems from a global perspective. This perspective tends to assume that manufacturing processes are employed equally in every manufacturing enterprise, irrespective of the geography and the needs of the people in those diverse regions. But in reality local and societal…

  6. Dual psychological processes underlying public stigma and the implications for reducing stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Pryor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g, shame and lowered self-esteem or public stigma (e.g, the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized. This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based processes take longer to manifest themselves and involve deliberate thinking. Associative and rule-based thinking require different assessment instruments, follow a different time course and lead to different effects (e.g, stigma-by-association vs attributional processing that results in blame. Of greatest importance is the fact that each process may require a different stigma-prevention strategy.

  7. 76 FR 11783 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Food Canning Establishment Registration, Process Filing, and Recordkeeping for Acidified Foods and Thermally Processed Low... has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under...

  8. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes HM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in a number of areas including: definition and characterization, incidence and prevalence rates, associated neuronal processes, and implications for treatment, prevention, and patient-specific considerations. It is concluded that there is no consensual definition for IA. Prevalence rates among nationally representative samples across several countries vary greatly (from 1% to 18.7%, most likely reflecting the lack of methodological consistency and conceptual rigor of the studies. The overlaps between IA and other more traditional substance-based addictions and the possible neural substrates implicated in IA are also highlighted. In terms of treatment and prevention, both psychological and pharmacological treatments are examined in light of existing evidence alongside particular aspects inherent to the patient perspective. Based on the evidence analyzed, it is concluded that IA may pose a serious health hazard to a minority of people. Keywords: Internet addiction, review, behavioral addictions, prevalence, neuronal processes, treatment

  9. Oral Chemotherapy in Patients with Hematological Malignancies-Care Process, Pharmacoeconomic and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Jeffrey; Dow, Elizabeth; Khera, Nandita

    2016-08-01

    Patients with hematologic malignancies are increasing being prescribed oral anticancer medications (OAMs) and/or biologics. These newer targeted OAMs are associated with a host of practical and pharmacoeconomic implications for patients and healthcare providers. Issues such as safety, procurement challenges, and the need for proactive involvement of all stakeholders to optimize adherence for successful use of these agents are increasingly being recognized. The current reactive model is negatively impacting the patient experience through delays in care, financial toxicity, and decreased safety. It also impacts the healthcare providers in the form of lost revenue and staff burnout due to labor-intensive procurement and patient financial assistance burdens. In this review, we describe some of the issues identified and discuss potential strategies to improve patient access, minimize healthcare burden, and review current policy initiatives and patient advocacy efforts to reduce financial toxicity. PMID:27086140

  10. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    Measurements in a pharmaceutical industry are usually carried out to ascertain the quality of a product or the control of a process; in either case the measurement result serves to demonstrate that the value of the measurand is within specified limits. No method is without bias, and no result...... of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  11. Modelling the energy budget and prey choice of eider ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.G.; Ens, B.J.; Kats, R.K.H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed an energy and heat budget model for eider ducks. All relevant processes have been quantified. Food processing, diving costs, prey heating, the costs of crushing mussel shells, heat losses during diving as well as during resting, and heat production as a result of muscle activity are dis

  12. Penning trap mass measurements of $^{99-109}$Cd with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer, and implications for the rp process

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Beck, D; Blaum, K; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H-J; Kowalska, M; Lunney, D; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Schatz, H; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L

    2009-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on neutron-deficient Cd isotopes $^{99-109}$Cd have been performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN, all with relative mass uncertainties below $3 \\times 10^{-8}$. A new mass evaluation has been performed. The mass of $^{99}$Cd has been determined for the first time which extends the region of accurately known mass values towards the doubly magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. The implication of the results on the reaction path of the $rp$ process in stellar X-ray bursts is discussed. In particular, the uncertainty of the abundance and the overproduction created by the $rp$-process for the mass A = 99 is demonstrated by reducing the uncertainty of the proton-separation energy of $^{100}$In $S_{p}(^{100}$In) by a factor of 2.5.

  13. Defining of a Peace Process within Indigenous Research, Indigenous Ethics and the Implications in Psychology.

    OpenAIRE

    Hains, Shaun L, Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    An Indigenous Research process over sixteen years and during this time, a peace process emerged as a key element within Indigenous Research. The Indigenous Research included a school where and 100% of Native Students stayed in school (large urban school), work with mediators, and work with youth with special needs. The Indigenous Research was also during a time as Indigenous Ethics was being defined. When applied, it became clear that a working understanding of a peace process was needed. A p...

  14. The pitfalls of capital budgeting : when costs correlate to oil price. Is the real-options approach superior to traditional valuation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased demand for drilling rigs, specialized labor force and other resources, the costs of exploration, appraisal, development and production have significantly risen over the last five years. The change in costs has mostly been attributed to the increased activity in the oil and gas exploration and production (EP) industry, as a result of the increase in oil prices. It was hypothesized that operating costs in the EP industry were strongly correlated to the price of oil. However, the correlation between prices and costs has traditionally been overlooked in the capital budgeting process. This paper investigated the economic relationship between oil price and the operating costs in the EP industry. It also explored its implications for the capital budgeting process and decision-making. The paper demonstrated the evaluation of projects under traditional net present value (NPV) and real-option approaches. Empirical evidence was also provided on how costs correlated to oil prices. The differences between project valuation when cost-price correlation was taken into account or not was also discussed. Last, findings, conclusions and general implications of the results obtained for the decision-making process were identified. It was concluded that there was a positive correlation between price and operating costs, and that overlooking this relationship would have significant implications on the valuation of investment projects, both using a traditional NPV methodology, which resulted in undervalued projects, and under real option analysis, which resulted in overvaluing projects. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  15. The Scientific Method and the Creative Process: Implications for the K-6 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Amanda J.; Stephens, April H.

    2013-01-01

    Science and the arts might seem very different, but the processes that both fields use are very similar. The scientific method is a way to explore a problem, form and test a hypothesis, and answer questions. The creative process creates, interprets, and expresses art. Inquiry is at the heart of both of these methods. The purpose of this article is…

  16. Neuroscience Meets Music Education: Exploring the Implications of Neural Processing Models on Music Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, neuroscientists have been fascinated by the way the brain processes music. Using new technologies, neuroscientists offer us a better understanding of the human brain's structures and functions. They have further proposed explanatory models for how the brain processes music. While these models shed light on how the…

  17. Selecting a CSR Model: Quality and Implications of the Model Adoption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Zhang, Yu; Kurki, Anja; Herrmann, Suzannah

    2006-01-01

    The process through which a school adopts a comprehensive school reform (CSR) model has been suggested to be a key element in the lifecycle of school reform, contributing to stakeholder buy in and subsequent implementation. We studied the model adoption process, both on a national scale with survey data and in more depth with qualitative case…

  18. Characterizing biotic and abiotic properties of landscape and their implications for ecohydrological processes across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J.; Langford, Z.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ecohydrological processes governing the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and its response and feedback to climate change occur at diverse spatial and temporal scales. To accurately capture the dynamics of ecohydrological processes in the model, its critically important to capture the subgrid scale heterogeneity of the landscape and develop scale aware process representation and parameterization. This study focused on the Arctic tundra landscape at Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Ecohydrological processes in this sensitive landscape are strongly governed by the physical and structural properties (like topography, soil, permafrost, geomorphology etc.) of the landscape, environmental conditions (like temperature, precipitation, light, radiation) and biotic conditions (vegetation, above/below biomass and organic matter, disturbance history etc.). From site to watershed to regional (scale at which models often operate), landscape is a complex mosaic of a range of biotic and abiotic properties. We have developed and applied a hierarchical characterization and classification approach to segment the landscape in distinct units which can be used to develop and parameterize process models at local scale. We also analyze how the distribution and organization of the landscape units as building blocks influence and interact with ecosystem processes across scales. Our goals is understand the landscape organization principles and their roles to inform and improve process based models of ecohydrological processes in Arctic tundra landscape.

  19. Context-Process Authenticity in Learning: Implications for Identity Enculturation and Boundary Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper posits that authenticity is an aspect of both the context and the process of learning. These two aspects cannot be seen in isolation and must be analyzed as one unity. We refer to this coupling relationship as the context-process authenticity. Existing learning and instructional approaches associated with authenticity, such as…

  20. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  1. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  2. Programme Budgets for Graduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, Claes G.; And Others

    The development of a methodological framework for planning, programming, and budgeting which is specific to graduate training and research activities at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden is described. This pilot project is regarded as a step towards developing and implementing a generalized approach to an output-oriented finance…

  3. An Evaluation of the Initial Year of Zero-Base Budgeting in the Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra S. Sherlekar; Burton V. Dean

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) process during the initial year of its implementation in the Federal Government. The evaluation includes ten Departments and six agencies of the Federal Government representing 74 percent of the total budget authority of 560 billion dollars. It is based on the information received in responses from federal agencies to the Office of Management and Budget Eleven major criteria were fo...

  4. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene;

    2008-01-01

    Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...

  5. Roster process review: a case study on the implications of preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Bernadette; Malica, Emma; Walton, Cassandra; Hollmann, Peter; Kwong, Wyman

    2015-09-01

    Rostering is an important process to enable efficient, effective and safe delivery of health care, and one which receives little attention. The work outlined in this case study demonstrates that the analysis of rostering processes from a range of perspectives including the organisation, staff and the roster manager can identify significant opportunities for improvement. Roster governance is not universally applied, nor understood, which can result in dissonant expectations between managers and staff and a lack of transparency in how and why decisions about rostering are made. Redesigning roster processes can promote more effective governance and improve organisational efficiency. PMID:25844568

  6. The Relationship between Drainage Density, Erosion Rate, and Hilltop Curvature: Implications for Sediment Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, F. J.; Mudd, S. M.; Attal, M.; Milodowski, D. T.; Grieve, S. W. D.

    2015-12-01

    Drainage density is a fundamental landscape metric which describes the extent of the fluvial network. How drainage density varies with erosion rate controls the transit time of water and sediment through catchments, influencing the rate of flood response and biogeochemical cycling. This relationship also has profound implications for landscape response to transient forcing. We extract drainage density for five field sites in the USA with a wide range of climatic and lithological characteristics: Feather River, CA; San Gabriel Mountains, CA; Boulder Creek, CO; Guadalupe Mountains, NM; and Haddington Creek, ID. We find that there is a significant positive relationship between drainage density and erosion rate across every field site. These relationships suggest a non-linear relationship between erosion rates and channel slope with an exponent greater than 1. These results are supported by numerical modeling using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model. Our modeling results also suggest that non-linear sediment transport fundamentally affects the dominant length scales forming ridges and valleys.

  7. Assimilation and implications of AE-9/AP-9 in the design process of JPL missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Jun, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA AE-8/AP-8 has been the standard geospace environment specification for decades. This model describes the energetic particle environment around the Earth and is currently the default model used in the design of space missions at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Moreover, the model plays a critical role in the determination of the shielding and survivability of the satellites orbiting our planet. A recent update supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the AE-9/AP-9 model, was released in September 2012 and included many improvements like increased spatial resolution and the specification of the uncertainty due to instrument errors or space weather variability. A current effort at JPL is in place with the objective of making a decision within the Laboratory on the transition from AE-8/AP-8 to the new AE-9/AP-9. In this study we present the results of this effort, which involves the comparison between both versions of the model for different satellite orbits, the comparison between AE-9/AP-9 and in-situ satellite data from the Van Allen Probes and the OSTM/Jason 2 satellite, and the implications of adopting the new model for spacecraft design in terms of survivability, shielding, single event effects, and spacecraft charging.

  8. Industrial processing of condiments and seasonings and its implications for micronutrient fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mejia, Elvira González; Aguilera-Gutiérrez, Yolanda; Martin-Cabrejas, Maria Angeles; Mejia, Luis A

    2015-11-01

    Opportunities exist for micronutrient fortification of condiments and seasonings to combat vitamin or mineral deficiencies. This paper reviews the available technologies for industrial processing of condiments and seasonings and their fortification with micronutrients. The industrial processes to manufacture commonly consumed condiments and seasonings, such as soy sauce, bouillon cubes, fish sauce, spices, and other relevant products, are described. The impact of processing on fortification is evaluated, considering both the type of vehicle and the fortificant used. The analyzed technologies represent effective strategies for mineral fortification, particularly with iodine and iron. However, fortification with vitamins has been more challenging, owing to sensory changes of the finished product and a poor stability of the fortificant when using certain vehicles. Therefore, more studies are needed in this area in collaboration with governments, the food industry, and vitamin suppliers. Despite the technical difficulties encountered, the current processing technologies for the production of condiments and seasonings can be adapted and refined to allow their successful fortification with micronutrients.

  9. Implications of critical chain methodology for business process flexible automation projects in economic organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul BRUDARU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Business processes flexible automation projects involve the use of methods and technologies from Business Processes Management area (BPM that aim at increasing the agility of organizations in changing the business processes as response to environmental changes. BPM-type projects are a mix between process improvement projects and software development which implies a high complexity in managing them. The successful implementation of these projects involves overcoming problems inherent as delays in the activities of projects, multi-tasking, lack of focus which can not be solved by traditional project management tools. An approach which takes account of the difficulties of BPM projects is critical chain methodology. Using critical chain method provides the methodology fundament necessary for the successful completion of BPM-type projects.

  10. Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction: Implications for the peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M A G; van de Ven, T; Opthof, T

    2009-01-01

    Scientific misconduct and fraud occur in science. The (anonymous) peer review process serves as goalkeeper of scientific quality rather than scientific integrity. In this brief paper we describe some limitations of the peer-review process. We describe the catastrophic facts of the 'Woo-Suk Hwang fraud case' and raise some ethical concerns about the issue. Finally, we pay attention to plagiarism, autoplagiarism and double publications. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:25-9.).

  11. Modelling the U.S. Federal Spending Process: Overview and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dempster, M.A.H.; Wildavsky, A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how inflation is endemic to the budgetary process of the United States Federal Government. We relate models of government expenditure to models of the economy, thus joining in theory what has in practice always been together. The description given -- although presented in summary rather than detail -- is based on hard statistical and econometric evidence amassed over more than a decade. We attempt to show that, while they are complex, the relevant processe...

  12. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  13. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  14. Um modelo multiobjetivo de otimização aplicado ao processo de orçamento de capital A multicriteria optimization model applied to the capital budgeting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Oliveira Abensur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de orçamento de capital envolve a análise e seleção de projetos de longo prazo de maturação. Essas decisões de investimento são tradicionalmente feitas pela aplicação simultânea de vários métodos financeiros com uso de fluxo de caixa descontado como, por exemplo, o Valor Presente Líquido (VPL e a Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Apesar da longa e ampla disseminação dessas técnicas, são notórios os problemas de avaliação especialmente quando consideradas funções mono-objetivas e projetos mutuamente excludentes. Em se tratando de decisões financeiras, parece ilusório falar em otimização sem considerar múltiplos objetivos e atributos. O objetivo deste trabalho é propor um modelo matemático multiobjetivo prático que auxilie na seleção de projetos de investimento submetidos simultaneamente a vários indicadores de desempenho que incorpora uma nova medida de risco (GAFT. Os testes foram feitos sobre uma amostra de quarenta e cinco projetos e os resultados demonstram que o modelo proposto é uma ferramenta gerencial prática e promissora.The capital budgeting process involves the analysis and selection of projects committed over long periods of time. These investment decisions are traditionally made by the simultaneous application of various financial techniques using discounted cash flow, such as the Net Present Value (NPV and Internal Rate of Return (IRR. Despite the long-term and wide dissemination of these techniques, there are major problems of inconsistency especially in mono-criterion functions and mutually exclusive projects. When dealing with financial decisions, it seems illusory to address optimization without taking multiple objectives and attributes into account. The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical model that allows the multi-criteria selection of investment projects submitted to various financial indicators; the mathematical model incorporates a new measure of risk (GAFT. Forty

  15. INTEGRATION OF SHIP HULL ASSEMBLY SEQUENCE PLANNING, SCHEDULING AND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Romuald Iwańkowicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.

  16. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  17. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  18. Progress in centralised ethics review processes: Implications for multi-site health evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel; Gibson, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, public sector programmes respond to complex social problems that intersect specific fields and individual disciplines. Such responses result in multi-site initiatives that can span nations, jurisdictions, sectors and organisations. The rigorous evaluation of public sector programmes is now a baseline expectation. For evaluations of large and complex multi-site programme initiatives, the processes of ethics review can present a significant challenge. However in recent years, there have been new developments in centralised ethics review processes in many nations. This paper provides the case study of an evaluation of a national, inter-jurisdictional, cross-sector, aged care health initiative and its encounters with Australian centralised ethics review processes. Specifically, the paper considers progress against the key themes of a previous five-year, five nation study (Fitzgerald and Phillips, 2006), which found that centralised ethics review processes would save time, money and effort, as well as contribute to more equitable workloads for researchers and evaluators. The paper concludes with insights for those charged with refining centralised ethics review processes, as well as recommendations for future evaluators of complex multi-site programme initiatives.

  19. Modelling interstellar physics and chemistry: implications for surface and solid-state processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Viti, Serena

    2013-07-13

    We discuss several types of regions in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and other galaxies in which the chemistry appears to be influenced or dominated by surface and solid-state processes occurring on or in interstellar dust grains. For some of these processes, for example, the formation of H₂ molecules, detailed experimental and theoretical approaches have provided excellent fundamental data for incorporation into astrochemical models. In other cases, there is an astrochemical requirement for much more laboratory and computational study, and we highlight these needs in our description. Nevertheless, in spite of the limitations of the data, it is possible to infer from astrochemical modelling that surface and solid-state processes play a crucial role in astronomical chemistry from early epochs of the Universe up to the present day.

  20. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions. The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that deposition increases at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning account for 27% at the most, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization. Deposition fluxes are dominated by gaseous dry deposition processes (58% of the total, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems ranges from 8.6 to 10.9 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the other 70% attributed to NHx. The average emission flux ranges from 7.8 to 9.7 kgN ha−1 yr−1, dominated by NH3 volatilization (67% and biogenic emission from soils (24%. The annual budget is then

  1. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  2. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's budget was…

  3. Research on a New Approach of R&D Budgeting based on Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce value chain and uses stage-gate model, which is widely used in programming, to find a new approach of R&D budgeting based on value chain. The expense of R&D of contemporary enterprises is taking larger and larger part of the whole production cost, so R&D budgeting, as a forward feed management mode, has been paid great attention to. R&D budgeting model is a management system that contains relevant basic concepts, procedures and methods correspondingly. The present model most enterprises are using follows the budgeting method in the field of manufacturing, which is more difficult to adapt to the characteristics of R&D activities, leading to adverse effects on R&D budget slack, as well as low management efficiency. Actually, the process of budgeting is the allocation of scarce resources to organize all kinds of work.

  4. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  5. Beyond feedback control: the interactive use of performance management systems. Implications for process innovation in Italian healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Chiara; Mella, Piero

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how the use of performance management systems affects managers' perception of satisfaction, the effectiveness of the control system and the performance related to process innovation. An exploratory empirical research has been conducted on 85 managers operating in Italian healthcare organizations. Empirical findings put forward that the interactive--as opposed to diagnostic--use of performance management systems enhances managerial satisfaction with the control system and managerial perception of effectiveness. The present study then showed that it is not the control itself that is an obstacle to innovation in organizations in general (and in health organizations in particular) but the diagnostic use of the control mechanisms, which impedes the interaction between the control personnel and those subject to the control. Finally, this paper addresses managerial implications and further research avenues.

  6. To Think without Thinking: The Implications of Combinatory Play and the Creative Process for Neuroaesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The author considers combinatory play as an intersection between creativity, play, and neuroaesthetics. She discusses combinatory play as vital to the creative process in art and science, particularly with regard to the incubation of new ideas. She reviews findings from current neurobiological research and outlines the way that the brain activates…

  7. Individual Variation in Infant Speech Processing: Implications for Language Acquisition Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does language acquisition recruit domain-general processing mechanisms? In this dissertation, evidence concerning this question is garnered from the study of individual differences in infant speech perception and their predictive value with respect to language development in early childhood. In the first experiment, variation in the…

  8. Frost weathering versus glacial grinding in the micromorphology of quartz sand grains: Processes and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronko, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Micromorphology of quartz sand grains is used to reconstruct processes occurring in the glacial environment and to distinguish the latter from other environments. Two processes dominate in the glacial environment, i.e., crushing and abrasion, or a combination thereof. Their effect is a wide range of microstructures on the surface of quartz grains, e.g., chattermarks, conchoidal fractures and multiple grooves. However, the periglacial environment also effectively modifies the surface of quartz grains. The active layer of permafrost is considered to have a significantly higher contribution to the formation of crushed grains and the number of microstructures resulting from mechanical destruction (e.g., breakage blocks or conchoidal fractures), as compared to deposits which are not affected by freeze-thaw cycles. However, only a few microstructures are found in both environments. At the same time, there are several processes in subglacial environments related to freeze-thaw cycles, e.g., regelation, congelation, basal adfreezing, and glaciohydraulic supercooling. Most likely, therefore, the role of the glacial environment in the destruction of quartz grains has been misinterpreted, and consequently the conclusions regarding environmental processes drawn on the basis of the number of crushed grains and edge-to-edge contacts are erroneous.

  9. The recharge process in alluvial strip aquifers in arid Namibia and implication for artificial recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Diganta; Xu, Yongxin

    2016-10-01

    Alluvial strip aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers are important groundwater supply sources that sustain numerous settlements and ecological systems in arid Namibia. More than 70 % of the population in the nation's western and southern regions depend on alluvial aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers. Under natural conditions, recharge occurs through infiltration during flood events. Due to the characteristic spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in arid regions, recharge is irregular making the aquifers challenging to manage sustainably and they are often overexploited. This condition is likely to become more acute with increasing water demand and climate change, and artificial recharge has been projected as the apparent means of increasing reliability of supply. The article explores, through a case study and numerical simulation, the processes controlling infiltration, significance of surface water and groundwater losses, and possible artificial recharge options. It is concluded that recharge processes in arid alluvial aquifers differ significantly from those processes in subhumid systems and viability of artificial recharge requires assessment through an understanding of the natural recharge process and losses from the aquifer. It is also established that in arid-region catchments, infiltration through the streambed occurs at rates dependent on factors such as antecedent conditions, flow rate, flow duration, channel morphology, and sediment texture and composition. The study provides an important reference for sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems in similar regions.

  10. Convergence and Divergence of Process and Portfolio Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In the L2 writing literature, there has been a rich history of scholarship in theory, research and practice since the 1960s. Two of the most prominent L2 writing approaches are process and portfolio pedagogy. The former approach promotes the use of diverse writing strategies (e.g. pre-writing) to enhance student writers' expression and fluency.…

  11. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  12. Analysis of a Chinese Phonetic Compound Database: Implications for Orthographic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen; Shillcock, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of Chinese orthography has hindered the progress of research in Chinese to the same level of sophistication of that in alphabetic languages such as English. Also, there has been no publicly available resource concerning the decomposition of Chinese characters, which is essential in any attempt to model the cognitive processes of…

  13. Quality Control of Boar Sperm Processing : Implications from European AI Centres and Two Spermatology Reference Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riesenbeck, A; Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Henning, H; Waberski, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increased automatization has resulted in a higher efficiency of boar semen processing in AI laboratories. Sophisticated laboratory management and efficient quality control programmes are needed for current tendencies in major pork-producing countries to reduce the sperm number per A

  14. Information Processing: A Review of Implications of Johnstone's Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Botton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The current review is concerned with an information processing model used in science education. The purpose is to summarise the current theoretical understanding, in published research, of a number of factors that are known to influence learning and achievement. These include field independence, working memory, long-term memory, and the use of…

  15. Changing Forest Land Use in the Pacific Northwest and Implications for Ecosystem Processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Human use of forests in the Pacific Northwest US has evolved from underburning for wildlife habitat, to clearing for subsistence living, and an emphasis on timber production. In Oregon, forests older than 200 years now occupy less than 1 percent of private land that accounts for half the forest area, and ranges from 15 to almost 60 percent of public lands depending on the ecoregion. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was implemented on public lands in 1993 as a region-wide forest management regime intended to conserve species at risk from extensive harvest of older forests. The result was an 82 percent reduction in harvest removals on public forest lands, and subsequently, public forestland became a carbon sink while private forest remained near carbon neutral. Currently, forest management on public lands in the PNW emphasizes widespread thinning of forests to reduce wildfire risk, and thinning and slash removal for bioenergy production. In addition, several states have set ambitious GHG reduction targets. These policies are being implemented even though many aspects have not been adequately assessed for the effects on forests. CLM4 simulations over Oregon show that by the year 2100, net carbon uptake increases by 32-68% depending on the climate and CO2 scenario, suggesting that enhanced productivity from a warmer climate and CO2 fertilization compensates for disturbance losses if business-as-usual management continues. Water cycle implications are also considered. Simulated repeat thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality and fire emissions, and clearcut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for both wood products and bioenergy. CLM input to a Life Cycle Assessment, which tracks emissions off-site, shows that none of the scenarios reduce regional net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by the end of the 21st century. Thinning dry forests to reduce potential fire emissions led to no net change in emissions from BAU

  16. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  17. Feedback processes in cellulose thermal decomposition. Implications for fire-retarding strategies and treatments

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Brindley, J

    2002-01-01

    A simple dynamical system that models the competitive thermokinetics and chemistry of cellulose decomposition is examined, with reference to evidence from experimental studies indicating that char formation is a low activation energy exothermal process and volatilization is a high activation energy endothermal process. The thermohydrolysis chemistry at the core of the primary competition is described. Essentially, the competition is between two nucleophiles, a molecule of water and an -OH group on C_6 of an end glucosyl cation, to form either a reducing chain fragment with the propensity to undergo the bond-forming reactions that ultimately form char or a levoglucosan-end-fragment that depolymerizes to volatile products. The results of this analysis suggest that promotion of char formation under thermal stress can actually increase the production of flammable volatiles. Thus we would like to convey an important safety message in this paper: in some situations where heat and mass transfer is restricted in cell...

  18. Implication of the apoptotic process in the modulation of chromosomal damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research thesis in the field of biology, the author reports that the study of radio-induced chromosomal reorganizations during cellular proliferation revealed the occurrence of other radio-induced 'de novo' chromosomal anomalies present in the lineage of irradiated cells. Three cellular models have been studied. The obtained results show the role on a short term of the apoptosis in maintaining chromosomal damages, an inhibition of this death process along with an increase of the number of aberration in the first cellular generations following an irradiation or an extended exposure to H2O2. But the apoptotic process does not seem to influence the appearance of chromosomal damages on a long term. The author concludes that apoptosis as an early response to a stress, and chromosomal unsteadiness as a late response are not directly associated

  19. Mycotoxins in fruits and their processed products: Analysis, occurrence and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Fernández-Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that occur naturally in food and feed. The presence of these compounds in the food chain is of high concern for human health due to their properties to induce severe toxicity effects at low dose levels. The contamination of fruits with mycotoxins has not only caused health hazards but also resulted in economic losses, especially for exporting countries. The mycotoxins most commonly found in fruits and their processed products are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and the Alternaria toxins alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altenuene. The aim of this work is to review the toxicity of these major mycotoxins, their natural occurrence in fruits, dried fruits, juices, wines and other processed products, the analytical methods available for their determination and the strategies for their control.

  20. Implications of post-LS1 running conditions on LHCb's data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Gershon, T; Gligorov, V V; Koppenburg, P; Raven, G

    2013-01-01

    This document describes how the changes in LHCb's running conditions beyond LS1 (beyond 2015), in particular the anticipated higher centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and hence increased heavy flavour production cross-sections, will affect LHCb's data processing strategy. It is emphasized that a significantly higher trigger bandwidth will be required in order to maintain signal efficiencies and profit maximally from the increase in cross-section.

  1. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  2. Researching Applicants Online in the Veterinary Program Admissions Process: Perceptions, Practices, and Implications for Curricular Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Hellyer, Peter W; Stewart, Sherry M; Hendrickson, Dean A; Dowers, Kristy L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    As the use of social media websites continues to grow among adults 18-34 years old, it is necessary to examine the consequences of online disclosure to the veterinary admissions processes and to consider the effects on the professional integrity of veterinary schools and on the e-professionalism of DVM graduates. Prior research has shown that employers, across all fields, routinely use information from social media sites to make hiring decisions. In veterinary medicine, a little over one-third of private practitioners reported using online information in the selection of new associates. However, professional academic programs appear to use online information less frequently in the selection processes. The current study examines the behaviors and attitudes of veterinary medical admissions committees toward the use of applicants' online information and profiles in their recruitment and selection process. An online survey was distributed to Associate Deans for Academic Affairs at all AAVMC-affiliated schools of veterinary medicine. A total of 21 schools completed the survey. The results showed that most veterinary schools do not currently use online research in their admissions process; however, most admissions committee members feel that using online social networking information to investigate applicants is an acceptable use of technology. Previous research has suggested that the majority of veterinary student applicants view this as an invasion of their privacy. Given this discordance, future educational efforts should focus on helping veterinary students determine what type of information is appropriate for posting online and how to use privacy settings to control their sharing behaviors. PMID:26291414

  3. Relational operants: processes and implications: a response to Palmer's review of Relational Frame Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes,Dermot

    2004-01-01

    Palmer has recently criticized Relational Frame Theory (RFT) on the grounds that it has developed data in search of a principle. In this reply, we show that he has done so by attacking fundamental concepts within behavior analysis itself, including the functional nature of an operant and contingencies of reinforcement as a behavioral process. His claim that RFT appeals to new behavioral principles to explain the development of relational operants is shown to be incorrect: As with any operant,...

  4. Advertising Budget Allocation under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan M. Holthausen, Jr.; Gert Assmus

    1982-01-01

    This article presents a model for the allocation of an advertising budget to geographic market segments, or territories, when the sales response to advertising in each segment is characterized by a probability distribution. It is shown that allocation decisions that are based on the expected sales response may be associated with a relatively large degree of risk and, therefore, non-optimal to a risk-averse manager. The model derives an "efficient frontier" in terms of the expected profit and ...

  5. The Montana 2015 Biennium Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Jeffrey; DeSoto, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Newly elected Democratic Governor Steve Bullock called for investing in Main Street, investing more in Montana’s education system, creating health care solutions that improve access for Montanans, and bringing high paying jobs to the state. The governor achieved few of his goals but the legislature did produce a balanced budget that addressed a variety of issues including Montana’s poorly funded state pension system, increased spending in a number of functional areas, provided $110 million in...

  6. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air.

  7. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZongXiu; LI Tao; ZHANG Jin; LIU YongQing; MA ZongJin

    2008-01-01

    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20-30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the different time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transformation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  8. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20 -30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65 Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the dif-ferent time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transfor-mation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  9. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air. PMID:27155436

  10. Development of neural mechanisms of conflict and error processing during childhood: Implications for self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of thoughts and behavior requires attention, particularly when there is conflict between alternative responses or when errors are to be prevented or corrected. Conflict monitoring and error processing are functions of the executive attention network, a neurocognitive system that greatly matures during childhood. In this study, we examined the development of brain mechanisms underlying conflict and error processing with event-related potentials (ERPs, and explored the relationship between brain function and individual differences in the ability to self-regulate behavior. Three groups of children aged 4 to 6, 7 to 9, and 10 to 13 years, and a group of adults performed a child-friendly version of the flanker task while ERPs were registered. Marked developmental changes were observed in both conflict processing and brain reactions to errors. After controlling by age, higher self-regulation skills are associated with smaller amplitude of the conflict effect but greater amplitude of the error-related negativity. Additionally, we found that electrophysiological measures of conflict and error monitoring predict individual differences in impulsivity and the capacity to delay gratification. These findings inform of brain mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  11. New s-process path and its implication to 187Re-187Os nucleo-cosmochronometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, T; Kajino, T; Chiba, S; Shinohara, N; Nakagawa, T; Arima, T

    2005-01-01

    We study a new s-process path through an isomer of $^{186}$Re to improve a $^{187}$Re-$^{187}$Os nucleo-cosmochronometer. The nucleus $^{187}$Re is produced by this new path of $^{185}$Re(n,$\\gamma$)$^{186}$Re$^m$(n,$\\gamma$)$^{187}$Re. We measure a ratio of neutron capture cross-sections for the $^{185}$Re(n,$\\gamma$)$^{186}$Re$^m$ and $^{185}$Re(n,$\\gamma$)$^{186}$Re$^{gs}$ reactions at thermal neutron energy because the ratio with the experimental uncertainty has not been reported. Using an activation method with reactor neutrons, we obtain the ratio of $R_{th}$ = 0.54 $\\pm$ 0.11%. From this ratio we estimate the ratio of Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a typical s-process environment at $kT$ = 30 keV with a help of the temperature dependence given in a statistical-model calculation because the energy dependence of the isomer/ground ratio is smaller than the absolute neutron capture cross-section. The ratio at $kT$=30 keV is estimated to be $R_{st}$ = 1.3 $\\pm$ 0.8%. We calculate the s-process contri...

  12. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  13. A study of starch gelatinisation behaviour in hydrothermally-processed plant food tissues and implications for in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Warren, Frederick J; Campbell, Grant M; Gaisford, Simon; Royall, Paul G; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the plant food matrix in influencing the extent of starch gelatinisation during hydrothermal processing, and its implications for starch digestibility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to provide a detailed examination of the gelatinisation behaviour of five distinct size fractions (diameters food materials. We observed clear differences in the gelatinisation behaviour of matched size-fractions of chickpeas and durum wheat. In chickpea materials, the TEG values (34-100%) were inversely related to particle size, whereas in durum wheat, no size-dependent limitations on TEG were observed. The TEG values were completely consistent with the extent of starch amylolysis in all size fractions of both durum wheat and chickpea. Microstructural analysis following hydrothermal processing confirmed the presence of some partially gelatinised birefringent starch within intact chickpea cells. Birefringent starch granules were not present in any of the processed fractions of durum wheat. The differences in gelatinisation behaviour of these plant species seem to reflect the individual cell wall properties of these materials. These findings demonstrate the applicability of DSC to real food materials to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the food matrix (particularly the plant cell walls) influences gelatinisation, and consequently, starch amylolysis.

  14. Value added tax (VAT): the impact on the chain producer - processor - trader - consumer - state budget

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Counteracting the crisis, theoretically but also practically cannot ignore the direct and consequential effects (collateral) of taxes and contributions due to the state budget and distribution of profits, on the chain: Financial Institutions -> Suppliers of inputs -> Agricultural producers -> Wholesalers -> Processing industry -> En-detail traders -> Consumer -> State budget. Solutions require transparency, solidarity, equity, social justice in the distribution of efforts and usufruct (profit...

  15. School-Based Budgeting in New York City: Perceptions of School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes results of surveys and interviews of community members from 29 New York City schools involved in school-level budgeting during 1995-96. Analyzes respondents' knowledge about school budgets, ideas about resource decision making, perceptions of budgetary power, and suggestions. Fully 80% of respondents supported a participatory process.…

  16. Teacher Education Budget Cuts in Romania and the US: Points of Contrast and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, B.; Alama, M.; Mosora, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Budgets for teacher education programmes have been substantially reduced as a result of the global economic crisis. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the teacher education budget cutting processes and procedures for universities in Romania versus one university in the United States. Sample: The data were collected from…

  17. Environmental tracers for elucidating the weathering process in a phosphogypsum disposal site: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Bolívar, Juan P.

    2015-10-01

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and tracing the weathering of phosphogypsum wastes stack-piled directly on salt-marshes of the Tinto River (Estuary of Huelva, SW Spain). With that purpose, different types of highly-polluted acid solutions were collected in the stack. Connection between these solutions and the estuarine environment was studied by geochemical tracers, such as rare earth elements (REE) and their North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized patterns and Cl/Br ratios. Phosphogypsum-related wastewaters include process water stored on the surface, pore-water contained in the phosphogypsum profile and edge outflow water emerging from inside the stack. Edge outflow waters are produced by waterlogging at the contact between phosphogypsum and the nearly impermeable marsh surface and discharge directly into the estuary. Process water shows geochemical characteristics typical of phosphate fertilizers, i.e. REE patterns with an evident enrichment of heavy-REE (HREE) with respect to middle-REE (MREE) and light-REE (LREE). By contrast, REE patterns of deeper pore-water and edge outflows are identical to those of Tinto River estuary waters, with a clear enrichment of MREE relative to LREE and HREE denoting influence of acid mine drainage. Cl/Br ratios of these solutions are very close to that of seawater, which also supports its estuarine origin. These findings clearly show that process water is not chemically connected with edge outflows through pore-waters, as was previously believed. Phosphogypsum weathering likely occurs by an upward flow of seawater from the marsh because of overpressure and permeability differences. Several recommendations are put forward in this study to route restoration actions, such as developing treatment systems to improve the quality of the edge outflow waters before discharging to the receiving environment.

  18. Switching to carbon-free production processes: Implications for carbon leakage and border carbon adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate policy under partial global compliance raises concerns regarding carbon leakage. While border carbon adjustment (BCA) measures are a potential remedy, they have also been criticised on various grounds. This paper therefore investigates whether a policy fostering the switch to carbon-free technologies can substitute for BCAs. A reason for the effectiveness of a targeted technology policy is that major leakage prone sectors (such as iron and steel), have two main sources of carbon emissions, combustion of fossil fuels and industrial processes. While combustion emissions can be reduced relatively easy by increasing energy efficiency, reducing process emissions requires a switch to low-carbon production processes, e.g. in steel production by deploying electrolysis based on large-scale solar electricity. We show by means of a multi-regional computable general equilibrium analysis that such a switch in steel production technology can eliminate a significant fraction of carbon leakage and also increase sectoral output and welfare. Since the necessary technologies are not available at large scale yet (however, are likely to be by 2020), a transitional BCA scheme may be a crucial supportive instrument to foster such technology switches. Yet, in the long run BCA should be phased out to preserve the incentive for carbon-free innovation. - Highlights: • A carbon-free technology switch in iron production considerably reduces total leakage. • Border carbon adjustment (BCA) may impede domestic industrial decarbonisation. • A targeted technology policy is superior to BCA in fostering low-carbon investments. • But implemented as a transitory instrument, BCA reinforces technology policy

  19. Process Dependent Sivers Function and Implication for Single Spin Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Gamberg, Zhong-Bo Kang

    2011-01-01

    We study the single transverse spin asymmetries in the single inclusive particle production within the framework of the generalized parton model (GPM). By carefully analyzing the initial- and final-state interactions, we include the process-dependence of the Sivers functions into the GPM formalism. The modified GPM formalism has a close connection with the collinear twist-3 approach. Within the new formalism, we make predictions for inclusive {pi}{sup 0} and direct photon productions at RHIC energies. We find the predictions are opposite to those in the conventional GPM approach.

  20. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...... technology using new enzymatic cellulolytic cocktails, and how a high solids setup may affect the overall process design. The thesis focuses on two main biomasses: an agricultural feedstock such as wheat straw and a woody feedstock such as Norwegian spruce. The best performing strategy for cellulosic ethanol...

  1. New s-process path and its implication to 187Re-187Os nucleo-cosmochronometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kajino, T.; Chiba, S.; Shinohara, N.; Nakagawa, T.; Arima, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study a new s-process path through an isomer of $^{186}$Re to improve a $^{187}$Re-$^{187}$Os nucleo-cosmochronometer. The nucleus $^{187}$Re is produced by this new path of $^{185}$Re(n,$\\gamma$)$^{186}$Re$^m$(n,$\\gamma$)$^{187}$Re. We measure a ratio of neutron capture cross-sections for the $^{185}$Re(n,$\\gamma$)$^{186}$Re$^m$ and $^{185}$Re(n,$\\gamma$)$^{186}$Re$^{gs}$ reactions at thermal neutron energy because the ratio with the experimental uncertainty has not been reported. Using a...

  2. Implications of the main mathematical methods on marketing decision making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis incorporates both the awareness of decision makers, which is located between total confidence and total ignorance and action values assigned to outcomes variants, meaning decision makers preferences. Marketing actions are often insecure. Under these conditions, to achieve the desired result, the company management shall have decision analysis models based on mathematical theories developed in recent decades. Decision analysis is the procedural and formal logic highlights include decision makers a situation and a number of techniques that determine the selection of a solution which solves the problem. Methodological approach of this process serves to form makers options.

  3. Distilling the Essence of an Evolutionary Process and Implications for a Formal Description of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gabora, Liane; Aerts, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that, since the origin of life and the ensuing evolution of biological species, a second evolutionary process has appeared on our planet. It is the evolution of culture-e.g., ideas, beliefs, and artifacts. Does culture evolve in the same genuine sense as biological life? And if so, does it evolve through natural selection, or by some other means? Why does no other species remotely approach the degree of cultural complexity of humans? These questions lie at the foundation ...

  4. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  5. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  6. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  7. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  8. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25740723

  9. Building Budgets and Trust through the Alchemy of Superintendent Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendents have the burden and the opportunity to exert leadership through the budget-building process. This article details a dozen tenets which can be implemented by practicing superintendents. Doing so increases the chances of building trust among the stakeholders of administrators, staff, community, and school board members. The district…

  10. Defuelling Hunterston A - ahead of schedule and budget targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, J. (Scottish Nuclear Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1994-12-01

    The project manager in charge of decommissioning at Hunterston A power station describes the successful defuelling of the reactor. This process, which came about despite the Magnox reactor's excellent reliability and productivity record, was completed ahead of time schedule and within its budget targets. (UK).

  11. Zero Base Budgeting--A Catalyst for Improved Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Brian; Lee, Robbie

    1979-01-01

    Explains zero base budgeting and describes its use at Chemeketa Community College (Oregon). Suggests that better management, improved communication, and more economical procedures can result if all staff members and representatives from the community are included in the budgetary process. Provides a sample calendar. (JG)

  12. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax.

  13. Responses in Arctic marine carbon cycle processes: conceptual scenarios and implications for ecosystem function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is one of the fastest changing oceans, plays an important role in global carbon cycling and yet is a particularly challenging ocean to study. Hence, observations tend to be relatively sparse in both space and time. How the Arctic functions, geophysically, but also ecologically, can have significant consequences for the internal cycling of carbon, and subsequently influence carbon export, atmospheric CO2 uptake and food chain productivity. Here we assess the major carbon pools and associated processes, specifically summarizing the current knowledge of each of these processes in terms of data availability and ranges of rates and values for four geophysical Arctic Ocean domains originally described by Carmack & Wassmann (2006: inflow shelves, which are Pacific-influenced and Atlantic-influenced; interior, river-influenced shelves; and central basins. We attempt to bring together knowledge of the carbon cycle with the ecosystem within each of these different geophysical settings, in order to provide specialist information in a holistic context. We assess the current state of models and how they can be improved and/or used to provide assessments of the current and future functioning when observational data are limited or sparse. In doing so, we highlight potential links in the physical oceanographic regime, primary production and the flow of carbon within the ecosystem that will change in the future. Finally, we are able to highlight priority areas for research, taking a holistic pan-Arctic approach.

  14. Spectrotemporal sound preferences of neighboring inferior colliculus neurons: implications for local circuitry and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eChen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How do local circuits in the inferior colliculus (IC process and transform spectral and temporal sound information? Using a four-tetrode array we examined the functional properties of the IC and metrics of its micro circuitry by recording neural activity from neighboring single neurons in the cat. Spectral and temporal response preferences were compared for neurons found on the same and adjacent tetrodes, as well as across distant recording sites. We found that neighboring neurons had similar preferences while neurons recorded across distant sites were less similar. Best frequency was the most correlated parameter between neighboring neurons and best frequency differences exhibited unique clustering at ~0.3 octave intervals, indicative of the frequency band lamina. Other spectral and temporal parameters of the receptive fields were more similar for neighboring neurons than for those at distant sites and the receptive field similarity was larger for neurons with small differences in best frequency. Furthermore, correlated firing was stronger for neighboring neuron pairs and increased with proximity and decreasing best frequency difference. Thus although response selectivities are quite diverse in the IC, spectral and temporal preference within a local microcircuit are functionally quite similar. This suggests a scheme where local circuits are organized into zones that are specialized for processing distinct spectrotemporal cues.

  15. The new process of economic integration of America: ALCA. Some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following article presents some aspects of the research; area of free trade of the America. Foundations, evolution and perspectives, advanced by group of work of the ability of economy of the university of la Salle, in which the author of this article takes part as co-investigator. The outlined objective was the one from an approach to the knowledge of the FTAA through the answer to queries about the theoretical sustenance of the project, the asymmetries of the regional economies in this process, the interrelation among the current economic blocks and the negotiation systems, the calendar and the organic structure of the process. Some answers have to do with the suppositions of the theory of the economic integration, especially those of the schools of North American thought: The neorrealism and the neoidealism, to be this the most interested country in the regional integration. The most out standing exponents in these theories are Alexander Wendt and Ruggie (who has worked the theory of the multilateralidad). The answer to the other queries is presented along the article. The used methodology consisted on the development of the following phases. Diagnosis, analysis, evaluation, conclusions and socialization

  16. Line-item Budgeting and Film-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the role of line-item budgeting in film production in an effort to illustrate the positive effects that budgetary constraints can have on creativity. Design/methodology/approach – Using Elster’s (2000) constraint theory as a basis for the research, this paper...... conducted a case study on the making of a Danish adventure film and analysed the role budgeting plays from the film director’s point of view. Findings – This paper suggests that the constraints of the line-item budget imposed on the director had positive effects in terms of the pre-commitments entailed...... options from hampering the creative process. Originality/value – The paper contributes to management control research in two ways. By addressing calls to provide more insight into the positive effects management control constraints might have on creativity, this study explores somewhat ignored aspects...

  17. Source process and tectonic implication of the January 20, 2007 Odaesan earthquake, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.; Kim, K. Y.; Fnais, M. S.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The source process for the 20th of January 2007, Mw 4.5 Odaesan earthquake in South Korea is investigated in the low- and high-frequency bands, using velocity and acceleration waveform data recorded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Seismographic Network at distances less than 70 km from the epicenter. Synthetic Green functions are adopted for the low-frequency band of 0.1-0.3 Hz by using the wave-number integration technique and the one dimensional velocity model beneath the epicentral area. An iterative technique was performed by a grid search across the strike, dip, rake, and focal depth of rupture nucleation parameters to find the best-fit double-couple mechanism. To resolve the nodal plane ambiguity, the spatiotemporal slip distribution on the fault surface was recovered using a non-negative least-square algorithm for each set of the grid-searched parameters. The focal depth of 10 km was determined through the grid search for depths in the range of 6-14 km. The best-fit double-couple mechanism obtained from the finite-source model indicates a vertical strike-slip faulting mechanism. The NW faulting plane gives comparatively smaller root-mean-squares (RMS) error than its auxiliary plane. Slip pattern event provides simple source process due to the effect of Low-frequency that acted as a point source model. Three empirical Green functions are adopted to investigate the source process in the high-frequency band. A set of slip models was recovered on both nodal planes of the focal mechanism with various rupture velocities in the range of 2.0-4.0 km/s. Although there is a small difference between the RMS errors produced by the two orthogonal nodal planes, the SW dipping plane gives a smaller RMS error than its auxiliary plane. The slip distribution is relatively assessable by the oblique pattern recovered around the hypocenter in the high-frequency analysis; indicating a complex rupture scenario for such moderate-sized earthquake, similar to those reported

  18. THE IMPLICATIONS OF INNOVATION PROCESS ON THE MARKETING OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALASESCU SIMONA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of the Open Innovation Model on the marketing activity developed by the companies from the high-technology industry. In this area, the technology is advancing continuously and new products are appearing rapidly. Competition on high-tech market is very tough and not all companies have the resources to cope with change. For these companies, the ideal solution is to apply the Open Innovation Model. The paper includes some results of a qualitative marketing research which had as main objective finding the opinions of managers from high-tech industry regarding the need for innovation process and the choice of the most effective innovation strategies.

  19. THE PROCESS OF EUROPEANIZATION REVIEWED: THE IMPLICATION OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA SMOCHINA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently when we speak about the European Union (EU this is not only an economic or political integration any longer. EU founds its basis on the rule of law principle and its Court of Justice supervises that the law is observed during the implementation of all Treaty chapters. Furthermore, one of the European integration theories – Europeanization – that generally had a political, economic and even cultural connotation is more often used in the legal context evolving an approximation of laws at different levels either from International to European, European to national or even European to International. The present research paper aims at reviewing the Europeanization process from the law perspective while assessing the role the Court of Justice of the European Union plays on it.

  20. Conditional analysis of mixed Poisson processes with baseline counts: implications for trial design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard J; Wei, Wei

    2003-07-01

    The design of clinical trials is typically based on marginal comparisons of a primary response under two or more treatments. The considerable gains in efficiency afforded by models conditional on one or more baseline responses has been extensively studied for Gaussian models. The purpose of this article is to present methods for the design and analysis of clinical trials in which the response is a count or a point process, and a corresponding baseline count is available prior to randomization. The methods are based on a conditional negative binomial model for the response given the baseline count and can be used to examine the effect of introducing selection criteria on power and sample size requirements. We show that designs based on this approach are more efficient than those proposed by McMahon et al. (1994).

  1. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules.

  2. Platinum Partitioning at Low Oxygen Fugacity: Implications for Core Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Lanziroti, A.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSE = Au, Re, and the Pt-group elements) are tracers of silicate / metal interactions during planetary processes. Since most core-formation models involve some state of equilibrium between liquid silicate and liquid metal, understanding the partioning of highly siderophile elements (HSE) between silicate and metallic melts is a key issue for models of core / mantle equilibria and for core formation scenarios. However, partitioning models for HSE are still inaccurate due to the lack of sufficient experimental constraints to describe the variations of partitioning with key variable like temperature, pressure, and oxygen fugacity. In this abstract, we describe a self-consistent set of experiments aimed at determining the valence of platinum, one of the HSE, in silicate melts. This is a key information required to parameterize the evolution of platinum partitioning with oxygen fugacity.

  3. Implications of membrane fouling toward the removal of the pharmaceutical sulfamethoxazole by nanofiltration processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander SIMON; William PRICE; Long Duc NGHIEM

    2011-01-01

    The influence of membrane fouling on the retention of the trace organic contaminant sulfamethoxazole by a nanofiltration (NF) process was investigated.Organic fouling caused a severe flux decline possibly due to pore blocking and adsorption directly after the commencement of the fouling layer development.Such membrane-foulant interactions were absent for colloidal fouling,which resulted in a more gradual flux decline.Membrane charge played a significant role in the separation process of inorganic salts,where the retention was the highest in a caustic environment (high pH) due to more swollen membrane material caused by the higher negative charge on the membrane.Organic fouling and a combination of colloidal and organic fouling led to a significant increase in the membrane negative charge.The influence of membrane fouling on solute retention was dependent on the fouling behaviour and the physicochemical properties of the model foulants,where the model foulants probably contributed to an increase in the retention of charged solutes due to enhanced electrostatic interactions.Organic fouling caused an increase in the retention of inorganic salts and sulfamethoxazole due to pore blocking.In contrast,colloidal fouling caused a decrease in the retention of inorganic salts due to cake-enhanced concentration polarisation.However,the presence of a colloidal fouling layer did not reduce the retention of sulfamethoxazole.A mixture of colloidal and organic matter improved the retention of inorganic salts.A similar conclusion can be inferred for sulfamethoxazole at pH 4 when the compound exists in a neutral form.

  4. A Research on Annual Budget Report at the Beginning of Fiscal Year in the Commonwealth of Australia and Its Implication for China%澳大利亚年初预算报告研究及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美多; 金笑驰

    2013-01-01

      澳大利亚联邦政府具有较为完善的预算报告体系。其年初预算报告包括:预算陈词、预算一览、预算概述、预算战略和展望、预算措施、政府间财政关系、机构资源和拨款议案八个重要组成部分。这些预算文件具有全面性、结果导向、中期规划和亲和性的鲜明特征,为我国完善中央年初预算报告提供了有益的借鉴。此外,分阶段完成年初预算报告的具体性、全面性、全局性和规划性四个步骤的改革,将有助于提高我国的预算信息公开程度,从而“创造条件让人民监督、批评政府”。%  The Commonwealth of Australia has a consummate budget reporting system. One of the most important is the annual budget report at the beginning of the fiscal year including eight parts:budget speech, budget at glance, budget overview, budget strategy and outlook, budget measures, Australia’s federal relations, agency resourcing, and appropriation bills. These budget papers are comprehensive, result-oriented, medium term planning, and reader-friendly. They provide helpful experiences for China and we could promote open and transparent budget information by improving our annual budget report with four stages, which will create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government.

  5. Implications of recent new concepts on the future of mainstream laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Aldo V.

    2000-07-01

    According to one of today's most accepted visualizations of the first viable realizations of The Computer Integrated Manufacturing Plant, C.I.M.P., the manufacturing systems herein discussed tend to be multiprocessing, and tend to incorporate the lasers to take advantage of the unique capacities of the laser as a processing tool. Finally also the present laser sources, while having been for a long time more than sufficient, inevitably tend also to new generations. Said visualizations stand in the belief that the first realizations of the C I M P most likely will use flexible multiprocessing machines, which, for flexibility requirements, grow in multi-station cells, in their aggregation in isles and finally in complete manufacturing centers. To constitute the CIMP all partaking elements must be the most easily amenable to Computer Aided Design, CAD, and Computer Aided Manufacturing, CAM. Another basic requirement is that all elements constituting the CIMP must possess the highest System Efficiency and Energy Efficiency at the level of the single element and of its aggregations throughout the various combinations at each and every operating level of said aggregations, up to that of the CIMP. The mastering of the CIMP design constitute a New Discipline that presents very formidable but necessary tasks. Of these the first examples were those related to the early flexible manufacturing system Design Programs. For what concerns the laser processing machines and their integration in manufacturing systems, attention must be given to not repeat the events that hindered their diffusion in the production field keeping it at a level much lower than the expectations and their true potential. Said events stemmed from the confusion between System Efficiency and Energy Efficiency, which persisted for too long and is still common. This has taken place at the levels of introduction of a single element into the combination of the several elements constituting a linear arrangement

  6. Code-switching across brainstorming sessions: implications for the revised hierarchical model of bilingual language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Kevin J; Zárate, Michael A; Paulus, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    The revised hierarchical model (RHM) of bilingual language processing posits independent word form representations for the dominant language (L1) and the nondominant language (L2), facilitated translation from L2 words to L1 words, access to common concepts for L1 and L2, and stronger activation of concepts for L1 than for L2. Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals brainstormed for two sessions; half switched languages (L1-L2 or L2-L1) and half stayed in the same language (L1-L1 or L2-L2) across sessions. In both sessions, L1 brainstorming resulted in more efficient idea productivity than L2 brainstorming, supporting stronger concept activation for L1, consistent with the RHM. Switching languages from L2 to L1 resulted in the most efficient idea productivity in Session 2, suggesting that switching to L1 not only permits strong concept activation, but also the activation of concepts that are relatively different than those activated by L2, inconsistent with the RHM. Switching languages increased the proportion of Session 1 ideas repeated during Session 2, despite instructions not to repeat. This finding suggests that there is activation of concepts as well as word forms in same language brainstorming and that this dual activation aids in following instructions not to repeat, consistent with the RHM. It is suggested that the RHM be re-specified to accommodate the notion that L1 and L2 access relatively different concepts.

  7. Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications – a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rydin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Although peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's land surface, boreal and subarctic peatlands store about 15–30% of the world's soil carbon as peat. Despite their potential for large positive feedbacks to the climate system through sequestration and emission of greenhouse gases, peatlands are not explicitly included in global climate models and therefore in predictions of future climate change. In April 2007 a symposium was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, to advance our understanding of peatland C cycling through integration across disciplines and research approaches and to develop a more synthetic picture of the present and future role of peatlands in the global C cycle and their interactions with the climate system. This paper aims to synthesize the main findings of the symposium, focusing on (i small-scale processes, (ii C fluxes at the landscape scale, and (iii peatlands and climate. The paper concludes with a summary of the main drivers of the C balance of peatlands, and proposes directions for new research to reduce key uncertainties in our knowledge of C cycling in peatlands in order to facilitate the explicit inclusion of these ecosystems in a new generation of earth system models.

  8. Rhenium solubility in borosilicate nuclear waste glass: implications for the processing and immobilization of technetium-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloy, John S; Riley, Brian J; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Hrma, Pavel; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W; Kruger, Albert A

    2012-11-20

    The immobilization of technetium-99 ((99)Tc) in a suitable host matrix has proven to be a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. In this context, the present work reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for (99)Tc, in a sodium borosilicate glass. Glasses containing target Re concentrations from 0 to 10,000 ppm [by mass, added as KReO(4) (Re(7+))] were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampules to minimize the loss of Re from volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found as Re(7+) in all of the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure. The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. At higher rhenium concentrations, additional rhenium was retained in the glasses as crystalline inclusions of alkali perrhenates detected with X-ray diffraction. Since (99)Tc concentrations in a glass waste form are predicted to be <10 ppm (by mass), these Re results implied that the solubility should not be a limiting factor in processing radioactive wastes, assuming Tc as Tc(7+) and similarities between Re(7+) and Tc(7+) behavior in this glass system.

  9. Relational operants: processes and implications: a response to Palmer's review of Relational Frame Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-09-01

    Palmer has recently criticized Relational Frame Theory (RFT) on the grounds that it has developed data in search of a principle. In this reply, we show that he has done so by attacking fundamental concepts within behavior analysis itself, including the functional nature of an operant and contingencies of reinforcement as a behavioral process. His claim that RFT appeals to new behavioral principles to explain the development of relational operants is shown to be incorrect: As with any operant, RFT appeals to a history of contacted consistencies in contingencies across multiple ex-emplars to explain them. New principles only emerge later as a logically necessary extension of such operants if they exist--a view that Palmer failed to address or appreciate. Palmer's desire to see the use of methods other than matching-to-sample is proper but already largely satisfied in the empirical literature on RFT. We show Palmer's defense of Skinner's definition of verbal behavior to be illogical and unresponsive to the empirical challenge behavior analysis faces. Palmer's alternative common sense mediational associationistic account is another in more than a century of such accounts, all of which have failed empirically. At its root, Palmer's criticism is based on a mechanistic philosophy that is hostile to a traditional functional behavior analytic approach. PMID:15540506

  10. Multiple broadly synchronous km-scale exhumation episodes on different continents: implications for controlling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    might be magnified by the isostatic response to denudation, but until recently the vertical motions expected from this mechanism were thought to be restricted to 100s of metres while expected timescales of 100s of Myr are not consistent with observations. Braun et al. (2014) showed that movement of plates over areas of areas of mantle upwelling could produce much more rapid uplift and also much larger-scale vertical movements, but the predicted diachroneity of uplift across southern Africa differs from the apparent synchroneity across three continents described here. The processes described by Braun et al. are also specific to one location and one event. Japsen et al. (2012) suggested that broadly synchronous exhumation events on divergent continents resulted from lateral resistance to plate motion driven by forces transmitted in the asthenosphere, while Colli et al. (2014) proposed that dynamic topography caused by pressure-driven mantle flow could produce synchronous uplift (and erosion) in separate continents. Such processes appear to offer more viable mechanisms for producing broadly synchronous episodes of kilometre-scale exhumation and intervening burial in regions separated by large distances. Further geodynamic modelling is needed to develop and test likely mechanisms.

  11. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits. PMID:27021468

  12. Complex Nucleation Process of Large North Chile Earthquakes, Implications for Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Meneses, G.; Sobiesiak, M.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the nucleation process of Northern Chile events that included the large earthquakes of Tocopilla 2007 Mw 7.8 and Iquique 2014 Mw 8.1, as well as the background seismicity recorded from 2011 to 2013 by the ILN temporary network and the IPOC and CSN permanent networks. We built our catalogue of 393 events starting from the CSN catalogue, which has a completeness of magnitude Mw > 3.0 in Northern Chile. We re-located and computed moment magnitude for each event. We also computed Early Warning (EW) parameters - Pd, Pv, τc and IV2 - for each event including 13 earthquakes of Mw>6.0 that occurred between 2007-2012. We also included part of the seismicity from March-April 2014 period. We find that Pd, Pv and IV2 are good estimators of magnitude for interplate thrust and intraplate intermediate depth events with Mw between 4.0 and 6.0. However, the larger magnitude events show a saturation of the EW parameters. The Tocopilla 2007 and Iquique 2014 earthquake sequences were studied in detail. Almost all events with Mw>6.0 present precursory signals so that the largest amplitudes occur several seconds after the first P wave arrival. The recent Mw 8.1 Iquique 2014 earthquake was preceded by low amplitude P waves for 20 s before the main asperity was broken. The magnitude estimation can improve if we consider longer P wave windows in the estimation of EW parameters. There was, however, a practical limit during the Iquique earthquake because the first S waves arrived before the arrival of the P waves from the main rupture. The 4 s P-wave Pd parameter estimated Mw 7.1 for the Mw 8.1 Iquique 2014 earthquake and Mw 7.5 for the Mw 7.8 Tocopilla 2007 earthquake.

  13. Lake Erie Yellow perch age estimation based on three structures: Precision, processing times, and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergoot, C.S.; Bur, M.T.; Powell, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Yellow perch Perca flavescens support economically important recreational and commercial fisheries in Lake Erie and are intensively managed. Age estimation represents an integral component in the management of Lake Erie yellow perch stocks, as age-structured population models are used to set safe harvest levels on an annual basis. We compared the precision associated with yellow perch (N = 251) age estimates from scales, sagittal otoliths, and anal spine sections and evaluated the time required to process and estimate age from each structure. Three readers of varying experience estimated ages. The precision (mean coefficient of variation) of estimates among readers was 1% for sagittal otoliths, 5-6% for anal spines, and 11-13% for scales. Agreement rates among readers were 94-95% for otoliths, 71-76% for anal spines, and 45-50% for scales. Systematic age estimation differences were evident among scale and anal spine readers; less-experienced readers tended to underestimate ages of yellow perch older than age 4 relative to estimates made by an experienced reader. Mean scale age tended to underestimate ages of age-6 and older fish relative to otolith ages estimated by an experienced reader. Total annual mortality estimates based on scale ages were 20% higher than those based on otolith ages; mortality estimates based on anal spine ages were 4% higher than those based on otolith ages. Otoliths required more removal and preparation time than scales and anal spines, but age estimation time was substantially lower for otoliths than for the other two structures. We suggest the use of otoliths or anal spines for age estimation in yellow perch (regardless of length) from Lake Erie and other systems where precise age estimates are necessary, because age estimation errors resulting from the use of scales could generate incorrect management decisions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. Organisation of the long-term budget planning and forecasting: experience of the leading countries of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Koliada Tetiana A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in the study of specific features of organisation of the long-term budget planning and forecasting in the leading countries of the world. Analysing, systemising and generalising experience of organisation of this process at the state level using examples of USA, France, Germany and Japan, the article reveals common regularities and shows the best practice of developing the budget strategy for adaptation and application of these developments in the budget process o...

  15. Diagenetic processes in the plant-soil system and their implications for palaeo-reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Jia, G.; McClymont, E. L.; Bingham, E.; Väliranta, M.; Korhola, A.; Evershed, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived organic matter in soils and peats comprises mixtures of biomolecular components that can act as 'biomarkers' for their vegetative provenance. Different plant communities are adapted to specific environmental conditions, so this approach can be used to investigate a variety of questions about land-use and climate change over a range of timescales. For example, the abundance and distribution of long-chain aliphatic compounds, that are relatively hydrophobic and resistant to microbial decomposition, are widely used as evidence of colonisation by different groups of plants in either natural or managed contemporary environments [1]. Natural abundance or artificial 13C-labelling of plants is used to provide additional evidence for plant inputs, and to determine rates of turnover of soil C pools using compound-specific stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry [2]. However, the application of molecular approaches to palaeovegetation reconstruction is still relatively rare. Biomarkers for different vegetation types are particularly important when diagenetic processes result in the loss of plant macrofossils. Lipid biomarkers are the most commonly used [3], and their δ13C values can be used to determine shifts in palaeoclimate using changes in the contribution of C3 and C4 plant-derived compounds [4]. Carbohydrates are the major components of plant biomass, but their potential as biomarkers is usually disregarded due to their perceived rapid decomposition. However, recently, we showed that carbohydrate compositional parameters of modern bog-forming plants showed strong correspondence with fossil plant abundances in a peat core from Kontolanrahka Bog, Finland [5]. Subsequent application of the carbohydrate proxy to similar cores from Bissendorfer Moor, Germany, and Butterburn Flow, UK, has shown its potential to explore plant inputs in anaerobic terrestrial environments. [1] Dungait JAJ, Docherty G, Straker V, Evershed RP, 2010a. Phytochem 71:415. [2] Dungait JAJ

  16. High-resolution mapping of combustion processes and implications for CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion and CO2 emission provides valuable information for modeling pollutant transport, developing mitigation policy, and for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. Previous global emission maps included only few fuel types, and emissions were estimated on a grid by distributing national fuel data on an equal per capita basis, using population density maps. This process distorts the geographical distribution of emissions within countries. In this study, a sub-national disaggregation method (SDM of fuel data is applied to establish a global 0.1° × 0.1° geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL and corresponding CO2 emissions (PKU-CO2 based upon 64 fuel sub-types for the year 2007. Uncertainties of the emission maps are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method. It is estimated that CO2 emission from combustion sources including fossil fuel, biomass, and solid wastes in 2007 was 11.2 Pg C yr−1 (9.1 Pg C yr−1 and 13.3 Pg C yr−1 as 5th and 95th percentiles. Of this, emission from fossil fuel combustion is 7.83 Pg C yr−1, which is very close to the estimate of the International Energy Agency (7.87 Pg C yr−1. By replacing national data disaggregation with sub-national data in this study, the average 95th minus 5th percentile ranges of CO2 emission for all grid points can be reduced from 417 to 68.2 Mg km−2 yr−1. The spread is reduced because the uneven distribution of per capita fuel consumptions within countries is better taken into account by using sub-national fuel consumption data directly. Significant difference in per capita CO2 emissions between urban and rural areas was found in developing countries (2.08 vs. 0.598 Mg C/(cap. × yr, but not in developed countries (3.55 vs. 3.41 Mg C/(cap. × yr. This implies that rapid urbanization of developing countries is very likely to drive up their emissions in the future.

  17. Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysal, Namık

    2013-04-01

    Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ɛNd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional

  18. The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawes Martha C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes, by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with

  19. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  20. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  1. The mechanical implications of deep fluids in the rupture process of giant landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Frédéric; Guglielmi, Yves; Viseur, Sophie; Garambois, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Fluids are known to be a triggering and driving factor for landslides. Hydromechanical coupling has been proposed as possible explanation for landslide dynamics, including both slow, aseismic slip, as well as fast, seismic rupture. The widely accepted understanding is that rainfall, snowmelt and the seasonality of the groundwater recharge increases fluid pressures, which in turn reduces effective stress, and thus alters the strength of rocks and rupture surfaces, promoting sliding. So far, most interpretations focused on the effects of rainfall infiltration into landslides, and did not investigate in detail the role of groundwater table variations below the landslides on the rupture processes. However, such considerations are important, since observations of well-documented giant landslides showed that the moving volume extends hundreds of meters above the slope aquifer. Furthermore, although motions correlate well with seasonal infiltrations, no significant pore pressure increase has ever been measured within the landslide body, particularly in high-permeability rocky landslides. Indeed, motions occur in the near surface of the unsaturated slope, which is in general highly permeable (which allows high infiltration rates), perched, highly discontinuous, size-limited, and experiences low magnitude pore pressure build-up that is not high enough to significantly vary the effective stresses in the slope. Triggering of local instabilities by such perched low-pressurized zones may be possible only at the critical stress level of the rock, but do not explain the slow increase in the permanent background seasonal accelerations and decelerations that affect the entire landslide. Thus, clarifying the role of fluids, especially the effects of groundwater table variations within the deep aquifer on the unsaturated slope slow rupture is important for improved understanding of weak forcing mechanisms on landslides and risk assessment. The study of strain partitioning in two

  2. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  3. The control gap : the role of budgets, accounting information and (non-) decisions in hospital settings

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between budgets, accounting information and the decisionmaking processes at both strategic and operational levels in a large Norwegian hospital, as this hospital now is facing the New Public Management reforms which are introduced in Norway. The study has examined the use of budget and accounting information in the management control process. The empirical data are based on interviews with key actors in the decision-making process at all management levels in t...

  4. Budget analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupaki, Pramod; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Beletsky, Dmitry; Schwab, David J; Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli (EC) concentrations at two beaches impacted by river plume dynamics in southern Lake Michigan were analyzed using three-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models. The relative importance of various physical and biological processes influencing the fate and transport of EC were examined via budget analysis and a first-order sensitivity analysis of model parameters. The along-shore advective flux of EC (CFU/m(2).s) was found to be higher compared to its cross-shore counterpart; however, the sum of diffusive and advective components was of a comparable magnitude in both directions showing the importance of cross-shore exchange in EC transport. Examination of individual terms in the EC mass balance equation showed that vertical turbulent mixing in the water column dominated the overall EC transport for the summer conditions simulated. Dilution due to advection and diffusion accounted for a large portion of the total EC budget in the nearshore, and the net EC loss rate within the water column (CFU/m(3).s) was an order of magnitude smaller compared to the horizontal and vertical transport rates. This result has important implications for modeling EC at recreational beaches; however, the assessment of the magnitude of EC loss rate is complicated due to the strong coupling between vertical exchange and depth-dependent EC loss processes such as sunlight inactivation and settling. Sensitivity analysis indicated that solar inactivation has the greatest impact on EC loss rates. Although these results are site-specific, they clearly bring out the relative importance of various processes involved.

  5. Ten-year experience with mission-based budgeting in the faculty of medicine of Dalhousie University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedy, John; MacDonald, Noni E; MacDougall, Brian

    2003-11-01

    The Faculty of Medicine of Dalhousie University (the Faculty) has applied a mission-based approach to the allocation of the academic budget since 1993. Over the ensuing decade, large shifts in budgets to academic departments have been effected, and two goals that required special emphasis-the successful implementation of a tutorial-based undergraduate medical curriculum and an increase in research activity-have been achieved. This has occurred despite significant reductions in the overall academic budget over the ten-year period. The budgeting process provided the Faculty with a tangible means of supporting its mission and also gave each department a transparent report of its relative contribution to the overall mission of the Faculty, which helped instill pride. In some years, misunderstandings of the budget process arose because of confusion over the impact of the overall total academic budget reductions experienced by the Faculty in that year. This meant that recognition of a department's contribution resulted, in most instances, in a relatively smaller reduction in budget rather than a budget increase. Further misunderstandings have arisen because of confusion between mission-based and activity-based budgeting. This confusion was reinforced because the assessments of education outcomes were measurements of activity rather than of outcomes. However, these measures were chosen to be the best-available indirect measures of the desired educational outcome. After ten years, the fundamentals of the mission-based process introduced in 1993 remain unchanged as the basis for allocation of the academic budget for the Faculty.

  6. Government presents 1979 nuclear budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal items of the nuclear budget for the fiscal year 1979 are 165,700 Million for the Science and Technology Agency for the promotion of nuclear energy development, and for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 3,360 Million from the general account for nuclear items, 57,500 Million from the special account for power source development and 99,900 Million for fiscal investments and loans. In the Science and Technology Agency, compared with the last fiscal year, the appropriations have been especially increased for the research and development of nuclear fusion in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the Ministry of ITI, the distinctive budgetary features are those for streamlining the safety regulation administration, uranium extraction from sea water, and thermal effluent management. The 1979 government nuclear budget is described as follows: in the STA, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, and National Institute of Radiological Sciences; in the MITI, general account, special account, and fiscal investments and loans; the items in other ministries. (J.P.N.)

  7. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  8. Montana’s 2015 Biennium Budget Update

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Jeffrey; Hatcher, Orry

    2016-01-01

    The 64th Montana Legislature ended its constitutionally mandated 90 day biennium session with a nearly $11 billion, two-year, all funds budget in April 2013. Aside from constructing a balanced budget the legislature attempted to resolve a number of long standing policy issues ranging from public pensions to school funding. Newly elected Democratic Governor Steve Bullock presented his budget which called for investing in Main Street, investing more in Montana’s education system, creating healt...

  9. Horse-trading over the EU budget

    OpenAIRE

    Neheider, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    About 75% of the EU budget are transfer expenditures that go to the agricultural sector and to regional policies. This has long been criticised but the structure of the EU budget has barely changed over the last decades. The EU finances are mainly based on a unanimous agreement between the heads of state or government of the EU member states. During budget negotiations, horse trading or logrolling is a common practice. Negotiators combine expenditure positions and arrangements on the revenue ...

  10. Low Budget,Big Box Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers are refining the art of turning a profit from small budget films ORGANIZERS of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys,to encourage a generation of young,talented directors producing low budget films. Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small and Medium-Budget Film Prize at the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,later in the year.

  11. Quasi-classical fluctuation-dissipation description of dielectric loss in oxides with implications for quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lawrence J.; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Alford, Neil Mcn.; Breeze, Jonathan; Aupi, Xavi; Brändas, Erkki J.

    One of the most important problems in developing devices for quantum computation is the coupling and dissipation of states by thermal noise. We present a study of a two-state electric dipole in a crystal coupling to noise from a reservoir. As a realization of such an energy-dissipating dipole, we report and analyze dielectric loss measurements in single crystal and polycrystalline Al2O3 over the temperature range 70-300 K. We are able to model the dielectric loss in terms of a quasi-classical model that uses the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Two key parameters in this model are the crystal oscillator energy and reservoir-lattice coupling constant. In polycrystalline samples, it is assumed that the main effect of structural disorder is a modification of the spectrum of the thermal phonons, so that acoustical vibrations acquire some optical mode character. The temperature dependence of the linewidth of the high dielectric strength infrared (IR) mode at 438 cm-1 and the quasi-degenerate Raman mode of the k = 0 (418 cm-1) transition are also investigated and are shown to be related simply to the dielectric loss. The model reproduces the unusual temperature dependence of the dielectric loss observed experimentally. The implications for the coupling of quantum mechanical objects to noise and quantum information processing are discussed.

  12. Introduction to special section on phenomenology, underlying processes, and hazard implications of aseismic slip and nonvolcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the special section on the "phenomenology, underlying processes, and hazard implications of aseismic slip and nonvolcanic tremor" by highlighting key results of the studies published in it. Many of the results indicate that seismic and aseismic manifestations of slow slip reflect transient shear displacements on the plate interface, with the outstanding exception of northern Cascadia where tremor sources have been located on and above the plate interface (differing models of the plate interface there also need to be reconciled). Slow slip phenomena appear to result from propagating deformation that may develop with persistent gaps and segment boundaries. Results add to evidence that when tectonic deformation is relaxed via slow slip, most relaxation occurs aseismically but with seismic signals providing higher-resolution proxies for the aseismic slip. Instead of two distinct slip modes as suggested previously, lines between "fast" and "slow" slip more appropriately may be described as blurry zones. Results reported also show that slow slip sources do not coincide with a specific temperature or metamorphic reaction. Their associations with zones of high conductivity and low shear to compressional wave velocity ratios corroborate source models involving pore fluid pressure buildup and release. These models and spatial anticorrelations between earthquake and tremor activity also corroborate a linkage between slow slip and frictional properties transitional between steady state and stick-slip. Finally, this special section highlights the benefits of global and multidisciplinary studies, which demonstrate that slow phenomena are not confined to beneath the locked zone but exist in many settings.

  13. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  14. Lexico-semantic and acoustic-phonetic processes in the perception of noise-vocoded speech: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn eMcGettigan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise-vocoding is a transformation which, when applied to speech, severely reduces spectral resolution and eliminates periodicity, yielding a stimulus that sounds like a harsh whisper (Scott, Blank et al. 2000. This process simulates a cochlear implant, where the activity of many thousand hair cells in the inner ear is replaced by direct stimulation of the auditory nerve by a small number of tonotopically-arranged electrodes. Although a cochlear implant offers a powerful means of restoring some degree of hearing to profoundly deaf individuals, the outcomes for spoken communication are highly variable (Moore and Shannon 2009. Some variability may arise from differences in peripheral representation (e.g. the degree of residual nerve survival but some may reflect differences in higher-order linguistic processing. In order to explore this possibility, we used noise-vocoding to explore speech recognition and perceptual learning in normal-hearing listeners tested across several levels of the linguistic hierarchy: segments (consonants and vowels, single words, and sentences. Listeners improved significantly on all tasks across two test sessions. In the first session, individual differences analyses revealed two independently varying sources of variability: one lexico-semantic in nature and implicating the recognition of words and sentences, and the other an acoustic-phonetic factor associated with words and segments. However, consequent to learning, by the second session there was a more uniform covariance pattern concerning all stimulus types. A further analysis of phonetic feature recognition allowed greater insight into learning-related changes in perception and showed that, surprisingly, participants did not make full use of cues that were preserved in the stimuli (e.g. vowel duration. We discuss these findings in relation cochlear implantation, and suggest auditory training strategies to maximise speech recognition performance in the absence of

  15. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    that complex geomorphological processes, consisting of a glacier advance and followed by glacier lake outbursts and ice avalanches, contributed to the formation of the hummocky debris landforms. The Kit-ke-Jerav and Yishkuk Glaciers in the upper Chapursan Valley seem to have experienced extraordinary fluctuations in historical and recent times. The new findings on past processes forming large-scaled debris accumulations have wider implications for the recent hazard potential of settlements located in glaciated high mountain regions, especially in seismic active regions.

  16. Gas properties of winter lake ice in Northern Sweden: biogeochemical processes and implication for carbon gas release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Boereboom

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes gas composition, total gas content and bubbles characteristics in winter lake ice for four adjacent lakes in a discontinuous permafrost area. Our gas mixing ratios suggest that gas exchange occurs between the bubbles and the water before entrapment in the ice. Comparison between lakes enabled us to identify 2 major "bubbling events" shown to be related to a regional drop of atmospheric pressure. Further comparison demonstrates that winter lake gas content is strongly dependent on hydrological connections: according to their closed/open status with regards to water exchange, lakes build up more or less greenhouse gases (GHG in their water and ice cover during the winter, and release it during spring melt. These discrepancies between lakes need to be taken into account when establishing a budget for permafrost regions. Our analysis allows us to present a new classification of bubbles, according to their gas properties. Our methane emission budget (from 6.52 10−5 to 12.7 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 for the three months of winter ice cover is complementary to the other budget estimates, taking into account the variability of the gas distribution in the ice and between the various types of lakes.

    Most available studies on boreal lakes have focused on quantifying GHG emissions from sediment by means of various systems collecting gases at the lake surface, and this mainly during the summer "open water" period. Only few of these have looked at the gas enclosed in the winter ice-cover itself. Our approach enables us to integrate, for the first time, the history of winter gas emission for this type of lakes.

  17. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. Aan de Brugh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension. We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95% and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%. We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match, while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  18. 1996 Budget picture still clouded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Four months and three work stoppages into fiscal 1996, whole departments and agencies of the United States federal government remain in budgetary limbo. Five annual spending bills still await approval, and parts of nine federal departments and several agencies face the possibility of yet another shutdown, as the current continuing resolution for temporary funding expires on March 15.In the wake of the recent three-week shutdown of the federal government, congressional leaders worked in January to ease future political pain by funding a list of “essential services” for the remainder of the fiscal year. Deemed essential were government programs with the most immediate and conspicuous public impact, such as the National Parks Service and the Passport Services Office. Included on that list of essential services was the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which not only received full funding for the entire fiscal year but also got a 5.7% increase over its 1995 budget.

  19. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  20. QUALITY, EFFECTIVENESS AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL TREASURIES BUDGET ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Tešić

    2011-01-01

    The role of management information systems (MIS) of local treasuries budget accounting is to provide qualitative information support to management in process of decision making and to provide effective managing of key processes of budget accounting, in accordance with requests of management on all levels of decision making. From the aspect of effectiveness and request for quality, in accordance with request of users and defined system goals, this research includes the analysis of characterist...

  1. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section... § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...: State State trading budget for 2009-2014(tons) State trading budget for 2015 and...

  2. Strategy to Arrange Gender Responsive Budget in ex Besuki Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistio Adiwinarto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the participation of women in development planning meeting, knowing the form of gender responsive policies, identifying the cause of the gender responsive policy problem, and strategy formulation of the budget in ex Besuki Residency such as Jember, Bondowoso, Situbondo, and Banyuwangi which still not responsive to the needs of women. In the first year, this study intends to identify the process of formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the local budget in Ex Besuki residency conducted by the respective local governments. Based on the research in the first year, researchers will formulate development strategies in the formulation of gender-responsive policies. The method of research is quantitative descriptive study, study documentation, primary and secondary data analysis, interviews and focus group discussions. In the second year of the study are expected to form a strategy and policy formulation concept of gender responsive budgeting through a combination previously existing concepts, adapted to the results of the first year of study at the study site. How To Cite: Adiwinarto, S., & Nusanto, B. (2015. Strategy to Arrange Gender Responsive Budget in ex Besuki Residency. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 65-78. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.5

  3. Budget Deficits and Interest Rates: An Empirical Analysis for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfur BAYAT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze causality between budget deficits and its ratio to gross domestic product and interest rate in the Turkish economy during years between 2006 and 2011. By doing so, we investigate the validity of crowding out view against the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. To this end, we employee the conventional Toda-Yamamoto (1995 linear Granger type causality test and Hacker and Hatemi-J (2005, 2006 bootstrap process-based Toda-Yamamoto linear Granger type causality test. In this regard, we use Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (1992, KPSS and Elliot, Rothenberg, Stock (1996, DF-GLS unit root tests. Analysis results show that there is no causal relation between budget deficits, budget deficit ratio to gross domestic product and nominal interest rate. Results reveal the existence of Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. Rational household predict that there is no difference between payment time of taxes and they know that expansionary fiscal policies financed by loan do not affect aggregate demand and capital allocation in a full-employment economy via nominal interest rate channel. Results of empirical analysis support Ricardian equivalence hypothesis and imply that there is no effect of financing type of budget deficit on nominal interest rate.

  4. An overview of the Clinton budget plan

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Altig; Jagadeesh Gokhale

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the allocative consequences of resource shifts that would result if the Clinton administration's budget plan is adopted, examining the timing and composition of both net outlay cuts and net revenue increases represented in the budget proposal, as well as the generational impact of each.

  5. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  6. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  7. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  8. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  9. Participatory Budgeting : Contents of CD Rom

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...

  10. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  11. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  12. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE... amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the..., including— (1) Projected amount to be spent on health services; (2) Projected amount to be spent...

  13. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  14. Budget management in the system of solving ecological contradictions of development of the national economy: territorial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushenko Mykola M.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses organisational and economic factors and forms a theoretical and methodical approach to budget management in the system of solving ecological contradictions of development of territorial systems of the national economy. The article justifies improvement of processes of managing budgets, directed at overcoming ecological contradictions, on the basis of conceptual provisions of the budgeting oriented at the result. It develops a scheme-model of the organisational and structu...

  15. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations and from simulated dry deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta. Uncertainties are calculated for each contribution of the budget.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions.The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that emission and deposition increase at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning of oxidized compounds account for 0 to 13% at the most at the annual scale, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization from soils. At the annual scale, the average gaseous dry deposition accounts for 47% of the total estimated deposition flux, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average estimated wet plus dry deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems is 7.5±1.8 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with approximately 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the rest attributed

  16. Conditional vorticity budget of coherent and incoherent flow contributions in fully developed homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Michael; Schneider, Kai; Friedrich, Rudolf; Farge, Marie; 10.1063/1.3694807

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the conditional vorticity budget of fully developed three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with respect to coherent and incoherent flow contributions. The Coherent Vorticity Extraction based on orthogonal wavelets allows to decompose the vorticity field into coherent and incoherent contributions, of which the latter are noise-like. The impact of the vortex structures observed in fully developed turbulence on statistical balance equations is quantified considering the conditional vorticity budget. The connection between the basic structures present in the flow and their statistical implications is thereby assessed. The results are compared to those obtained for large- and small-scale contributions using a Fourier decomposition, which reveals pronounced differences.

  17. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  18. Budget Deficits and Interest Rates: An Empirical Analysis for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tayfur BAYAT; Selim KAYHAN; Mehmet SENTURK

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze causality between budget deficits and its ratio to gross domestic product and interest rate in the Turkish economy during years between 2006 and 2011. By doing so, we investigate the validity of crowding out view against the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. To this end, we employee the conventional Toda-Yamamoto (1995) linear Granger type causality test and Hacker and Hatemi-J (2005, 2006) bootstrap process-based Toda-Yamamoto linear Gran...

  19. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  20. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  1. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  2. Income of Local Budgets as a Tool of Ensuring Powers of Self-Governance Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Lamskyy Maksym D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in the study, analysis and assessment of the state of income of local budgets. The article identifies main sources of income of local budgets in Ukraine and their importance in formation of main money funds of the local self-governance bodies. It studies problems of scantiness of the income part of budgets in the process of performance of powers by the local bodies of authority. It identifies and analyses changes and reforms after introduction of the Tax Code, whi...

  3. KINETIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE SYNGAS-TO-DME REACTION SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO PROCESS AND ECONOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-12-01

    syngas generation technologies (dry reforming, steam methane reforming and partial oxidation) were developed. The feasibility of these schemes was illustrated by simulations using realistic kinetics, thermodynamics, and commercial conditions. Finally, this report discusses the implications of the kinetic understanding and the resulting process schemes to the process economics. It was recognized that, for the overall process, the cost saving in the synthesis loop due to the reaction synergy is counteracted by the cost addition due to CO{sub 2} formation and the resulting costly separation.

  4. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  5. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  6. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  7. Large differences in the diabatic heat budget of the tropical UTLS in reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT and lower stratosphere (LS as simulated by five reanalysis models: MERRA, ERA-Interim, CFSR, JRA-25/JCDAS, and NCEP/NCAR. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Although they may be expected given difficulties in representing moist convection in models, the discrepancies in latent heating are still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention.

  8. Budget participation and informational asymmetry: a study in a multinational company

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda; Dalci Mendes Almeida

    2013-01-01

    .The objective of this study is to verify the influence of budgetary participation on the reduction of information asymmetry in the budget process in a multinational company, having taken for granted that the participatory budget minimizes information asymmetry. Therefore, descriptive research was carried out, in the form of a case study and qualitative type, through interviews and direct observation. The study was applied in a business unit of a multinational company that has the consolidate...

  9. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  10. The Proposed Homeland Security Budget for 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2012-01-01

    The Administration has proposed a budget of $69 billion for activities related to homeland security in 2013; 90 percent would be concentrated in the Departments of Homeland Security, Defense, Health and Human Services, and Justice.

  11. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vieira Borges

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea of the NW European continental shelf. The air-sea exchange of CO2 has been assessed as closing term of the budget. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the marine carbon cycle – is dominated by the carbon inputs from rivers, the Baltic Sea and the atmosphere. The dominant carbon sink is the final export to the North Atlantic Ocean. The North Sea acts as a sink for organic carbon. More than 90% of the CO2 taken up from the atmosphere is exported to the North Atlantic Ocean making the North Sea a highly efficient continental shelf pump for carbon.

  12. Dealing with food budget constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    How does an economic crisis influence food related practices? This study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed in Danish households as a consequence of experienced restraints on food budgets. The study applied a mixed method design. The qualitative data source...... consisted of interviews with 30 individuals from Danish households with different socio-economic characteristics, who experienced food budget constraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms...... of application of various types of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, first seemed to appear when food budget...

  13. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  14. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD...

  15. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  16. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD...

  17. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD...

  18. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  19. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  20. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  2. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  3. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, M; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent uncertainties in the divisions' revenues. Solutions are provided for specific cases and conclusions are drawn on different aspects of this issue based on analytical and numerical analysis of the results. From ...

  4. Funding Online Services From The Materials Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Jay Martin; St. Clair, Gloriana

    1986-01-01

    During this transitional time of decreasing library budgets and an increasing requirement for online services, it behooves librarians to consider all the possible sources for funding these new and demanded services. The information provided by an online search satisfies legitimate educational and research needs and should be funded with monies from the print materials budget. As automated information services become more prevalent, it is essential that libraries find permanent funding to supp...

  5. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan. PMID:19160746

  6. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9–3.5% in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr−1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1

  7. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC, including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002–2011, EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1PgC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. GATM was low in 2011

  8. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  9. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  10. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  11. Response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading: implications for ice-marginal and subglacial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Hampel, Andrea; Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2014-10-01

    During the past decades the effect of glacioisostatic adjustment has received much attention. However, the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading and unloading is poorly understood. Our study aims to test conceptual models of the interaction between ice-sheet loading and salt structures by finite-element modelling. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for ice-marginal and subglacial processes. Our models consist of 2D plane-strain cross-sections, which represent simplified geological cross-sections from the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic diapir and layer of salt and (iii) an elastoplastic basement. On top of the model, a temporarily variable pressure simulates the advance and retreat of an ice sheet. The durations of the individual loading phases were defined to resemble the durations of the Pleistocene ice advances in northern central Europe. The geometry and rheology of the model layers and the magnitude, spatial distribution and timing of ice-sheet loading were systematically varied to detect the controlling factors. All simulations indicate that salt structures respond to ice-sheet loading. An ice advance towards the diapir causes salt flow from the source layer below the ice sheet towards the diapir, resulting in an uplift of up to +4 m. The diapir continues to rise as long as the load is applied to the source layer but not to the crest of the diapir. When the diapir is transgressed by the ice sheet the diapir is pushed down (up to -36 m) as long as load is applied to the crest of the diapir. During and after ice unloading large parts of the displacement are compensated by a reversal of the salt flow. Plastic deformation of the overburden is restricted to the area immediately above the salt diapir. The displacements after unloading range between -3.1 and +2.7 m. Larger displacements are observed in models with deep-rooted diapirs

  12. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  13. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  14. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  15. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the mobile emissions budget contained in the maintenance plan for the horizon years 2015 and beyond adopted..., 1996. (b) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Richmond maintenance area adjusting the...

  17. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  18. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  19. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  20. What Is Your Budget Saying about Your Library?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leslie; Strouse, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses budgeting for corporate libraries and how to keep budgets from getting cut. Topics include whether the budget is considered corporate overhead; recovering costs; models for content cost recovery; showing return on library investment; marketing library value to senior management; user needs and satisfaction; and comparing budgets to other…

  1. AGRICULTURE, THE STRUCTURAL FUNDS AND THE BUDGET AFTER ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rollo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine how the legacy of the, often bruising, negotiations at Copenhagen and subsequently over agriculture will affect the political economy of the European Union and specifically the challenges facing the CAP, the Structural Funds in the next decade. The EU Budget for the remainder of the 2000-2006 Framework was fixed by the EU-15 at the Brussels Summit of October 2002 (European Council, 2002b and is very unlikely to change. That is why the first real battle over resources engaging the new members will turn out to be the Financial Framework post 2006. This article will discuss the general context, before examining agriculture policy and structural funds after Copenhagen summit and finally the implications for the next Financial Framework.

  2. Energy budget in collimated gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of collimation in some, if not most, of the gamma-ray bursts. This would have direct implications, for instance, on the energy budget, the rate of events, but also indirect consequences for the theoretical models because it provides a tool to differentiate between their predictions. We consider the case of a structured jet, i.e. we assume the energy within the jet varies as a power-law, being a function of the angle between the jet axis and an arbitrary direction. We analyze first the situation in which the jet axis and the line of sight have a particular orientation, then we relax this assumption by allowing for an arbitrary viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis of the jet. A qualitative study of the total energy content of the jet is performed. It turns out that the 'real' energy could be higher than what is inferred from observations. (authors)

  3. Income of Local Budgets as a Tool of Ensuring Powers of Self-Governance Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamskyy Maksym D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study, analysis and assessment of the state of income of local budgets. The article identifies main sources of income of local budgets in Ukraine and their importance in formation of main money funds of the local self-governance bodies. It studies problems of scantiness of the income part of budgets in the process of performance of powers by the local bodies of authority. It identifies and analyses changes and reforms after introduction of the Tax Code, which did not provide solution of the issue of sufficiency of the income part of the financial resource of local self-governance. In the result of the study the article gives recommendations with respect to a possibility of expansion of the income base of local budgets for financing both the social and economic directions by local authorities. It develops specific proposals on strengthening the financial base of regions.

  4. On Standards of Budget Funding and Adjusting the Fees in State Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Klyachko; Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the implications of the financial regulations implementing a state order (standards of budget financing based on one student) in the higher education system and the use of them to regulate fees in the universities. It is demonstrated that the establishment of standards in the field of budgetary financing (field of study) does not allow to pay attention to differences in historical property complexes, schools, differences in socio-economic position of the Russian Federation ...

  5. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  6. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  7. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  8. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mnasri, Mejda; Ghabriche, Rim; Fourati, Emna; Zaier, Hanen; Sabally, Kebba; Barrington, Suzelle; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 μM Cd, 100 μM Ni and the combination of 50 μM Cd + 100 μM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected pl...

  9. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected pla...

  10. An Analysis of the Managerial Responsibilities and Educational Needs of Word Processing Managers with Implications for Future Word Processing Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the perceived managerial preparedness of word processing managers in selected Ohio businesses and compared the findings with current literature, word processing curricula in two-and four-year colleges and universities, and the curricular elements in the IBM Word Processing Managers' Seminar. Developed specific training topics for word…

  11. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  12. The Collaborative Financial Budget Management in Colleges and Universities%高校协作型财务预算管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵善庆

    2011-01-01

    The types of colleges and universities' budget consist of many forms such as summary-type, block-type, down-up type, up-down and collaborative type budget. The main points of the implementation of collaborative budget management in- clude budgeting method, budgeting process, budgeting communication, budget amount determination, fair and clear budget, bud- get control and management, budget schedule and budget evaluation etc. Each part should be linked together so as to achieve the goal of the budget management.%高校预算编制的类型有汇总型预算、分块型预算、自下而上型预算、自上而下型预算、协作型预算等方式,实施协作型预算管理的要点主要包括预算编制方法、预算编制程序、预算编制沟通、预算金额确定、预算公平透明、预算控制管理、预算执行进度、预算考核评价等,必须环环相扣,才能达到预算管理的目的。

  13. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnasri, Mejda; Ghabriche, Rim; Fourati, Emna; Zaier, Hanen; Sabally, Kebba; Barrington, Suzelle; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 μM Cd, 100 μM Ni and the combination of 50 μM Cd + 100 μM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants subjected to individual metal application than those subjected to the combined effect of Cd and Ni suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However, a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species. PMID:25821455

  14. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  15. Night Heron Time Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  16. ‘Base of the pyramid’ markets as incubators for innovations : Implications for innovation processes of internationally operating companies

    OpenAIRE

    Höfling, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    This thesis identifies the enabling factors that are relevant for a company’s BoP innovation process. It aims at visualizing differences and challenges of BoP innovation processes in contrast to generic innovation processes. A literature review which was conducted first identified seven enabling factors for generic innovation processes: customer orientation, rigorous planning & early specification, pre-development activities, formalized project selection, functional competence & cross...

  17. 1985 nuclear budget requests up 12 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimates of government agencies for the fiscal 1985 nuclear-related budget were presented to the Ministry of Finance, which amount to 343.76 billion yen (up 12.1 %). The budgetary requests by the Science and Technology Agency are 179.24 billion yen in the general account and 90.21 billion yen in the special account for power resource development, and the budgetary requests by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are 1.03 billion yen and 70.08 billion yen, respectively. The budget demands by the STA, which supervises Power Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc. are for the continuation of current projects, including the beginning of the construction of the prototype FBR Monju and the neutral beam injector for the fusion device JT-60. The budget demands by MITI are similarly for the safety measures and verification tests for nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  18. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  19. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  20. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    -per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... that centralizes decisions making. A centralization cascade is identi-fied, as the Ministry of Finance enhances more power and control the ministries more frequent and more in the depth, as a result of this parent ministries have to control their agencies more frequent and much more detailed than before, which...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...