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Sample records for budget micropatterned electrode

  1. GEMs with Double Layred Micropattern Electrodes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A.; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Peskov, V.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    We have developed and tested several new designs of GEM detectors with micropattern electrodes manufactured by microelectronic technology. In one design, the inner layer of the detector electrode consists of thin metallic strips and the outer layer is made of a resistive grid manufactured by a screen printing technology. In other designs, the electrodes were made of metallic strips fed by HV via micro-resistors manufactured by a screen printing technology. Due to these features, the new detectors have several important advantages over conventional GEMs or ordinary thick GEMs. For example, the resistive grid (in the first design) and the screen printed resistors (in other designs) limited the current in case of discharges, making these detectors intrinsically spark-protected. We will here describe our tests with the photosensitive versions of these detectors (coated with CsI layers) and the efforts of implementing them in several applications. In particular, we will focus on our activity towards the ALICE RICH...

  2. "Imaging" LEIS of micro-patterned solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, John; Simrick, Neil; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the kinetics of oxygen exchange between the gas phase and a ceramic electrode is key to optimising the performance of electrochemical energy conversion devices such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Clearly the surface chemistry of these materials is important, and surface sensitive techniques such as Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) can provide important compositional information key to unravelling electrode kinetics. In this work, we use high lateral resolution LEIS to perform local analyses of a micropatterned electrode structure, of the type often used for studies of the geometrical dependences of electrode performance. We find that the results are comparable to those for bulk materials, but detect evidence of cation interdiffusion from the electrode to the electrolyte. Finally, we note that this preliminary study could open the prospect of in situ measurements of cells near operating conditions.

  3. “Imaging” LEIS of micro-patterned solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, John, E-mail: john.druce@i2cner.kyushu-u.ac.jp [International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (wpi-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Simrick, Neil [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Ishihara, Tatsumi [International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (wpi-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kilner, John [International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (wpi-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the kinetics of oxygen exchange between the gas phase and a ceramic electrode is key to optimising the performance of electrochemical energy conversion devices such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Clearly the surface chemistry of these materials is important, and surface sensitive techniques such as Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) can provide important compositional information key to unravelling electrode kinetics. In this work, we use high lateral resolution LEIS to perform local analyses of a micropatterned electrode structure, of the type often used for studies of the geometrical dependences of electrode performance. We find that the results are comparable to those for bulk materials, but detect evidence of cation interdiffusion from the electrode to the electrolyte. Finally, we note that this preliminary study could open the prospect of in situ measurements of cells near operating conditions.

  4. The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutija, Dave P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-12-01

    A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

  5. Micropatterned Carbon-on-Quartz Electrode Chips for Photocurrent Generation from Thylakoid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, Ada-Ioana; Heiskanen, Arto R.; Pankratova, Galina

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting the energy generated by photosynthetic organisms through light-dependent reactions is a significant step towards a sustainable future energy supply. Thylakoid membranes are the site of photosynthesis, and thus particularly suited for developing photo-bioelectrochemical cells. Novel ele......]+/2+) are used for evaluating photocurrent generation from thylakoid membranes with different electrode geometries. Current densities up to 71 µA cm-2 are measured upon illumination through the transparent electrode chip with solar simulated irradiance (1000 W m-2)....... electrode materials and geometries could potentially improve the efficiency of energy harvesting using thylakoid membranes. For commercial applications, electrodes with large surface areas are needed. Photolithographic patterning of a photoresist, followed by pyrolysis, is a flexible and fast approach...

  6. Tailoring the electrode-electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) by laser micro-patterning to improve their electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebollero, J. A.; Lahoz, R.; Laguna-Bercero, M. A.; Larrea, A.

    2017-08-01

    Cathode activation polarisation is one of the main contributions to the losses of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. To reduce this loss we use a pulsed laser to modify the surface of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes to make a corrugated micro-patterning in the mesoscale. The beam of the laser source, 5 ns pulse width and emitting at λ = 532 nm (green region), is computer-controlled to engrave the selected micro-pattern on the electrolyte surface. Several laser scanning procedures and geometries have been tested. Finally, we engrave a square array with 28 μm of lattice parameter and 7 μm in depth on YSZ plates. With these plates we prepare LSM-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ symmetrical cells (LSM: La1-xSrxMnO3) and determine their activation polarisation by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). To get good electrode-electrolyte contact after sintering it is necessary to use pressure-assisted sintering with low loads (about 5 kPa), which do not modify the electrode microstructure. The decrease in polarisation with respect to an unprocessed cell is about 30%. EIS analysis confirms that the reason for this decrease is an improvement in the activation processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  7. Development of innovative micro-pattern gaseous detectors with resistive electrodes and first results of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Peskov, Vladimir; Periale, L; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rodionov, I; Santiard, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes our latest progress in the development of newly introduced micro pattern gaseous detectors with resistive electrodes. These resistive electrodes protect the detector and the front-end electronics in case of occasional discharges and thus make the detectors very robust and reliable in operation. As an example, we describe in greater detail a new recently developed GEM-like detector, fully spark-protected with electrodes made of resistive kapton. We discovered that all resistive layers used in these studies (including kapton), that are coated with photosensitive layers, such as CsI, can be used as efficient photo cathodes for detectors operating in a pulse counting mode. We describe the first applications of such detectors combined with CsI or SbCs photo cathodes for the detection of UV photons at room and cryogenic temperatures.

  8. Progress in micro-pattern gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, Ronaldo

    2001-01-01

    Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors are position-sensitive proportional counters whose sense electrodes are constructed using micro-electronics , thin-film or advanced PCB techniques.The feature size attainable using these methods is of the order of a few microns and the detectors demonstrate excellent spatial resolution and fast charge collection. I will review recent progress on Micro patterned Gas Detectors for tracking and other cross-disciplinary applications.I will focus on the design principles,performance capability and limitations. A short list of interesting applications will be discussed

  9. Developing and evaluating new micropattern gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) were introduced in the late 1980s in order to overcome the limited rate capability of traditional proportional counters. Thanks to their microscopic electrode structures, MPGDs are faster and more precise than the previous gas detectors and soon gained popularity. Two of the most successful MPGDs are the gas electron multiplier (GEM) and the micro-mesh gaseous structure (Micromegas). In this thesis I present the features of GEMs and Micromegas, some of their current applications and the research and development that I have done on these technologies. My activity covered two main topics: the test and enhancement of single-mask GEMs for large-area applications and the study of spark-tolerant Micromegas for the upgrade of the ATLAS Small Wheels.

  10. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Diekhans, Justin; Steward, Malia; Bakr, Osman; Choi, Seungkeun

    2016-01-01

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. A facile micropatterning method for a highly flexible PEDOT:PSS on SU-8

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-04-17

    We report the micropatterning of conducting polymer on the epoxy-based photoresist to demonstrate fully organic, conducting and flexible electrodes. We show that polystyrene sulfonic acid can be covalently linked to the surface of the photoresist (SU-8) by forming sulfonyl ester at the interfaces. We also present an application of the patterned PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate)/SU-8 to the electroplating of metal electrodes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  12. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Maggi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive electrodes. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4 - 10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as applications outside particle physics.

  13. SU-8 micropatterning for microfluidic droplet and microparticle focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuisson, Damien; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate micropatterned surfaces consisting of concentric circles and spirals which can focus an evaporating sessile droplet to a specific location on a surface. We also study the micropattern geometry to focus microparticles contained within the droplet. The micropatterned surfaces are fabricated using the photoresist SU-8. Our process enables the modification of the surface wetting via the formation of smooth trench-like defects in the SU-8 which define the micropatterns; the geometry of these micropatterns determines the droplet/microparticle focusing. It is clearly shown that the introduction of small gaps into the micropatterns promotes microparticle centring due to the modification of the depinning angle of the droplet. We also show that the use of spiral micropatterns promotes microparticle centring. Finally, microparticle focusing can be enhanced by modification of surface wetting via the addition of a thin fluorocarbon hydrophobic layer onto the SU-8

  14. R&D on a new type of micropattern gaseous detector: The Fast Timing Micropattern detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Abbrescia, M. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Akl, M. Abi [Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Aboamer, O. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egyptian Network of High Energy Physics, ASRT-ENHEP, Cairo (Egypt); Acosta, D. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Ahmad, A. [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, W. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Aleksandrov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Altieri, P. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Asawatangtrakuldee, C. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Aspell, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Assran, Y. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egyptian Network of High Energy Physics, ASRT-ENHEP, Cairo (Egypt); Awan, I. [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bally, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ban, Y. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Banerjee, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Barashko, V. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Barria, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Bencze, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2017-02-11

    This contribution introduces a new type of Micropattern Gaseous Detector, the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, utilizing fully Resistive WELL structures. The structure of the prototype will be described in detail and the results of the characterization study performed with an X-ray gun will be presented, together with the first results on time resolution based on data collected with muon/pion test beams.

  15. Micropatterning on glass with deep UV

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Nicolas CARPI, Matthieu PIEL, Ammar Azioune & Jenny Fink ### Abstract This protocol describes a method to print micropatterns on glass with extra-cellular matrix proteins to promote cell adhesion. The non-adhesive part is made with polylysine grafted polyethyleneglycol (PLL-g-PEG). This technique is reproducible, cheap, fast and can achieve high resolution (~1 µm). ### Introduction This protocol explains how to make high resolution adhesive micropattens of protein...

  16. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyuha; Kim, A-Young; Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO 4 salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode

  17. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuha [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, A-Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode.

  18. Cell Migration According to Shape of Graphene Oxide Micropatterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Photolithography is a unique process that can effectively manufacture micro/nano-sized patterns on various substrates. On the other hand, the meniscus-dragging deposition (MDD process can produce a uniform surface of the substrate. Graphene oxide (GO is the oxidized form of graphene that has high hydrophilicity and protein absorption. It is widely used in biomedical fields such as drug delivery, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. Herein, we fabricated uniform GO micropatterns via MDD and photolithography. The physicochemical properties of the GO micropatterns were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, cell migration on the GO micropatterns was investigated, and the difference in cell migration on triangle and square GO micropatterns was examined for their effects on cell migration. Our results demonstrated that the GO micropatterns with a desired shape can be finely fabricated via MDD and photolithography. Moreover, it was revealed that the shape of GO micropatterns plays a crucial role in cell migration distance, speed, and directionality. Therefore, our findings suggest that the GO micropatterns can serve as a promising biofunctional platform and cell-guiding substrate for applications to bioelectric devices, cell-on-a-chip, and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  19. Subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Sautter, Ken; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2009-02-03

    Here we present a straightforward patterning technique for silicon: subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS). In this method, a stencil mask is placed above a silicon surface. Radio-frequency plasma oxidation of the substrate creates a pattern of thicker oxide in the exposed regions. Etching with HF or KOH produces very shallow or much higher aspect ratio features on silicon, respectively, where patterning is confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The oxidation process itself is studied under a variety of reaction conditions, including higher and lower oxygen pressures (2 and 0.5 Torr), a variety of powers (50-400 W), different times and as a function of reagent purity (99.5 or 99.994% oxygen). SOMS can be easily executed in any normal chemistry laboratory with a plasma generator. Because of its simplicity, it may have industrial viability.

  20. Micropatterned substrates for studying astrocytes in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the physiological roles of astrocytes have ignited renewed interest in the functional significance of these glial cells in the central nervous system. Many of the newly discovered astrocytic functions were initially demonstrated and characterized in cell culture systems. We discuss the use of microculture techniques and micropatterning of cell-adhesive substrates in studies of astrocytic Ca2+ excitability and bidirectional neuron-astrocyte signaling. This culturing approach aims to reduce the level of complexity of the system by limiting the interacting partners and by controlling the localization of cells. It provides tight control over experimental conditions allowing detailed characterization of cellular functions and intercellular communication. Although such a reductionist approach yields some difference in observations between astrocytic properties in culture and in situ, general phenomena discovered in cell culture systems, however, have also been found in vivo.

  1. The study and fabrication of DLC micropattern on roll mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Dong; Park, Yeong Min; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Jin Kon; Kim, Tae Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is becoming a promising protective coating layers due to its superior properties. In this study, instead of protective coating, DLC film was applied as the only component for micropattern then etched with lithography and lift-off process selectively. Furthermore, DLC film has been fabricated on aluminum roll mold. Then UV curing resin was applied to form the pattern on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The dimension and formation of the DLC micropattern on roll mold were analyzed. Moreover, the Raman spectroscopic of nitrogen-doped DLC film was analyzed.

  2. Adhesive Micropatterns for Cells: A Microcontact Printing Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Manuel Théry and Matthieu Piel Corresponding authors ([](); []()) ### INTRODUCTION This protocol describes a simple, fast, and efficient method for making adhesive micropatterns that can be used to control individual cell shape and adhesion patterns. It is based on the use of an elastomeric stamp containing microfeatures to print proteins on the substrate of choice. The process can be subdiv...

  3. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  4. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  5. Micropatterning of a nanoporous alumina membrane with poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to create cellular micropatterns on nanotopographic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Kim, Dae Nyun; Park, Saemi; Lee, Yeol; Koh, Won-Gun

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple method for fabricating micropatterned nanoporous substrates that are capable of controlling the spatial positioning of mammalian cells. Micropatterned substrates were prepared by fabricating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microstructures on alumina membranes with 200 nm nanopores using photolithography. Because hydrogel precursor solution could infiltrate and become crosslinked within the nanopores, the resultant hydrogel micropatterns were firmly anchored on the substrate without the use of adhesion-promoting monolayers, thereby allow tailoring of the surface properties of unpatterned nanoporous areas. For mammalian cell patterning, arrays of microwells of different dimensions were fabricated. These microwells were composed of hydrophilic PEG hydrogel walls surrounding nanoporous bottoms that were modified with cell-adhesive Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides. Because the PEG hydrogel was non-adhesive towards proteins and cells, cells adhered selectively and remained viable within the RGD-modified nanoporous regions, thereby creating cellular micropatterns. Although the morphology of cell clusters and the number of cells inside one microwell were dependent on the lateral dimension of the microwells, adhered cells that were in direct contact with nanopores were able to penetrate into the nanopores by small extensions (filopodia) for all the different sizes of microwells evaluated. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon nanoparticle doped micro-patternable nano-composites for wearable sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    scale micropatterning of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite polymer on highly flexible 12×24 inch substrates. Proc. SPIE 7926, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology XVI, 79260L (February 15, 2011); doi:10.1117/12.876738. 6. A. Khosla, and Bonnie L. Gray. "(Invited) Micropatternable Multifunctional Nanocomposite Polymers for Flexible Soft NEMS and MEMS Applications." ECS Transactions 45.3 (2012): 477-494. doi: 10.1149/1.3700913 7. Khosla, Ajit. "Nanoparticle-doped electrically-conducting polymers for flexible nano-micro Systems." Electrochemical Society Interface 21.3-4 (2012): 67-70. 8. Ajit Khosla; Smart garments in chronic disease management: progress and challenges. Proc. SPIE 8548, Nanosystems in Engineering and Medicine, 85482O (October 24, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.979667. 9. D. Chung ; A. Khosla ; B. L. Gray; Screen printable flexible conductive nanocomposite polymer with applications to wearable sensors. Proc. SPIE 9060, Nanosensors, Biosensors, and Info-Tech Sensors and Systems 2014, 90600U (April 16, 2014); doi:10.1117/12.2046548. 10. Daehan Chung ; Sam Seyfollahi ; Ajit Khosla ; Bonnie Gray ; Ash Parameswaran ; Ramani Ramaseshan ; Kirpal Kohli; Initial experiments with flexible conductive electrodes for potential applications in cancer tissue screening. Proc. SPIE 7929, Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems IX, 79290Z (February 14, 2011); doi:10.1117/12.875563. 11. A. Khosla ; B. L. Gray; New technologies for large-scale micropatterning of functional nanocomposite polymers. Proc. SPIE 8344, Nanosensors, Biosensors, and Info-Tech Sensors and Systems 2012, 83440W (April 26, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.915178. 12. A. Khosla, B.L. Gray, Preparation, characterization and micromolding of multi-walled carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxane conducting nanocomposite polymer, Materials Letters, Volume 63, Issues 13-14, 31 May 2009, Pages 1203-1206, ISSN 0167-577X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2009.02.043. 13. Giassa

  7. Cell micro-patterning by atom beam exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taiji; Kajita, Fumiaki; Sato, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Koshi; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new cell micro-patterning method by controlling material surface affinity of the cell using atomic oxygen beam exposure. Surfaces of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene (FEP) were exposed to the atomic oxygen beam. On the LDPE surface, the roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) did not change much, however, the oxygen concentration on the surface measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) significantly increased that resulted in increase in wettability. Contrary to this, on the FEP surface, the oxygen concentration showed no significant change, but roughness of the surface remarkably increased and the wettability decreased. As a result of the surface modification, affinity of the osteoblastic cells on the FEP surface increased, which was also confirmed by increase in the cell area. Finally, cell micro-patterning on the FEP surface was carried out based on difference in the affinity between modified and unmodified surfaces patterned by masking method. (author)

  8. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Agata M; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina S C; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena L-M; Vancso, Julius G

    2014-08-05

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical surface modifications present promising approaches to the design of novel functional surfaces that can prevent biofouling phenomena. In this study, we report the synergistic effects of surface patterns, inspired by the marine decapod crab Myomenippe hardwickii in combination with chemical surface modifications toward suppressing marine fouling. M. hardwickii is known to maintain a relatively clean carapace although the species occurs in biofouling communities of tropical shallow subtidal coastal waters. Following the surface analysis of selected specimens, we designed hierarchical surface microtopographies that replicate the critical features observed on the crustacean surface. The micropatterned surfaces were modified with zwitterionic polymer brushes or with layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers to enhance their antifouling and/or fouling-release potential. Chemically modified and unmodified micropatterned surfaces were subjected to extensive fouling tests, including laboratory assays against barnacle settlement and algae adhesion, and field static immersion tests. The results show a statistically significant reduction in settlement on the micropatterned surfaces as well as a synergistic effect when the microtopographies are combined with grafted polymer chains.

  9. Cell behaviors on micro-patterned porous thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phong, Ho Quoc; Wang Shuling; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2010-01-01

    Thin polymer films with patterned surfaces have drawn tremendous attention in manufacturing advanced electronic, mechanical devices and in biomaterials due to the advantageous properties such as mechanical strength, chemical resistance and optic transparency. The applications can be extended to the fields such as catalysts, antireflection coatings, template for inorganic growth masks, and substrates for cell culturing providing the patterned surface containing micron-sized features. Various methods have been used to fabricate polymers with micro-patterned surfaces such as photolithographic, ink-jet printing, nonsolvent, spin coating in a dry environment, self-organization, and the condensation of monodisperse water droplet on the polymer solution. The physiological functions of mature cells depend on the microenvironment/niche surrounding which can provide proper factors to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. While designing appropriate scaffolds for tissue engineering, the microstructure is one of the most important factors to be considered. In this work, a facile single-step phase separation method was used to create micro-patterned polymer thin films with concaves or convexes with sizes ranged from 7 to 70 μm. The effects of water content, casting volume and the addition of surfactant on the distribution of pores and substrate morphology were examined. Moreover, detailed observations of fibroblast cells on the micro-patterned thin films were presented to compare and elucidate the roles of surface micro-features and chemical functionalities.

  10. R and D on a New Technology of Micro-pattern Gaseous Detectors Fast Timing Micro-pattern Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    After the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned for the second and the third Long Shutdown (LS), the LHC luminosity will approach very high values. Such conditions will affect the performance of the CMS muon system, especially in the very forward region, due to the harsh expected background environment and high pile-up conditions. The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region to take advantage of the pixel tracking coverage extension a new detector, ME0 station, possibly behind the new forward calorimeter. New resistive micro-pattern gaseous detectors that are able to handle the very demanding spatial, time resolution and rate capability, are being considered. In this contribution we introduce a new type of MPGD technology the Fast Timing Micro-pattern (FTM) detector, utilizing a fully resistive WELL structure. It consists of a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure, yielding a significant improvement in timing p...

  11. Elsevier R&D on a new type of micropattern gaseous detector: The Fast Timing Micropattern detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Abbrescia, M; Abi Akl, M; Aboamer, O; Acosta, D; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Aleksandrov, A; Altieri, P; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Awan, I; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barashko, V; Barria, P; Bencze, G; Beni, N; Benussi, L; Bhopatkar, V; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bouhali, O; Braghieri, A; Braibant, S; Buontempo, S; Calabria, C; Caponero, M; Caputo, C; Cassese, F; Castaneda, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Cavallo, F R; Celik, A; Choi, M; Choi, S; Christiansen, J; Cimmino, A; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; Czellar, S; Dabrowski, M M; De Lentdecker, G; Oliveira, R De; De Robertis, G; Dildick, S; Dorney, B; Endroczi, G; Errico, F; Fallavollita, F; Fenyvesi, A; Ferry, S; Furic, I; Giacomelli, P; Gilmore, J; Golovtsov, V; Guiducci, L; Guilloux, F; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R M; Hauser, J; Hoepfner, K; Hohlmann, M; Hoorani, H; Iaydjiev, P; Jeng, Y G; Kamon, T; Karchin, P; Korytov, A; Krutelyov, S; Kumar, A; Kim, H; Lee, J; Lenzi, T; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Madorsky, A; Maerschalk, T; Maggi, M; Magnani, A; Mal, P K; Mandal, K; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Majumdar, N; Merlin, J A; Mitselmakher, G; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, A; Molnar, J; Muhammad, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Naimuddin, M; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Pant, L M; Paolucci, P; Park, I; Passeggio, G; Pavlov, B; Philipps, B; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Puig Baranac, A; Radi, A; Radogna, R; Raffone, G; Ranieri, A; Rashevski, G; Ressegotti, M; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, M; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; RoyChowdhury, S; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Salva, S; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, R; Shah, A H; Shopova, M; Sturdy, J; Sultanov, G; Swain, S K; Szillasi, Z; Talvitie, J; Tatarinov, A; Tuuva, T; Tytgat, M; Vai, I; Van Stenis, M; Venditti, R; Verhagen, E; Verwilligen, P; Vitulo, P; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Wang, D; Wang, M; Yang, U; Yang, Y; Yonamine, R; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zhang, A

    2017-01-01

    Micropattern gaseous detectors (MPGD) underwent significant upgrades in recent years, introducing resistive materials to build compact spark-protected devices. Exploiting this technology further, various features such as space and time resolution, rate capability, sensitive area, operational stability and radiation hardness can be improved. This contribution introduces a new type of MPGD, namely the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, utilizing a fully resistive WELL structure. It consists of a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure, yielding a significant improvement in timing properties due to competing ionization processes in the different drift regions. Two FTM prototypes have been developed so far. The first one is uWELL-like, where multiplication takes place in the holes of a kapton foil covered on both sides with resistive material. The second one has a resistive Micromegas-like structure, with multiplication developing in a region del...

  12. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  13. Micropatterning of Functional Conductive Polymers with Multiple Surface Chemistries in Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Acikgöz, Canet; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2012-01-01

    A versatile procedure is presented for fast and efficient micropatterning of multiple types of covalently bound surface chemistry in perfect register on and between conductive polymer microcircuits. The micropatterning principle is applied to several types of native and functionalized PEDOT (poly(3...... functionalized conjugated polymer systems....

  14. Precise micropatterning of silver nanoparticles on plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammosova, Lena; Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: tapani.pakkanen@uef.fi

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Silver ink has been deposited on plastic substrate and silver nanoparticles have been produced. • 3D control allows both ink superimposing and deposition on complicated surfaces. • Polyol method ensures the formation of metallic mircopatterns with high uniformity. • Substrate wettability, ink volume, and sintering temperature influences deposited patterns. - Abstract: Conventional fabrication methods to obtain metal patterns on polymer substrates are restricted by high operating temperature and complex preparation steps. The present study demonstrates a simple yet versatile method for preparation of silver nanoparticle micropatterns on polymer substrates with various surface geometry. With the microworking robot technique, we were able not only to directly structure the surface, but also precisely deposit silver nanoparticle ink on the desired surface location with the minimum usage of ink material. The prepared silver nanoparticle ink, containing silver cations and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reducing agent, yields silver nanoparticle micropatterns on plastic substrates at low sintering temperature without any contamination. The influence of the ink behaviour was studied, such as substrate wettability, ink volume, and sintering temperature. The ultraviolet visible (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements revealed the formation of micropatterns with uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles. The prepared patterns are expected to have a broad range of applications in optics, medicine, and sensor devices owing to the unique properties of silver. Furthermore, the deposition of a chemical compound, which is different from the substrate material, not only adds a fourth dimension to the prestructured three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, but also opens new application areas to the conventional surface structures.

  15. Precise micropatterning of silver nanoparticles on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosova, Lena; Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver ink has been deposited on plastic substrate and silver nanoparticles have been produced. • 3D control allows both ink superimposing and deposition on complicated surfaces. • Polyol method ensures the formation of metallic mircopatterns with high uniformity. • Substrate wettability, ink volume, and sintering temperature influences deposited patterns. - Abstract: Conventional fabrication methods to obtain metal patterns on polymer substrates are restricted by high operating temperature and complex preparation steps. The present study demonstrates a simple yet versatile method for preparation of silver nanoparticle micropatterns on polymer substrates with various surface geometry. With the microworking robot technique, we were able not only to directly structure the surface, but also precisely deposit silver nanoparticle ink on the desired surface location with the minimum usage of ink material. The prepared silver nanoparticle ink, containing silver cations and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reducing agent, yields silver nanoparticle micropatterns on plastic substrates at low sintering temperature without any contamination. The influence of the ink behaviour was studied, such as substrate wettability, ink volume, and sintering temperature. The ultraviolet visible (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements revealed the formation of micropatterns with uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles. The prepared patterns are expected to have a broad range of applications in optics, medicine, and sensor devices owing to the unique properties of silver. Furthermore, the deposition of a chemical compound, which is different from the substrate material, not only adds a fourth dimension to the prestructured three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, but also opens new application areas to the conventional surface structures.

  16. Innovative applications and developments of micro-pattern gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Francke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Study of nature and the world around us has been a primary motivation for scientists and researchers for centuries. Advanced methods in the study of elementary particles have led to even greater discoveries in recent years. "Innovative Applications and Developments of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors" focuses on the analysis and use of various gas detection systems, providing a detailed description of some of the most commonly used gas detectors and the science behind them. From early detectors to modern tools and techniques, this book will be of particular use to practitioners and researchers in chemical engineering and materials science, in addition to students and academicians concentrating in the field.

  17. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  18. Micro-CAT with redundant electrodes (CATER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F.D. van den; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-rate X-ray or neutron counting introduces the problem of hit multiplicity when 2D position reconstruction is demanded. Implementation of a third readout electrode having a different angle than the anode or cathode allows to eliminate multiplicity problems. We present experimental results of a new type of gas-filled micro-patterned radiation detector, called 'Compteur a Trous a Electrodes Redondantes (CATER)', that disposes of such an extra readout channel in the form of a ring-shaped electrode that is positioned between the anode and the cathode. The ionic signal is shared between the ring-electrode and the cathode strip in a way that can be controlled by their potential difference. We observe a strong signal dependence on the drift field, which can be understood by the reduced transparency for the primary charge at high drift fields

  19. Self-organization of human embryonic stem cells on micropatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Etoc, Fred; Guerra, M. Cecilia; Martyn, Iain; Metzger, Jakob; Ruzo, Albert; Simunovic, Mijo; Yoney, Anna; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Siggia, Eric; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2018-01-01

    Fate allocation in the gastrulating embryo is spatially organized as cells differentiate to specialized cell types depending on their positions with respect to the body axes. There is a need for in vitro protocols that allow the study of spatial organization associated with this developmental transition. While embryoid bodies and organoids can exhibit some spatial organization of differentiated cells, these methods do not yield consistent and fully reproducible results. Here, we describe a micropatterning approach where human embryonic stem cells are confined to disk-shaped, sub-millimeter colonies. After 42 hours of BMP4 stimulation, cells form self-organized differentiation patterns in concentric radial domains, which express specific markers associated with the embryonic germ layers, reminiscent of gastrulating embryos. Our protocol takes 3 days; it uses commercial microfabricated slides (CYTOO), human laminin-521 (LN-521) as extra-cellular matrix coating, and either conditioned or chemically-defined medium (mTeSR). Differentiation patterns within individual colonies can be determined by immunofluorescence and analyzed with cellular resolution. Both the size of the micropattern and the type of medium affect the patterning outcome. The protocol is appropriate for personnel with basic stem cell culture training. This protocol describes a robust platform for quantitative analysis of the mechanisms associated with pattern formation at the onset of gastrulation. PMID:27735934

  20. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  1. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  2. Formation of controllable polymer micropatterns through liquid film electro-dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shangru; Zheng, Huai; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Controllable polymer micropatterns, served as indispensable function structures, are extensively required in many micro/nano scientific areas and engineering applications. Exploring advanced methods of fabricating micropatterns is always a research hotspot. In this article, we introduce a novel method of patterning polymer by the electro-dewetting induced by corona discharge. For the first time, it is observed experimentally that liquid polymer on conductive/non-conductive patterned substrates, spontaneously converges from non-conductive areas to conductive areas under the action of ion wind. Taking advantage of such a flow phenomenon, controllable polymer micropatterns including microbump arrays and microwell arrays are fabricated successfully. Their sizes range from hundreds of microns to millimeters. Micropattern surfaces present an ultra-smooth characteristic, with roughness in the nanometer range.

  3. Preparation and surface characterization of plasma-treated and biomolecular-micropatterned polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langowski, Bryan Alfred

    A micropatterning process creates distinct microscale domains on substrate surfaces that differ from the surfaces' original chemical/physical properties. Numerous micropatterning methods exist, each having relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, ease, reproducibility, and versatility. Polymeric surfaces micropatterned with biomolecules have many applications, but are specifically utilized in tissue engineering as cell scaffolds that attempt to controlled tissue generation in vivo and ex vivo. As the physical and chemical cues presented by micropatterned substrates control resulting cellular behavior, characterization of these cues via surface-sensitive analytical techniques is essential in developing cell scaffolds that mimic complex in vivo physicochemical environments. The initial focus of this thesis is the chemical and physical characterization of plasma-treated, microcontact-printed (muCP) polymeric substrates used to direct nerve cell behavior. Unmodified and oxygen plasma-treated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates were analyzed by surface sensitive techniques to monitor plasma-induced chemical and physical modifications. Additionally, protein-micropattern homogeneity and size were microscopically evaluated. Lastly, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and contaminated PMMA substrates were characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic methods to identify a contamination source during microcontact printing. The final focus of this thesis is the development of microscale plasma-initiated patterning (muPIP) as a versatile, reproducible micropatterning method. Using muPIP, polymeric substrates were micropatterned with several biologically relevant inks. Polymeric substrates were characterized following muPIP by surface-sensitive techniques to identify the technique's underlying physical and chemical bases. In addition, neural stem cell response to muPIP-generated laminin micropatterns was microscopically and biologically evaluated

  4. Methods of Micropatterning and Manipulation of Cells for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martinez-Rivas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Micropatterning and manipulation of mammalian and bacterial cells are important in biomedical studies to perform in vitro assays and to evaluate biochemical processes accurately, establishing the basis for implementing biomedical microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS, point-of-care (POC devices, or organs-on-chips (OOC, which impact on neurological, oncological, dermatologic, or tissue engineering issues as part of personalized medicine. Cell patterning represents a crucial step in fundamental and applied biological studies in vitro, hence today there are a myriad of materials and techniques that allow one to immobilize and manipulate cells, imitating the 3D in vivo milieu. This review focuses on current physical cell patterning, plus chemical and a combination of them both that utilizes different materials and cutting-edge micro-nanofabrication methodologies.

  5. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive coating. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4-10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as far applications like medical imaging.

  6. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  7. NCTN Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  8. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  9. Nanotopography enhanced mobility determines mesenchymal stem cell distribution on micropatterned semiconductors bearing nanorough areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallach Pérez, Darío; Punzón Quijorna, Esther; Sanz, Ruy; Torres-Costa, Vicente; García Ruiz, Josefa P; Manso Silván, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Surface micropatterns are relevant instruments for the in vitro analysis of cell cultures in non-conventional planar conditions. In this work, two semiconductors (Si and TiO2) have been micropatterned by combined ion-beam/chemical-etching processes leading to selective areas bearing nanorough features. A preferential affinity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for planar areas versus nanotopographic ones is observed. Fluorescence microscopy after β-catenin staining suggests that hMSCs adhesion is inhibited on nanostructured porous silicon areas. This has a direct impact in the development of actin fibers and suggests different cell migration mechanisms on the materials of a micropattern. hMSCs organization on nanotopographic micropatterns has been modeled by using a simplified random walk approach. The model attributes preferential cell mobilities on the nanotopographic areas with respect to the planar and considers purely stochastic movement with no inertial term. Simulations of the cell distribution have been run on 1D and 2D micropatterns and compared with the real hMSC cultures. The simulations allow defining two regimes for cell organization as a function of cell density. hMSCs ordering on planar areas is diffusion-induced in most micropatterns but constriction forced disorder appears for high cell densities. The relative mobility on the planar versus nanotopographic areas can be used as a quality indicator of the nanotopography contrasts in the diffusion induced ordering regime. It is shown that the relative mobility is favorable for the TiO2 versus the Si based system, and allows envisaging its use for the calibrated design of nanotopography based micropatterned materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  11. Micropatterned Silica Films with Nanohydroxyapatite for Y-TZP Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R B P; Grenho, L; Carvalho, A; Fernandes, M H; Monteiro, F J; Cesar, P F

    2018-03-01

    This investigation aimed at developing micropatterned silica thin films (MSTFs) containing nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) microaggregates that were not completely covered by silica so that they could directly interact with the surrounding cells. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the effect of the presence of 2 films (MSTF with or without nano-HA addition) on the characteristic strength (σ 0 ) and Weibull modulus ( m) of a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and 2) to evaluate the effect of these 2 films, as applied onto the Y-TZP surface, on the morphology, orientation, and proliferation of MG63 cells. Sol-gel process and soft lithography were used to apply the MSTF onto the Y-TZP specimens. Three experimental groups were produced: Y-TZP, Y-TZP + MSTF, and Y-TZP + MSTF + sprayed nano-HA. All surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for 4-point flexural strength ( n = 30) in water at 37 °C. Weibull analysis was used to determine m and σ 0 (maximum likelihood method). In vitro biological behavior was performed with human osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Y-TZP was successfully coated with MSFT and MSFT + nano-HA. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that the microaggregates of nano-HA were not entirely covered by the silica. There was no statistically significant difference among the experimental groups for σ 0 and m. In the groups containing the films, the cells were elongated and aligned along the lines. The MSFT + nano-HA group showed significantly higher cell metabolic activity than that obtained for the Y-TZP group at day 7. This investigation was successful in producing an MSTF containing nano-HA microaggregates that remained exposed to the environment. The developed films did not jeopardize the structural reliability of a commercial Y-TZP, as confirmed by the Weibull statistics. The MG63 cells seeded over the films became elongated and aligned along the

  12. Micropattern printing of adhesion, spreading, and migration peptides on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) films to promote endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvreau, Virginie; Laroche, Gaétan

    2005-01-01

    We report here the development of an original multistep micropatterning technique for printing peptides on surfaces, based on the ink-jet printer technology. Contrary to most micropatterning methods used nowadays, this technique is advantageous because it allows displaying 2D-arrays of multiple biomolecules. Moreover, this low cost procedure allies the advantages of computer-aided design with high flexibility and reproducibility. A Hewlett-Packard printer was modified to print peptide solutions, and Adobe Illustrator was used as the graphic-editing software to design high-resolution checkerboard-like micropatterns. In a first step, PTFE films were treated with ammonia plasma to introduce amino groups on the surface. These chemical functionalities were reacted with heterobifunctional cross-linker sulfo-succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cycloexane-1-carboxylate (S-SMCC) to allow the subsequent surface covalent conjugation of various cysteine-modified peptides to the polymer substrate. These peptidic molecules containing RGD and WQPPRARI sequences were selected for their adhesive, spreading, and migrational properties toward endothelial cells. On one hand, our data demonstrated that the initial cell adhesion does not depend on the chemical structure and combination of the peptides covalently bonded either through conventional conjugation or micropatterning. On the other hand, spreading and migration of endothelial cells is clearly enhanced while coconjugating the GRGDS peptide in conjunction with WQPPRARI. This behavior is further improved by micropatterning these peptides on specific areas of the polymer surface.

  13. Morphology and intrinsic excitability of regenerating sensory and motor neurons grown on a line micropattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafa Benzina

    Full Text Available Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons.

  14. FGLD A novel and compact micro-pattern gas detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Louis; Watts, David

    2004-01-01

    A new gas detector which combines in the same structure the gas amplification mechanism and the position sensitive readout, named the field gradient lattice detector (FGLD), is being developed at CERN. The detector, reminiscent in geometry of a multi-wire proportional chamber but with a different field configuration can be fabricated as two or more layers of micro-patterned parallel tracks on a variety of substrate materials. Two preliminary proof-of-concept designs without position sensitivity have been fabricated as copper tracks of 50 mum width and 150 mum pitch on polyimide in a 3D geometry and on epoxy in a 2D geometry. They have been shown to detect the 5.9 keV X-rays of an $^{55}Fe$ source with a stable gain ranging from 500 to 5000 in a 3 mm drift chamber containing an argon carbon-dioxide gas mixture. The elegance and compactness of the FGLD design make it a very attractive gas detector solution both economically and mechanically. Most interestingly, the 3D FGLD design on flexible polyimide should gr...

  15. Development of Hybrid and Monolithic Silicon Micropattern Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Beker, H; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Lemeilleur, F; Ropotar, I

    2002-01-01

    %RD-19 \\\\ \\\\ In a collaborative effort between particle physics institutes and microelectronics industry we are undertaking the development of true 2-dimensional semiconductor particle detectors with on-chip signal processing and information extraction: the so-called micropattern detector. This detector is able to cope in a robust way with high multiplicity events at high rates, while allowing for a longer detector lifetime under irradiation and a thinner sensitive depletion region. Therefore, it will be ideally suited for the complicated events in the LHC p-p collider experiments. Following a $^{\\prime}$stepping stone$^{\\prime}$ approach several telescopes of pixel planes, totalling now 600 cm$^{2}$ with \\(>\\)~1~M elements have been used in the WA97, NA50 and NA57 lead ion experiments. This new technology has facilitated the tracking considerably (see Fig.1). Not only Si but also GaAs and possibly diamond matrices can be connected to the readout matrix. Tests with GaAs pixel detectors with the RD-19 readout ...

  16. Engineering connectivity by multiscale micropatterning of individual populations of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Jonas; Toma, Koji; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Functional networks are the basis of information processing in the central nervous system. Essential for their formation are guided neuronal growth as well as controlled connectivity and information flow. The basis of neuronal development is generated by guiding cues and geometric constraints. To investigate the neuronal growth and connectivity of adjacent neuronal networks, two-dimensional protein patterns were created. A mixture of poly-L-lysine and laminin was transferred onto a silanized glass surface by microcontact printing. The structures were populated with dissociated primary cortical embryonic rat neurons. Triangular structures with diverse opening angles, height, and design were chosen as two-dimensional structures to allow network formation with constricted gateways. Neuronal development was observed by immunohistochemistry to pursue the influence of the chosen structures on the neuronal outgrowth. Neurons were stained for MAP2, while poly-L-lysine was FITC labeled. With this study we present an easy-to-use technique to engineer two-dimensional networks in vitro with defined gateways. The presented micropatterning method is used to generate daisy-chained neuronal networks with predefined connectivity. Signal propagation among geometrically constrained networks can easily be monitored by calcium-sensitive dyes, providing insights into network communication in vitro. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Reconstruction of Micropattern Detector Signals using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flekova, L.; Schott, M.

    2017-10-01

    Micropattern gaseous detector (MPGD) technologies, such as GEMs or MicroMegas, are particularly suitable for precision tracking and triggering in high rate environments. Given their relatively low production costs, MPGDs are an exemplary candidate for the next generation of particle detectors. Having acknowledged these advantages, both the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC are exploiting these new technologies for their detector upgrade programs in the coming years. When MPGDs are utilized for triggering purposes, the measured signals need to be precisely reconstructed within less than 200 ns, which can be achieved by the usage of FPGAs. In this work, we present a novel approach to identify reconstructed signals, their timing and the corresponding spatial position on the detector. In particular, we study the effect of noise and dead readout strips on the reconstruction performance. Our approach leverages the potential of convolutional neural network (CNNs), which have recently manifested an outstanding performance in a range of modeling tasks. The proposed neural network architecture of our CNN is designed simply enough, so that it can be modeled directly by an FPGA and thus provide precise information on reconstructed signals already in trigger level.

  18. Soft-Matter Printed Circuit Board with UV Laser Micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tong; Markvicka, Eric J; Jin, Yichu; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-07-05

    When encapsulated in elastomer, micropatterned traces of Ga-based liquid metal (LM) can function as elastically deformable circuit wiring that provides mechanically robust electrical connectivity between solid-state elements (e.g., transistors, processors, and sensor nodes). However, LM-microelectronics integration is currently limited by challenges in rapid fabrication of LM circuits and the creation of vias between circuit terminals and the I/O pins of packaged electronics. In this study, we address both with a unique layup for soft-matter electronics in which traces of liquid-phase Ga-In eutectic (EGaIn) are patterned with UV laser micromachining (UVLM). The terminals of the elastomer-sealed LM circuit connect to the surface mounted chips through vertically aligned columns of EGaIn-coated Ag-Fe 2 O 3 microparticles that are embedded within an interfacial elastomer layer. The processing technique is compatible with conventional UVLM printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping and exploits the photophysical ablation of EGaIn on an elastomer substrate. Potential applications to wearable computing and biosensing are demonstrated with functional implementations in which soft-matter PCBs are populated with surface-mounted microelectronics.

  19. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors: a review of the beginnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with μW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm 2 , retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at >10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities >10 cm -2 . The noise in a channel was ∼100e - rms and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level -8 . Rectangular pixels from 75 μmx500 μm down to 34 μmx125 μm have been used by different teams. In binary mode a tracking precision from 6 to 14 μm was obtained, and using analog interpolation one came close to 1 μm. Earlier work, still based on charge integrating imaging circuits, provided a starting point. Two systems each with more than 1 million sensor + readout channels have been built, for WA97-NA57 and for the Delphi very forward tracker. The use of 0.5 μm and 0.25 μm CMOS and enclosed geometry for the transistors in the pixel readout chips resulted in radiation hardness of ∼2 Mrad, respectively, >30 Mrad

  20. Micropatterning of nanocomposite polymer scaffolds using sacrificial phosphate glass fibers for tendon tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshomer, Feras; Chaves, Camilo; Serra, Tiziano; Ahmed, Ifty; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a simple and reproducible method of micropatterning the novel nanocomposite polymer (POSS-PCU) using a sacrificial phosphate glass fiber template for tendon tissue engineering applications. The diameters of the patterned scaffolds produced were dependent on the diameter of the glass fibers (15 μm) used. Scaffolds were tested for their physical properties and reproducibility using various microscopy techniques. For the first time, we show that POSS-PCU supports growth of human tenocytes cells. Furthermore, we show that cellular alignment, their biological function and expression of various tendon related proteins such as scleraxis, collagen I and III, tenascin-C are significantly elevated on the micropatterned polymer surfaces compared to flat samples. This study demonstrated a simple, reproducible method of micropatterning POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for novel tendon repair applications, which when provided with physical cues could help mimic the microenvironment of tenocytes cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and regulating cell adhesion of anion-exchangeable layered double hydroxide micropatterned arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sailong; Huo, Ruijie; Zhao, Zhiping; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Fujian

    2015-02-25

    We describe a reliable preparation of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) micropatterned arrays on gold substrate by combining SO3(-)-terminated self-assembly monolayer and photolithography. The synthesis route is readily extended to prepare LDH arrays on the SO3(-)-terminated polymer-bonded glass substrate amenable for cell imaging. The anion-exchangeable MgAl-LDH micropattern can act both as bioadhesive region for selective cell adhesion and as nanocarrier for drug molecules to regulate cell behaviors. Quantitative analysis of cell adhesion shows that selective HepG2 cell adhesion and spreading are promoted by the micropatterned MgAl-LDH, and also suppressed by methotrexate drug released from the LDH interlayer galleries.

  2. Delineating fibronectin bioadhesive micropatterns by photochemical immobilization of polystyrene and poly(vinylpyrrolidone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Olof; Giazzon, Marta; Zürcher, Stefan; Tosatti, Samuele; Liley, Martha; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2014-01-01

    Bioadhesive micropatterns, capable of laterally confining cells to a 2D lattice, have proven effective in simulating the in vivo tissue environment. They reveal fundamental aspects of the role of adhesion in cell mechanics, proliferation, and differentiation. Here we present an approach based on photochemistry for the fabrication of synthetic polymer micropatterns. Perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA), upon deep-UV exposure, forms a reactive nitrene capable of covalently linking to a molecule that is in close proximity. PFPA has been grafted onto a backbone of poly(allyl amine), which readily forms a self-assembled monolayer on silicon wafers or glass. A film of polystyrene was applied by spin-coating, and by laterally confining the UV exposure through a chromium-on-quartz photomask, monolayers of polymers could be immobilized in circular microdomains. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was attached to the background to form a barrier to nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Micropatterns were characterized with high-lateral-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), which confirmed the formation of polystyrene domains within a PVP background. Fluorescence-microscopy adsorption assays with rhodamine-labeled bovine serum albumin demonstrated the nonfouling efficiency of PVP and, combined with TOF-SIMS, allowed for a comprehensive characterization of the pattern geometry. The applicability of the micropatterned platform in single-cell assays was tested by culturing two cell types, WM 239 melanoma cells and SaOs-2 osteoblasts, on micropatterned glass, either with or without backfilling of the patterns with fibronectin. It was demonstrated that the platform was efficient in confining cells to the fibronectin-backfilled micropatterns for at least 48 h. PVP is thus proposed as a viable, highly stable alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) for nonfouling applications. Due to the versatility of the nitrene-insertion reaction, the platform could be

  3. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Links Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches & Statements Budgets Toggle Links FY 2018 Budget FY 2017 Budget FY 2017 Reconciliation FY 2016 Budget FY 2016 Reconciliation FY 2015

  4. Fabrication of Pillar Shaped Electrode Arrays for Artificial Retinal Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung June Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide has been widely applied to neural prosthetic devices, such as the retinal implants, due to its well-known biocompatibility and ability to be micropatterned. However, planar films of polyimide that are typically employed show a limited ability in reducing the distance between electrodes and targeting cell layers, which limits site resolution for effective multi-channel stimulation. In this paper, we report a newly designed device with a pillar structure that more effectively interfaces with the target. Electrode arrays were successfully fabricated and safely implanted inside the rabbit eye in suprachoroidal space. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT showed well-preserved pillar structures of the electrode without damage. Bipolar stimulation was applied through paired sites (6:1 and the neural responses were successfully recorded from several regions in the visual cortex. Electrically evoked cortical potential by the pillar electrode array stimulation were compared to visual evoked potential under full-field light stimulation.

  5. Micro-patterned Nafion membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.; te Braake, J.; Aran, H.C.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance of micro-patterned (μp) Nafion® 117 (N117) membranes prepared by hot embossing and compare them with that of normal N117 and heat and pressure treated (hp) N117 non-patterned (smooth) membranes. Our results suggest that the

  6. MAPLE deposition of 3D micropatterned polymeric substrates for cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra, E-mail: irina.paun@physics.pub.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Faculty of Applied Sciences, University Politehnica of Bucharest, RO-060042, Bucharest (Romania); Mihailescu, Mona [Faculty of Applied Sciences, University Politehnica of Bucharest, RO-060042, Bucharest (Romania); Calenic, Bogdan [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry, UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest (Romania); Luculescu, Catalin Romeo [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Greabu, Maria [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry, UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Maria, E-mail: dinescum@nipne.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    3D micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyurethane (PLGA/PU) substrates were produced by MAPLE deposition through masks and used for regulating the behavior of oral keratinocyte stem cells in response to topography. Flat PLGA/PU substrates were produced for comparison. 3D imaging of the PLGA/PU substrates and of the cultured cells was performed by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The micropatterns were in the shape of squares of 50 × 50 and 80 × 80 μm{sup 2} areas, ∼1.8 μm in height and separated by 20 μm wide channels. It was found that substrate topography guided the adhesion of the cultured cells: on the smooth substrates the cells adhered randomly and showed no preferred orientation; in contrast, on the micropatterned substrates the cells adhered preferentially onto the squares and not in the separating channels. Furthermore, key properties of the cells (size, viability, proliferation rate and stem cell marker expression) did not show any dependence on substrate topography. The size of the cultured cells, their viability, the proportions of actively/slow proliferating cells, as well as the stem cell markers expressions, were similar for both flat and micropatterned substrates. Finally, it was found that the cells cultured on the PLGA/PU substrates deposited by MAPLE exhibited similar properties as the controls (i.e. cells cultured on glass slides), indicating the capability of the former to preserve the properties of the keratinocyte stem cells.

  7. Continuous droplet removal upon dropwise condensation of humid air on a hydrophobic micropatterned surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Bardaweel, Hamzeh K; Carron, Christopher J; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Brand, Oliver; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-08-26

    Combination of two physical phenomena, capillary pressure gradient and wettability gradient, allows a simple two-step fabrication process that yields a reliable hydrophobic self-cleaning condenser surface. The surface is fabricated with specific microscopic topography and further treatment with a chemically inert low-surface-energy material. This process does not require growth of nanofeatures (nanotubes) or hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterning of the surface. Trapezoidal geometry of the microfeatures facilitates droplet transfer from the Wenzel to the Cassie state and reduces droplet critical diameter. The geometry of the micropatterns enhances local coalescence and directional movement for droplets with diameter much smaller than the radial length of the micropatterns. The hydrophobic self-cleaning micropatterned condenser surface prevents liquid film formation and promotes continuous dropwise condensation cycle. Upon dropwise condensation, droplets follow a designed wettability gradient created with micropatterns from the most hydrophobic to the least hydrophobic end of the surface. The surface has higher condensation efficiency, due to its directional self-cleaning property, than a plain hydrophobic surface. We explain the self-actuated droplet collection mechanism on the condenser surface and demonstrate experimentally the creation of an effective wettability gradient over a 6 mm radial distance. In spite of its fabrication simplicity, the fabricated surface demonstrates self-cleaning property, enhanced condensation performance, and reliability over time. Our work enables creation of a hydrophobic condenser surface with the directional self-cleaning property that can be used for collection of biological (chemical, environmental) aerosol samples or for condensation enhancement.

  8. Micropatterned 2D Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films with Enhanced Photoluminescence Lifetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Hong Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Blake, Graeme R.; Palstra, Thomas T.M.; Ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2018-01-01

    The application of luminescent materials in display screens and devices requires micropatterned structures. In this work, we have successfully printed microstructures of a two-dimensional (2D), orange-colored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite ((C6H5CH2NH3)2PbI4) using two different soft

  9. Inkjet printing for direct micropatterning of a superhydrophobic surface: Toward biomimetic fog harvesting surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces with hydrophilic micro-sized patterns is highly desirable, but a one-step, mask-free method to produce such surfaces has not previously been reported. We have developed a direct method to produce superhydrophilic micropatterns on superhydrophobic surfaces based on inkjet printing technology. This work was inspired by the efficient fog-harvesting behavior of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert. A mussel-inspired ink consisting of an optimized solution of dopamine was applied directly by inkjet printing to superhydrophobic surfaces. Stable Wenzel\\'s microdroplets of the dopamine solution with well-defined micropatterns were obtained on these surfaces. Superhydrophilic micropatterns with well-controlled dimensions were then readily achieved on the superhydrophobic surfaces by the formation of polydopamine via in situ polymerization. The micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces prepared by this inkjet printing method showed enhanced water collection efficiency compared with uniform superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces. This method can be used for the facile large-scale patterning of superhydrophobic surfaces with high precision and superior pattern stability and is therefore a key step toward patterning superhydrophobic surfaces for practical applications. This journal is

  10. Reprogramming hMSCs morphology with silicon/porous silicon geometric micro-patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M D; Dang, Z Y; Manso-Silvan, M; Song, J; Azimi, S; Wu, J F; Liang, H D; Torres-Costa, V; Punzon-Quijorna, E; Breese, M B H; Garcia-Ruiz, J P

    2014-04-01

    Geometric micro-patterned surfaces of silicon combined with porous silicon (Si/PSi) have been manufactured to study the behaviour of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). These micro-patterns consist of regular silicon hexagons surrounded by spaced columns of silicon equilateral triangles separated by PSi. The results show that, at an early culture stage, the hMSCs resemble quiescent cells on the central hexagons with centered nuclei and actin/β-catenin and a microtubules network denoting cell adhesion. After 2 days, hMSCs adapted their morphology and cytoskeleton proteins from cell-cell dominant interactions at the center of the hexagonal surface. This was followed by an intermediate zone with some external actin fibres/β-catenin interactions and an outer zone where the dominant interactions are cell-silicon. Cells move into silicon columns to divide, migrate and communicate. Furthermore, results show that Runx2 and vitamin D receptors, both specific transcription factors for skeleton-derived cells, are expressed in cells grown on micropatterned silicon under all observed circumstances. On the other hand, non-phenotypic alterations are under cell growth and migration on Si/PSi substrates. The former consideration strongly supports the use of micro-patterned silicon surfaces to address pending questions about the mechanisms of human bone biogenesis/pathogenesis and the study of bone scaffolds.

  11. Micropatterning of biomolecules on a glass substrate in fused silica microchannels by using photolabile linker-based surface activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K.; Mawatari, K.; Kitamori, T.; Xu, Y.; Sato, K.; Tanaka, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a straightforward method for creating micropatterns of multiple biomolecules. The anti-fouling agent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer and a photolabile linker (PL) were covalently linked to an amino-terminated silane surface. Patterns were generated by selective removal of the MPC polymer via UV irradiation. Multiple micropatterns of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and rhodamine-labeled goat fragment antigen-binding fragments (FAB) were deposited on a same glass substrate. We also employed micropatterning of multiple biomolecules in that Texas red-labeled BSA and FITC-labeled rabbit anti-mouse IgG were placed inside a microchannel. (author)

  12. Micropatterning stretched and aligned DNA for sequence-specific nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Cecilia Anna Paulette

    Techniques for fabricating nanostructured materials can be categorized as either "top-down" or "bottom-up". Top-down techniques use lithography and contact printing to create patterned surfaces and microfluidic channels that can corral and organize nanoscale structures, such as molecules and nanorods in contrast; bottom-up techniques use self-assembly or molecular recognition to direct the organization of materials. A central goal in nanotechnology is the integration of bottom-up and top-down assembly strategies for materials development, device design; and process integration. With this goal in mind, we have developed strategies that will allow this integration by using DNA as a template for nanofabrication; two top-down approaches allow the placement of these templates, while the bottom-up technique uses the specific sequence of bases to pattern materials along each strand of DNA. Our first top-down approach, termed combing of molecules in microchannels (COMMIC), produces microscopic patterns of stretched and aligned molecules of DNA on surfaces. This process consists of passing an air-water interface over end adsorbed molecules inside microfabricated channels. The geometry of the microchannel directs the placement of the DNA molecules, while the geometry of the airwater interface directs the local orientation and curvature of the molecules. We developed another top-down strategy for creating micropatterns of stretched and aligned DNA using surface chemistry. Because DNA stretching occurs on hydrophobic surfaces, this technique uses photolithography to pattern vinyl-terminated silanes on glass When these surface-, are immersed in DNA solution, molecules adhere preferentially to the silanized areas. This approach has also proven useful in patterning protein for cell adhesion studies. Finally, we describe the use of these stretched and aligned molecules of DNA as templates for the subsequent bottom-up construction of hetero-structures through hybridization

  13. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  14. Profuse and Selective Growth in vitro of Rat Spinal Axons on a Micro-Patterned Poly (ethylene imine) Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mouveroux, J

    2001-01-01

    To distribute neurites (axons) along a surface and to guide them towards specific point targets we cultured spinal cord explants on coverslips printed with a micro-patterned grid of poly (ethylene imine) (PEI) lanes...

  15. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  16. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  17. CDO budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  18. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  19. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  20. Scalable fabrication of strongly textured organic semiconductor micropatterns by capillary force lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Pil Sung; Vailionis, Arturas; Park, Young Min; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-06-26

    Strongly textured organic semiconductor micropatterns made of the small molecule dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) are fabricated by using a method based on capillary force lithography (CFL). This technique provides the C(8)-BTBT solution with nucleation sites for directional growth, and can be used as a scalable way to produce high quality crystalline arrays in desired regions of a substrate for OFET applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Facile approach to the fabrication of a micropattern possessing nanoscale substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Jiang, Xuesong; Yin, Jie

    2007-12-04

    On the basis of the combined technologies of photolithography and reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS), a facile approach has been successfully developed for the fabrication of a micropattern possessing nanoscale substructure on the thin film surface. This approach involves three steps. In the first step, a thin film was prepared by spin coating from a solution of a commercial random copolymer, polystyrene-r-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) and a commercial crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). In the second step, photolithograph was performed with the thin film using a 250 W high-pressure mercury lamp to produce the micropattern. Finally, the resulting micropattern was annealed at 200 degrees C for a certain time, and reaction-induced phase separation occurred. After soaking in chloroform for 4 h, nanoscale substructure was obtained. The whole processes were traced by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the results supported the proposed structure.

  2. Scanning electron microscopical observation of an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture on micropatterned orthopaedic ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Mansur; Ker, Andrew; Meek, Rm Dominic; Nadeem, Danish; Sjostrom, Terje; Su, Bo; McNamara, Laura E; Dalby, Matthew J; Young, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    In biomaterial engineering, the surface of an implant can influence cell differentiation, adhesion and affinity towards the implant. On contact with an implant, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells demonstrate differentiation towards bone forming osteoblasts, which can improve osteointegration. The process of micropatterning has been shown to improve osteointegration in polymers, but there are few reports surrounding ceramics. The purpose of this study was to establish a co-culture of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with osteoclast progenitor cells and to observe the response to micropatterned zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with 30 µm diameter pits. The aim was to establish whether the pits were specifically bioactive towards osteogenesis or were generally bioactive and would also stimulate osteoclastogenesis that could potentially lead to osteolysis. We demonstrate specific bioactivity of micropatterns towards osteogenesis, with more nodule formation and less osteoclastogenesis compared to planar controls. In addition, we found that that macrophage and osteoclast-like cells did not interact with the pits and formed fewer full-size osteoclast-like cells on the pitted surfaces. This may have a role when designing ceramic orthopaedic implants.

  3. Effect of micropatterning induced surface hydrophobicity on drug release from electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepu, Shivakalyani; Gaydhane, Mrunalini K.; Kakunuri, Manohar; Sharma, Chandra S.; Khandelwal, Mudrika; Eichhorn, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Sustained release and prevention of burst release for low half-life drugs like Diclofenac sodium is crucial to prevent drug related toxicity. Electrospun nanofibers have emerged recently as potential carrier materials for controlled and sustained drug release. Here, we present a facile method to prevent burst release by tuning the surface wettability through template assisted micropatterning of drug loaded electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers. A known amount of drug (Diclofenac sodium) was first mixed with CA and then electrospun in the form of a nanofabric. This as-spun network was hydrophilic in nature. However, when electrospinning was carried out through non-conducting templates, viz nylon meshes with 50 and 100 μm size openings, two kinds of hydrophobic micro-patterned CA nanofabrics were produced. In vitro transdermal testing of our nanofibrous mats was carried out; these tests were able to show that it would be possible to create a patch for transdermal drug release. Further, our results show that with optimized micro-patterned dimensions, a zero order sustained drug release of up to 12 h may be achieved for the transdermal system when compared to non-patterned samples. This patterning caused a change in the surface wettability, to a hydrophobic surface, resulting in a controlled diffusion of the hydrophilic drug. Patterning assisted in controlling the initial burst release, which is a significant finding especially for low half-life drugs.

  4. Construction of Modular Hydrogel Sheets for Micropatterned Macro-scaled 3D Cellular Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaejung; Bae, Chae Yun; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-01-11

    Hydrogels can be patterned at the micro-scale using microfluidic or micropatterning technologies to provide an in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) tissue geometry. The resulting 3D hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been introduced as an alternative to animal experiments for advanced biological studies, pharmacological assays and organ transplant applications. Although hydrogel-based particles and fibers can be easily fabricated, it is difficult to manipulate them for tissue reconstruction. In this video, we describe a fabrication method for micropatterned alginate hydrogel sheets, together with their assembly to form a macro-scale 3D cell culture system with a controlled cellular microenvironment. Using a mist form of the calcium gelling agent, thin hydrogel sheets are easily generated with a thickness in the range of 100 - 200 µm, and with precise micropatterns. Cells can then be cultured with the geometric guidance of the hydrogel sheets in freestanding conditions. Furthermore, the hydrogel sheets can be readily manipulated using a micropipette with an end-cut tip, and can be assembled into multi-layered structures by stacking them using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame. These modular hydrogel sheets, which can be fabricated using a facile process, have potential applications of in vitro drug assays and biological studies, including functional studies of micro- and macrostructure and tissue reconstruction.

  5. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  6. Development of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Richer, J; Barsuk, S; Shah, M K; Catanesi, M G; Colaleo, A; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Berardi, V; Bagliesi, M; Menon, G; Richter, R; Lahonde-hamdoun, C; Dris, M; Chechik, R; Ochi, A; Hartjes, F; Lopes, I M; Deshpande, A; Franz, A; Fiutowski, T A; Ferreira, A; Bastos de oliveira, C A; Miller, B W; Monrabal-capilla, F; Liubarsky, I; Plazas de pinzon, M C; Tsarfati, T; Voss, B J R; Carmona martinez, J M; Stocchi, A; Dinu, N; Semeniouk, I; Giebels, B; Marton, K; De leo, R; De lucia, E; Alviggi, M; Bellerive, A; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Giomataris, I; Peyaud, A; Schune, P; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Charles, G; Wang, W; Markou, A; Arazi, L; Cibinetto, G; Edo, Y; Neves, F F; Solovov, V; Stoll, S; Sampsonidis, D; Dabrowski, W; Mindur, B; Sauli, F; Calapez de albuquerque veloso, J F; Kahlaoui, N; Sharma, A; Zenker, K; Cebrian guajardo, S V; Luzon marco, G M; Guillaudin, O J H; Cornebise, P; Lounis, A; Bruel, P J; Laszlo, A; Mukerjee, K; Nappi, E; Nuzzo, S V; Bencivenni, G; Tessarotto, F; Levorato, S; Dixit, M S; Riallot, M; Jeanneau, F; Nizery, F G; Maltezos, S; Kyriakis, A; Lyashenko, A; Van der graaf, H; Ferreira marques, R; Alexa, C; Liyanage, N; Dehmelt, K; Hemmick, T K; Polychronakos, V; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Koperny, S Z; Das neves dias carramate, L F; Munoz-vidal, J; Gutierrez, R; Van stenis, M; Resnati, F; Lupberger, M; Desch, K K; Chefdeville, M; Vouters, G; Ranieri, A; Lami, S; Shekhtman, L; Dolgov, A; Bamberger, A; Landgraf, U; Kortner, O; Ferrero, A; Aune, S; Attie, D M; Bakas, G; Balossino, I; Tsigaridas, S; Surrow, B; Gnanvo, K A K; Feege, N M; Woody, C L; Bhattacharya, S; Capogni, M; Veenhof, R J; Tapan, I; Dangendorf, V; Monteiro bernades, C M; Castro serrato, H F; De oliveira, R; Ropelewski, L; Behnke, T; Boudry, V; Radicioni, E; Lai, A; Shemyakina, E; Giganon, A E; Titov, M; Papakrivopoulos, I; Komai, H; Van bakel, N A; Tchepel, V; Repond, J O; Li, Y; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Majumdar, N; Kowalski, T; Da rocha azevedo, C D; Serra diaz cano, L; Alvarez puerta, V; Trabelsi, A; Riegler, W; Ketzer, B F; Rosemann, C G; Herrera munoz, D C; Drancourt, C; Mayet, F; Geerebaert, Y; De robertis, G; Felici, G; Scribano memoria, A; Cecchi, R; Dalla torre, S; Gregori, M; Buzulutskov, A; Schwegler, P; Sanchez nieto, F J; Colas, P M A; Gros, M; Neyret, D; Zito, M; Ferrer ribas, E; Breskin, A; Martoiu, V S; Purschke, M L; Loomba, D; Gasik, P J; Petridou, C; Kordas, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Bucciantonio, M; Biagi, S F; Ji, X; Kanaki, K; Zavazieva, D; Capeans garrido, M D M; Schindler, H; Kaminski, J; Krautscheid, T; Lippmann, C; Arora, R; Dafni, T; Garcia irastorza, I; Puill, V; Wicek, F B; Burmistrov, L; Singh, K P; Kroha, H; Kunne, F; Alexopoulos, T; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Bettoni, D; Heijhoff, K; Xiao, Z; Tzanakos, G; Leisos, A; Frullani, S; Sahin, O; Kalkan, Y; Giboni, K; Krieger, C; Breton, D R; Bhattacharyya, S; Abbrescia, M; Erriquez, O; Paticchio, V; Cardini, A; Aloisio, A; Turini, N; Bressan, A; Tikhonov, Y; Schumacher, M; Simon, F R; Nowak, S; Herlant, S; Chaus, A; Fanourakis, G; Bressler, S; Homma, Y; Timmermans, J; Fonte, P; Underwood, D G; Azmoun, B; Fassouliotis, D; Wiacek, P; Dos santos covita, D; Monteiro da silva, A L; Yahlali haddou, N; Marques ferreira dos santos, J; Domingues amaro, F

    The proposed R&D collaboration, RD51, aims at facilitating the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. Advances in particle physics have always been enabled by parallel advances in radiation-detector technology. Radiation detection and imaging with gas-avalanche detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with a low material budget, have been playing an important role in many fields. Besides their widespread use in particle-physics and nuclear-physics experiments, gaseous detectors are employed in many other fields: astro-particle research and applications such as medical imaging, material science, and security inspection. While extensively employed at the LHC, RHIC, and other advanced HEP experiments, present gaseous detectors (wire-chambers, drift-tubes, resistive-plate chambers and others) have limitations which may prevent their use in future experiments. Present tec...

  7. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  8. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  9. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  10. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  11. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  12. Stick-Jump (SJ) Evaporation of Strongly Pinned Nanoliter Volume Sessile Water Droplets on Quick Drying, Micropatterned Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuisson, Damien; Merlen, Alain; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2016-03-22

    We present an experimental study of stick-jump (SJ) evaporation of strongly pinned nanoliter volume sessile water droplets drying on micropatterned surfaces. The evaporation is studied on surfaces composed of photolithographically micropatterned negative photoresist (SU-8). The micropatterning of the SU-8 enables circular, smooth, trough-like features to be formed which causes a very strong pinning of the three phase (liquid-vapor-solid) contact line of an evaporating droplet. This is ideal for studying SJ evaporation as it contains sequential constant contact radius (CCR) evaporation phases during droplet evaporation. The evaporation was studied in nonconfined conditions, and forced convection was not used. Micropatterned concentric circles were defined having an initial radius of 1000 μm decreasing by a spacing ranging from 500 to 50 μm. The droplet evaporates, successively pinning and depinning from circle to circle. For each pinning radius, the droplet contact angle and volume are observed to decrease quasi-linearly with time. The experimental average evaporation rates were found to decrease with decreasing pining radii. In contrast, the experimental average evaporation flux is found to increase with decreasing droplet radii. The data also demonstrate the influence of the initial contact angle on evaporation rate and flux. The data indicate that the total evaporation time of a droplet depends on the specific micropattern spacing and that the total evaporation time on micropatterned surfaces is always less than on flat, homogeneous surfaces. Although the surface patterning is observed to have little effect on the average droplet flux-indicating that the underlying evaporation physics is not significantly changed by the patterning-the total evaporation time is considerably modified by patterning, up to a factor or almost 2 compared to evaporation on a flat, homogeneous surface. The closely spaced concentric circle pinning maintains a large droplet radius and

  13. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  14. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  15. Conformal ZnO nanocomposite coatings on micro-patterned surfaces for superhydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, Adam; Bayer, Ilker; Moran, Stephen; Cannon, Andrew; King, William P.; Loth, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A conformal coating process is presented to transform surfaces with inherent micro-morphology into superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical surface structure using wet chemical spray casting. Nanocomposite coatings composed of zinc oxide nanoparticles and organosilane quaternary nitrogen compound are dispersed in solution for application. The coating is applied to a micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane substrate with a regular array of cylindrical microposts as well as a surface with random micro-structure for the purpose of demonstrating improved non-wettability and a superhydrophobic state for water droplets. Coating surface morphology is investigated with an environmental scanning electron microscope and surface wettability performance is characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements.

  16. High-throughput creation of micropatterned PDMS surfaces using microscale dual roller casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBartolomeo, Franklin J; Ge, Ning; Trinkle, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces microscale dual roller casting (MDRC), a novel high-throughput fabrication method for creating continuous micropatterned surfaces using thermosetting polymers. MDRC utilizes a pair of rotating, heated cylindrical molds with microscale surface patterns to cure a continuous microstructured film. Using unmodified polydimethylsiloxane as the thermosetting polymer, we were able to create optically transparent, biocompatible surfaces with submicron patterning fidelity. Compared to other roll-to-roll fabrication processes, this method offers increased flexibility in the types of materials and topography that can be generated, including dual-sided patterning, embedded materials and tunable film thickness. (paper)

  17. Directing functional chemistries on micropatterned conducting polymers for all-polymer cell analysis microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    Micrometer scale electrical circuits of PEDOT (poly(3,4-dioxythiophene)) were created by locally oxidizing PEDOT thin films with an agarose stamp containing the oxidizing agent NaOCl. The oxidized PEDOT was removed completely by applying detergents. The process was sufficiently mild that chemical...... groups on the underlying substrate, such as azides or alkynes, were preserved for subsequent specific functionalization. Moreover entire PMOXA (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)) films preventing cell binding could be hidden below the PEDOT and be re-exposed upon stamping, allowing for cell capturing...... microelectrodes on a cell non-adhesive background. Chemically functionalized PEDOT types permitted the introduction of multiple additional types of micropatterned chemistry....

  18. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  19. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of protein micropatterning in biomembranes: effects of immobile sticky obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Andreas M; Sevcsik, Eva; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Single molecule trajectories of lipids and proteins can yield valuable information about the nanoscopic organization of the plasma membrane itself. The interpretation of such trajectories, however, is complicated, as the mobility of molecules can be affected by the presence of immobile obstacles, and the transient binding of the tracers to these obstacles. We have previously developed a micropatterning approach that allows for immobilizing a plasma membrane protein and probing the diffusional behavior of a putative interaction partner in living cells. Here, we provide guidelines on how this micropatterning approach can be extended to quantify interaction parameters between plasma membrane constituents in their natural environment. We simulated a patterned membrane system and evaluated the effect of different surface densities of patterned immobile obstacles on the relative mobility as well as the surface density of diffusing tracers. In the case of inert obstacles, the size of the obstacle can be assessed from its surface density at the percolation threshold, which in turn can be extracted from the diffusion behavior of the tracer. For sticky obstacles, 2D dissociation constants can be determined from the tracer diffusion or surface density. (paper)

  1. New technologies for large-scale micropatterning of functional nanocomposite polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, A.; Gray, B. L.

    2012-04-01

    We present a review of different micropatterning technologies for flexible elastomeric functional nanocomposites with a particular emphasis on mold material and processes for production of large size substrates. The functional polymers include electrically conducting and magnetic materials developed at the Micro-instrumentation Laboratory at Simon Fraser University, Canada. We present a chart that compares many of these different conductive and magnetic functional nanocomposites and their measured characteristics. Furthermore, we have previously reported hybrid processes for nanocomposite polymers micromolded against SU-8 photoepoxy masters. However, SU-8 is typically limited to substrate sizes that are compatible with microelectronics processing as a microelectronics uv-patterning step is typically involved, and de-molding problems are observed. Recently, we have developed new processes that address the problems faced with SU-8 molds. These new technologies for micropatterning nanocomposites involve new substrate materials. A low cost Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfabrication technology has been developed, which involves fabrication of micromold via either CO2 laser ablation or deep UV. We have previously reported this large-scale patterning technique using laser ablation. Finally, we compare the two processes for PMMA producing micromolds for nanocomposites.

  2. Novel micro-patterning processes for thin film NiTi vascular devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Y J; Mohanchandra, K P; Carman, G P; Levi, D S; Fishbein, M C

    2010-01-01

    In order to create microscale features in thin film NiTi for use in vascular endografts, a novel 'lift-off process' was developed for use with deep reactive ion etching. A wet etching approach is compared to two variations of this new 'lift-off' process. The first lift-off process (lift-off I) used Si posts to define the features of NiTi film deposited on the Si substrate. This method produced fractures in the NiTi when the film was released. The lift-off II process used Si islands as substrate for the film while the Si wafer defined the specific geometric features. Lift-off II process allowed for the creation of various shape patterns (i.e., ellipse, diamond, circle, square, etc) in the range of 5–180 µm. The lift-off II process produced smooth and well aligned micro-patterns in thin film NiTi without the undercutting found in wet etching techniques. The micro-patterned thin film NiTi formed from the lift-off II process was used to cover a stent. In vivo tests were performed to evaluate the endothelialization though patterned thin films. Angiography, histopathology and SEM showed patency of the artery and uniformly promoted endothelial layer covering without thrombosis in both a medium and small artery

  3. Adhesion and migration of CHO cells on micropatterned single layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavan, S.; Oropesa-Nuñez, R.; Diaspro, A.; Canale, C.; Dante, S.

    2017-06-01

    Cell patterning technology on single layer graphene (SLG) is a fairly new field that can find applications in tissue engineering and biomaterial/biosensors development. Recently, we have developed a simple and effective approach for the fabrication of patterned SLG substrates by laser micromachining, and we have successfully applied it for the obtainment of geometrically ordered neural networks. Here, we exploit the same approach to investigate the generalization of the cell response to the surface cues of the fabricated substrates and, contextually, to quantify cell adhesion on the different areas of the patterns. To attain this goal, we tested Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells on PDL-coated micropatterned SLG substrates and quantified the adhesion by using single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). Our results indicate higher cell adhesion on PDL-SLG, and, consequently, an initial CHO cell accumulation on the graphene areas, confirming the neuronal behaviour observed previously; interestingly, at later time point in culture, cell migration was observed towards the adjacent SLG ablated regions, which resulted more favourable for cell proliferation. Therefore, our findings indicate that the mechanism of interaction with the surface cues offered by the micropatterned substrates is strictly cell-type dependent.

  4. Direct writing and electro-mechanical characterization of Ag micro-patterns on polymer substrates for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Arango, Maria A.; Cokeley, Anna M.; Beard, Jared J.; Sierros, Konstantinos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great interest in developing flexible electrodes. Such components are used in most electronic devices from displays to solar cells to flexible sensors. To date most of them are fabricated using expensive vacuum techniques, and are based on transparent conducting oxides. These oxides are not entirely compatible with flexible substrates under the application of mechanical stresses, due to their brittle nature. Therefore, there is a need to explore novel low-cost, large-area fabrication methods to deposit alternative conducting materials with enhanced electro-mechanical performance. This work focuses on Ag patterns fabricated at low temperatures (below 150 °C) on flexible polyethylene naphthalate utilizing a robotic printing approach. Such lithography-free method minimizes material waste by printing exact amounts of inks on digitally predefined locations. Additionally, it allows a broad feature size range, from a few μm to a few mm, and a variety of ink viscosities for better pattern control. We investigate the synthesis and direct writing of Ag particle-based inks, patterned-on-flex as lines and grids in the μm scale. We report on a high-yield ink synthesis method (~ 61.6%) with controlled particle size. It is found that the electrical resistivity (1.75 ∗ 10"−"4 Ω cm) of the patterns is in the same range with similar particle-based conductive components. The correlation between annealing temperature, microstructural evolution, and electrical performance is established. Also, the optical transmittance of the patterns can be controlled to meet specific application requirements by regulating the substrate surface area covered. Finally, the mechanical behavior under both monotonic and cyclic conditions shows a superior performance compared to brittle counterparts and underlines the potential of such metallic micro-patterns to be utilized in a wide range of flexible electronic applications. It is believed that direct writing of Ag patterns on

  5. Direct writing and electro-mechanical characterization of Ag micro-patterns on polymer substrates for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Arango, Maria A.; Cokeley, Anna M.; Beard, Jared J.; Sierros, Konstantinos A., E-mail: kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

    2015-12-01

    There is currently a great interest in developing flexible electrodes. Such components are used in most electronic devices from displays to solar cells to flexible sensors. To date most of them are fabricated using expensive vacuum techniques, and are based on transparent conducting oxides. These oxides are not entirely compatible with flexible substrates under the application of mechanical stresses, due to their brittle nature. Therefore, there is a need to explore novel low-cost, large-area fabrication methods to deposit alternative conducting materials with enhanced electro-mechanical performance. This work focuses on Ag patterns fabricated at low temperatures (below 150 °C) on flexible polyethylene naphthalate utilizing a robotic printing approach. Such lithography-free method minimizes material waste by printing exact amounts of inks on digitally predefined locations. Additionally, it allows a broad feature size range, from a few μm to a few mm, and a variety of ink viscosities for better pattern control. We investigate the synthesis and direct writing of Ag particle-based inks, patterned-on-flex as lines and grids in the μm scale. We report on a high-yield ink synthesis method (~ 61.6%) with controlled particle size. It is found that the electrical resistivity (1.75 ∗ 10{sup −4} Ω cm) of the patterns is in the same range with similar particle-based conductive components. The correlation between annealing temperature, microstructural evolution, and electrical performance is established. Also, the optical transmittance of the patterns can be controlled to meet specific application requirements by regulating the substrate surface area covered. Finally, the mechanical behavior under both monotonic and cyclic conditions shows a superior performance compared to brittle counterparts and underlines the potential of such metallic micro-patterns to be utilized in a wide range of flexible electronic applications. It is believed that direct writing of Ag patterns

  6. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S.; Teoh, H. F.; Sow, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl 4 solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au 3+ ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl 4 solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl 4 . The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs

  7. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Teoh, H. F. [Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Sow, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2015-02-07

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl{sub 4} solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au{sup 3+} ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl{sub 4} solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl{sub 4}. The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs.

  8. Understanding the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  9. Cermet electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  10. Optimization of micropatterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid films for enhancing dorsal root ganglion cell orientation and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve conduits have been a viable alternative to the ‘gold standard’ autograft for treating small peripheral nerve gap injuries. However, they often produce inadequate functional recovery outcomes and are ineffective in large gap injuries. Ridge/groove surface micropatterning has been shown to promote neural cell orientation and guide growth. However, optimization of the ratio of ridge/groove parameters to promote orientation and extension for dorsal root ganglion (DRG cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA films has not been previously conducted. Photolithography and micro-molding were used to define various combinations of ridge/groove dimensions on PLGA films. The DRG cells obtained from chicken embryos were cultured on micropatterned PLGA films for cell orientation and migration evaluation. Biodegradation of the films occurred during the test period, however, this did not cause deformation or distortion of the micropatterns. Results from the DRG cell orientation test suggest that when the ridge/groove ratio equals 1 (ridge/groove width parameters are equal, i.e., 10 μm/10 μm (even, the degree of alignment depends on the size of the ridges and grooves, when the ratio is smaller than 1 (groove controlled the alignment increases as the ridge size decreases, and when the ratio is larger than 1 (ridge controlled, the alignment is reduced as the width of the grooves decreases. The migration rate and neurite extension of DRG neurons were greatest on 10 μm/10 μm and 30 μm/30 μm micropatterned PLGA films. Based on the data, the 10 μm/10 μm and 30 μm/30 μm micropatterned PLGA films are the optimized ridge/groove surface patterns for the construction of nerve repair devices.

  11. Multifunctional surfaces with biomimetic nanofibres and drug-eluting micro-patterns for infection control and bone tissue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XN Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For long-term orthopaedic implants, the creation of a surface that is repulsive to bacteria while adhesive to tissue cells represents a promising strategy to control infection. To obtain such multifunctional surfaces, two possible approaches were explored to incorporate a model antibiotic, rifampicin (Rf, into the osteogenic polycaprolactone (PCL/chitosan (CHS biomimetic nanofibre meshes by (1 blending Rf into the electrospinning solutions and then electrospinning into nanofibres (i.e., Rf-incorporating fibres, or (2 depositing Rf-containing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA micro-patterns onto the PCL/chitosan nanofibre meshes via ink-jet printing (i.e., Rf-eluting micro-pattern/fibre. Rapid release of Rf from both meshes was measured even though a relatively slower release rate was obtained from the Rf-eluting micro-pattern ones. Antibacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis showed that both mesh surfaces could effectively kill bacteria and prevent biofilm formation. However, only Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes favoured the attachment, spreading and metabolic activity of preosteoblasts in the cell culture study. Furthermore, the Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes could better support the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts by up-regulating the gene expression of bone markers (type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase. Clearly, compared to Rf-incorporating nanofibre meshes, Rf-eluting micro-patterns could effectively prevent biofilm formation without sacrificing the osteogenic properties of PCL/chitosan nanofibre surfaces. This finding provides an innovative avenue to design multifunctional surfaces for enhancing bone tissue formation while controlling infection.

  12. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  13. CEA budget in 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  14. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  15. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  16. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  17. The Agency's budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  19. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  20. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  1. Design and Characterization of the VMM1 ASIC for Micropattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Fried, J; Li, S; Nambiar, N; Polychronakos, V; Vernon, E

    2013-01-01

    We present here the measurements of the first prototype VMM1 ASIC designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 130 nm CMOS and fabricated in spring 2012. The 64-channel ASIC features a novel design for use with several types of micropattern gas detectors. The data driven system measures peak amplitude and timing information in tracking mode and first channel hit address in trigger mode. Several programmable gain and integration times allows the flexibility to work with Micromegas, Thin Gap Chambers (TGCs), and Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors. The IC design architecture and features will be presented along with measurements characterizing the performance of the VMM1 such as noise, linearity of the response, time walk, and calibration range. The concept for use with Micromegas in ATLAS Upgrade will also be covered including characterization under test beam conditions.

  2. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing and low consumption (<180 μW, and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes.

  3. 172 nm excimer VUV-triggered photodegradation and micropatterning of aminosilane films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, Christian; Naumov, Sergej; Zajadacz, Joachim; Buchmeiser, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Emission from Xe 2 * excimers exhibiting photon energies between 7 and 10 eV can be used to induce strong surface modification effects on polymeric materials in the top 100 nm layer. In order to identify suitable monomers for this VUV-based process, the photodegradation mechanism of different organosilanes of the general structure R-CH 2 -Si(OCH 3 ) 3 was elucidated by quantum chemical calculations. Herein, the photodegradation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane films by the use of a 172 nm excimer lamp under different irradiation conditions is described and completed by micropatterning experiments. The presence of 1000-5000 ppm oxygen was found to promote the transformation process to an inorganic-like surface. The films obtained were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements and fluorescence microscopy after covalent attachment of a fluorescent dye to the remaining amino groups. Complementary, silver staining was used to visualize photopatterning.

  4. Micropatterning of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) by ion beam contact lithography for the control of cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Tae; Jung, Chan Hee; Choi, Jae Hak; Nho, Young Chang; Lee, Byoung Min; Hong, Sung Kwon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report on a simple method of micropatterning of cells by using ion beam contact lithography. Thin poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (Phds) films spin-coated on a silicon wafer were irradiated through a pattern mask in a contact mode with proton ions and then developed to generate the patterns of the Phds. Well-defined 50 μm line (pitch 150 μm) patterns were obtained without using any additives. The remaining thickness after development was increased with an increasing fluence up to 3 x 10 14 ions cm -2 after which it leveled off. The in-vitro cell culture test revealed that the cells were preferentially adhered to and proliferated only on the space regions between the Phds line patterns. Inhibition of cell adhesion on the Phds patterns could be due to antifouling property of the irradiated PHS

  5. Fast formation of hydrophilic and reactive polymer micropatterns by photocatalytic lithography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Wang, Chih-Feng; Chen, Jem-Kun; Hsieh, Chih-Chiao; Chen, Po-An

    2013-01-01

    An approach is developed for the fast formation of a hydrophilic pattern on superhydrophobic substrates with good contrast due to the large wettability contrast between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic areas. It can be used for forming a polymer pattern with reactive functional groups. TiO 2 nanoparticles were grafted with long alkyl chains and then coated on substrates to produce superhydrophobic films. Photocatalytic degradation of the grafted alkyl chains was effected with UV light irradiation and resulted in transition from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity. After UV light irradiation through a mask for 30 s, dyes or polymers were adsorbed on the photoinduced superhydrophilic areas to make micropatterns. The photoinduced superhydrophilic switching properties can be tuned by changing the alkyl chain length. The ninhydrin assay was adapted to identify free amino groups of polymers on the patterned area. Polymer patterns with free amino groups can be achieved.

  6. Development and characterization of micro-pattern gas detectors for intense beams of hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, Maxence

    2012-07-02

    This thesis work is dedicated to the design, development and characterization of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors. The performances of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) amplification structure are reported. The intrinsic ion backflow suppression of GEM foils drastically reduces the space charge produced by wire readout in traditional TPC. The GEM solution allows the operation of a TPC at much higher event rate. The second part of this thesis describes the development of a 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} Micromegas detector with a highly segmented central area. A reduction of discharges compared to conventional Micromegas detectors is needed for stable operation in intense beams of hadrons. Spark reduction technologies have been successfully studied and results are presented.

  7. Polymeric Shape-Memory Micro-Patterned Surface for Switching Wettability with Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García-Huete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method to switch the wettability of a micropatterned polymeric surface by thermally induced shape memory effect is presented. For this purpose, first polycyclooctene (PCO is crosslinked with dycumil peroxide (DCP and its melting temperature, which corresponds with the switching transition temperature (Ttrans, is measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA in tension mode. Later, the shape memory behavior of the bulk material is analyzed under different experimental conditions employing a cyclic thermomechanical analysis (TMA. Finally, after creating shape memory micropillars by laser ablation of crosslinked thermo-active polycyclooctene (PCO, shape memory response and associated effect on water contact angle is analyzed. Thus, deformed micropillars cause lower contact angle on the surface from reduced roughness, but the original hydrophobicity is restored by thermally induced recovery of the original surface structure.

  8. Nano-structured micropatterns by combination of block copolymer self-assembly and UV photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorzolnik, B; Mela, P; Moeller, M

    2006-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of nano-structured micropatterns by direct UV photo-patterning of a monolayer of a self-assembled block copolymer/transition metal hybrid structure is described. The method exploits the selective photochemical modification of a self-assembled monolayer of hexagonally ordered block copolymer micelles loaded with a metal precursor salt. Solvent development of the monolayer after irradiation results in the desired pattern of micelles on the surface. Subsequent plasma treatment of the pattern leaves ordered metal nanodots. The presented technique is a simple and low-cost combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches that allows decoration of large areas with periodic and aperiodic patterns of nano-objects, with good control over two different length scales: nano- and micrometres

  9. Performance test of a micro-pattern stereo detector with two gas electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvich, T.; Bluem, P.; Erdmann, M.; Fahrer, M.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Moermann, D.; Mueller, Th.; Neuberger, D.; Roederer, F.; Simonis, H.J.; Skiba, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Weiler, Th.; Weseler, S.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the performance of a large micro-pattern detector with two gas electron multiplier foils and a two-layer readout structure at ground potential. The two readout layers each have a 406 μm pitch and cross at an effective angle of 6.7 deg. . This structure allows for two orthogonal coordinates to be determined. Using a muon beam at CERN together with a silicon tracking system, the position resolutions of the two coordinates are measured to be 50 μm and 1 mm respectively (1 standard deviation). The muon detection efficiency for the two-dimensional space points reaches 96%. The detector was found to be well operational over a wide range in the settings of the different electrical fields

  10. Fast formation of hydrophilic and reactive polymer micropatterns by photocatalytic lithography method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chi-Jung, E-mail: changcj@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, 1, Syuecheng Road, Dashu District, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jem-Kun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chih-Chiao; Chen, Po-An [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-01

    An approach is developed for the fast formation of a hydrophilic pattern on superhydrophobic substrates with good contrast due to the large wettability contrast between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic areas. It can be used for forming a polymer pattern with reactive functional groups. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were grafted with long alkyl chains and then coated on substrates to produce superhydrophobic films. Photocatalytic degradation of the grafted alkyl chains was effected with UV light irradiation and resulted in transition from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity. After UV light irradiation through a mask for 30 s, dyes or polymers were adsorbed on the photoinduced superhydrophilic areas to make micropatterns. The photoinduced superhydrophilic switching properties can be tuned by changing the alkyl chain length. The ninhydrin assay was adapted to identify free amino groups of polymers on the patterned area. Polymer patterns with free amino groups can be achieved.

  11. Development and characterization of micro-pattern gas detectors for intense beams of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, Maxence

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work is dedicated to the design, development and characterization of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors. The performances of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) amplification structure are reported. The intrinsic ion backflow suppression of GEM foils drastically reduces the space charge produced by wire readout in traditional TPC. The GEM solution allows the operation of a TPC at much higher event rate. The second part of this thesis describes the development of a 40 x 40 cm 2 Micromegas detector with a highly segmented central area. A reduction of discharges compared to conventional Micromegas detectors is needed for stable operation in intense beams of hadrons. Spark reduction technologies have been successfully studied and results are presented.

  12. Electrode Processes in Porous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-26

    F104470 2.0 MASS SPECTROMETRY One part of activity for this year is an investigation of the behavior of silver electrodes through the distribution of...al. (2)). These, in some cases, involve tedious and time comsuming procedures and discrepencies of as much as 15% have been observed in the results. As

  13. Direct writing of conductive silver micropatterns on flexible polyimide film by laser-induced pyrolysis of silver nanoparticle-dispersed film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminuzzaman, Mohammod; Watanabe, Akira; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2010-01-01

    This article describes fabrication of Ag micropatterns on a flexible polyimide (PI) film by laser direct writing using an Ag nanoparticle-dispersed film as a precursor. Ag micropatterns are characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), surface profilometry, and resistivity measurements. The line width of Ag micropatterns can be effectively controlled by altering the experimental parameters of laser direct writing especially laser intensity, objective lens, and laser beam scanning speed etc. Using an objective lens of 100x and laser intensity of 170.50 kW/cm 2 , Ag micropatterns with a line width of about 6 μm have been achieved. The Ag micropatterns show strong adhesion to polyimide surface as evaluated by Scotch-tape test. The resistivity of the Ag micropatterns is determined to be 4.1 x 10 -6 Ω cm using two-point probe method. This value is comparable with the resistivity of bulk Ag (1.6 x 10 -6 Ω cm).

  14. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  15. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  16. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  17. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  19. Jackson Revenue Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  20. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  1. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  2. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  3. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  4. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  5. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  6. Tribological improvement of moving microparts by application of thin films and micropatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandorf, R; Paulkowski, D M; Schiffmann, K I; Kuester, R L A

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of active microsystems continually increases and with the expansion of applications also aspects of reliability and durability of the moving microparts. In particular, the microtribological improvement of active MEMS therefore was investigated and improved. On the one hand, the influence of different thin films was investigated; on the other hand, improvement by micropatterning of the tribological surfaces in combination with coatings was studied. Most promising results were gained using thin carbon-based films. The typical film thickness of the coatings was in a range of several tens up to a few hundred nanometres. The films were deposited by plasma processes varying different process parameters, mainly the applied bias voltage. Different doping elements (Si, Au and W) were added to the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (a-C, a-C:H, a-C:H:Si, a-C:H:Au, and a-C:H:W). Different methods were used for characterizing the thin films. Under single asperity contact indentation and scratch tests were performed to determine microhardness, microwear and microfriction. An influence of the applied bias voltage on the micromechanical and microtribological properties was found. At low constant loads of 100 μN the more brittle a-C films showed an initially higher microwear volume than the more elastic a-C:H films. With increasing load the microwear of the a-C films showed less increase of microwear compared to a-C:H films. At low load in the range from 50 μN to a few 100 μN the friction coefficient in single-asperity contact decreased with increasing load. Reaching a critical load the behaviour changed and due to inelastic effects, the friction coefficient increased with further increasing load. For investigation of microabrasive wear under multi-asperity contact a specifically developed tester was used. Besides a ranking of different materials regarding their abrasive microwear resistance the influence of the substrate material on the resulting wear behaviour was

  7. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  8. Involvement of flocculin in negative potential-applied ITO electrode adhesion of yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Sumihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Usui, Keiko; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Tame, Akihiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Ohta, Yukari; Hatada, Yuji; Kato, Chiaki; Miwa, Tetsuya; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nagahama, Takehiko; Konishi, Masaaki; Nagano, Yuriko; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel methods for attachment and cultivation of specifically positioned single yeast cells on a microelectrode surface with the application of a weak electrical potential. Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains attached to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) electrode to which a negative potential between −0.2 and −0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl was applied, while they did not adhere to a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass electrode surface. The yeast cells attached to the negative potential-applied ITO electrodes showed normal cell proliferation. We found that the flocculin FLO10 gene-disrupted diploid BY4743 mutant strain (flo10Δ /flo10Δ) almost completely lost the ability to adhere to the negative potential-applied ITO electrode. Our results indicate that the mechanisms of diploid BY4743 S. cerevisiae adhesion involve interaction between the negative potential-applied ITO electrode and the Flo10 protein on the cell wall surface. A combination of micropatterning techniques of living single yeast cell on the ITO electrode and omics technologies holds potential of novel, highly parallelized, microchip-based single-cell analysis that will contribute to new screening concepts and applications. PMID:26187908

  9. Capability of Sputtered Micro-patterned NiTi Thick Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Christoph; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Quandt, Eckhard

    2015-09-01

    Today, most NiTi devices are manufactured by a combination of conventional metal fabrication steps, e.g., melting, extrusion, cold working, etc., and are subsequently structured by high accuracy laser cutting. This combination has been proven to be very successful; however, there are several limitations to this fabrication route, e.g., in respect to the fabrication of more complex device designs, device miniaturization or the combination of different materials for the integration of further functionality. These issues have to be addressed in order to develop new devices and applications. The fabrication of micro-patterned films using magnetron sputtering, UV lithography, and wet etching has great potential to overcome limitations of conventional device manufacturing. Due to its fabrication characteristics, this method allows the production of devices with complex designs, high structural accuracy, smooth edge profile, at layer thicknesses up to 75 µm. The aim of this study is to present recent developments in the field of NiTi thin film technology, its advantages and limitations, as well as new possible applications in the medical and in non-medical fields. These developments include among others NiTi scaffold structures covered with NiTi membranes for their potential use as filters, heart valve components or aneurysm treatments, as well as micro-actuators for consumable electronics or automotive applications.

  10. Effects of UV laser micropatterning on frictional performance of diamond-like nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavedeev, Evgeny V.; Zilova, Olga S.; Shupegin, Mikhail L.; Barinov, Alexej D.; Arutyunyan, Natalia R.; Roch, Teja; Pimenov, Sergei M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on UV laser modification and micropatterning of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) films (a-C:H,Si:O) with nanosecond pulses and effects of laser surface microstructuring on the frictional performance of DLN films on the nano- and macroscale. A technique of direct laser interference patterning was applied to produce arrays of periodic linear microstructures on the DLN films. The UV laser irradiation was performed at low fluences corresponding to the regime of surface graphitization and incipient ablation. At the initial stage of the thin film modification, the laser-induced spallation and graphitization in the surface layers were found to strongly influence the nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the DLN surface. Frictional properties of the laser-patterned DLN films were studied using (1) atomic force microscopy in lateral force mode and (2) a ball-on-flat tribometer under linear reciprocating sliding against a 100Cr6 steel ball. The lateral force microscopy measurements revealed that the laser-irradiated regions were characterized by increased friction forces due to microspallation effects and enhanced surface roughness, correlating with tribotests at the initial stage of sliding. During prolonged sliding in ambient air, both the original and laser-patterned DLN surfaces exhibited low-friction performance at the friction coefficient of 0.07-0.08.

  11. Enhancement of silicon using micro-patterned surfaces of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Kaivosoja

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-textured biomaterials might enhance cytocompatibility of silicon-based micro-electro-mechanical system (bio-MEMS dummies. Photolithography-physical vapour deposition was used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC or Ti squares and circles on silicon, and also their inverse replicas; then DLC and Ti were compared for their guiding potential, using a SaOS-2 cell model. Scanning electron microscopy at 48 hours indicated cells were well-spread on large-sized patterns (several cells on one pattern and assumed the geometrical architecture of underlying features. Medium-sized patterns (slightly smaller than solitary indicator cells were inhabited by singular cells, which stretched from one island to another, assuming longitudinal or branching morphologies. On small-sized patterns (much smaller than individual cells cells covered large micro-textured areas, but cellular filopodia bypassed the bare silicon. Immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that the actin cytoskeleton and vinculin-containing adhesion junctions were present on the patterned areas, but not on the bare silicon. Cell density/coverage disclosed a 3.4-3.7-fold preference for the biomaterial patterns over silicon substrate (p < 0.001. Differences in the cellular response between materials were lost at 120 hours when cells were confluent. The working hypothesis was proven; enhancement by micro-patterning depends on the pattern size, shape and material and can be used to improve biocompatibility during the initial integration phase of the device.

  12. Micropatterned 2D Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films with Enhanced Photoluminescence Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Machteld E; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ten Brink, Gert H; Blake, Graeme R; Palstra, Thomas T M; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2018-04-18

    The application of luminescent materials in display screens and devices requires micropatterned structures. In this work, we have successfully printed microstructures of a two-dimensional (2D), orange-colored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite ((C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 ) using two different soft lithography techniques. Notably, both techniques yield microstructures with very high aspect ratios in the range of 1.5-1.8. X-ray diffraction reveals a strong preferential orientation of the crystallites along the c-axis in both patterned structures, when compared to nonpatterned, drop-casted thin films. Furthermore, (time-resolved) photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that the optical properties of (C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 are conserved upon patterning. We find that the larger grain sizes of the patterned films with respect to the nonpatterned film give rise to an enhanced PL lifetime. Thus, our results demonstrate easy and cost-effective ways to manufacture patterns of 2D organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, while even improving their optical properties. This demonstrates the potential use of color-tunable 2D hybrids in optoelectronic devices.

  13. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  14. Cubic Gallium Nitride on Micropatterned Si (001) for Longer Wavelength LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durniak, Mark T. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Chaudhuri, Anabil [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Smith, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Material Sciences; Allerman, Andrew A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Material Sciences; Lee, S. C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Brueck, S. R. J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Wetzel, Christian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    GaInN/GaN heterostructures of cubic phase have the potential to overcome the limitations of wurtzite structures commonly used for light emitting and laser diodes. Wurtzite GaInN suffers from large internal polarization fields, which force design compromises ( 0001 ) towards ultra-narrow quantum wells and reduce recombination volume and efficiency. Cubic GaInN microstripes grown at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on micropatterned Si , with {111} v-grooves oriented along Si ( 001 ) , offer a system free of internal polarization fields, wider quantum wells, and smaller <00$\\bar1$> bandgap energy. We prepared 6 and 9 nm Ga x In 1-x N/GaN single quantum well structures with peak wavelength ranges from 520 to 570 nm with photons predominately polarized perpendicular to the grooves. We estimate a cubic InN composition range of 0 < x < 0.5 and an upper limit of the internal quantum efficiency of 50%. Stripe geometry and polarization may be suitable for mode confinement and reduced threshold stimulated emission.

  15. Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinrui; Li, Jiasheng; Chen, Qiu; Tang, Yong; Li, Zongtao; Yu, Binhai

    2015-02-09

    Although the light-emitting diode (LED) has revolutionized lighting, the non-uniformity of its correlated color temperature (CCT) still remains a major concern. In this context, to improve the light distribution performance of remote phosphor LED lamps, we employ a micropatterned array (MPA) optical film fabricated using a low-cost molding process. The parameters of the MPA, including different installation configurations, positioning, and diameters, are optimized by combining the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods. Results show that the sample with the upward-facing convex-cone MPA film that has a diameter of half of that of the remote phosphor glass, and is tightly affixed to the inward surface of the remote phosphor glass renders a superior light distribution performance. When compared with the case in which no MPA film is used, the deviation of the CCT distribution decreases from 1033 K to 223 K, and the corresponding output power of the sample is an acceptable level of 85.6%. We perform experiments to verify our simulation results, and the two sets of results exhibit a close agreement. We believe that our approach can be used to optimize MPA films for various lighting applications.

  16. Effect of Flow on Cultured Cell at Micro-Pattern of Ridge Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow channel with a micro-pattern of ridge lines of a scaffold has been designed to study quantitatively the effect of flow on an oriented cell in vitro. The lines of parallel micro ridges (0.001 mm height, 0.003 mm width, and 0.003 mm interval are made by the lithography technique on the lower surface of the channel as the scaffold to make orientation of each cell. Variation is made about the angle between the longitudinal direction of the ridge line and the direction of the flow: zero, 0.79 and 1.6 rad. The suspension of C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line was injected to the channel, and incubated for two hours on the micro ridges before the flow test for four hours. The flow rate of 3/hour is controlled by a syringe pump to make variation of the wall shear stress of < 3 Pa. The action of each cell adhered on the micro pattern was analyzed at the time lapse images. The experimental results show that both the migration and the deformation of each myoblast along the micro ridge are restricted by the wall shear stress higher than 3 Pa.

  17. Microfluidic impact printer with interchangeable cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2013-05-21

    Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets challenges on biocompatibility, thermal and chemical sensitivity, as well as limited availability of reagents. In this paper, we aim at combining the desired features from non-contact inkjet printing and dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, sub-microliter ink loading with a minimal dead volume, high-throughput printing, biocompatible non-contact processing, sequential patterning with self-alignment, wide adaptability for complex media (e.g., cell suspension or colloidal solutions), interchangeable/disposable cartridge design, and simple assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards laboratory-based research and development. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analysed. Optimal printing resolution of 80 μm has been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two useful functions of the MI-printer, multiplexed printing and combinatorial printing, have been experimentally demonstrated with less than 10 μm misalignment. Moreover, molecular and biological patterning, utilizing the multiplexed and combinatorial printing, has been implemented to illustrate the utility of this versatile printing technique for emerging biomedical applications.

  18. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  19. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.; Hoch, M.; Pagano, P.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Biagi, S.; Buzulutskov, A.; Gruwe, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Moermann, D.; Sharma, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strips, micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur a trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8 . In multiple structures, where the gain is shared between two devices in cascade, the maximum overall gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our conclusion is that only multiple devices can guarantee a sufficient margin of reliability for operation in harsh LHC running conditions

  20. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D.; Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F.; Druillole, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G.; Porte, C.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Suen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm 2 pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics

  1. Cell adhesion and spreading on polymer surfaces micropatterned by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satriano, C.; Carnazza, S.; Licciardello, A.; Guglielmino, S.; Marletta, G.

    2003-01-01

    The cell adhesion and spreading behavior on surfaces of poly(ethyleneterephtalate) and poly(hydroxymethylsiloxane) micropatterned by focused 15 keV Ga + beams has been studied. It has been found that while no modification in the cell adhesion process could be observed for unirradiated and irradiated areas on the patterned surfaces, in the case of polyhydroxymethylsiloxane the cell adhesion process is basically confined within the irradiated areas and a clear dependence of the cell ordering on the lateral size of the irradiated areas is observed. The results are discussed in terms of the specific spatially resolved chemical modification induced by Ga + irradiation onto the two different polymers. Thus, the irradiation-induced modification of composition, functional groups concentration, surface free energy, and nanoscale morphology have been studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy. The cell adhesion and spreading behavior was found to nicely correlate with the increase of the acid-base component γ AB of the surface free energy and more particularly with the dramatic increase of the Lewis basic electron-donor term

  2. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  3. AGF program budget 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.) [de

  4. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  5. AGF program budget 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  6. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  7. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  8. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  9. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  10. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  11. Budgeting and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Call for a Budgetary Theory: The appeal of Valdimer Key for a budgetary theory marks the interest in public budgeting in modern history. He clearly referred to a normative theory, raising the question: ‘on what basis shall it be decided to allocate X dollars to activity A instead of

  12. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  13. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  15. Sabotage in Capital Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    for honesty inhibits sabotage. Moreover, honesty suppresses negative reciprocity and thus reduces sabotage not only directly but also indirectly. Our findings warn firms to consider the sabotage of investments as a hidden cost of control in budgeting. They show that honesty has a spill-over effect...

  16. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hidenori; Sasaki, Kohei; Okimura, Saya; Nagamura, Masako; Nakasone, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell–matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell–cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell–cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices. (paper)

  17. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  18. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  19. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  20. An optical fiber-based flexible readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Feng, C. Q.; Zhu, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; An, Q.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an optical fiber-based readout system that is intended to provide a general purpose multi-channel readout solution for various Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). The proposed readout system is composed of several front-end cards (FECs) and a data collection module (DCM). The FEC exploits the capability of an existing 64-channel generic TPC readout ASIC chip, named AGET, to implement 256 channels readout. AGET offers FEC a large flexibility in gain range (4 options from 120 fC to 10 pC), peaking time (16 options from 50 ns to 1 us) and sampling freqency (100 MHz max.). The DCM contains multiple 1 Gbps optical fiber serial link interfaces that allow the system scaling up to 1536 channels with 6 FECs and 1 DCM. Further scaling up is possible through cascading of multiple DCMs, by configuring one DCM as a master while other DCMs in slave mode. This design offers a rapid readout solution for different application senario. Tests indicate that the nonlinearity of each channel is less than 1%, and the equivalent input noise charge is typically around 0.7 fC in RMS (root mean square), with a noise slope of about 0.01 fC/pF. The system level trigger rate limit is about 700 Hz in all channel readout mode. When in hit channel readout mode, supposing that typically 10 percent of channels are fired, trigger rate can go up to about 7 kHz. This system has been tested with Micromegas detector and GEM detector, confirming its capability in MPGD readout. Details of hardware and FPGA firmware design, as well as system performances, are described in the paper.

  1. Excimer laser micropatterning of freestanding thermo-responsive hydrogel layers for cells-on-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina; Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Gassa, Federico; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel reliable and repeatable technologic manufacturing protocol for the realization of micro-patterned freestanding hydrogel layers based on thermo-responsive poly-(N-isopropyl)acrylamide (PNIPAAm), which have potential to be employed as temperature-triggered smart surfaces for cells-on-chip applications. PNIPAAm-based films with controlled mechanical properties and different thicknesses (100–300 µm thickness) were prepared by injection compression moulding at room temperature. A 9 × 9 array of 20 µm diameter through-holes is machined by means of the KrF excimer laser on dry PNIPAAm films which are physically attached to flat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. Machining parameters, such as fluence and number of shots, are optimized in order to achieve highly resolved features. Micro-structured freestanding films are then easily obtained after hydrogels are detached from PVC by gradually promoting the film swelling in ethanol. In the PNIPAAm water-swollen state, the machined holes’ diameter approaches a slight larger value (30 µm) according to the measured hydrogel swelling ratio. Thermo-responsive behaviour and through-hole tapering characterization are carried out by metrology measurements using an optical inverted and confocal microscope setup, respectively. After the temperature of freestanding films is raised above 32 °C, we observe that the shrinkage of the whole through-hole array occurs, thus reducing the holes’ diameter to less than a half its original size (about 15 µm) as a consequence of the film dehydration. Different holes’ diameters (10 and 30 µm) are also obtained on dry hydrogel employing suitable projection masks, showing similar shrinking behaviour when hydrated and undergone thermo-response tests. Thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based freestanding layers could then be integrated with other suitable micro-fabricated thermoplastic components in order to preliminary test their feasibility in operating as temperature

  2. Laser printing of nanoparticle toner enables digital control of micropatterned carbon nanotube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S; Stevens, Adam G; Hart, A John

    2013-05-01

    Commercialization of materials utilizing patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, such as hierarchical composite structures, dry adhesives, and contact probe arrays, will require catalyst patterning techniques that do not rely on cleanroom photolithography. We demonstrate the large scale patterning of CNT growth catalyst via adaptation of a laser-based electrostatic printing process that uses magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) toner. The MICR toner contains iron oxide nanoparticles that serve as the catalyst for CNT growth, which are printed onto a flexible polymer (polyimide) and then transferred to a rigid substrate (silicon or alumina) under heat and mechanical pressure. Then, the substrate is processed for CNT growth under an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) recipe. This process enables digital control of patterned CNT growth via the laser intensity, which controls the CNT density; and via the grayscale level, which controls the pixelation of the image into arrays of micropillars. Moreover, virtually any pattern can be designed using standard software (e.g., MS Word, AutoCAD, etc.) and printed on demand. Using a standard office printer, we realize isolated CNT microstructures as small as 140 μm and isolated catalyst ″pixels″ as small as 70 μm (one grayscale dot) and determine that individual toner microparticles result in features of approximately 5-10 μm . We demonstrate that grayscale CNT patterns can function as dry adhesives and that large-area catalyst patterns can be printed directly onto metal foils or transferred to ceramic plates. Laser printing therefore shows promise to enable high-speed micropatterning of nanoparticle-containing thin films under ambient conditions, possibly for a wide variety of nanostructures by engineering of toners containing nanoparticles of desired composition, size, and shape.

  3. Fabrication of Biomimetic Fog-Collecting Superhydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surface Micropatterns Using Femtosecond Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Elisabeth; Stroj, Sandra; Kasemann, Stephan; Matylitsky, Victor; Domke, Matthias

    2018-03-06

    The exciting functionalities of natural superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces served as inspiration for a variety of biomimetic designs. In particular, the combination of both extreme wetting states to micropatterns opens up interesting applications, as the example of the fog-collecting Namib Desert beetle shows. In this paper, the beetle's elytra were mimicked by a novel three-step fabrication method to increase the fog-collection efficiency of glasses. In the first step, a double-hierarchical surface structure was generated on Pyrex wafers using femtosecond laser structuring, which amplified the intrinsic wetting property of the surface and made it superhydrophilic (water contact angle 150°). In the last step, the Teflon-like coating was selectively removed by fs-laser ablation to uncover superhydrophilic spots below the superhydrophobic surface, following the example of the Namib Desert beetle's fog-collecting elytra. To investigate the influence on the fog-collection behavior, (super)hydrophilic, (super)hydrophobic, and low and high contrast wetting patterns were fabricated on glass wafers using selected combinations of these three processing steps and were exposed to fog in an artificial nebulizer setup. This experiment revealed that high-contrast wetting patterns collected the highest amount of fog and enhanced the fog-collection efficiency by nearly 60% compared to pristine Pyrex glass. The comparison of the fog-collection behavior of the six samples showed that the superior fog-collection efficiency of surface patterns with extreme wetting contrast is due to the combination of water attraction and water repellency: the superhydrophilic spots act as drop accumulation areas, whereas the surrounding superhydrophobic areas allow a fast water transportation caused by gravity. The presented method enables a fast and flexible surface functionalization of a broad range of materials including transparent substrates, which offers exciting possibilities for

  4. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  5. Micro-patterned agarose gel devices for single-cell high-throughput microscopy of E. coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, David G; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yo; Taniguchi, Yuichi

    2017-12-21

    High-throughput microscopy of bacterial cells elucidated fundamental cellular processes including cellular heterogeneity and cell division homeostasis. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices provide advantages including precise positioning of cells and throughput, however device fabrication is time-consuming and requires specialised skills. Agarose pads are a popular alternative, however cells often clump together, which hinders single cell quantitation. Here, we imprint agarose pads with micro-patterned 'capsules', to trap individual cells and 'lines', to direct cellular growth outwards in a straight line. We implement this micro-patterning into multi-pad devices called CapsuleHotel and LineHotel for high-throughput imaging. CapsuleHotel provides ~65,000 capsule structures per mm 2 that isolate individual Escherichia coli cells. In contrast, LineHotel provides ~300 line structures per mm that direct growth of micro-colonies. With CapsuleHotel, a quantitative single cell dataset of ~10,000 cells across 24 samples can be acquired and analysed in under 1 hour. LineHotel allows tracking growth of > 10 micro-colonies across 24 samples simultaneously for up to 4 generations. These easy-to-use devices can be provided in kit format, and will accelerate discoveries in diverse fields ranging from microbiology to systems and synthetic biology.

  6. Integration of 3D Printed and Micropatterned Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Guidance of Oriented Collagenous Tissue Formation In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Monje, Alberto; Jiao, Yizu; Hao, Jie; Kruger, Laura; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold design incorporating multiscale cues for clinically relevant, aligned tissue regeneration has potential to improve structural and functional integrity of multitissue interfaces. The objective of this preclinical study is to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with mesoscale and microscale architectural cues specific to human ligament progenitor cells and assess their ability to form aligned bone-ligament-cementum complexes in vivo. PCL scaffolds are designed to integrate a 3D printed bone region with a micropatterned PCL thin film consisting of grooved pillars. The patterned film region is seeded with human ligament cells, fibroblasts transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-7 genes seeded within the bone region, and a tooth dentin segment positioned on the ligament region prior to subcutaneous implantation into a murine model. Results indicate increased tissue alignment in vivo using micropatterned PCL films, compared to random-porous PCL. At week 6, 30 μm groove depth significantly enhances oriented collagen fiber thickness, overall cell alignment, and nuclear elongation relative to 10 μm groove depth. This study demonstrates for the first time that scaffolds with combined hierarchical mesoscale and microscale features can align cells in vivo for oral tissue repair with potential for improving the regenerative response of other bone-ligament complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  8. High performance cermet electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  9. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  10. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the global carbon budget - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the global carbon budget – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC, mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM, the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016, EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr−1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr−1, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be

  13. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  14. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  15. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  16. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, B.; Rehman, A.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2017-04-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µm are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  17. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, B; Alaca, B E; Rehman, A; Bayraktar, H

    2017-01-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µ m are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  18. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  19. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  20. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  1. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  2. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  3. Near-Electrode Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, Rex E.,II

    1999-05-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager use the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  4. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  5. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  6. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  7. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  8. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  9. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  10. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  11. The CEA budget in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management [fr

  12. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  13. Fabrication of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and k-carrageenan hydrogels of defined shapes using simple wax mould method as a platform for stem cell/induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, S; Gopalakrishnan, Aswathi; M R, Poorna; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R; Mony, Ullas

    2018-06-01

    Micropatterning techniques involve soft lithography, which is laborious, expensive and restricted to a narrow spectrum of biomaterials. In this work we report, first time employment of patterned wax moulds for generation of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and κ-carrageenan (κ-CRG) hydrogel systems by a novel, simple and cost effective method. We generated and characterized uniform and reproducible micropatterned hydrogels of varying sizes and shapes such as square projections, square grooves, and circular grids and crisscrossed hillocks. The rheological analysis showed that κ-carrageenan hydrogels had higher gel strength when compared to alginate-gelatin hydrogels. Human Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) were found to be cytocompatible with these hydrogels. This micropatterned hydrogel system may have potential application in tissue engineering and also in understanding the basic biology behind the stem cell/iPSC fate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Building information modeling in budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction activity is one of the financially demanding and ever-changing locations of implementation. The basic idea of the budget is to determine all the possible costs that will arise during construction work. The budget must be a transparent and effective way of communication in the context of supplier-customer relationships. For this reason it is essential to give the budget the structure that is now represented by the price system. It is important to adhere to the principles of budgeting and technical standards. It is necessary to have good documentation for budgeting such as project documentation and much more. However, the construction product range is one of the most extensive, the product group can be changed several times in the investment phase not only materially but also cost-effectively because of the longest production cycle in the construction industry.

  15. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  16. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  19. Micro-patterning of self-supporting layers with conducting polymer wires for 3D-chip interconnection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, J.; Videlot, C.; Nguyen, T.N.; Wang, L.; Sarro, P.M.; Crawley, D.; Nikolic, K.; Forshaw, M.

    2003-01-01

    Highly conducting polymers have attracted much interest because of their potential applications in sensors and electronic devices. By the use of templates like porous membranes during polymerization conducting molecular wires can be formed with highly anisotropic properties which can be used as interconnecting layers in a three-dimensional (3D)-chip stacking. We focussed on two electrochemical polymerization (ECP) techniques to produce molecular wires based on polypyrrole (PPy) embedded in isolating porous polycarbonate membranes as self-supporting layers. The growth of the polymer through the membrane pores was investigated in order to achieve a good conductivity through the pores, but with a small cross-talk between them. A new polymerization technique based on a structured cathode has been developed in order to control the polymerization locally. By that technique micro-patterned membranes with separated conducting polymer wires could be produced

  20. Micro-patterning of resin-bonded NdFeB magnet for a fully integrated electromagnetic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Wu, Jin; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Chen, Di; Yang, Zhuoqing; Ding, Guifu; Lye, Sun Woh; Miao, Jianmin

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a fully-integrated, batch-fabricated electromagnetic actuator which features micro-patterned NdFeB magnets. The entire actuator is fabricated through MEMS-compatible laminated surface micromachining technology, eliminating the requirement for further component assembly processes. The fabrication strategy allowed the entire volume of the actuator to be reduced to a small size of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2 mm3, which is one of the smallest NdFeB-based electromagnetic actuators demonstrated to date. The magnetic properties of NdFeB thin films are further investigated and optimized using different types of lithographically-defined micromolds. By altering the direction of the input current, actuating displacements of approximately ±10 μm are achieved during both the attraction and the repulsion operations. This work demonstrates the viability and compatibility of using polymer-bonded magnets for magnetic MEMS applications.

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  2. Budgeting in an imaging Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyalla, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    budgeting form an integral part of an imaging department. It is a plan to cope with necessary expenses in the future. It involves identifying the needs and income sources required to cover the needs.Covers specific items and time-usually a year and is expressed in monetary terms. The micro budget is put in the macro budget of the hospital. defines financial support for the department. Considers: a fiscal year, projection of patients, types of examinations, type of equipment, monetary exchange, and inflation rate

  3. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  4. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  5. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  6. US science spared budget axe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite initial fears of significant funding cuts, America’s 2017 budget largely maintains support for research. But as Peter Gwynne reports, the relief may only be temporary and funding for science may be slashed next year instead

  7. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  8. Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, Marta S; Carvalho, Ângela; Ferraz, Maria Pia; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge; Pelaez-Vargas, Alejandro; Hansford, Derek; Coimbra, Susana; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Dental ceramic implants have shown superior esthetic behavior and the absence of induced allergic disorders when compared to titanium implants. Zirconia may become a potential candidate to be used as an alternative to titanium dental implants if surface modifications are introduced. In this work, bioactive micropatterned silica coatings were produced on zirconia substrates, using a combined methodology of sol–gel processing and soft lithography. The aim of the work was to compare the in vitro behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) on three types of silica-coated zirconia surfaces: flat and micropatterned (with pillars and with parallel grooves). Our results showed that cells had a higher metabolic activity (HGF, HDMEC) and increased gene expression levels of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and collagen type I (COL I) on surfaces with pillars. Nevertheless, parallel grooved surfaces were able to guide cell growth. Even capillary tube-like networks of HDMEC were oriented according to the surface geometry. Zirconia and silica with different topographies have shown to be blood compatible and silica coating reduced bacteria adhesion. All together, the results indicated that microstructured bioactive coating seems to be an efficient strategy to improve soft tissue integration on zirconia implants, protecting implants from peri-implant inflammation and improving long-term implant stabilization. This new approach of micropatterned silica coating on zirconia substrates can generate promising novel dental implants, with surfaces that provide physical cues to guide cells and enhance their behavior. (paper)

  9. Live-Cell, Label-Free Identification of GABAergic and Non-GABAergic Neurons in Primary Cortical Cultures Using Micropatterned Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Sho; Kushida, Takatoshi; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Niwano, Michio; Tanii, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons have distinct roles in cortical dynamics. Here we present a novel method for identifying inhibitory GABAergic neurons from non-GABAergic neurons, which are mostly excitatory glutamatergic neurons, in primary cortical cultures. This was achieved using an asymmetrically designed micropattern that directs an axonal process to the longest pathway. In the current work, we first modified the micropattern geometry to improve cell viability and then studied the axon length from 2 to 7 days in vitro (DIV). The cell types of neurons were evaluated retrospectively based on immunoreactivity against GAD67, a marker for inhibitory GABAergic neurons. We found that axons of non-GABAergic neurons grow significantly longer than those of GABAergic neurons in the early stages of development. The optimal threshold for identifying GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons was evaluated to be 110 μm at 6 DIV. The method does not require any fluorescence labelling and can be carried out on live cells. The accuracy of identification was 98.2%. We confirmed that the high accuracy was due to the use of a micropattern, which standardized the development of cultured neurons. The method promises to be beneficial both for engineering neuronal networks in vitro and for basic cellular neuroscience research. PMID:27513933

  10. Electrode stabilizing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  11. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  12. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  13. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  14. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  15. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  16. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  17. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... this critique as well as the current status of the traditional annual budget in a contingency perspective by using data from a survey among the largest Danish companies. The conclusion is that only 4% of the companies claim to have abandoned the traditional, annual budget, 2% have decided or are in the process...... of doing so and 11% are considering abandoning it. These "Beyond Budgeting" companies are more critical towards the traditional budget than other companies. The study also shows that the critical attitude towards annual budgets as well as the decision of abandoning the budget cannot be associated...

  18. High throughput soft embossing process for micro-patterning of PEDOT thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanzio, Paola; Cagliani, Alberto; Peterffy, Kristof G.

    2017-01-01

    The patterning of conductive polymers is a major challenge in the implementation of these materials in several research and industrial applications, spanning from photovoltaics to biosensors. Within this context, we have developed a reliable technique to pattern a thin layer of the conductive...... polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by means of a low cost and high throughput soft embossing process. We were able to reproduce a functional conductive pattern with a minimum dimension of 1 μm and to fabricate electrically decoupled electrodes. Moreover, the conductivity of the PEDOT films...... has been characterized, finding that a post-processing treatment with Ethylene Glycol allows an increase in conductivity and a decrease in water solubility of the PEDOT film. Finally, cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the post-treatment also ensures the electrochemical activity of the film. Our...

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF STATE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the market, the public purse money materialized in fact all relations that are contained in the sphere of public finances. The state budget is an economic category that is expressed in the form of values, which mobilizes economic relations, is distributed and used the funds of the state. The state budget is a fundamental category of financial sciences. We can address the legal and economic terms. In terms of its legal budget is an act that are set and approved annual revenue and expenditure of the state. Economic activity takes place in each country according to its own mechanism, called the economic mechanism. This is a system of economic management methods for determining management objectives and organizational structures (institutional, superstructure, legal means for driving

  20. Electrode-electrolyte interface model of tripolar concentric ring electrode and electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Steele, Preston; Besio, Walter G

    2016-08-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper we develop a model for the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  1. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  2. Grid-texture mechanisms in human vision: Contrast detection of regular sparse micro-patterns requires specialist templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel H; Meese, Tim S

    2016-07-27

    Previous work has shown that human vision performs spatial integration of luminance contrast energy, where signals are squared and summed (with internal noise) over area at detection threshold. We tested that model here in an experiment using arrays of micro-pattern textures that varied in overall stimulus area and sparseness of their target elements, where the contrast of each element was normalised for sensitivity across the visual field. We found a power-law improvement in performance with stimulus area, and a decrease in sensitivity with sparseness. While the contrast integrator model performed well when target elements constituted 50-100% of the target area (replicating previous results), observers outperformed the model when texture elements were sparser than this. This result required the inclusion of further templates in our model, selective for grids of various regular texture densities. By assuming a MAX operation across these noisy mechanisms the model also accounted for the increase in the slope of the psychometric function that occurred as texture density decreased. Thus, for the first time, mechanisms that are selective for texture density have been revealed at contrast detection threshold. We suggest that these mechanisms have a role to play in the perception of visual textures.

  3. Entropy Generation Analysis of Power-Law Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Caused by Micropatterned Moving Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Yazdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the first and second law analyses of power-law non-Newtonian flow over embedded open parallel microchannels within micropatterned permeable continuous moving surface are examined at prescribed surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The dimensionless entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. The velocity, the temperature, the velocity gradient, and the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall are substituted into this equation resulting from the momentum and energy equations obtained numerically by Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. Finally, the entropy generation numbers, as well as the Bejan number, are evaluated. It is noted that the presence of the shear thinning (pseudoplastic fluids creates entropy along the surface, with an opposite effect resulting from shear thickening (dilatant fluids.

  4. Controlled Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Micropatterned Au/Cr Composite Film and Field Emission from Their Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Koichi; Araki, Hisashi; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2003-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with a controlled density are prepared on a micropatterned Au/Cr composite film formed on a quartz glass plate by pyrolysis of Ni-phthalocyanine at 800°C. It is clarified from characteristic X-ray analyses for those samples that a catalytic Ni nanoparticle is not contained within the base of the whisker-like CNT in contrast to that of the bamboo-like CNT, suggesting that the growth process of the present novel CNT is incompatible with that of the bamboo-like CNT. In the Au/Cr composite film, both the Cr atomic content of approximately 30% and the presence of the Ni catalyst devoid of a particle-like shape are important factors for the growth of CNTs. Field emission from the novel CNT arrays exhibits a lower turn-on voltage and a higher current density compared with that from the bamboo-like arrays formed on a quartz plate.

  5. Using micro-patterned sensors and cell self-assembly for measuring the oxygen consumption rate of single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzkorn, James R; Parviz, Babak A; Wu, Wen-Chung; Tian, Zhiyuan; Kim, Prince; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for self-assembling arrays of live single cells on a glass chip using a photopatternable polymer to form micro-traps. We have studied the single-cell self-assembly method and optimized the process to obtain a 52% yield of single-trapped cells. We also report a method to measure the oxygen consumption rate of a single cell using micro-patterned sensors. These molecular oxygen sensors were fabricated around each micro-trap allowing optical interrogation of oxygen concentration in the immediate environment of the trapped cell. Micromachined micro-wells were then used to seal the trap, sensor and cell in order to determine the oxygen consumption rate of single cells. These techniques reported here add to the collection of tools for performing 'singe-cell' biology. An oxygen consumption rate of 1.05 ± 0.28 fmol min −1 was found for a data set consisting of 25 single A549 cells.

  6. A new texture descriptor based on local micro-pattern for detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Moraes, Diego R.; Reche, Gustavo A.; Borges, Lucas R.; Catani, Juliana H.; de Barros, Nestor; Melo, Carlos F. E.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new local micro-pattern texture descriptor for the detection of Architectural Distortion (AD) in digital mammography images. AD is a subtle contraction of breast parenchyma that may represent an early sign of breast cancer. Due to its subtlety and variability, AD is more difficult to detect compared to microcalcifications and masses, and is commonly found in retrospective evaluations of false-negative mammograms. Several computer-based systems have been proposed for automatic detection of AD, but their performance are still unsatisfactory. The proposed descriptor, Local Mapped Pattern (LMP), is a generalization of the Local Binary Pattern (LBP), which is considered one of the most powerful feature descriptor for texture classification in digital images. Compared to LBP, the LMP descriptor captures more effectively the minor differences between the local image pixels. Moreover, LMP is a parametric model which can be optimized for the desired application. In our work, the LMP performance was compared to the LBP and four Haralick's texture descriptors for the classification of 400 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from clinical mammograms. ROIs were selected and divided into four classes: AD, normal tissue, microcalcifications and masses. Feature vectors were used as input to a multilayer perceptron neural network, with a single hidden layer. Results showed that LMP is a good descriptor to distinguish AD from other anomalies in digital mammography. LMP performance was slightly better than the LBP and comparable to Haralick's descriptors (mean classification accuracy = 83%).

  7. Do budget balance rules anchor budget balance expectations? -- Some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rülke, Jan-Christoph; Frenkel, Michael; Lis, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study that analyzes whether budget balance expectations are anchored and whether budget balance rules effectively anchor expectations. To this end, we use a unique data set which covers budget balance expectations in 17 countries that implemented a budget balance rules. While our results are mixed concerning the general impact of budget balance rules on anchoring expectations, we do find that specific features of budget balance rules are important to successfully anchor budg...

  8. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  9. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  10. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  11. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  12. Monitoring personal budgets and restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ab van der Torre; Ingrid Ooms; Mirjam de Klerk

    2013-01-01

    The personal budget is a sum of money which recipients can use to arrange and pay for their own care provider. Since its introduction, demand for this provision, which is funded through the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (AWBZ) has grown rapidly, prompting the Dutch government to take a number

  13. Pain Relief for Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Grand Blanc (Michigan) Community School District sets budget priorities by (1) surveying students, taxpayers, and teachers to learn their preferences for current programs and services; (2) determining the costs of state-mandated programs; (3) listing nonmandated programs and determining their costs; and (4) considering proposed new programs.…

  14. Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Dean

    Planning Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) have been considered as either synonymous with abstract, advanced, mathematical systems analysis or as an advanced accounting and control system. If PPBS is to perform a useful function, both viewpoints must be combined such that a number of standardized procedures and reports are required and…

  15. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  16. Zero-Based Budgeting Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Zero-based, programmatic budgeting involves four basic steps: (1) define what needs to be done; (2) specify the resources required; (3) determine the assessment procedures and standards to use in evaluating the effectiveness of various programs; and (4) assign dollar figures to this information. (MLF)

  17. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  18. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  19. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  20. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  1. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  2. Fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel micropatterns with osteoinductive growth factors and evaluation of the effects on osteoblast activity and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramani, K [Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INSAT), University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7AR (United Kingdom); Birch, M A [Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (INSAT), University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7AR (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The aims of this study were to fabricate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel micropatterns on a biomaterial surface to guide osteoblast behaviour and to study how incorporating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) within the adhered hydrogel influenced cell morphology. Standard photolithographic procedures or photopolymerization through a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) mould were used to fabricate patterned PEG hydrogels on the surface of silanized silicon wafers. Hydrogel patterns were evaluated by light microscopy and surface profilometry. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on these surfaces and cell morphology investigated by fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Release of protein trapped in the polymerized PEG was evaluated and VEGF-PEG surfaces were characterized for their ability to support cell growth. These studies show that photopolymerized PEG can be used to create anti-adhesive structures on the surface of silicon that completely control where cell interaction with the substrate takes place. Using conventional lithography, structures down to 50 {mu}m were routinely fabricated with the boundaries exhibiting sloping sides. Using the PDMS mould approach, structures were fabricated as small as 10 {mu}m and boundaries were very sharp and vertical. Osteoblasts exhibiting typical morphology only grew on the silicon wafer surface that was not coated with PEG. Adding BSA to the monomer solution showed that protein could be released from the hydrogel for up to 7 days in vitro. Incorporating VEGF in the hydrogel produced micropatterns that dramatically altered osteoblast behaviour. At boundaries with the VEGF-PEG hydrogel, there was striking formation of cellular processes and membrane ruffling indicative of a change in cell morphology. This study has explored the morphogenetic properties of VEGF and the applications of nano/microfabrication techniques for guided tissue (bone) regeneration in dental and

  3. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  4. Strategic plan creates a blueprint for budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D

    1990-05-01

    Effective healthcare organizations develop budgets that reflect and support a strategic plan. Senior managers set a framework that expresses the hospital's future strategic objectives. The budget enables executives to determine which specific service lines are profitable or unprofitable. Administrators and clinicians at all levels are involved in the budgeting process.

  5. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  6. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  7. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  8. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under this...

  9. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  10. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  11. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee may...

  12. Pure Nash Equilibria in Restricted Budget Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Maximilian Werner; Feldotto, Matthias; Riechers, Sören; Skopalik, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In budget games, players compete over resources with finite budgets. For every resource, a player has a specific demand and as a strategy, he chooses a subset of resources. If the total demand on a resource does not exceed its budget, the utility of each player who chose that resource equals his

  13. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal approval...

  14. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  15. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  16. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee shall...

  17. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2012 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 15, 2011 Top Stories Commanders Cite Department is losing billions of dollars by Congress' failure to pass the department's fiscal 2011 budget . Gates told a Senate committee. Story Gates, Mullen Take Budget to Senate WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 2011 - The

  18. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  19. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  20. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 6. Enter detailed budget notes for each line item. Use the “add new row “ button if more rows are needed. (Refer to page 7 on user guider for more information on budget notes). 7. On the “indirect cost” sheet, enter a fixed percentage or amount(s) a. For fixed ...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  2. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  3. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of an...

  4. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  5. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING

  6. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  7. Is Zero-Based Budgeting Different from Planning--Programming--Budgeting Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1977-01-01

    Successful adoption of zero-base budgeting (ZBB) will be greater than that of planning-programming-budgeting-systems (PPBS) because perceived problems inherent in PPBS are largely missing in ZBB; ZBB appears to fit current school district budgeting behavior; and ZBB seems to improve communication about the need for budget reform. (Author/IRT)

  8. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 μm. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  10. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  11. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  12. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  13. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  14. Sandwich-type electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  15. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  16. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  17. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  18. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  19. Capital Construction Fund Program :: Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaders Budget Policy Work for NOAA Fisheries Contact Us Programs Sustainable Fisheries Protected Regional Fishery Management Councils Congress Activities Budget Testimony Educators and Students Education Budget Home Appeals Division Budget FOIA Financial Services Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program Fisheries

  20. Zero-base budgeting and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, C W

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  1. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  2. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  3. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  4. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  6. Protected electrodes for plasma panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A metal oxide coating is applied between the conductive base and the magnesium oxide dielectric of the input and/or erase electrode(s) in a plasma display device to prevent break-down of the dielectric

  7. Topologically Micropatterned Collagen and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Struts Fabricated Using the Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibrillation/Leaching Process To Develop Efficiently Engineered Skeletal Muscle Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, WonJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-12-20

    Optimally designed three-dimensional (3D) biomedical scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration pose significant research challenges. Currently, most studies on scaffolds focus on the two-dimensional (2D) surface structures that are patterned in the micro-/nanoscales with various repeating sizes and shapes to induce the alignment of myoblasts and myotube formation. The 2D patterned surface clearly provides effective analytical results of pattern size and shape of the myoblast alignment and differentiation. However, it is inconvenient in terms of the direct application for clinical usage due to the limited thickness and 3D shapeability. Hence, the present study suggests an innovative hydrogel or synthetic structure that consists of uniaxially surface-patterned cylindrical struts for skeleton muscle regeneration. The alignment of the pattern on the hydrogel (collagen) and poly(ε-caprolactone) struts was attained with the fibrillation of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the leaching process. Various cell culture results indicate that the C2C12 cells on the micropatterned collagen structure were fully aligned, and that a significantly high level of myotube formation was achieved when compared to the collagen structures that were not treated with the micropatterning process.

  8. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  9. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  10. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  11. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  12. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  13. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Graham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.

  14. AGU testifies on NASA Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Witnesses from outside the U.S. government—including Frank Eden, representing AGU—testified about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget on March 12 before the House Science Committee's subcommittee on space. One major topic of the hearing was familiar: what should NASA's top priority be, space science or human exploration of space.“Obviously this committee has a huge job of trying to set priorities—consistent with the budget restraints—that will end up giving the American taxpayer the most bang for his buck, as well as providing direction for our space program,” said F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), the subcommittee's ranking Republican. Another recurring topic, cited by the subcommittee's new chairman, Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.), as well as by other committee members, was how to translate NASA-developed technologies into commercial gain for the U.S. in the global marketplace. Hall and others also posed a number of questions on a topic the chairman called a special concern of his: whether it would be economically and scientifically plausible for the U.S. to use the Soviet space station Mir for certain activities, such as medical applications.

  15. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  16. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  17. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye

    2017-01-01

    We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...

  18. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  19. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  20. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  1. STATE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY PROCEDURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA George Dorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the budget process is governed by the Constitution and the Law of Public Finance no. 500/2002, act that includes the elaboration of the draft budget, approving the state budget, budget execution and budget control. All these activities are carried out in a legal way and administrative- institutional way, presenting features from country to country. The budget shows many traits in common: it is a decision process, because its essence consists in allocating budgetary resources for public goods such as education, health, national defence and so on. On the other hand is an essentially political process because allocation decisions budgetary resources are determined by the political groups, the mechanism of representation and voting, is a complex process with many participants (schools, hospitals, ministries, etc.. The budgetary process is a cyclic process, as it follows a well-defined calendar as a consequence of yearly and advertising budget. In conclusion, the budget process is a set of consecutive stages of development, approval, execution, control and reporting of the state budget, which ends with the approval of its execution account.

  2. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  3. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  4. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  5. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  6. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  7. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  8. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. The 2013 Budget contains a number of steps to put the country on a fiscally sustainable path. First, this Budget implements the tight…

  9. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  10. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  11. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent

  12. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  13. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  14. The Budget. Introduction to Financial Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Dexter K.

    A school budget is a carefully drawn plan to allow for the efficient educational operation of the school. Everyone connected with the management of an independent school has something to learn about a budget, the most obvious person being the new headmaster. Similarly, all department heads, the librarian, the athletic director, the members of the…

  15. Children's Budget 2016. 10th Anniversary Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsif, John, Ed.; Gluck, Elliott, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Federal spending dedicated to children represents just 7.83 percent of the federal budget in fiscal year 2016, and total spending on children's programs has decreased by five percent in the last two years, according to "Children's Budget 2016." The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include…

  16. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  17. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  18. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ying C.

    1977-01-01

    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)

  19. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  20. Recent advances with a hybrid micro-pattern gas detector operated in low pressure H2 and He, for AT-TPC applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortesi Marco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC, the operational properties and performances of a hybrid Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD were investigated in pure low-pressure Hydrogen (H2 and Helium (He. The detector consists of a MICROMEsh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS coupled to a two-cascade THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM as a pre-amplification stage. This study reports the effective gain dependence of the hybrid-MPGD at relevant pressure (in the range of 200-760 torr for different detector arrangements. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particularly for applications of MPGD end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  1. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  2. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica; De Wolf, Stefaan; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ager, Joel W.; Ballif, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  3. Electrode for disintegrating metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A graphite electrode is provided for disintegrating and removing metallic material from a workpiece, e.g., such as portions of a nuclear reactor to be repaired while in an underwater and/or radioactive environment. The electrode is provided with a plurality of openings extending outwardly, and a manifold for supplying a mixture of water and compressed gas to be discharged through the openings for sweeping away the disintegrated metallic material during use of the electrode

  4. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  5. Field testing of sulphide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Sulphide ion selective electrodes have been developed at BARC, for determination of Ag + and S - ions directly and Cl - and CN - ions indirectly. The electrodes were tested for their use in sulphide environments in the EAD (Effluent After Dilution) stream at the Heavy Water Plant, Kota. The electrodes are suitable in the concentration range of 16000 ppm to 0.002 ppm, with a slope of 29-31 mV per decade change in the sulphide ion concentration. The response time is less than 10 seconds. These electrodes are reliable for continuous on-line use for a long period. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  6. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  7. Microbial electrode sensor for alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikuma, M [Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Japan; Kubo, T; Yasuda, T; Karube, I; Suzuki, S

    1979-10-01

    A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized microorganisms, a gas permeable Teflon membrane, and an oxygen electrode was prepared for the continuous determination of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Immobilized Trichosporon brassicae was employed for a microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol. When a sample solution containing ethyl alcohol was injected into a microbial electrode system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time was within 10 min by the steady state method and within 6 min by the pulse method. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration of ethyl alcohol below 22.5 mg/liter. The current was reproducible within +- 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 16.5 mg/liter ethyl alcohol. The standard deviation was 0.5 mg/liter in 40 experiments. The selectivity of the microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol was satisfactory. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to a fermentation broth of yeasts and satisfactory comparative results were obtained (correlation coefficient 0.98). The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for more than three weeks and 2100 assays. A microbial electrode sensor using immobilized bacteria for methyl alcohol was also described.

  8. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  9. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  10. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  11. Gas sensor with multiple internal reference electrodes and sensing electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a potentiometric gas sensor, or potentiometric gas detection element, with multiple internal reference electrodes and multiple sensing electrodes for determining the concentrations of gas components in a gaseous mixture. The sensor for gas detection comprises: a solid...

  12. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holland, Jeffrey; Blom, Barry; Arnold, Robert; Trimarco, Gerard; Booth, Mark; Hays, Ellen; Russek, Frank; Brauer, David; Futrell, Ann; Smith, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide baseline projections of the federal budget...

  13. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  14. Catoptric electrodes: transparent metal electrodes using shaped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Pieter G

    2014-09-01

    An optical electrode design is presented that theoretically allows 100% optical transmission through an interdigitated metallic electrode at 50% metal areal coverage. This is achieved by redirection of light incident on embedded metal electrode lines to an angle beyond that required for total internal reflection. Full-field electromagnetic simulations using realistic material parameters demonstrate 84% frequency-averaged transmission for unpolarized illumination across the entire visible spectral range using a silver interdigitated electrode at 50% areal coverage. The redirection is achieved through specular reflection, making it nonresonant and arbitrarily broadband, provided the electrode width exceeds the optical wavelength. These findings could significantly improve the performance of photovoltaic devices and optical detectors that require high-conductivity top contacts.

  15. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  17. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  18. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  19. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.

  20. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  1. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  2. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  3. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  4. Making EDM Electrodes By Stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Philip A.

    1988-01-01

    Stereolithography is computer-aided manufacturing technique. Used to make models and molds of electrodes for electrical-discharge machining (EDM). Eliminates intermediate steps in fabrication of plastic model of object used in making EDM electrode to manufacture object or mold for object.

  5. Surface-modified electrodes (SME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.P.G.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1984-01-01

    This review deals with the literature (covered up to August 1983), the characterization and the applications of Surface-Modified Electrodes (SME). As a special class of SME's, the Enzyme-Modified Electrode (EME) is introduced. Three types of modification procedures are distinguished; i.e. covalent

  6. Storage-battery electrodes. [preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-29

    Two incompatible thermoplastic resins are mixed with a powdered electrochemical active substance. The substance may be, for example, an oxide of cadmium, iron, lead, or zinc or nickel hydroxide. After the mixture is shaped into elements which are inserted into conducting sheaths for an electrode, the one resin is washed out to form a porous electrode. (RWR)

  7. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  8. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  9. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  10. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  11. Adsorption at electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.T.; Ping Gao

    1991-01-01

    Surface electrochemical studies are described and summarized in which atomic, ionic or molecular layers were allowed to form from aqueous solutions at well-defined Pt(111) surfaces. The resulting adsorbed layers were chemisorbed in most cases and stable in vacuum, permitting identification and quantitation by Auger spectroscopy, EELS, LEED and electrochemistry. Adsorbed atomic, ionic, or molecular layers formed at metal-solution interfaces frequently display long-range order. Molecular properties of the adsorbed layers correlate with their electrochemical properties. The molecular orientation of organic adsorbates was deduced from packing density measurements, supplemented with vibrational spectra. Interfacial variables such as electrode potential have a strong influence on interfacial structure along with the nature and mode of surface attachment of adsorbates. The angular distribution of Auger electron emission from metal single crystals and atomic adsorbed layers has proved to be useful for direct imaging of surface crystal and interfacial structure. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs

  12. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  13. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  14. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  15. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  16. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  17. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  18. Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance ... in data collection, and another module that facilitates gender responsive and ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  19. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  20. Budget Scoring: An Impediment to Alternative Financing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Donald E; San Miguel, Joseph G

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  1. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  2. USGS budget request up for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  3. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  4. Budget Elements of Economic Security: Specifics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of economic security in conjunction with budget components such as “budget interests” and “budget necessities” are analyzed. Key positions of the categories “budget interests” and “budget necessities” in the theory of economic security in the budgetary area are substantiated given their priority role in setting up its implementation strategy. The category “budget interests” is defined as the system of budget necessities of the interest holders, implemented through budget activities of entities and aimed at seeking benefits through the budget, in order to guarantee functioning and development of the society, the state, legal entities and physical persons. “Budget necessities” are defined as the need in budget funds to achieve and sustain, at a certain level, life activities of individuals, social groups, society, state and legal entities. Classification of budget interests by various criteria is made in the context of their impact on the economic security of the state. It is demonstrated that the four-tier classification of the budget interests by interest holder is essential to guaranteeing economic security in the budgetary area: budget interests of the state: the interests held by central and local power offices; budget interests of legal entities: the interests of profit and non-profit (public, budgetary, party and other organizations; budget interests of individuals: basic necessities of individuals, met by budget transfers, which stand out of the array of public necessities by their individual character.

  5. A carbon budget for overfishing off Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.

    1981-03-26

    The anchovy harvest off the coast of Peru has decreased from a maximum of about 12 million tons in 1970 to about 1 million tons/year between 1977 and 1979. This rise and collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery between the 1950s and the 1970s was accompanied by marked changes in the fluxes of a carbon budget for the upwelling ecosystem. These carbon budget changes are discussed in relation to anchovy production. (JMT)

  6. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan.

  7. Negotiating Creativity on a Small Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Møller

    2018-01-01

    for fiction series, the ambivalent cooperation behind this production exemplifies the low-budget efforts of a traditional public service institution to produce the fiction series that their younger target audience desires. The article uses a narrative-discursive approach to creativity and develops the term...... quite different assumptions about how production conditions can promote creativity, and suggests that a low-budget production can still be labelled as “successful”....

  8. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  9. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  10. Reagan's budget slashes geophysics R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When President Ronald Reagan outlined to a joint session of Congress his proposed revisions to the Carter fiscal 1982 budget (Eos, February 10, p. 49), Congress responded with 13 bursts of applause and one standing ovation. Geophysicists, however, may not greet the budget pruning with equal fanfare. Reagan's across-the-board cuts include proposals for slashing research and development funds. Among those hardest hit are NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

  11. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...

  12. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  13. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udeh Francis Nnoli; Sopekan Sam Adeyemi; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ...

  14. Research on budget management under IT environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IT technology has become a key element of core competitiveness of enterprises, and also the basis for its daily operation. The budget is a management process of forecasting and planning of the future operation and financial activities under the guidance of the strategic objectives, and completion of the strategic objectives to a maximum extent. Whether both of them can be effectively combined with is the key to effective implementation of the budget. Through analysis of the existing problems of the traditional budget of the enterprise and the budget under the information technology environment, analysis of the internal and external influencing factors of the budget management of the large and medium sized enterprises under the current environment with SWOT, factor quantization and weight with AHP, development of the strategic program according to the priority of weight, and finally verification with a case, this paper concludes that, the budget management work can be more strategic and forward-looking through combination with AHP and SWOT analysis.

  15. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  16. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  17. ELECTROD FLUOR-SELECTIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DÎRU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A fost preparat un senzor anionic specific, bazat pe pivalatul trinuclear al cromului(III ca material electro­activ încorporat în membrana PVC plastifiată. Senzorul prezintă răspuns Nernstian (55,78 mV/decadă în intervalul de concentrație 10-1-10-4 mol/L cu limita de detecție 2,0∙10-5 mol/L pentru anionul fluorură. Domeniul optim de pH de funcţionare a electrodului asamblat este ˃5. Senzorul dat are un timp de răspuns de 30-60 s și reproductibilitatea rezultatelor se menține timp de 3 luni. Coeficienții potențiometrici ai selectivității au fost determinați prin metoda soluțiilor separate. A fost realizată aplicarea acestor electrozi la analiza pastei de dinți ce conține fluorură și rezultatele experimentale au fost comparate cu datele de pe prospect.FLUORIDE-SELECTIVE ELECTRODEA specific anionic sensor has been prepared, based on trinuclearchromium(III pivalate as sensing material incorpo­rated into the plasticized PVC-membrane. The sensor exhibited Nernstian response (55,78 mV/decade in the region between 10-1-10-4 mol/L with a detection limit of 2,0∙10-5 mol/L for fluoride. The working pH of the electrode was in the 5-6 range. The sensor has a response time 30-60 s and can be used for least 3 month. The potentiometric selectivity coefficients were determined by separate solution method. Application of these electrodes to the analysis of toothpaste containing fluoride has been realized and experimental results have been compared with the data on the prospectus.

  18. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties

  19. Studies of pyrrole black electrodes as possible battery positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Fleischmann, M.; Pletcher, D.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that a polypyrrole, pyrrole black, may be formed anodically in several aqueous acids. The polypyrrole film shows a redox couple at less positive potentials than that required to form the film and the charge associated with these reduction and oxidation processes together with their stabilty to cycling varies with the anion in solution and the potential where the polypyrrole is formed; over-oxidation of the film caused by taking its potential too positive has a particularly disadvantageous affect. In the acids HBr and HI, the polypyrrole films can act as a storage medium for Br/sub 2/ or I/sub 2/ so that they may be used as a substrate for a X/sub 2//X/sup -/ electrode. Such electrodes may be charge/discharge cycled and the pyrrole/Br/sub 2/ electrode shows promise as a battery positive electrode.

  20. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  1. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  2. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  3. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  4. Defense.gov Special Report: 2015 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search FY 2015 Fiscal Budget News Stories Dempsey Calls for Budget Increase increase its budget, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said. Story James: Air Force Grapples with Congress to Fund Readiness The Air Force fiscal 2015 budget request is shrinking because of Congressional

  5. Defense.gov Special Report: 2013 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2013 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 13, 2012 Top Stories Budget Proposal Slows Cost Growth, Pentagon Leaders Say The Defense Department's proposed fiscal 2013 budget request Department officials told a Senate panel. Story Officials Seek Construction Funds, More BRAC in Budget

  6. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Obama's 2017 Budget makes critical investments while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement he signed into the previous fall, and it lifts sequestration in…

  7. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  8. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  9. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...

  10. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a form...

  11. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for each...

  12. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time and...

  13. Fractals in several electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyong, E-mail: zhangchy@njau.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wu, Jingyu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fu, Degang [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fractal geometry was employed to characterize three important electrode materials. • The surfaces of all studied electrodes were proved to be very rough. • The fractal dimensions of BDD and ACF were scale dependent. • MMO film was more uniform than BDD and ACF in terms of fractal structures. - Abstract: In the present paper, the fractal properties of boron-doped diamond (BDD), mixed metal oxide (MMO) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode have been studied by SEM imaging at different scales. Three materials are self-similar with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.6–2.8, confirming that they all exhibit very rough surfaces. Specifically, it is found that MMO film is more uniform in terms of fractal structure than BDD and ACF. As a result, the intriguing characteristics make these electrodes as ideal candidates for high-performance decontamination processes.

  14. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  15. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  16. Cost reduction by using budgeting via the Kaizen method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Budugan; Iuliana Georgescu

    2009-01-01

    In the current conditions, continuous improvement is one of the main issues faced by the manag-ers of organizations. The Japanese use the term kaizen to designate continuous improvement. Budgeting via the kaizen method explicitly integrates improvement throughout the period budgeted in the budget data. Budget explanation via the kaizen method refers, on the one hand, to budgeting for the purposes of continuously improving the number of work hours per product unit, and, on the other hand, to t...

  17. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Yang, QuanMin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with to...

  18. Participative Budgeting, Budget Evaluation, and Organizational Trust in Post-Secondary Educational Institutions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cynthia V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between a participative budgeting system, the attitudes toward the budget, and levels of organizational trust held by administrators in post-secondary institutions. A 50-item questionnaire was distributed to college and university administrators across Canada. A series of regression…

  19. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  20. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  1. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  2. The 'People's Budget' and Budget Effectiveness:The Case of Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All over the world, participatory budgeting is being advocated. This is based on the belief that stakeholders' participation in the budgeting process improves transparency, accountability and service delivery. Using evidence from 105 Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in Kabalore and Kamwenge district local governments ...

  3. Amodiaquine polymeric membrane electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malongo, T Kimbeni; Blankert, B; Kambu, O; Amighi, K; Nsangu, J; Kauffmann, J-M

    2006-04-11

    The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of two types of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensors for the determination of amodiaquine hydrochloride (ADQ.2HCl) are described. The sensing membrane comprised an ion-pair formed between the cationic drug and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) or potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTCPB) in a plasticized PVC matrix. Eight PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes were fabricated and studied. Several plasticizers were studied namely, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (EHA). The sensors display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide ADQ concentration range (3.2 x 10(-6) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M), with slopes comprised between 28.5 and 31.4 mV dec(-1) in a pH range comprised between pH 3.7 and 5.5. The assay of amodiaquine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms using one of the proposed sensors gave average recoveries of 104.3 and 99.9 with R.S.D. of 0.3 and 0.6% for tablets (Malaritab) and a reconstituted powder containing ADQ.2HCl, respectively. The sensor was also used for dissolution profile studies of two drug formulations. The sensor proved to have a good selectivity for ADQ.2HCl over some inorganic and organic compounds, however, berberine chloride interfered significantly. The results were validated by comparison with a spectrophotometric assay according to the USP pharmacopoeia.

  4. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  5. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  6. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  7. THE POSITION BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL UNITS IN GENERAL CONSOLIDATED BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool of territorial administrative units of financial and budgetary policy in which the state intervenes in the economy at the local level, having a major impact on general government.Through the decentralization processes that are increasingly debated and applied, the paper aims to highlight the importance of the territorial administrative unit budgets in the consolidated budget in Romania.Thus, the work comprises both theoretical notions concerning the presentation of the consolidated state budget and the budget of the territorial administrative units. The relevance of the work lies in the importance of general government in the regulation of macroeconomic balances by sizing or macroeconomic imbalances, with modern methods that analyze the possibilities and effects of new types of deficits or surpluses in the public sector.

  8. Voltammetry at micro-mesh electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhawan Jay D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltammetry at three micro-mesh electrodes is explored. It is found that at sufficiently short experimental durations, the micro-mesh working electrode first behaves as an ensemble of microband electrodes, then follows the behaviour anticipated for an array of diffusion-independent micro-ring electrodes of the same perimeter as individual grid-squares within the mesh. During prolonged electrolysis, the micro-mesh electrode follows that behaviour anticipated theoretically for a cubically-packed partially-blocked electrode. Application of the micro-mesh electrode for the electrochemical determination of carbon dioxide in DMSO electrolyte solutions is further illustrated.

  9. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  10. Stimulation and recording electrodes for neural prostheses

    CERN Document Server

    Pour Aryan, Naser; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.

  11. Brazil's Petrobras chops 1992 capital budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state owned Petroleos Brasileiro SA has slashed its 1992 capital budget by more than half for lack of adequate cash flow. Petrobras Pres. Benedicto Moreira last week disclosed the cut, to $1.4 billion from $2.9 billion earmarked earlier, citing cash flow problems stemming from heavy subsidies for domestic products. Petrobras Association of Engineers (Aepet) disputes the latest amount, claiming without elaboration the state company actually is cutting the current budget to $1 billion. At either level, the severe budget cut bodes ill for Petrobras plans to boost domestic production by a net 300,000 b/d to 1 million b/d by 1995, an ambitious program that calls for outlays of $18 billion

  12. 1985 nuclear budget requests up 12 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of government agencies for the fiscal 1985 nuclear-related budget were presented to the Ministry of Finance, which amount to 343.76 billion yen (up 12.1 %). The budgetary requests by the Science and Technology Agency are 179.24 billion yen in the general account and 90.21 billion yen in the special account for power resource development, and the budgetary requests by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are 1.03 billion yen and 70.08 billion yen, respectively. The budget demands by the STA, which supervises Power Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc. are for the continuation of current projects, including the beginning of the construction of the prototype FBR Monju and the neutral beam injector for the fusion device JT-60. The budget demands by MITI are similarly for the safety measures and verification tests for nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  13. Electrophoretic build-up of alternately multilayered films and micropatterns based on graphene sheets and nanoparticles and their applications in flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Du, Jianjun; Cao, Xuebo; Sun, Yinghui; Zhou, Weiya; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2012-10-22

    Graphene nanosheets and metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as nano-building-blocks for assembly into macroscale hybrid structures with promising performance in electrical devices. However, in most graphene and metal NP hybrid structures, the graphene sheets and metal NPs (e.g., AuNPs) do not enable control of the reaction process, orientation of building blocks, and organization at the nanoscale. Here, an electrophoretic layer-by-layer assembly for constructing multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/AuNP films and lateral micropatterns is presented. This assembly method allows easy control of the nano-architecture of building blocks along the normal direction of the film, including the number and thickness of RGO and AuNP layers, in addition to control of the lateral orientation of the resultant multilayered structures. Conductivity of multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid nano-architecture shows great improvement caused by a bridging effect of the AuNPs along the out-of-plane direction between the upper and lower RGO layers. The results clearly show the potential of electrophoretic build-up in the fabrication of graphene-based alternately multilayered films and patterns. Finally, flexible supercapacitors based on multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid films are fabricated, and excellent performance, such as high energy and power densities, are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Gossipo-3 A prototype of a Front-End Pixel Chip for Read-Out of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, Christpoh; van der Graaf, Haryy; Gromov, Vladimir; Kluit, Ruud; Kruth, Andre; Zappon, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In a joint effort of Nikhef (Amsterdam) and the University of Bonn, the Gossipo-3 integrated circuit (IC) has been developed. This circuit is a prototype of a chip dedicated for read-out of various types of position sensitive Micro-Pattern Gas detectors (MPGD). The Gossipo-3 is defined as a set of building blocks to be used in a future highly granulated (60 μm) chip. The pixel circuit can operate in two modes. In Time mode every readout pixel measures the hit arrival time and the charge deposit. For this purpose it has been equipped with a high resolution TDC (1.7 ns) covering dynamic range up to 102 μs. Charge collected by the pixel will be measured using Time-over- Threshold method in the range from 400 e- to 28000 e- with accuracy of 200 e- (standard deviation). In Counting mode every pixel operates as a 24-bit counter, counting the number of incoming hits. The circuit is also optimized to operate at low power consumption (100 mW/cm2) that is required to avoid the need for massive power transport and coo...

  15. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source

  16. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  17. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logviss, Konstantins; Krievins, Dainis; Purvina, Santa

    2016-05-11

    Number of orphan medicinal products on the market and number of rare disease patients, taking these usually expensive products, are increasing. As a result, budget impact of orphan drugs is growing. This factor, along with the cost-effectiveness of orphan drugs, is often considered in the reimbursement decisions, directly affecting accessibility of rare disease therapies. The current study aims to assess the budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia. Our study covered a 5-year period, from 2010 to 2014. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget was estimated from the National Health Service's perspective. It was calculated in absolute values and relative to total pharmaceutical market and total drug reimbursement budget. A literature review was performed for comparison with other European countries. Orphan drug annual expenditure ranged between EUR 2.065 and 3.065 million, with total 5-year expenditure EUR 12.467 million. It constituted, on average, 0.84 % of total pharmaceutical market and 2.14 % of total drug reimbursement budget, respectively. Average annual per patient expenditures varied widely, from EUR 1 534 to EUR 580 952. The most costly treatment was enzyme replacement therapy (Elaprase) for MPS II. Glivec had the highest share (34 %) of the total orphan drug expenditure. Oncological drugs represented more than a half of the total orphan drug expenditure, followed by drugs for metabolic and endocrine conditions and medicines for cardiopulmonary diseases. Three indications: Ph+ CML, MPS II, and PAH accounted for nearly 90 % of the total orphan drug expenditure. Budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia is very small. It increased slightly over a period of five years, due to the slight increase in the number of patients and the number of orphan drugs reimbursed. Current Latvian drug reimbursement system is not sufficient for most orphan drugs.

  18. The forgotten R and D budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  19. The budget process in schools of nursing: a primer for the novice administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, P L; Bailes, B

    1996-01-01

    All administrators are expected to be competent in budget and financial management. Novice administrators of schools of nursing are expected to know about the budgetary process, budgeting techniques, and the various types of budgets that can be used, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, alternate-level budget, quota budget, formula budget, intramural budget, zero-based budget, and cost center budget. In addition, administrators are expected to know what key questions need to be asked about how the budget is structured and revenue sources and how to manage and evaluate their budgets.

  20. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  1. Perspectives used for gaining approval of budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Joiner, G L

    1990-01-01

    Nurse executives think about problems using a certain perspective which may influence decisions on budgetary matters. The nurse executives' perspective used in decision-making may influence which budget proposals are developed and approved. A study was performed to determine the perspective used by nurse executives in decision-making on supplementary budget item proposals and whether perspective use influenced approval. Findings showed that use of the system view or dual-domain perspective in a proposal may enhance nurse executives' changes of gaining approval.

  2. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  3. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed.

  4. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  5. The Budget Can Be a Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keuren, James

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the budget can be used as a management tool (continuous-improvement plan) to help align district financial resources with school-reform efforts. Cites example of a continuous-improvement plan developed by the Ohio Department of Education. (PKP)

  6. Checking and Balancing: Banking and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…

  7. Collegiate Connections: Music Education Budget Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaton, Emily Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current recession, the American economy within the last few years has taken a nosedive, making it difficult for national, state, and local governments to support all the programs they currently have in place. There are difficult choices that need to be made about where to make sacrifices in their budgets so things can still run…

  8. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changes include: (1) The use of grantee funds in furtherance of program objectives over and above the... the objective of the grant-supported program. (2) The revision indicates the need for additional... programs, functions, and activities when budgeted separately for a grant, except that the Bureau shall...

  9. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  10. COST BUDGETING WITH THE ROMANIAN BAKERY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂSCOLEAN ILIE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary objective of management accounting is the possibility to estimate the total costs of a product or service works, which determines the development and implementation of specific managerial accounting systems that in addition to quantifying the immediate results aimed at achieving objectives such as customer orientation, labor productivity growth, the improvement of economic entities’ performance, establishing optimal outlets and prices and abandoning production-manufacture products that generate losses. Based on the progress of the investigations undertaken in the literature, the authors article demonstrates the need for achieving cost budgeting in the context of economic entities from the milling and bakeries industry, as mean of management control - by the example of S.C. AVANTI SRL Lupeni. The research in the field has led to the conduct of the study are awaited, being capable of demonstrating the viability of the management accounting organization at economic entities in the milling and bakery industry from Romania, in order to increase their performances. The results obtained by applying the costs budgeting allowed a rigorous cost control, which ultimately leads to an increase in the performance of the economic entity under study, as well as to the economic entities in the field that will apply the costs budgeting. At the end, the authors conclude regarding the importance of extending the framework for successfully implementing cost budgeting in the context of economic entities across the country.

  11. Budgeting For National Economic Consolidation And Progression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper exemplifies genuine concern and empathy for the perceived unimpressive pace of growth and development of Nigeria\\'s national economy. The 2007 budget aptly directed at consolidation is crystallized as affording stakeholders the potent drive towards meaningful progression in national economic management ...

  12. PARTICULARITIES OF BUDGETING OF INVESTMENTS YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some particularities of the budget process of all the investments as a main aspect in taking the best decision according to the main use of all the firms’ resources. As a measure method of the investments yield the main one is that which describes the relationship between the profit and the investment which improves the deccisional process.

  13. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT...) Cost principles. Principles for determining allowable costs are contained in OMB Circulars A-21 (cost...

  14. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF PROGRAM BUDGETING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOVICK, DAVID

    THE ORIGIN AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM BUDGETING, WHICH IS CURRENTLY APPLIED TO ALL THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES AND AGENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, IS TRACED. IT WAS RECOGNIZED AND APPLIED AS EARLY AS 1924 BY INDUSTRY, UTILIZED AS PART OF THE WARTIME CONTROL SYSTEM IN 1942, AND IS USED TODAY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. THIS IS A…

  15. Zero-Based Budgeting: The Texas Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting was instituted in all Texas state-funded agencies in 1975-76, including colleges. The first two years of using this procedure are reviewed and its applicability to higher education institutions is examined in light of the need to consider educational quality as well as costs. (MSE)

  16. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  17. Issues in Higher Education Budgeting Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two papers appearing in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Faults M.J. Bowman, B. Millot, and E. Schiefelbein's tax burden study for excluding background information on educational goals in France, Chile, and Malaysia. Criticizes L. R. Jones, F. Thompson, and W. Zumeta for viewing budgeting as limiting expenditures, rather than…

  18. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  19. The European Budget: Consolidation or Modernisation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); R. Blankenstein (Richard)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter first focuses on the unique character of the European budget [section 2]. We then look back on the Dutch position during the negotiations on the Financial Perspectives 2007-2013 [section 3]2. The subsequent sections respectively address the opening

  20. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  1. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  2. The Budgeting Mechanism in Development Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Tatiana M.; Khvostenko, Oleg A.; Glukhova, Alla G.; Nikeryasova, Veronica V.; Gavrilov, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the researched problem is caused by the fact that today there is a requirement for a unique, generalized, theoretically and methodically elaborated budgeting mechanism disaggregating the aims of strategic level to the level of structural units of the company. The aim of article is to develop methodical provisions and practical…

  3. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  4. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget

  5. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  6. RETGEM with polyvinylchloride (PVC) electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Razin, V I; Reshetin, A I; Filippov, S N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of the RETGEM (Resistive Electrode Thick GEM) based on electrodes made of a polyvinylchloride material (PVC). Our device can operate with gains of 10E5 as a conventional TGEM at low counting rates and as RPC in the case of high counting rates without of the transit to the violent sparks. The distinct feature of present RETGEM is the absent of the metal coating and lithographic technology for manufacturing of the protective dielectric rms. The electrodes from PVC permit to do the holes by a simple drilling machine. Detectors on a RETGEM basis could be useful in many fields of an application requiring a more cheap manufacturing and safe operation, for example, in a large neutrino experiments, in TPC, RICH systems.

  7. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang QuanMin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7–15 mg cm−2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC. The highest SC of 185 F g−1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s−1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm−2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  8. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4-6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7-15 mg cm-2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC). The highest SC of 185 F g-1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm-2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  9. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  10. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  12. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2018-01-23

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method of fabricating a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) having an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, includes fabricating each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode, and the membrane separately by electrospinning; and placing the membrane between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, and pressing then together to form the fuel cell MEA.

  13. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCaffery, Jerry L; Jones, Lawrence R

    2006-01-01

    .... The governments of New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom, as well as most of the states in the United States have adopted some private budgeting methods with varying degrees of success...

  14. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  15. ISLSCP II Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains global Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) and a few top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget parameters on a 1-degree x 1-degree spatial...

  16. A note on India's water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapo- transpiration estimate ... India; water budget; evapotranspiration; water policy; water management. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117 ... L'Environment (2004). California. 0.41.

  17. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (0MB), and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  18. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  19. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  20. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  1. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  2. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  3. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  4. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  5. Zero based programming: a viable security budgeting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Frederick G

    2003-01-01

    To get additional dollars or avoid budget cuts or personnel reductions, healthcare security directors should consider a budget approach that best justifies the needs of the department or organization.

  6. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  7. Characterisation of nano-interdigitated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjolding, L H D; Ribayrol, A; Montelius, L [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Spegel, C [Department of Analytical Chemistry Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Emneus, J [MIC - Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, DTU - Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: lars_henrik.daehli_skjolding@ftf.lth.se

    2008-03-15

    Interdigitated electrodes made up of two individually addressable interdigitated comb-like electrode structures have frequently been suggested as ultra sensitive electrochemical biosensors. Since the signal enhancement effects due to cycling of the reduced and oxidized species are strongly dependent on the inter electrode distances, since the nature of the enhancement is due to overlying diffusion layers, interdigitated electrodes with an electrode separation of less then one micrometer are desired for maximum signal amplification. Fabrication of submicron structures can only be made by advanced lithography techniques. By use of electron beam lithography we have fabricated arrays of interdigitated electrodes with an electrode separation distance of 200 nm and an electrode finger width of likewise 200 nm. The entire electrode structure is 100 micrometre times 100 micrometre, and the active electrode area is dictated by the opening in the passivation layer, that is defined by UV lithography. Here we report measurements of redox cycling of ferrocyanide by coupled cyclic voltammograms, where the potential at one of the working electrodes are varied and either an oxidising or reducing potential is applied to the complimentary interdigitated electrode. The measurements show fast conversion and high collection efficiency round 87% as expected for nano-interdigitated electrodes.

  8. The role of the micro-pattern and nano-topography of hydroxyapatite bioceramics on stimulating osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cancan; Wang, Xiaoya; Gao, Long; Jing, Linguo; Zhou, Quan; Chang, Jiang

    2018-06-01

    The micro/nano hybrid structure is considered to be a biomaterial characteristic to stimulate osteogenesis by mimicking the three-dimensional structure of the bone matrix. However, the mechanism of the hybrid structure induced osteogenic differentiation of stem cells is still unknown. For elucidating the mechanisms, one of the challenge is to directly fabricate micro/nano hybrid structure on bioceramics because of its brittleness. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with the micro/nano hybrid structure were firstly fabricated via a hydrothermal treatment and template method, and the effect of the different surface structures on the expression of integrins, BMP2 signaling pathways and cell-cell communication was investigated. Interestingly, the results suggested that the osteogenic differentiation induced by micro/nano structures was modulated first through activating integrins and then further activating BMP2 signaling pathway and cell-cell communication, while activated BMP2 could in turn activate integrins and Cx43-related cell-cell communication. Furthermore, differences in activation of integrins, BMP2 signaling pathway, and gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication were observed, in which nanorod and micropattern structures activated different integrin subunits, BMP downstream receptors and Cx43. This finding may explain the synergistic effect of the micro/nano hybrid structure on the activation of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Based on our study, we concluded that the different activation mechanisms of micro- and nano-structures led to the synergistic stimulatory effect on integrin activation and osteogenesis, in which not only the direct contact of cells on micro/nano structure played an important role, but also other surface characteristics such as protein adsorption might contribute to the bioactive effect. The micro/nano hybrid structure has been found to have synergistic bioactivity on osteogenesis. However, it is still a challenge

  9. Progress in understanding SOFC electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jørgensen, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The literature of SOFC electrode kinetics and mechanisms is full of contradicting details in case of both the SOFC anode and cathode processes. Only weak patterns may be identified. One interpretation is that each of the reported data sets reflects a laboratory specific nature of each of the elec...

  10. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-09

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime.

  11. Advanced screening of electrode couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J. D.; Cahill, K.

    1980-01-01

    The chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox couple (electrolyte and electrode) was investigated to determine its suitability as negative electrode for the iron (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+))-chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox flow battery. Literature search and laboratory investigation established that the solubility and stability of aqueous acidic solutions of chromium(3) chloride and chromium(2) chloride are sufficient for redox battery application. Four categories of electrode materials were tested; namely, metals and metalloid materials (elements and compounds), alloys, plated materials, and Teflon-bonded materials. In all, the relative performance of 26 candidate electrode materials was evaluated on the basis of slow scan rate linear sweep voltammetry in stirred solution. No single material tested gave both acceptable anodic an acceptable cathodic performance. However, the identification of lead as a good cathodic electrocatalyst and gold as a good anodic electrocatalyst led to the invention of the lead/gold combination electrocatalyst. This type of catalyst can be fabricated in several ways and appears to offer the advantages of each metal without the disadvantages associated with their use as single materials. This lead/gold electrocatalyst was tested by NASA-Lewis Research Center in complete, flowing, redox batteries comprising a stack of several cells. A large improvement in the battery's coulombic and energy efficiency was observed.

  12. Engineering blood vessels through micropatterned co-culture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on bilayered electrospun fibrous mats with pDNA inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Li, Huinan; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Although engineered blood vessels have seen important advances during recent years, proper mechanical strength and vasoactivity remain unsolved problems. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMC), and a co-culture with endothelial cells (EC) was established through overlaying on an EC-loaded flat fibrous mat to mimic the layered structure of a blood vessel. A preferential distribution of SMC was determined in the patterned regions throughout the fibrous scaffolds, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions provided topological cues to guide the orientation of SMC with intense actin filaments and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in a circumferential direction. Plasmid DNA encoding basic fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor were integrated into electrospun fibers as biological cues to promote SMC infiltration into fibrous mats, and the viability and ECM production of both EC and SMC. The layered fibrous mats with loaded EC and SMC were wrapped into a cylinder, and engineered vessels were obtained with compact EC and SMC layers after co-culture for 3 months. Randomly oriented ECM productions of EC formed a continuous endothelium covering the entire lumenal surface, and a high alignment of ECM was shown in the circumferential direction of SMC layers. The tensile strength, strain at failure and suture retention strength were higher than those of the human femoral artery, and the burst pressure and radial compliance were in the same range as the human saphenous vein, indicating potential as blood vessel substitutes for transplantation in vivo. Thus, the establishment of topographical cues and biochemical signals in fibrous scaffolds demonstrates advantages in modulating cellular behavior and organization found in complex multicellular tissues. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of Surface Soil Hydrology to the Micro-Pattern of Bio-Crust in a Dry-Land Loess Environment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Yun; Chen, Liding

    2015-01-01

    The specific bio-species and their spatial patterns play crucial roles in regulating eco-hydrologic process, which is significant for large-scale habitat promotion and vegetation restoration in many dry-land ecosystems. Such effects, however, are not yet fully studied. In this study, 12 micro-plots, each with size of 0.5 m in depth and 1 m in length, were constructed on a gentle grassy hill-slope with a mean gradient of 8° in a semiarid loess hilly area of China. Two major bio-crusts, including mosses and lichens, had been cultivated for two years prior to the field simulation experiments, while physical crusts and non-crusted bare soils were used for comparison. By using rainfall simulation method, four designed micro-patterns (i.e., upper bio-crust and lower bare soil, scattered bio-crust, upper bare soil and lower bio-crust, fully-covered bio-crust) to the soil hydrological response were analyzed. We found that soil surface bio-crusts were more efficient in improving soil structure, water holding capacity and runoff retention particularly at surface 10 cm layers, compared with physical soil crusts and non-crusted bare soils. We re-confirmed that mosses functioned better than lichens, partly due to their higher successional stage and deeper biomass accumulation. Physical crusts were least efficient in water conservation and erosion control, followed by non-crusted bare soils. More importantly, there were marked differences in the efficiency of the different spatial arrangements of bio-crusts in controlling runoff and sediment generation. Fully-covered bio-crust pattern provides the best option for soil loss reduction and runoff retention, while a combination of upper bio-crust and lower bare soil pattern is the least one. These findings are suggested to be significant for surface-cover protection, rainwater infiltration, runoff retention, and erosion control in water-restricted and degraded natural slopes.

  14. Simple micro-patterning of high conductive polymer with UV-nano-imprinted patterned substrate and ethylene glycol-based second doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Kurihara, Kazuma; Yamashita, Takahiro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a simple micro-patterning process for high conductive polymer (i.e., poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)) with a patterned substrate by using an ultraviolet (UV) nano-imprint and an ethylene glycol-based second doping technique. In the patterning process, the PEDOT:PSS water dispersion is first coated only on the hydrophilic area, which is fabricated by UV nano-imprinting, forming patterned PEDOT:PSS on the substrate. The patterned PEDOT:PSS film is then immersed in the ethylene glycol as a second doping technique for increasing its conductivity. The proposed process provides simplicity in terms of shorter process steps of the UV nano-imprinting and PEDOT:PSS coating and higher conductivity of patterned PEDOT:PSS film than existing complicated micro-fabrication processes for organic materials. The 200 nm wide nano-imprinted pillar structures change the wettability of the substrate where the contact angle of the substrate is decreased from 66.8° to 33.3°. The patterning resolution with the nano-imprinted pattern substrate is down to 100 µm, which is useful for sensor applications. The conductivity increase delivers a low sheet resistance (120 Ω sq −1 ) of patterned PEDOT:PSS film. Then, the patterning of PEDOT:PSS sensor shapes with its 300 µm wide feature line and high conductivity are demonstrated. Therefore, our process leads to applications to a variety of PEDOT:PSS-based sensors. (paper)

  15. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... Budgeting, funding, and accounting. (a) Council grant activities are governed by 15 CFR part 14 (Uniform...

  16. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  17. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  18. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  19. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  20. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...