WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget fait passer

  1. Climatic factors, time activity budget and breeding success of the Spanish sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis TEMM.)

    OpenAIRE

    Metzmacher, Maxime

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the influence of environmental factors and time budget on reproductive success of Spanish Sparrows (Passer hispaniolensis Temm.). Work was conducted in 1983 in a large cerealiculture zone in Western Algeria. Nest construction was carried out primary by males. The males also spent more time in nest defense than females. Nest construction was more frequent in the morning, but display was more frequent in the afternoon. Both sexes shared incubation. When left alone, or not re...

  2. Performance of antegrade suture passers according to tendon thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the effect of tendon thickness on the needle penetration ability of four different designs of antegrade suture passers. Materials and Methods: Four antegrade suture passers were tested: (a ExpresSew II (Depuy Mitek Inc., Raynham, MA, (b Arthrex Scorpion (Arthrex, Naples, FL, (c Concept (Linvatec Corp, Largo, FL, and (d ElitePass (Smith and Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA. Bovine tendons were divided into five thickness groups: 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mm. At each tendon thickness, we performed 15 trials with the suture loaded and 15 unloaded per device. Successful needle penetration was recorded, and in case of success, the exit point of the needle was noted in relation to the superior arm of the grasping component. Results: All tested suture passing devices successfully penetrated tendon thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. With the suture loaded, one device (Concept only successfully penetrated 7 mm group tendons in 3/15 (20% trials. Success rates at 9 mm with the suture loaded were 40% in ExpresSew II, 53% in Arthrex Scorpion, 0% in Concept and 53% in ElitePass. Among successful passages with a loaded suture in the 7 and 9 mm-groups, about 20-50% of passages were oblique, and the needle came out distal to the superior arm of grasping the component. No trial with any device succeeded with 11 mm tendons in the suture loading condition. Conclusion: Using an antegrade suture passer during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair should be carefully considered when the torn end of the tendon is thicker than about 7-9 mm due to potential failure of needle penetration and/or too oblique a suture passage. Level of Evidence: Controlled laboratory study.

  3. On cestodes of Passer domesticus I. Choanotaenia, Raillietine and Proparuterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, S C; Saxena, S K

    1976-09-01

    An investigation on the cestode fauna of the common sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) was carried out for about five years. In all 445 birds were examined during this period and only five species of cestodes were found to parasitize this bird: of these, three are known while two are new forms, the latter are the rarities. This part includes critical accounts of Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907), Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) and Proparuterina lali sp. nov. - Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907) has been previously studied by Fuhrmann (1907), Johnston (1909), Stunkard & Milford (1937) and Kintner (1938). The present study provides additional data. The writers find two rows of rostellar hooks in the present material. Fuhrmann and Johnston reported two rows of rostellar hooks, but Kintner apparently found a single row of rostellar hooks. Variations have been found in the number of testes and extent of cirrus sac. Amongst the previous workers, only Johnston (1909) paid attention to study the protective coverings present around the hexacanth and described two envelopes, but the writers find three. - Raillietine (R.) galeritae (Skrjabin, 1915) has been restudied and redescribed from fresh material. Previously Mahon (1958) studied this species from P. domesticus. The present account includes important variations and some additions too. Suckers have been found to be armed in contradiction to what Mahon stated. Gravid proglottides have been found to develop a velum. Egg capsules contain 3-13 eggs each. Two protective envelopes have been found around the hexacanth. This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in P. domesticus in India. Proparuterina lali sp. nov. is a rare parasite of Passer domesticus. Only one more species viz. P. aruensis Fuhrmann, 1911 is known. The present species differs from P. aruensis in the number and distribution of testes, bilobed nature and median position of ovary, position of vitellarium and of genital

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tree Sparrow Passer montanus saturatus (Passeriformes: Passeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Bo; Zhou, Lizhi; Bao, Di; Zhu, Hongyu

    2016-05-01

    Tree Sparrow Passer montanus is an Eurasian distribution passerine bird, which has 9 subspecies. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Passer montanus saturatus. The mitochondrial DNA is 16,904 bp long with A + T contents of 52.56%. The mitochondrial genome is typical circular that encodes the complete set of 37 genes. All protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon ATG, except for COI starts with GTG and ND3 starts with ATA. TAN is the most frequent stop codon, and AGN and T- - are also occurred very common. All tRNAs possess the classic clover leaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser (AGN)) and tRNA(Cys (CUN)), which lack the "DHU" stem, only forming a simple loop.

  5. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  6. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  7. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in cyst-passers by immunoblot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hong, S T

    1996-12-01

    Differentiation of invasive strains of Entamoeba histolytica according to their pathogenicity has been a topic of long debate, but now the pathogenic species only is regarded as E. histolytica while the non pathogenic species is E. dispar. The present study applied immunoblot to differentiate infections of the two species among microscopically-detected cyst-passers in Korea. The crude extract of E. histolytica separated in 5.20% gradient gels, revealed many fractions of 94, 81, 71, 50, 44, 38.5, 37.5, 29, 19, and 18 kDa when the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, E64, was supplemented. The scrum IgG antibody of 3 proven E, histolytica cases reacted with the antigenic fractions of 117, 110, 99, 68, 66, 60, 54, 52, 46, and 45 kDa. Sera of PCR confirmed 3 cases of E. dispar reacted only to the 117 kDa fraction of the E. histolytica crude extract which was regarded as non-specific. To the antigen of monoxenic E. dispar, sera of E. dispar and E. histolytica cases showed the same immunoblot reactions. The serum IgA antibody reacted with several antigenic fractions of both E. histolytica and E. dispar, but IgM and IgE antibodies showed no reaction to either antigen. Sera of 24 symptomless amebic cyst passers were screened with the E. histolytica antigen; two were found to be infected by E. histolytica and 22 were by E. dispar. The present findings suggest that in Korea most of asymptomatic cyst passers of E. histolytica are carriers of E. dispar. Immunoblot using E. histolytica antigen is a good technique for the differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar infections.

  8. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  9. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  10. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  11. Warmer springs, laying date and clutch size of tree sparrows Passer montanus in Croatia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. DOLENEC; P. DOLENEC; A.P. MΦLER

    2011-01-01

    Global surface air temperatures increased during the past 100 years. Many long-term studies of birds have reported a climatic influence on breeding performance. We analysed long-term changes in first laying date and clutch size for first clutches of sedentary, hole-nesting and socially monogamous tree sparrows Passer montanus during 1980-2009 in northwestern Croatia. Laying date advanced and spring temperature increased significantly during the study. Date of laying was significantly correlated with mean air spring temperature and advanced by 8.6 days during the 30 years period. Laying date was delayed in extremely cold, but not in extremely warm springs compared to years with normal temperatures. These results suggest that current climate change including extreme change does not have negative effects on timing of laying or clutch size. In contrast to laying date, clutch size did not vary systematically during the study period or with mean spring air temperature changes.

  12. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  13. Clutch and egg size variation, and productivity of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus): effects of temperature, rainfall, and humidity

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Aziz; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted on the campus of the regional department of the forestry service, encompassing 2.25 ha in Antalya city center. The area has gardens and is surrounded by trees, providing nesting and feeding opportunities for many songbird species. The study aimed to determine clutch and egg size variation, breeding success, and productivity of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), in terms of clutch size and breeding attempts, and to evaluate variation in temperature, rainfall, and h...

  14. Characterization of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) transcriptome: a resource for molecular ecology and immunogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom, Robert; Wennekes, Paul; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Burke, Terry

    2014-05-01

    The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is an important model species in ecology and evolution. However, until recently, genomic resources for molecular ecological projects have been lacking in this species. Here, we present transcriptome sequencing data (RNA-Seq) from three different house sparrow tissues (spleen, blood and bursa). These tissues were specifically chosen to obtain a diverse representation of expressed genes and to maximize the yield of immune-related gene functions. After de novo assembly, 15,250 contigs were identified, representing sequence data from a total of 8756 known avian genes (as inferred from the closely related zebra finch). The transcriptome assembly contain sequence data from nine manually annotated MHC genes, including an almost complete MHC class I coding sequence. There were 407, 303 and 68 genes overexpressed in spleen, blood and bursa, respectively. Gene ontology terms related to ribosomal function were associated with overexpression in spleen and oxygen transport functions with overexpression in blood. In addition to the transcript sequences, we provide 327 gene-linked microsatellites (SSRs) with sufficient flanking sequences for primer design, and 3177 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes, that can be used in follow-up molecular ecology studies of this ecological well-studied species.

  15. Pinealectomy shortens resynchronisation times of house sparrow ( Passer domesticus) circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2005-09-01

    In many birds periodic melatonin secretion by the pineal organ is essential for the high-amplitude self-sustained output of the circadian pacemaker, and thus for the persistence of rhythmicity in 24 h oscillations controlled by it. The elimination of the pineal melatonin rhythm, or a reduction of its amplitude, renders the circadian pacemaker a less self-sustained, often highly damped, oscillatory system. A reduction in the degree of self-sustainment of a rhythm should not only increase its range of entrainment but also shorten the resynchronization times following phase-shifts of the zeitgeber. This hypothesis has not yet been directly tested. We therefore carried out the present study in which house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were subjected to both 6-h advance and 6-h delay phase-shifts of the light-dark cycle before and after the pinealectomy, and the rhythms in locomotion and feeding were recorded. The results indicate that following the delay, but not the advance, phase shift, resynchronization times were significantly shorter after pinealectomy. The dependence of resynchronization times on the presence or absence of the pineal organ is not only of theoretical interest but might also be of functional significance in the natural life of birds. A reduction or elimination of the amplitude of the melatonin secretion rhythm by the pineal organ might be responsible for faster adjustment to changes in zeitgeber conditions in nature.

  16. Genetic structure in insular and mainland populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and their hemosporidian parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Coraline; Moodley, Yoshan; Penn, Dustin J; Sorci, Gabriele; Garnier, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Small and isolated populations usually exhibit low levels of genetic variability, and thus, they are expected to have a lower capacity to adapt to changes in environmental conditions, such as exposure to pathogens and parasites. Comparing the genetic variability of selectively neutral versus functional loci allows one to assess the evolutionary history of populations and their future evolutionary potential. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) control immune recognition of parasites, and their unusually high diversity is genes which is likely driven by parasite-mediated balancing selection. Here, we examined diversity and differentiation of neutral microsatellite loci and functional MHC class I genes in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), living in six insular and six mainland populations, and we aimed to determine whether their diversity or differentiation correlates with the diversity and the prevalence of infection of hemosporidian parasites. We found that island bird populations tended to have lower neutral genetic variability, whereas MHC variability gene was similar between island and mainland populations. Similarly, island populations tended to show greater genetic differentiation than mainland populations, especially at microsatellite markers. The maintenance of MHC genetic diversity and its less marked structure in the island populations could be attributed to balancing-selection. The greater MHC differentiation among populations was negatively correlated with similarity in blood parasites (prevalence and diversity of parasite strains) between populations. Even at low prevalence and small geographical scale, haemosporidian parasites might contribute to structure the variability of immune genes among populations of hosts. PMID:25937907

  17. Morphology-function relationships and repeatability in the sperm of Passer sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily R A; Laskemoen, Terje; Stensrud, Even; Rowe, Melissah; Haas, Fredrik; Lifjeld, Jan T; Saetre, Glenn-Peter; Johnsen, Arild

    2015-04-01

    Sperm performance is likely to be an important determinant of male reproductive success, especially when females copulate with multiple males. Understanding sperm performance is therefore crucial to fully understand the evolution of male reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the repeatability of sperm morphology and motility measures over three breeding seasons, and we studied relationships between sperm morphology and function. We conducted this study in wild-derived captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). Results for the two species were similar. As predicted from results in other passerine species, total sperm length was highly repeatable across ejaculates, and repeatability for the length of other components was moderate. The repeatability of sperm swimming speed across ejaculates was lower, but statistically significant, suggesting that sperm velocity may be a relatively dynamic trait. Surprisingly, swimming speed did not correlate with the relative length of the midpiece, and it correlated negatively with the relative length of the flagellum and with total sperm length. This pattern is the opposite of what theory predicts and differs from what has been found in house sparrows before. Also contrary to previous work, we found no evidence that total sperm length correlates with sperm longevity. These results therefore highlight the need for a better understanding of relationships between sperm morphology and function in passerine birds.

  18. Beak and skull shapes of human commensal and non-commensal house sparrows Passer domesticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The granivorous house sparrow Passer domesticus is thought to have developed its commensal relationship with humans with the rise of agriculture in the Middle East some 10,000 years ago, and to have expanded with the spread of agriculture in Eurasia during the last few thousand years. One subspecies, P. d. bactrianus, residing in Central Asia, has apparently maintained the ancestral ecology, however. This subspecies is not associated with human settlements; it is migratory and lives in natural grass- and wetland habitats feeding on wild grass seeds. It is well documented that the agricultural revolution was associated with an increase in grain size and changes in seed structure in cultivated cereals, the preferred food source of commensal house sparrow. Accordingly, we hypothesize that correlated changes may have occurred in beak and skull morphology as adaptive responses to the change in diet. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the skull shapes of 101 house sparrows from Iran, belonging to five different subspecies, including the non-commensal P. d. bactrianus, using geometric morphometrics. Results The various commensal house sparrow subspecies share subtle but consistent skeletal features that differ significantly from those of the non-commensal P. d. bactrianus. Although there is a marked overall size allometry in the data set, the shape difference between the ecologically differentiated sparrows cannot be explained by differences in size alone. Relative to the size allometry commensal house sparrows exhibit a skull shape consistent with accelerated development (heterochrony), resulting in a more robust facial cranium and a larger, more pointed beak. Conclusion The difference in skull shape and robustness of the beak between commensal and non-commensal house sparrows is consistent with adaptations to process the larger and rachis encapsulated seeds of domesticated cereals among human associated populations. PMID:24044497

  19. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus): Effects of POPs and male quality signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V; Jensen, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Polder, Anuschka; Rønning, Bernt; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-03-15

    At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species. In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4 androgens and 3 estrogens) in male and female adult house sparrows from a population on the island Leka, Norway. Plasma samples were analysed for steroid hormones by GC-MS and liver samples were analysed for environmental contaminants by GC-ECD and GC-MS. In males, we also quantified ornament traits. It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive relationships between dihydrotestosterone levels and PCBs were observed. In males, positive relationships were also found between steroids and beak length, and between steroids and ornamental traits such as total badge size. This was confirmed by a significant OPLS model between beak length and steroids. Although sparrows are in the mid-range trophic levels, the present study indicates that POPs may affect steroid homeostasis in house sparrows, in particular for females. For

  20. Personality traits and behavioral syndromes in differently urbanized populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes.

  1. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) increase protein catabolism in response to water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Birds primarily rely on fat for energy during fasting and to fuel energetically demanding activities. Proteins are catabolized supplemental to fat, the function of which in birds remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that birds may increase the catabolism of body protein under dehydrating conditions as a means to maintain water balance, because catabolism of wet protein yields more total metabolic and bound water (0.155·H(2)O(-1)·kJ(-1)) than wet lipids (0.029 g·H(2)O(-1)·kJ(-1)). On the other hand, protein sparing should be important to maintain function of muscles and organs. We used quantitative magnetic resonance body composition analysis and hygrometry to investigate the effect of water restriction on fat and lean mass catabolism during short-term fasting at rest and in response to a metabolic challenge (4-h shivering) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Water loss at rest and during shivering was compared with water gains from the catabolism of tissue. At rest, water-restricted birds had significantly greater lean mass loss, higher plasma uric acid concentration, and plasma osmolality than control birds. Endogenous water gains from lean mass catabolism offset losses over the resting period. Water restriction had no effect on lean mass catabolism during shivering, as water gains from fat oxidation appeared sufficient to maintain water balance. These data provide direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that water stress can increase protein catabolism at rest, possibly as a metabolic strategy to offset high rates of evaporative water loss.

  2. Invasion genetics:Lessons from a ubiquitous bird, the house sparrowPasser domesticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea L LIEBL; Aaron W SCHREY; Samuel C ANDREW; Elizabeth L SHELDON; Simon C GRIFFITH

    2015-01-01

    Following an introduction, non-native species are exposed to environments that differ from those found in their native range; further, as these non-native species expand beyond the site of introduction, they must constantly adapt to novel environ-ments. Although introduced species are present across most ecosystems, few species have successfully established themselves on a truly global scale. One such species, the house sparrowPasser domesticus, is now one of the world’s most broadly distributed vertebrate species and has been introduced to a great part of its current range. To date, work on four continents suggests both ge-netic and phenotypic variation exists between native and introduced ranges. As such, house sparrows represent an excellent op-portunity to study adaptations to novel environments and how these adaptations are derived. The global distribution of this spe-cies and the multiple independent introductions to geographically isolated sites allow researchers to ask questions regarding ge-netic variation and adaptation on a global scale. Here, we summarize the molecular studies of invasive house sparrows from the earliest work using allozymes through more recent work on epigenetics; using these studies, we discuss patterns of dispersal of this species. We then discuss future directions in techniques (e.g. next generation sequencing) and how they will provide new in-sight into questions that are fundamental to invasion biology. Finally, we discuss how continued research on the house sparrow in light of these genetic changes and adaptations will elucidate answers of adaptation, invasion biology, range expansion, and resi-lience in vertebrate systems generally [Current Zoology 61 (3): 465–476, 2015].

  3. Personality traits and behavioral syndromes in differently urbanized populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bókony

    Full Text Available Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances. On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes.

  4. La question de Galilée les faits et leurs conséquences

    CERN Document Server

    de L'Épinois, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Galileo Galilei, que dans la langue française nous nommons Galilée, naquit le 18 février 1564 à Pise, où se trouvaient alors sa mère, Giulia Ammanati, et son père Vincenzo Galilei, issu d'une famille noble de Florence. Après avoir fait ses premières classes dans cette dernière ville et avoir achevé ses humanités et sa logique au monastère de Vallombrosa où il revêtit un instant l'habit de novice...""À PROPOS DES ÉDITIONS LIGARANLes éditions LIGARAN proposent des versions numériques de qualité de grands livres de la littérature classique mais également des livres rares en partenari

  5. Ce qui fait les êtres. La caractérisation des êtres naturels et surnaturels

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrié, Jean-Noël

    2012-01-01

    Le Centre Jacques Berque (USR 3136 du CNRS) à Rabat vient de publier sous format électronique Ce qui fait les êtres. La caractérisation des êtres naturels et surnaturels (collection : Les Rencontres du CJB, n° 2). Le monde dans lequel nous vivons est, en effet, peuplé d’êtres de différentes sortes, dont l’existence relève d’ontologies et d’épistémologies variées. Nous considérons comme « êtres » des entités dotées d’une intentionnalité semblable à la nôtre ou compatible avec elle, s’établiss...

  6. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  7. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  8. La double-page chez Hirohiko Araki : l’ubris faite norme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Pigeat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le style d’Araki se caractérise par un usage massif de la double-page, loin de l’usage ponctuel que l’on trouve habituellement dans les shonen. Elle témoigne d’une forme d’ubris qui se fait norme de composition c’est-à-dire qu’elle érige le principe de débordement en règle de structuration de l’action et des planches Elle est ainsi la marque de la démesure d’un auteur qui, sous l’apparence du manga populaire, et à travers les codes de ce dernier, élabore une œuvre d’une puissance et d’une sophistication rares..

    Pour appréhender ce phénomène, il nous faut d’abord observer concrètement l’usage que fait Hirohiko Araki de la double-page, les lieux du récit que celle-ci investit, la fréquence de ses manifestations, et la manière dont elle caractérise les différentes parties de la saga Jojo’s bizarre Adventure. L’ubris de la double-page met alors particulièrement en relief deux éléments centraux de la poétique d’Hirohiko Araki : le corps et le temps.  La double-page apparaît comme la réponse matérielle à ces corps qui débordent de la page classique, qui éclatent ou se dispersent de telle sorte que l’auteur doit étendre les limites de ce cadre pour les représenter. Le temps entre lui en scène à travers le détail : la double-page devient le règne d’un détail sur lequel le lecteur passe trop vite et auquel le héros accorde toute son attention. Enfin, la double-page possède chez Hirohiko Araki une dimension proprement esthétique que révèle clairement l’usage presque absolu qui en est fait dans la septième partie de Jojo’s bizarre Adventure, Steel Ball Run, et dans le volume Rohan au Louvre, même si l’on peut la deviner déjà auparavant. La double-page est un moment où l’énigme se présente au héros, se met en mouvement ou se trouve élucidée. Le règne de l’ubris s’affirme là, dans ces doubles-pages qui n’en sont finalement plus, dans cette

  9. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim GRAHAM, Catherine JARNEVICH, Nick YOUNG, Greg NEWMAN, Thomas STOHLGREN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species [Current Zoology 57 (5: 648–654, 2011].

  10. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jim GRAHAM; Catherine JARNEVICH; Nick YOUNG; Greg NEWMAN; Thomas STOHLGREN

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species.Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus,native to Eurasia,have established populations in other parts of the world.In North America,their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St.Louis,Missouri.We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species.Under projected climate change scenarios,our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland.This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species [Current Zoology 57 (5):648-654,2011].

  11. Reduced parental effort in relation to laying date in house sparrows (Passer domesticus): a study under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2004-09-30

    It is known that breeding success in birds declines with an advance in the laying date. In this paper, breeding success diminished with laying date in a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population breeding in captivity. The principal cause of the cline in breeding success with date was a decrease in the female feeding rate. The parental effort in females decreased with the advance of the laying date, although food access was ad libitum throughout the breeding season. Consequently, this cline in breeding success may be due to a reduced parental investment with the advance of the laying date or to exhaustion due to previous reproductive events in the season. Hypotheses usually used to explain the cline in breeding success with date can not explain results in this study.

  12. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  13. North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion - ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Belkacem, Abdelkrim; Gast, Oliver; Stuckas, Heiko; Canal, David; LoValvo, Mario; Giacalone, Gabriele; Päckert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    A stabilized hybrid form of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) is known as Passer italiae from the Italian Peninsula and a few Mediterranean islands. The growing attention for the Italian hybrid sparrow and increasing knowledge on its biology and genetic constitution greatly contrast the complete lack of knowledge of the long-known phenotypical hybrid sparrow populations from North Africa. Our study provides new data on the breeding biology and variation of mitochondrial DNA in three Algerian populations of house sparrows, Spanish sparrows, and phenotypical hybrids. In two field seasons, the two species occupied different breeding habitats: Spanish sparrows were only found in rural areas outside the cities and bred in open-cup nests built in large jujube bushes. In contrast, house sparrows bred only in the town centers and occupied nesting holes in walls of buildings. Phenotypical hybrids were always associated with house sparrow populations. House sparrows and phenotypical hybrids started breeding mid of March, and most pairs had three successive clutches, whereas Spanish sparrows started breeding almost one month later and had only two successive clutches. Mitochondrial introgression is strongly asymmetric because about 75% of the rural Spanish sparrow population carried house sparrow haplotypes. In contrast, populations of the Italian hybrid form, P. italiae, were genetically least diverse among all study populations and showed a near-fixation of house sparrow haplotypes that elsewhere were extremely rare or that were even unique for the Italian Peninsula. Such differences between mitochondrial gene pools of Italian and North African hybrid sparrow populations provide first evidence that different demographic histories have shaped the extant genetic diversity observed on both continents.

  14. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  15. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  16. Panorama 1998. Les faits porteurs d'avenir Panorama 1998. Presages for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appert O.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available L'année 1997 est à marquer d'une pierre blanche pour l'industrie pétrolière et gazière. Les bénéfices des compagnies, tant pétrolières que para pétrolières, ont ainsi atteint des sommets, alors que leurs valeurs boursières ne cessaient de grimper. Ces résultats financiers exceptionnels ont en fait reflété une conjonction d'éléments favorables au secteur. La demande mondiale est toujours en forte croissance. Le terrain de chassecontinue à s'étendre, grâce notamment aux progrès technologiques et à l'ouverture de très nombreux pays aux compagnies pétrolières internationales. Quant au raffinage, qui faisait pourtant figure de parent pauvre au sein des différentes activités des sociétés ces dernières années, il aura finalement connu un léger mieux. A travers l'analyse des événements majeurs survenus en 1997, qui ne saurait éluder la crise financière asiatique ou la conférence de Kyoto, l'objectif est avant tout de mettre en évidence les éléments qui devraient conditionner l'avenir de l'ensemble de l'industrie des hydrocarbures. Cette dernière, alors que l'année 1998 semble s'ouvrir sous des auspices moins favorables, devra tirer les leçons de ce passé récent pour être à même de relever les deux grands défis qui se présentent à elle : l'environnement, enjeu majeur à tous les niveaux, et la technologie, qui permet de repousser les limites du possible, techniquement et économiquement. 1997 has been a red-letter year for the oil and gas industry. Thus, the benefits of both oil companies and service and supply ones have rocketed, while their market values have kept shooting up. Actually, those exceptional financial results have reflected a conjunction of elements favorable to the sector. World demand is still growing rapidly. The hunting groundkeeps spreading, more particularly thanks to technological progress and the opening up of a large number of countries to international oil companies. As for

  17. Que fait le salariat au militantisme dans les associations féministes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Loiseau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Les associations de défense des droits des femmes, créées en France dans le contexte militant du féminisme des décennies 1960/1970 (MFPF, SOS femmes, CIDFF, affrontent aujourd'hui des difficultés paradoxales, au sens où elles résultent en partie de leur succès et de leur pérennisation. En effet, pour accroître l'efficacité militante, pour satisfaire aux besoins toujours existants de la population féminine à laquelle elles s'adressent, elles ont eu recours à la salarisation et se sont transformées en associations employeuses. Dans un contexte où elles ne peuvent guère offrir à leurs salariées que des emplois dévalorisés du fait de leur difficulté à assurer leur survie économique, elles entrent en contradiction avec leurs valeurs, sans en avoir toujours conscience dans un premier temps. L’arrivée des salariées interroge donc le militantisme des « militantes employeuses ». Mais passés les premiers temps de déstabilisation, les associations tentent de rebondir et de mettre en place des solutions ménageant les deux dimensions militante et professionnelle qu’elles souhaitent continuer à concilier.Las asociaciones de defensa de los derechos de las mujeres, creadas en Francia en el contexto del feminismo militante de las décadas 1960/1970 (MFPF, SOS CIDFF mujeres, se enfrentan actualmente a dificultades paradójicas, en el sentido de que, en parte, resultan de su éxito y su sostenibilidad. De hecho, para aumentar la eficiencia de la militancia, para satisfacer las necesidades aún existentes de la población femenina a la que se dirigen, han recurrido a empleados y se han convertido en asociaciones de empleadores. En un contexto en el que sólo pueden ofrecer a sus empleados puestos de trabajo devaluados a causa de su dificultad para garantizar su supervivencia económica, están en contradicción con sus valores, pero no siempre son conscientes de esto. La llegada de las empleadas entrevistadas, por lo tanto

  18. Temporal and spatial variation in prevalence of the parasite Syngamus trachea in a metapopulation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holand, Håkon; Jensen, Henrik; Tufto, Jarle; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Ringsby, Thor Harald

    2013-09-01

    When investigating parasite-host dynamics in wild populations, a fundamental parameter to investigate is prevalence. This quantifies the percentage of individuals infected in the population. Investigating how prevalence changes over time and space can reveal interesting aspects in the parasite-host relationship in natural populations. We investigated the dynamic between a common avian parasite (Syngamus trachea) in a host metapopulation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) on the coast of Helgeland in northern Norway. We found that parasite prevalence varied in both time and space. In addition, the parasite prevalence was found to be different between demographic groups in the local populations. Our results reveal just how complex the dynamic between a host and its parasite may become in a fragmented landscape. Although temperature may be an important factor, the specific mechanisms causing this complexity are not fully understood, but need to be further examined to understand how parasite-host interactions may affect the ecological and evolutionary dynamics and viability of host populations.

  19. Range expansion of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Kenya: evidence of genetic admixture and human-mediated dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aaron W; Liebl, Andrea L; Richards, Christina L; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Introduced species offer an opportunity to study the ecological process of range expansions. Recently, 3 mechanisms have been identified that may resolve the genetic paradox (the seemingly unlikely success of introduced species given the expected reduction in genetic diversity through bottlenecks or founder effects): multiple introductions, high propagule pressure, and epigenetics. These mechanisms are probably also important in range expansions (either natural or anthropogenic), yet this possibility remains untested in vertebrates. We used microsatellite variation (7 loci) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), an introduced species that has been spreading across Kenya for ~60 years, to determine if patterns of variation could explain how this human commensal overcame the genetic paradox and expresses such considerable phenotypic differentiation across this new range. We note that in some cases, polygenic traits and epistasis among genes, for example, may not have negative effects on populations. House sparrows arrived in Kenya by a single introduction event (to Mombasa, ~1950) and have lower genetic diversity than native European and introduced North American populations. We used Bayesian clustering of individuals (n = 233) to detect that at least 2 types of range expansion occurred in Kenya: one with genetic admixture and one with little to no admixture. We also found that genetic diversity increased toward a range edge, and the range expansion was consistent with long-distance dispersal. Based on these data, we expect that the Kenyan range expansion was anthropogenically influenced, as the expansions of other introduced human commensals may also be.

  20. Usage of Nest Materials by House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Along an Urban to Rural Gradient in Coimbatore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhamany, Dhanya; Das, Karumampoyil Sakthidas Anoop; Azeez, Parappurath Abdul; Wen, Longying; Sreekala, Leelambika Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a widely distributed bird species found throughout the world. Being a species which has close association with humans, they chiefly nest on man-made structures. Here we describe the materials used by the house sparrow for making nests along an urban to rural gradient. For the current study, we selected the Coimbatore to Anaikatty road (State Highway-164), a 27 km inter-state highway, which traverses along an urban core to rural outstretch of Coimbatore. Of the 30 nests observed, 15 nests were from the rural, 8 were from the suburban, and 7 were from the urban areas. The nests had two distinct layers, specifically the structural layer and the inner lining. In the current study, we identified 11 plant species, 2 types of animal matter, and 6 types of anthropogenic matter, including plastic pieces and fine rope. The amount of anthropogenic materials in the nest formation varied along the gradients. The usage of anthropogenic materials was high in urban areas (p0.05). A gradual decrease in the usage of plant matter towards the urban area was noticed (p<0.05). This study explicitly documents the links between nest material usage along an urban to rural gradient, in a human associated bird. PMID:27688856

  1. Variation in russet sparrow (Passer cinnamomeus) breeding biology in relation to small-scale altitudinal differences in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Liang, Wei; Cai, Yan; Wu, Junqiu; Shi, Suhua; Antonov, Anton

    2012-07-01

    Evolution of avian life histories is typically strongly influenced by both altitude and latitude. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of extreme differences in altitude and latitude on variation in reproductive traits. Studies based on small altitude and latitude spans are needed to better understand the resolution of selective pressures. We compared several aspects of russet sparrow (Passer cinnamomeus) breeding biology between a low-altitude (200 m) and a high-altitude (1,500 m) population in China, representing a relatively small altitudinal gradient (1,300 m). High-altitude birds initiated breeding significantly later compared to their low-altitude counterparts. Interestingly, breeding season was significantly longer in the high-altitude site (57 vs. 84 d). Lowland sparrows laid larger clutches (4.92 vs. 4.09 eggs) and showed greater fledging success (4.20 vs. 3.46 fledgings) than did upland birds. Variation in life history traits thus appears to occur even along a small scale altitudinal gradient. We suggest that the longer breeding season and smaller clutch size in the highland population may be an adaptation or acclimation to compensate for the reduced annual productivity resulting from unfavourable or sub-optimal habitats for these sparrows.

  2. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  3. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  4. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  5. Helminths of introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Brazil: does population age affect parasite richness? Helmintos de pardais (Passer domesticus introduzidos no Brasil: a idade da população afeta a riqueza de parasitos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Calegaro-Marques

    Full Text Available Species introductions have altered host and parasite diversity throughout the world. In the case of introduced hosts, population age appears to be a good predictor of parasite richness. Habitat alteration is another variable that may impact host-parasite interactions by affecting the availability of intermediate hosts. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a good model to test these predictions. It was introduced in several parts of the world and can be found across rural-urban gradients. A total of 160 house sparrows from Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were necropsied. Thirty house sparrows (19 % were parasitized with at least one out of five helminth species (Digenea: Tamerlania inopina Freitas, 1951 and Eumegacetes sp.; Eucestoda: Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907 Fuhrmann, 1932; Nematoda: Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920 and Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi Strom, 1937. Overall, there was no difference in prevalence and intensity of infection of any parasite species, parasite richness and community diversity between adult males and females and adults and juveniles. The number of infected sparrows among seasons, the richness of helminths and the abundance of species were also similar between rural and urban landscapes. Only the prevalence of C. passerina varied seasonally (p=0.0007. A decrease in the number of parasite species from the original range of P. domesticus (13 to its port of entrance in Brazil, the city of Rio de Janeiro (nine, to Porto Alegre (five is compatible with the hypothesis that host population age is a good predictor of parasite richness.A introdução de espécies tem alterado a diversidade dos parasitos e seus hospedeiros em todo o mundo. No caso dos hospedeiros introduzidos, a idade da população parece ser um bom preditor da riqueza parasitária. A alteração do habitat é outra variável que pode ter impacto sobre as interações parasito-hospedeiro, pois

  6. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  7. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  8. Are maternal antibodies really that important? Patterns in the immunologic development of altricial passerine house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal antibodies are believed to play an integral role in protecting immunologically immature wild-passerines from environmental antigens. This study comprehensively examines the early development of the adaptive immune system in an altricial-developing wild passerine species, the house sparrow (Passer domestics, by characterizing the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma, the onset of de novo synthesis of endogenous antibodies by nestlings, and the timing of immunological independence, where nestlings rely entirely on their own antibodies for immunologic protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an aviary study we vaccinated females against a novel antigen that these birds would not otherwise encounter in their natural environment, and measured both antigen-specific and total antibody concentration in the plasma of females, yolks, and nestlings. We traced the transfer of maternal antibodies from females to nestlings through the yolk and measured catabolisation of maternal antigen-specific antibodies in nestlings during early development. By utilizing measurements of non-specific and specific antibody levels in nestling plasma we were able to calculate the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma and the time point at which nestling were capable of synthesizing antibodies themselves. Based on the short half-life of maternal antibodies, the rapid production of endogenous antibodies by nestlings and the relatively low transfer of maternal antibodies to nestlings, our findings suggest that altricial-developing sparrows achieve immunologic independence much earlier than precocial birds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first in depth analyses performed on the adaptive immune system of a wild-passerine species. Our results suggest that maternal antibodies may not confer the immunologic protection or immune priming previously proposed in other passerine studies. Further research needs

  9. Inaccuracies inthe history ofa well-known introduction:a case study ofthe Australian House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel C. Andrew; Simon C. Griffth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Modern ecosystems contain many invasive species as a result of the activity of acclimatisation socie-ties that operated in the second half of the nineteenth century, and these species provide good opportunities for studying invasion biology. However, to gain insight into the ecological and genetic mechanisms that determine the rate of colonization and adaptation to new environments, we need a good understanding of the history of the intro-duced species, and a knowledge of the source population, timing, and number of individuals introduced is particu-larly important. However, any inaccuracies in the history of an introduction will affect subsequent assumptions and conclusions. Methods: Focusing on a single well-known species, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), we have documented the introduction into Australia using primary sources (e.g. acclimatisation records and newspaper articles). Results: Our revised history differs in a number of signiifcant ways from previous accounts. Our evidence indicates that the House Sparrow was not solely introduced from source populations in England but also from Germany and most strikingly also from India—with the latter birds belonging to a different race. We also clarify the distinction between the number released and the number of founders, due to pre-release captive breeding programs, as well as identifying inaccuracies in a couple of well-cited sources with respect to the range expansion of the introduced populations. Conclusions: Our work suggests that caution is required for those studying introductions using the key sources of historical information and ideally should review original sources of information to verify the accuracy of published accounts.

  10. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  11. Crimes, faits divers, cinématographe et premiers interdits français en 1899 et 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Montagne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Les crimes et criminels dans le cinéma de fiction furent abordés, en 1990, à Perpignan, au XIe Colloque Cinéma et Histoire, Histoire du cinéma, Les grandes affaires criminelles : faits historiques - cinéma et télévision, de l’Institut Jean Vigo, en collaboration avec l’I.N.A. et la Cinémathèque de Toulouse. Les présentes pages, écrites dans la continuité du numéro inhérent des Cahiers de la Cinémathèque de 1993, Les Grandes affaires criminelles françaises, complètent un article personnel, De ...

  12. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  13. L’image du français et le « fait francophone » dans l’enseignement supérieur au Danemark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verstraete Hansen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    s article examines the representation of French as it can be interpreted through the curriculum at the two major Danish universities still offering a full university program (BA-Master-Doctoral degree) in French Studies. The article analyses the presence of the fait francophone in the curriculum...... at the University of Aarhus (AU) and the University of Copenhagen (KU) with a point of departure in the following questions: How is the concept of francophonie defined? How is the fait francophone integrated into the curriculum and according to which tradition(s)? The analysis reveals a fundamental distinction...... between “French” and “francophone” phenomena and a type of course organization largely based on the philological model that divides the subjects into three disciplines – language, literature and culture – focusing on the national reference, France. The article concludes that the fait francophone...

  14. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  15. Responding to inflammatory challenges is less costly for a successful avian invader, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), than its less-invasive congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly A; Martin, Lynn B; Wikelski, Martin C

    2005-09-01

    When introduced into new regions, invading organisms leave many native pathogens behind and also encounter evolutionarily novel disease threats. In the presence of predominantly novel pathogens that have not co-evolved to avoid inducing a strong host immune response, costly and potentially dangerous defenses such as the systemic inflammatory response could become more harmful than protective to the host. We therefore hypothesized that introduced populations exhibiting dampened inflammatory responses will tend to be more invasive. To provide initial data to assess this hypothesis, we measured metabolic, locomotor, and reproductive responses to inflammatory challenges in North American populations of the highly invasive house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and its less-invasive relative, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). In the house sparrow, there was no effect of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) challenge on metabolic rate, and there were no detectable differences in locomotor activity between lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected birds and saline-injected controls. In contrast, tree sparrows injected with PHA had metabolic rates 20-25% lower than controls, and LPS injection resulted in a 35% drop in locomotor activity. In a common garden captive breeding experiment, there was no effect of killed-bacteria injections on reproduction in the house sparrow, while tree sparrows challenged with bacteria decreased egg production by 40% compared to saline-injected controls. These results provide some of the first data correlating variation in immune defenses with invasion success in introduced-vertebrate populations.

  16. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  17. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  18. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  19. Fait migratoire et genre

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidman, Claude

    2009-01-01

    « Issus de l’immigration », « d’origine étrangère », « Deuxième génération »... Les catégories construites pour désigner les enfants de parents migrants sont diverses. Elles évoluent dans le temps, en fonction de l’histoire de l’immigration et des politiques de l’immigration ; en outre, elles varient selon la place dans l’institution des divers locuteurs : chercheurs, administrateurs, enseignants, élèves eux-mêmes. Dans le même numéro d’une revue parue en 1980, trois titres d’articles utilis...

  20. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  1. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  2. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  3. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  4. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  5. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  6. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds.

  7. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  8. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  9. Jacques Frémeaux, De quoi fut fait l’empire, les guerres coloniales au XIXe siècle 

    OpenAIRE

    d’Andurain, Julie

    2014-01-01

    De quoi fut fait l’Empire est l’un des meilleurs, sinon le meilleur ouvrage produit par Jacques Frémeaux, professeur à Paris-Sorbonne, ces dernières années. Outre une très belle érudition comme a son habitude, il fait preuve d’une très grande maîtrise de l’analyse comparative de la guerre coloniale au XIXe siècle présentée ici comme un phénomène global. Son propos consiste en effet à montrer que ces guerres lointaines ne sauraient se comprendre autrement que par comparaison les unes aux autre...

  10. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  11. Un trophée fait fille ou lorsque l’étranger n’existe pas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonne Pauwels

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Un trophée fait fille ou lorsque l’étranger n’existe pas. Il s’agit de montrer comment sur l’île de Selaru toute femme, tout homme, ou même une vache marine ou une tête coupée, en débarquant sur le rivage pour la première fois, est considéré comme une proie, un butin à rejeter à la mer ou à introduire dans le village. Dans le cas du second choix, l’arrivant est rituellement transformé en un parent avant la tombée de la nuit. Pour l’anthropologue cette intégration éclair a de quoi surprendre. Mais il s’agit d’une société prédatrice qui intègre tous ceux qu’elle peut transformer en parent et relègue les autres à sa périphérie en les qualifiant de « sorciers » ou de « non-humains ». Les uns et les autres jouent cependant un rôle dans les prédations majeures — la chasse et la chasse aux têtes —, qu’exigent la fertilité des jardins et la fécondité des femmes.A trophy made daughter, or when strangers do not exist. This article described how, on the island of Selaru, any man or woman, or even a sea-cow or a cut-off head, landing on the shore for the first time, is considered a prey, spoils to be thrown back into the sea or introduced into the village. In the latter case, the new arrival is ritually transformed into a relative before nightfall. For the anthropologist this “instant integration” is surprising. But this is a predatory society that integrates all those that it can transform into family and relegates the others to the margins, by qualifying them as “sorcerers” or “non-humans”. However, they all play a role in the majors predations - hunting and head-hunting - required for the fertility of women and gardens.

  12. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  13. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  14. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  15. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  16. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  17. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  18. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  19. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  20. The use of α- or β-blockers to ameliorate the chronic stress of captivity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Clare Parker; Romero, L. Michael

    2016-01-01

    When wild animals are brought into captivity for the first time, they frequently develop chronic stress symptoms. Animals can develop glucocorticoid dysregulation or changes in the sympathetic nervous system over the course of the first week in captivity. By blocking the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine using α- or β-blockers, we hoped to reduce the degree of chronic stress symptoms exhibited by newly captured house sparrows. We measured corticosterone, heart rate and heart rate variability in 24 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) over the first week of captivity. The birds were treated with saline, propranolol (a β-blocker) or phentolamine (an α-blocker) for the first 3 days of captivity. We also compared newly captured animals with animals that had been held in captivity for 1 month. During the first week of captivity, baseline corticosterone increased, but that increase was blocked by propranolol. Heart rate was not different between the treatment groups, but it was higher during the first week than after 1 month in captivity. Sympathetic nervous system activity (as measured by heart rate variability) decreased over the first week of captivity, but was not affected by treatment. β-Blockers, but not α-blockers, might help to improve some symptoms of chronic stress in newly captured animals. PMID:27752321

  1. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  2. Salmonella Detection and Aerobic Colony Count in Deep-Frozen Carcasses of House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) and Starling (Sturnus Vulgaris) Intended for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Braggio, Simonetta; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds are potential vehicles of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. The zoonotic concern increases for small wild birds like house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) which are hunted in developing countries and commercialised in Italy for human consumption. From June to October 2011, 330 house sparrows and 140 starlings were hunted and slaughtered. Deep-frozen carcasses were transported to Italy and stored for 6-8 months at -18°C. Aerobic colony count and Salmonella detection in carcasses were assessed following standard microbiological methods (ISO 4833:2003 and ISO 6579:2004, respectively). Carcasses of house sparrows showed higher levels of aerobic bacteria in comparison to starling carcasses (5.7 vs 3.2 log10 CFU/g). Moreover, 7 out of 11 lots of carcasses of house sparrows were positive for Salmonella. Among the 18 isolates of Salmonella, 14 were S. Typhimurium, 2 were S. Enteritidis, and 2 were not distinguishable. All of them were susceptible to antibiotics. All tested carcasses of starling were Salmonella negative. Deep-freezing was not efficient as a decontamination technique on carcasses of house sparrows.

  3. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  4. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  6. Nommer le conflit. Le cas de l’Alsace pendant son annexion de fait au Troisième Reich, 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Ségolène Verneret

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des comportements et opinions de la population en Alsace entre 1940 et 1945 fait appel à la nécessité de nommer une conflictualité parfois floue, ambivalente et qui évolue au cours de la période. Il convient de s’interroger sur l’adaptation des outils de définition des comportements développés en France et en Allemagne pour la situation alsacienne pendant l’annexion de fait de son territoire.   Alsace 1940-1945, oppositions au nazisme, comportements collectifsDie Erforschung des Verhaltens und der Meinung der Bevölkerung im Elsass zwischen 1940-1945 bringt die Notwendigkeit mit sich, eine zuweilen undurchsichtige, zweideutige Konfliktträchtigkeit zu benennen, die sich im Zeitraum der Annektierung zudem entwickelte. Die methodischen Werkzeuge zur Definition kollektiven Verhaltens, die in Frankreich und Deutschland für diesen elsässischen Fall entwickelt wurden, müssen hierbei angepasst werden.

  7. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  8. The role of the pineal gland in the photoperiodic control of bird song frequency and repertoire in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Harpole, Clifford E; Paulose, Jiffin; Cassone, Vincent M

    2014-04-01

    Temperate zone birds are highly seasonal in many aspects of their physiology. In mammals, but not in birds, the pineal gland is an important component regulating seasonal patterns of primary gonadal functions. Pineal melatonin in birds instead affects seasonal changes in brain song control structures, suggesting the pineal gland regulates seasonal song behavior. The present study tests the hypothesis that the pineal gland transduces photoperiodic information to the control of seasonal song behavior to synchronize this important behavior to the appropriate phenology. House sparrows, Passer domesticus, expressed a rich array of vocalizations ranging from calls to multisyllabic songs and motifs of songs that varied under a regimen of different photoperiodic conditions that were simulated at different times of year. Control (SHAM) birds exhibited increases in song behavior when they were experimentally transferred from short days, simulating winter, to equinoctial and long days, simulating summer, and decreased vocalization when they were transferred back to short days. When maintained in long days for longer periods, the birds became reproductively photorefractory as measured by the yellowing of the birds' bills; however, song behavior persisted in the SHAM birds, suggesting a dissociation of reproduction from the song functions. Pinealectomized (PINX) birds expressed larger, more rapid increases in daily vocal rate and song repertoire size than did the SHAM birds during the long summer days. These increases gradually declined upon the extension of the long days and did not respond to the transfer to short days as was observed in the SHAM birds, suggesting that the pineal gland conveys photoperiodic information to the vocal control system, which in turn regulates song behavior.

  9. Inaccuracies in the history of a well-known introduction:a case study of the Australian House Sparrow(Passer domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel C.Andrew; Simon C.Griffith

    2016-01-01

    Background:Modern ecosystems contain many invasive species as a result of the activity of acclimatisation societies that operated in the second half of the nineteenth century,and these species provide good opportunities for studying invasion biology.However,to gain insight into the ecological and genetic mechanisms that determine the rate of colonization and adaptation to new environments,we need a good understanding of the history of the introduced species,and a knowledge of the source population,timing,and number of individuals introduced is particularly important.However,any inaccuracies in the history of an introduction will affect subsequent assumptions and conclusions.Methods:Focusing on a single well-known species,the House Sparrow(Passer domesticus),we have documented the introduction into Australia using primary sources(e.g.acclimatisation records and newspaper articles).Results:Our revised history differs in a number of significant ways from previous accounts.Our evidence indicates that the House Sparrow was not solely introduced from source populations in England but also from Germany and most strikingly also from India—with the latter birds belonging to a different race.We also clarify the distinction between the number released and the number of founders,due to pre-release captive breeding programs,as well as identifying inaccuracies in a couple of well-cited sources with respect to the range expansion of the introduced populations.Conclusions:Our work suggests that caution is required for those studying introductions using the key sources of historical information and ideally should review original sources of information to verify the accuracy of published accounts.

  10. Acute cold and exercise training up-regulate similar aspects of fatty acid transport and catabolism in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Carter, Travis; Eyster, Kathleen; Swanson, David L

    2015-12-01

    Summit maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate (Msum) and maximum exercise metabolic rate (MMR) both increase in response to acute cold or exercise training in birds. Because lipids are the main fuel supporting both thermogenesis and exercise in birds, adjustments to lipid transport and catabolic capacities may support elevated energy demands from cold and exercise training. To examine a potential mechanistic role for lipid transport and catabolism in organismal cross-training effects (exercise effects on both exercise and thermogenesis, and vice versa), we measured enzyme activities and mRNA and protein expression in pectoralis muscle for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) during acute exercise and cold training. Both training protocols elevated pectoralis protein levels of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein, and citrate synthase (CS) activity. However, mRNA expression of FAT/CD36 and both mRNA and protein expression of plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein did not change for either training group. CS activities in supracoracoideus, leg and heart, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) and β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase activities in all muscles did not vary significantly with either training protocol. Both Msum and MMR were significantly positively correlated with CPT and CS activities. These data suggest that up-regulation of trans-sarcolemmal and intramyocyte lipid transport capacities and cellular metabolic intensities, along with previously documented increases in body and pectoralis muscle masses and pectoralis myostatin (a muscle growth inhibitor) levels, are common mechanisms underlying the training effects of both exercise and shivering in birds.

  11. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  12. Comparison of adrenocortical responses to acute stress in lowland and highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus): similar patterns during the breeding, but different during the prebasic molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongming; Wu, Junzhe; Zhang, Xiaorui; Ma, Xiaofei; Wingfield, John C; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yuefeng

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies indicate most free-living avian species in both extreme and temperate environments seasonally modulate the adrenocortical responses to acute stress, and those breeding in harsh environments always express reduced adrenocortical responses, which may allow them to obtain maximal reproductive success. However, recent investigations showing a human commensal species, house sparrows (Passer domesticus), expressed similar corticosterone (CORT) responses in both benign and harsh environments. In this study, focusing on another human commensal species, Eurasian tree sparrows (P. montanus), we examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress in lowland populations, among the early and late breeding, the prebasic molt, and the wintering stages, and compared them with previously published data from populations on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results show: (1) similar to highland Eurasian tree sparrows, lowland populations show no differences in baseline CORT levels among life history stages, and the stress-induced CORT (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) levels are lower during the early breeding and the prebasic molt stages than those in the late breeding and the wintering stages; (2) highland Eurasian tree sparrows show stronger adrenocortical responses during the prebasic molt stage than lowland populations, whereas there are no differences between the early and the breeding stages (except for maximal CORT). Our results suggest that Eurasian tree sparrows from both harsh and benign environments have similar patterns of adrenocortical responses in the breeding stage, whereas they are different in the prebasic molt stage. In highland birds, the increased maximal CORT levels during the late breeding and the small increases in adrenocortical responses during the prebasic molt are interesting but remain unexplained.

  13. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  14. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  15. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  16. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  17. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  18. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  19. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  20. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  1. Proteínas del plasma y grupos sanguíneos ABO y Rh del gorrión común (Passer domesticus) en dos localidades de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El gorrión común (Passer domesticus) llegó a Costa Rica en 1974 o a principios de 1975. Actualmente se encuentra establecido prácticamente en todo el país, en áreas muy variadas ecológicamente. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de la frecuencia de cuatro proteínas del plasma: transferrina, haptoglobina, ceruloplasmina y albúmina y de los grupos sanguíneos del sistema ABO y Rh en dos poblaciones establecidas en localidades ecológicamente diferentes: Santa Cruz de Guanacaste (54 m) y Cartago (1440 m) ...

  2. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  3. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  4. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  5. Biogeochemical budgets for Tapi Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bapardekar, M.V.; DeSousa, S.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    .1 psu within a distance of 35-40 km. In the present study, the data used for budgeting purpose was collected during November-December, 1983 and May, 1984, covering the entire dry season. We have no data for the monsoon season. However, due to the heavy...

  6. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  7. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  8. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  9. Aire linguistique Asie du Sud-Est continentale : le birman en fait-il partie ? Mainland Southeast Asia Linguistic Area: is Burmese in?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vittrant

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available L’appartenance du birman à la famille des langues tibéto-birmanes est un fait non discutable comme l’attestent de nombreux travaux en linguistique historique (Benedict 1942, Shafer 1955, Matisoff 1973. Cependant, cette langue possède de nombreuses caractéristiques phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, pragmatiques ou lexicales, rares ou non attestées dans les autres langues de la famille. On peut donc s’interroger sur l’origine de ces innovations : hasard, universalité du langage ou contact de langues ? Or de récentes études (Matisoff 1991, Enfield, 2005 ont révélé l’existence d’une aire linguistique ou Sprachbund en Asie du Sud-Est continentale, i.e. une zone géographique dans laquelle des langues de familles linguistiques diverses partagent des traits structurels, généralement acquis par contact. Nous montrerons ainsi que, quoique rarement cité, le birman – langue tonale, à tendance isolante, à morphologie pauvre, sans flexion, faisant usage de classificateurs et très contextuelle – fait bien partie de cette aire linguistique.Burmese is indisputably part of Tibeto-Burman linguistic family, as many research in historical linguistics have proved it (see Benedict 1942, Shafer 1955, Matisoff 1973. However, this language exhibits phonological, morpho-syntactic, pragmatic or lexical features that are rare or non-attested in the other languages of the family. Therefore the issue is about the origine of these innovations: hazard, language universals or language contacts ? Recent studies études (Matisoff 1991, Enfield, 2005 have shown the existence of a linguistic area or Sprachbund in Mainland Southeast Asia, i.e. a geographical area where languages from different linguistic families share structural features, generally contact-induced features. In this paper, we show that Burmese, as a tonal language, isolating language with simple morphology, without agreement, using classifiers, and being an extremely contextual

  10. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  11. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  12. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  13. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets...

  14. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  15. De Guldensporenslag van fait-divers tot ankerpunt van de Vlaamse identiteit (1302-1838: de natievormende functionaliteit van historiografische mythen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lambert

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Battle of the Spurs — from fait divers to linchpin of Flemish identity (1302-1838: the nation forming function of historiographic mythsOn 11 July 1302, the Battle of the Spurs was fought on the Groeningekouter near Courtrai. This was only one of many military confrontations in the war between the Count of Flanders and his liege lord, the King of France. The victory of the Flemish army was totally unexpected, though very soon all Flemish people were proud of it. The Battle of the Spurs was not a battle between two 'nations', nor were the 'Flemish' fighting for their country, their fatherland. In fact, the confrontation at Courtrai was between two groups that were socially, culturally, economically and nationally heterogeneous. Nevertheless, in 1973 the 'Cultuurraad van de Nederlandse Cultuurgemeenschap' chose 11 July as the feastday of the Flemish Community, thereby officially promoting the Battle of the Spurs as a symbol of Flemish identity. This article traces how mediaeval, humanist and romantic historians have endowed the battle with a specific Flemish national quality and have moulded it into part of the Flemish collective memory. It shows why and how historiographers have been able to elevate fiction to the status of historical fact and illustrates the function of historiographical myths in the nation forming process. It also tries to explain why the 'cult' of the Battle of the Spurs started very soon after the event had taken place and is still being celebrated today.

  16. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  17. La Palestine comme écran, ou comment passer « de l’autre côté du miroir »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Fourest

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’indétermination qui entoure le terme de « Palestine », provoquée notamment par la disparition de son référent géographique depuis la création de l’État d’Israël, a généré une multitude de représentations concurrentes qui ont fait de ce terme un écran. Ce dernier révèle la complexité des enjeux géopolitiques qui s’y cristallisent, mais rend extrêmement difficile la formulation d’un récit et d’une représentation palestiniens propres. Travailler sur la production cinématographique palestinienne revient à s’interroger sur la manière dont les cinéastes composent avec les multiples représentations de leur terre et de son peuple telles qu’elles sont produites par l’Autre, qu’il soit Israélien ou occidental. Cet article s’appuie sur l’un des dispositifs les plus convaincants de cette production : dans Port of Memory [2009], Kamal Aljafari s’empare de séquences de films israélien et hollywoodien réalisés à Jaffa dans les années 1970 et 1980 qui en ont relégué sa présence palestinienne hors-cadre. Interrogeant cette représentation mutilée du lieu, il propose de rectifier ces images par les moyens du cinéma, faisant de la mémoire visuelle de l’Autre le lieu de son expression artistique et politique.

  18. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  19. Seasonal changes in adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) on the Tibetan Plateau: comparison with house sparrow (P. domesticus) in North America and with the migratory P. domesticus in Qinghai Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongming; Wang, Gang; Wingfield, John C; Zhang, Zhi; Ding, Changqing; Lei, Fumin

    2008-08-01

    Seasonal modulation of the adrenocortical response to stress appears to be ubiquitous in arctic-breeding and temperate-zone-breeding birds, but has not been well investigated in alpine-breeding species at mid-latitude. We examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress (capture, handling and restraint) in populations of Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) among seasons and migratory house sparrow (P. domesticus bactrianus) in pre-breeding on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (the Tibetan Plateau). A population of house sparrow (Passer domesticus domesticus) was also sampled in lowland Phoenix, Arizona during breeding and wintering stages. In Eurasian tree sparrows, baseline corticosterone (CORT) does not differ among life history stages, but stress-induced CORT level (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) is significantly higher in late breeding stage than those in early breeding and prebasic molt stages. In house sparrows, stress-induced CORT level does not differ between sites and life history stages, but baseline CORT is significantly lower in pre-breeding from Qinghai compared with those in breeding and wintering stages from Phoenix. Interestingly, both baseline CORT and maximal CORT do not differ between the populations of Eurasian tree sparrow and house sparrow in early/pre-breeding stage although tree sparrow is resident species whereas house sparrow is migratory in Qinghai. Our results suggest that the extreme environment of the Tibetan Plateau does not have significant effects on adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian tree sparrows and house sparrows, which may be a result of masking by human activities. These invasive human commensals may have a unique HPA axis response to different environments because they can take advantage of human food sources and shelter (i.e. buildings).

  20. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  1. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  2. Water Budget, 1983-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Mark (Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1986-10-01

    This report encompasses the first three years (1983, 1984, and 1985) of operation. It includes: (1) background and history of the development of the Water Budget concept including a discussion of Water Budget manager positions; (2) implementation of the Water Budget since its formulation by the Council in 1983; (3) a discussion of the research and monitoring funded by BPA; and (4) a discussion of Section 304 of the Council's Program.

  3. Budgeting and Acquisition Business Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Nichols Act reforms (1986) were intended to rectify this situation. Then, with the drawdown after the fall of the Soviet Union, budget offices were...significant constraint as a variable in analyses of the effectiveness and suitability of systems. CAIV is intended to reduce acquisition costs. After ...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns

  4. Low Budget,Big Box Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers are refining the art of turning a profit from small budget films ORGANIZERS of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys,to encourage a generation of young,talented directors producing low budget films. Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small and Medium-Budget Film Prize at the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,later in the year.

  5. Budgeting for a district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lewallen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Core concepts of a strong VISION 2020 programme Many eye care professionals view the prospect of budgeting with about as much pleasure as a visit to the dentist! Nevertheless, if VISION 2020 is going to succeed, programme managers will have to acquire some basic skills in budgeting. First, it is useful to identify some of the core concepts of a strong, practical VISION 2020 programme to be considered when preparing a budget.

  6. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  7. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  8. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  9. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  10. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning After Solis 2004, 28 However, the story that these diagrams...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation: would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns...notes that after nearly twenty years of reform since the Packard Commission Report and Goldwater-Nichols, “major weapons systems still cost too much

  11. Théories de la fréquence linguistique et interprétations des faits quantitatifs en sémantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loiseau Sylvain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt pour les phénomènes de fréquence dans la modélisation sémantique a crû particulièrement avec les modèles dits « usage-based » développés en linguistique cognitive. Dans ces modèles, les signes linguistiques sont le résultat d'une habituation et d'une conventionnalisation qui prend ses racines dans la répétition de l'usage. À partir de cette modélisation, plusieurs travaux ont visé à développer de nouvelles méthodes de description utilisant l'observation, en corpus, des fréquences. On passe alors d'une fréquence théorique et abstraite – même si elle est censée être garante d'une certaine empiricité – à une fréquence mesurée au moyen de méthodes quantitatives. Plusieurs auteurs ont souligné la difficulté d'« opérationaliser » cette fréquence. Ils ont souligné la nécessité de prendre en compte des phénomènes textuels. Dans cette article, je propose d'ajouter une contribution à la démonstration de la nécessité de prendre en compte les normes textuelles dans l'utilisation des faits de fréquence pour la modélisation sémantique. L'expérience proposée permet de montrer que les phénomènes de fréquence peuvent être utilisés pour distinguer des emplois d'un même mot entre le début et la fin de textes relevant d'un même genre. Ces résultats plaident, avec d'autres, pour une prise en compte des phénomènes textuels dans l'utilisation de données quantitatives pour la description sémantique. Ils plaident également pour une certaine prudence dans la tentation de considérer la fréquence comme un phénomène interprétable en termes causalistes et univoques plutôt que relevant de procédures interprétatives.

  12. An Analysis of the Role of the Budget Committees in the Congressional Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Quarterly, 10 Jan. 1987, pp. 44-50. 17. Ibid., p. 44 67 18. Stephen Gettinger, "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate...New in $1 Trillion 1988 Budget Request." Congressional Quarterly, (10 Jan. 1987). "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate

  13. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.

    Described is the federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D). The report includes: an overview of R&D in context of the total budget, a review of R&D budget data, identification of recurring issues and issues concerning the analysis of R&D budgets, an analysis of the FY 1977 budget, and a…

  14. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  15. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  16. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  17. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  18. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  19. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent uncertaintie

  20. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  1. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  2. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  3. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  4. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands: Beyond Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); J.J.A. Posseth (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its applicat

  5. THE SUBJECTS OF MEDIADISCOURSE OF BUDGET PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vyacheslavovna Sulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the media discourse of the budget process in its subject-temporal dimension. Place and role of the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are determined on the basis of the analysis of budgetary legislation, practical implementation of the budgeting process in the executive and legislative bodies and its reflection in the media. Public discourse of budgeting process includes not only participants, who are legally empowered, but also other actors involved in the formation of the informational agenda regarding the budget. For example, the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are executive and legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, recipients of budgetary funds, political parties, professional and expert communities, civil society activists. Sociocommunicative description of the budgeting process and its subjects is presented based on analytical and inductive methods. At the same time political journalism is not only a space for the formation of media discourse and reflection of the budgetary process, but also one of the indicators of the state of the political system as a whole. The conclusions present methodological aids for the media discourse analysis of specific cases of the budgeting process and may be used for scientific and practical research.

  6. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  7. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  8. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  9. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  10. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  11. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  12. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  13. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  14. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  15. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  16. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  17. Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført en kvalitativ ...

  18. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Document Server

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  19. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  20. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  1. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  2. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  3. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  4. Budget and budgetary process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gherghina DRILA

    2010-01-01

    The unitary system of budgets was an important moment in the evolution of public finances, creating the framework for more effective management and control over allocated funds, public finances becoming those interactive tools used to match the requirements of economic and social environment, also being a catalyst for development. Romanian economy hasn’t matured yet, we are to achieve satisfactory participation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which, concerning the budget, should be translated...

  5. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  6. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  7. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  8. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  9. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; And Others

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the genesis of the FY 1978 budget; (2) a brief look at the overall budgets for FY 1978; (3) a description of the policies underlying the R&D budgets for FY 1978; (4) a discussion of the future…

  10. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  11. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  12. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  13. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  14. Implementing Performance-Based Budgeting in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciubotaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a research on budgeting based performance, and proposes a system of performance indicators that assess the linkage between the policies and annual budget law, the compliance of global budgeting performance to European principles in the area of public financial management, and the impact of public financing on economic growth. The analysis of performance indicators shows the linkages between the policies, and budgeting, as well as budgeting performance in compliance with European principles in this area.

  15. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  16. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  17. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  18. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  19. The Optimization of Budget Outcome to Create Trust in Public Expenditure Allocation on Local Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Koeswara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning and budgeting process is the most crucial process in the administration of local government. Results of previous studies in Solok, the increase in the total budget is not accompanied by spending management capabilities. Expenditure of public service has always fluctuated, but ideally should always increasing. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of the budget in the allocation of public spending in an effort to realize the presence of trust on the budget in Solok West Sumatra Province. This study uses qualitative research methods with the type of research that is selected using descriptive type. While the techniques of data collection are done through an interview, observation and documentation study. This study further highlights the emic perspective, is the voice of the informant, not the personal opinion of the researchers (etic. Then, the data analysis is done categorically and chronologically, viewed repeatedly, and will continue to be encoded. To test the verification of data, triangulation is done by comparing the results of interviews with documents obtained in the field and testing of concepts used by researchers with the information given by the informant. The results showed that the pathology was found that budget allocations reflect inefficiencies as a failure of the link between policy, planning, and budgeting as a fragmented system. But on the other hand, it must be admitted there has been “trust” among policymaking actors in allocating public expenditure budget in playing the role in the budget policy.

  20. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  1. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  2. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  3. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  4. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  5. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  6. Beyond budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast : hvilken sammenheng har styringsmodellen beyond budgeting og ledelse?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført...

  7. The Proposed Homeland Security Budget for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. CBO 6 THE PROPOSED HOMELAND SECURITY BUDGET FOR 2013 CBOFigure 2. Homeland Security Funding Requested by the...Marshals Service Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Federal Bureau of Investigation Miscellaneousa Food and Drug Administration...Administration National Security Division Food and Drug Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Firearms, and Explosives Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco

  8. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  9. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  10. Alternate Budgetary Sources during Budget Rescissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes revenue-generating and cost-saving strategies that student affairs divisions may consider during periods of budget rescissions and categorizes them according to the decision-making entities involved in each. The chapter also explains why particular examples are well suited to individual institutions.

  11. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  12. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan de Brugh, J.M.J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.J.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.A.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestima

  13. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget C

  14. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  15. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and t

  16. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Soest, van Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate an

  17. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  18. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, Matthias; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  19. Flowdown of the TMT astrometry error budget(s) to the IRIS design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöck, Matthias; Andersen, David; Rogers, John; Ellerbroek, Brent; Chisholm, Eric; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    TMT has defined the accuracy to be achieved for both absolute and differential astrometry in its top-level requirements documents. Because of the complexities of different types of astrometric observations, these requirements cannot be used to specify system design parameters directly. The TMT astrometry working group therefore developed detailed astrometry error budgets for a variety of science cases. These error budgets detail how astrometric errors propagate through the calibration, observing and data reduction processes. The budgets need to be condensed into sets of specific requirements that can be used by each subsystem team for design purposes. We show how this flowdown from error budgets to design requirements is achieved for the case of TMT's first-light Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument.

  20. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  1. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  2. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  3. The Scope and Structure of the General EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the scope and structure of the general budget of the European Union. EU general budget is constructed in accordance with the budgetary principles that are set out in Regulation No 966/2012. The scope of the budget is related to entities whose income and expenses are accounted for in the budget. It is connected with the principle of unity and budget accuracy. The structure and content of the budget, however, are associated with the data exhibited in the budget and the way they are presented. Of particular importance in the context of the structure and content of the budget are principles such as universality, balance, specification.

  4. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  5. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  6. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  7. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  8. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  9. How Changes in Immigration Policy Might Affect the Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    provides cash benefits to people with low income and few assets who are dis- 20. See Congressional Budget Office, The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance...Affect the Federal Budget ? 2 How Might Increased Enforcement of Immigration Law Affect the Federal Budget ? 5 Characteristics of Noncitizens 6...ACT ON THE FEDERAL BUDGET 24 Proposals Related to Enforcement and Workplace Verification 27 Increasing Border Security and Internal Enforcement 27 BOX

  10. THE CONCEPTUAL CONTENT OF STATE BUDGET PROCESS IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Žubule, Ērika; Puzule, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the role of the budget in economy we may declare that the budget process should favour the social economic development of the state. The aim of the research is to explore and evaluate theoretical aspects of the state budget process as a component of the state financial policy and to work out proposals for improvement of the state budget process, based on the theoretical and empirical findings. The main objectives of the research were to study the foreign economic scientific literat...

  11. A Historical Analysis of the Biennial Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    impaired. The malady of the program phase also infected the budget phase. Decision making late in the budget process becomes shrouded in urgency...chair.(b Iude o s t dote bi nniu e alatly, aiebu deIt reviewedlon annuimicfo ally mratf ilont Commite and f~iwsoeemmntatiee, caipminted bytj ’peuh r...Budget Committee, became infected . In 1984, he observed "I dn think there needs to be some (budget) reform. But there is no reform that can substitute fur

  12. TREASURY EXECUTION OF LOCAL SPENDING BUDGETS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dema, Dmitry; Feshchenko, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of using a treasury management system for servicing of local budgets are considered; the role of treasury bodies in routine management of local finances is defined. Current problems of treasury-based execution of local spending budgets are investigated and main deregulating factors affecting the procedure of cash execution of budgets are arranged in a system.Ways to improve budget funds management at the local level are proposed including: improvement of ...

  13. California's Budget Problems Leave Community Colleges Holding IOU's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    When California approved its budget last month, the community-college system managed to escape the sharp budget cuts that befell most other agencies. But the state's fiscal troubles have nonetheless created a cash crisis for two-year colleges. As part of its plan to close a $41-billion budget deficit, California will delay providing $540-million…

  14. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  15. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and...

  16. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  17. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program...

  18. Budget Update: June 3, 2010. Report 10-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the May Revision to the proposed budget for the current year (2009-10) and budget year (2010-11). State finances have continued a three-year decline, with anticipated General Fund spending of $83 billion, their lowest in six years. To address the budget shortfall, the Governor proposes major…

  19. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  20. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  1. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  2. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  3. Elaboration of Public Budget – A Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a different way to manage public money, and to engage people in government. Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. It enables taxpayers to work with government to make the budget decisions that affect their lives.

  4. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  5. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  6. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided...

  7. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  8. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  9. Deficit of the budget: essence, reasons and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashko, Andriy Ivanovych

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of deficit of the state budget in the conditionsof forming the socially directed market economy. The economic essence and the basic factors ofexistence of negative balance of the budget have been interpreted and identified. The conditions ofthe use of deficit of the state budget as the instrument of influence on economic processes have beendetermined.The purpose lies in principles of forming the deficit of budget and developingrecommendations in relation to the increasing management efficiency.The basic task of the scientific article is to investigate the economic essence and identify theprincipal reasons for deficit of budget.

  10. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  11. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  12. Meteorological Error Budget Using Open Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...produce artillery MET error budget tables that account for expected errors when using MET model-based systems. Representatives of the US and other... account for expected errors when NWP model-based systems such as the Profiler Virtual Module (PVM) are used rather than radiosondes. The current

  13. The Stress’ Management and Time Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as central objective the introduction of a succession of concrete findings, more precisely the spotlight of the relation between the time budget, stress and behavior (A or B in a military organization. The study's premise lays on the assertion that military environment, a petitioner environment takes to the growth of stress because of the negative disparity between the weight of time destined discharging job tasks and the weight of time earmarked relaxation and other needs.

  14. Studies on carbon budget score remarkable progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 23 November, 2006, a key CAS research project on carbon budget passed the review by a panel of experts under the joint auspices of the CAS Bureau of Comprehensive Planning and the CAS Bureau of Science and Technology for Resourc es and Environment. The panel was made up of 11 prestigious experts, led by CHEN Yiyu, a CAS Member and President of National Natural Sciences Foundation of China.

  15. Recherche sans budget, Europe sans avenir

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Latest developments Negotiations in Brussels in early February 2013 to define the long-term budget 2014 − 2020 of the European Union (EU) could result in a significant loss for the European research program 2020. It could be that the research program of the EU would have to face a decrease from the already low 80 billion euros proposed by the Commission in late 2012 to 69 billion euros (a decrease of almost 12 % or even more considering that the European Parliament had initially proposed a budget of 100 billion euros for Horizon 2020). Nevertheless let us hope that this will not be the "last word" on the funding of Horizon 2020 and that the European Parliament, which co-decides on the budget together with the European Council, which is composed of heads of government and tends to promote national interests, will reduce somewhat the significant loss of funds for research. Indeed, Parliament is generally more favorable to European research policy. In particular, the President of t...

  16. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  17. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive...

  18. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated.

  19. The global methane budget 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Poulter, Ben; Peregon, Anna; Ciais, Philippe; Canadell, Josep G.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Bastviken, David; Houweling, Sander; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Castaldi, Simona; Jackson, Robert B.; Alexe, Mihai; Arora, Vivek K.; Beerling, David J.; Bergamaschi, Peter; Blake, Donald R.; Brailsford, Gordon; Brovkin, Victor; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crevoisier, Cyril; Crill, Patrick; Covey, Kristofer; Curry, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Gedney, Nicola; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Ishizawa, Misa; Ito, Akihiko; Joos, Fortunat; Kim, Heon-Sook; Kleinen, Thomas; Krummel, Paul; Lamarque, Jean-François; Langenfelds, Ray; Locatelli, Robin; Machida, Toshinobu; Maksyutov, Shamil; McDonald, Kyle C.; Marshall, Julia; Melton, Joe R.; Morino, Isamu; Naik, Vaishali; O'Doherty, Simon; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Shushi; Peters, Glen P.; Pison, Isabelle; Prigent, Catherine; Prinn, Ronald; Ramonet, Michel; Riley, William J.; Saito, Makoto; Santini, Monia; Schroeder, Ronny; Simpson, Isobel J.; Spahni, Renato; Steele, Paul; Takizawa, Atsushi; Thornton, Brett F.; Tian, Hanqin; Tohjima, Yasunori; Viovy, Nicolas; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; van Weele, Michiel; van der Werf, Guido R.; Weiss, Ray; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Wilton, David J.; Wiltshire, Andy; Worthy, Doug; Wunch, Debra; Xu, Xiyan; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Qiuan

    2016-12-01

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (˜ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003-2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr-1, range 540-568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50-65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios

  20. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions. The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that deposition increases at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning account for 27% at the most, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization. Deposition fluxes are dominated by gaseous dry deposition processes (58% of the total, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems ranges from 8.6 to 10.9 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the other 70% attributed to NHx. The average emission flux ranges from 7.8 to 9.7 kgN ha−1 yr−1, dominated by NH3 volatilization (67% and biogenic emission from soils (24%. The annual budget is then

  1. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  2. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  3. La situation est tout à fait normale

    CERN Multimedia

    Amsler, Claude

    2009-01-01

    At CERN, the source dried up shortly after its launch, but nobody is unemployed. Researchers, like Claude Amsler are only a bit nervous, at the idea of lossing a prestigious race on the last meters. (1 page)

  4. 1996 outstanding facts; Faits marquants 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This progress report of the Direction of Studies and Research (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) reports on some outstanding studies carried out during the year 1996 and concerning: new applications of electric power (thermal comfort, heating floors, building diagnosis, energy management, customers communicating interfaces, services, air conditioning, off-peak tariffs, power demand mastery in the industry, infrared dryers for paper industry); production means (automatic systems for nuclear power plants operation, management of reactors shutdown schedules for refuelling operations, optimization of fuel loading patterns for PWRs, neutronic and thermohydraulic computer codes for steam pipes rupture accidents, thermo-hydraulic modeling of the confinement building during post-accidental situation, 3D numerical simulation of overpressures inside reactor valves and of vortex and two-phase flow inside auxiliary pipes, control of vibrating fatigue of pipe nozzles, qualification of the adjustable speed drives of the Gravelines` cooling pumps, 3D analysis of new steam turbine designs, identification of bi-metal welding surface defects, a simple method for the evaluation of in-service fatigue of components, the probabilistic dimensioning of safety coefficients, the modeling of thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling of geo-materials for radioactive wastes storage, the supply of isolated sites using renewable energies); environment protection (batteries for electric-powered vehicles, modeling of atmospheric reactive flows, chlorination of the Dampierre`s cooling circuits for pathogen amoebas elimination, in-situ treatment of PCBs isolated transformers); and development and exploitation of materials for power networks. (J.S.).

  5. De quoi est fait l'Univers ?

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Sommes-nous à l'aube d'une nouvelle ère en physique ? Physiciens des particules, astrophysiciens et cosmologistes attendent beaucoup des expériences qui seront bientôt menées à des énergies jamais atteintes.

  6. Main facts 1995; Faits marquants 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations.

  7. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits and growing debts among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, the clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the question: Why do only very few...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  8. Dealing with food budget constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    cooking skills, and a supporting social network compared to interviewees who had more negative coping experiences. We propose that Zygmunt Bauman's metaphors of the tourist and the vagabond can inspire us towards an improved understanding of different experiences of and reactions to restrained food...... restriction increased. The qualitative study revealed important factors that link strategies toeither positive or negative experiences. Interviewees who made a positive experiences out of coping with food budget restraint reported extra resources in the shape of e.g. more secure life circumstances, higher...

  9. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    Measurements in a pharmaceutical industry are usually carried out to ascertain the quality of a product or the control of a process; in either case the measurement result serves to demonstrate that the value of the measurand is within specified limits. No method is without bias, and no result...... of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...

  10. The Stress’ Management and Time Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as central objective the introduction of a succession of concrete findings, more precisely the spotlight of the relation between the time budget, stress and behavior (A or B in a military organization. The study’s premise lays on the assertion that military environment, a petitioner environment takes to the growth of stress because of the negative disparity between the weight of time destined discharging job tasks and the weight of time earmarked relaxation and other needs.

  11. Soft budget constraint and the parastatal sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of soft budget constraints (SBC) to development studies by examining the parastatal sector. The political ingredient of the SBC is discussed by focusing on two examples: 1) religious and military foundations in Iran; and 2) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. It presents two main findings. First, the SBC of the parastatal sector can be understood as the political economy of a predator state or state’s rent-seeking activity. Second, the state sector is more prone to t...

  12. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  13. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  14. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  15. A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens

    We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose......-valued and smooth in their arguments. We also give sufficient conditions for integrability of perturbed demand. Our analysis provides a foundation for applications of consumer theory to problems with nonlinear budget constraints....

  16. Is it time to make kids a higher budget priority?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuerle, C. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The children’s share of the federal budget is scheduled to decline from 10% of the federal budget in 2013 to 8% in 2024, despite 1.4 trillion in new annual government spending. Spending on children’s education, tax provisions, income security, and nutrition will decline, and the only federal expenditures on children’s health will increase. C. Eugene Steuerle argues that the next decade presents the opportunity to invest in children by carefully reassessing our current budget priorities.

  17. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  18. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. ...

  19. TRANSFORMATIONS OF BUDGET DEFICIT BETWEEN 1980 AND 2012 IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A budget deficit finds itself among the issues most often discussed in the field of the public finance. A budget deficit is influenced by factors of a varied character. It can result from excessive budgetary expenditure on the militarization of economy, on developed state administration, transfers, public investments, or from the domestic and foreign debts service. In Poland a budget deficit appeared for the first time in 1980 and since then has been an inseparable element of the Polish publi...

  20. Geophysical science in the 1995 U.S. Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 7, President Clinton released his fiscal year 1995 budget of $1.52 trillion. At $16.9 billion, the overall budget for science and space will be 2% lower in 1995. Since science is “discretionary” funding—spending for programs other than entitlements and payments on the national debt—it is among the first to be cut. But considering other budget areas, science is faring relatively well. Agriculture's budget is being cut by a hefty 24%, energy is being cut by 8%, and defense is down 3%.

  1. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume II. Budget highlights, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    DOE budget requests for FY 1982 is summarized and then detailed. Budget highlights of the energy programs include: conservation; research, development, and applications (fossil energy, solar, electric energy and energy storage systems, magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, environment); regulation and energy information; direct energy production, and strategic petroleum reserves. Additional programs and their budget requests are given for: general science, defense activities, and departmental administration. The FY 1981 supplemental and recission request is indicated. Special budget analyses are given for Federal fossil, Federal solar, nuclear waste, conservation, and alternative fuels activities programs. The organizational table is presented. Extensive statistics are presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  2. Être tenu par son erreur : les conséquences du fait de se tromper Remaining Caught up in Error: The Consequences of Being Wrong. An Example Based on Schütz’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Marquis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peut-on sortir indemne de ses erreurs ? En empruntant une voie dessinée par les recherches récentes relatives au fait de se tromper qui se démarquent d’une appréhension purement cognitiviste, cet article vise à explorer ce que fait l’erreur à la personne qui la commet. L’hypothèse qui est développée à la suite de Wittgenstein est que chaque acte, chaque contenu cognitif qui se verra qualifié d’erreur “tient” la personne, et risque de porter à conséquence sur la manière dont l’auteur de l’erreur pourra s’engager dans le monde. Il est ainsi possible de proposer une classification des erreurs en fonction du réarrangement qu’elles impliquent dans le système de ce que la personne sait, croit, vit. Afin d’approfondir cette hypothèse, l’article s’appuie sur le fameux texte d’A. Schutz intitulé Don Quichotte et le problème de la réalité. Le phénoménologue y analyse la manière dont le héros fantasque de Cervantès, figure extrême de ce que nous sommes au quotidien, s’arrange un temps pour continuer à vivre dans son sous-univers de chevalerie grâce à un environnement bienveillant, mais aussi comment le chevalier auto-proclamé sera inéluctablement amené à qualifier d’erreur l’ensemble de ce qu’il sait, croit ou vit lorsque le monde qui l’entoure se fera confrontant.Can we emerge unscathed from our errors ? In taking a path sketched out in recent research on the fact of being wrong that distances itself from a purely cognitivist understanding, this article seeks to explore what an error does to the person who makes it. The hypothesis that is developed, following Wittgenstein, is that every act, every cognitive content that ends up being described as error has “a hold” on the person and risks having consequences on the way the error’s author will be able to involve him/herself in the world. Hence it is possible to propose a classification of errors according to the rearrangement

  3. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Military Construction, Navy Reserve 21,708 26,299 26,299 26,299 Military Construction, Air Force Reserve 25,986 33,620 33,620 33,620 Chemical Demil ...Air Force Reserve 7,634 Chemical Demil Construction, Defense 75,312 13,071,701 Appropriation 13,071,701 Budget Authority 13,071,701 TOA...7.00 3.00 Defense Prod Act 59.00 25.00 16.00 Chemical Demil 53.00 30.00 15.00 2.00 RDT&E Army 34.28 48.72 11.33 3.17 1.70 0.80 Navy 36.87 50.51 9.82

  4. Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric nitrogen budget depends on emission and deposition fluxes both as reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. In this study, a first attempt at estimating the Sahel nitrogen budget for the year 2006 is made, through measurements and simulations at three stations from the IDAF network situated in dry savanna ecosystems. Dry deposition fluxes are estimated from measurements of NO2, HNO3 and NH3 gaseous concentrations and from simulated dry deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes are calculated from NH4+ and NO3 concentrations in samples of rain. Emission fluxes are estimated including biogenic emission of NO from soils (an Artificial Neural Network module has been inserted into the ISBA-SURFEX surface model, emission of NOx and NH3 from domestic fires and biomass burning, and volatilization of NH3 from animal excreta. Uncertainties are calculated for each contribution of the budget.

    This study uses original and unique data from remote and hardly-ever-explored regions.The monthly evolution of oxidized N compounds shows that emission and deposition increase at the beginning of the rainy season because of large emissions of biogenic NO (pulse events. Emission of oxidized compounds is dominated by biogenic emission from soils (domestic fires and biomass burning of oxidized compounds account for 0 to 13% at the most at the annual scale, depending on the station, whereas emission of NH3 is dominated by the process of volatilization from soils. At the annual scale, the average gaseous dry deposition accounts for 47% of the total estimated deposition flux, for both oxidized and reduced compounds. The average estimated wet plus dry deposition flux in dry savanna ecosystems is 7.5±1.8 kgN ha−1 yr−1, with approximately 30% attributed to oxidized compounds, and the rest attributed

  5. Simulated wood budgets in two mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Bird, Stephen; Reid, David; Hogan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Large wood (LW) recruitment, transport, and storage were evaluated over a century in Gregory and Riley creeks (Haida Gwaii, British Columbia) by modeling a reach-scale LW budget using two frameworks for output: LW loss through decay and downstream transport, and loss through depletion. At reach and at watershed scales, mass movement and bank erosion dominated inputs, and fluvial transport was an important flux term in several reaches. Large wood recruitment by mortality was relatively minor in comparison. Large proportions of the in-channel LW were stored in jams with a mean age of 40-50 years. Overall, both modeling approaches yielded reasonable stored LW predictions in the study creeks, with the omission/inclusion of transport responsible for the largest differences between models. Modeled storage generally was within 30% of that measured in the field, and our results illustrate the large temporal variation in storage resulting from episodic inputs of LW from hillslopes.

  6. Usability Evaluation of www.budget.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    This report presents the results of a usability evaluation of the budget.com website. The evaluation was carried out by a team of 4 HCI experts, and it involved 10 potential users. The evaluation is based on measurement of (1) task completion time, (2) task completion, (3) user satisfaction and (4......) perceived workload. We have also analyzed the user interaction with the website for (5) usability problems. Through the evaluation, we have found the following weaknesses of the website:   Reservation takes considerably more time than promised. The website indicates that a reservation can be made in 60...... browse around in the menu and try other measures. The information on the website is difficult to access and use. There is a large amount of information with very little structure on it; it is accessed through a long list of links. The structure is not supporting the user, and the information...

  7. Proposed budget cuts threaten to short-circuit Grid network

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    2001-01-01

    Changes to the budget for the European sixth Framework programme may jeapardize the Grid project. The EU Parliament have asked to cut the budget for infrastructure to 500 million euros from 900 and of this 150 million will probably be allocated to Ge the pan-European research network (1 page).

  8. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  9. Proposed State Budget Lacks Needed Focus on Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2014-15 state budget projects a surplus, due to painful budget cutting in recent years combined with the economic recovery and voter approval of new revenues. While the proposal invests some of the additional revenue in children, it falls well short of what is needed. California's kids have borne a…

  10. State Budgets and Federal Stimulus: A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    U.S. has slipped into a recession greater and deeper than anyone expected. At least 47 states are grappling with budget shortfalls, and 46 states already anticipate problems into 2010 and 2011. State legislatures have the daunting task of balancing budgets as revenues drop and the need for services increases. Whether one participates in a child…

  11. Budget Update--June 5, 2009. Report 09-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    With the failure of most of the May 19 ballot measures, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has released additional proposed revisions to the current year (2008-09) and budget year (2009-10) state spending plans. The Governor and Legislature adopted an 18-month spending plan in late February, but that budget now has a $24 billion deficit. The…

  12. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds to be used. The budget shall show, as applicable, amounts for central offices, outside plant and..., vehicles and work equipment, office equipment, operating funds, refinancing with loan funds, debt... Telephone Bank (RTB) or concurrently with RTB, the budget shall include the amount required for the...

  13. How Career Centers Are Responding to the Budget Crunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Paul B.; Step, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed career services offices (n=42) to determine effects of current budget crisis and strategies used to make up for deficits in operating budget and to produce a profile of services and population served. Found offices were raising fees, refining focus and efficiency, soliciting outside support, using paraprofessionals more, and doing more…

  14. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  15. Principles of Budget Allocation at the Institutional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Several types of institutional budgeting systems are examined, focusing on one type, revenue attribution budgeting. Implementation of such a system at the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) is described. Approaches to decentralization of operational units in the institution, as a means of reducing costs, and its advantages and disadvantages, are…

  16. SHADOW PROCESSES INSTATE BUDGET: CURRENT CONDITION AND DETERMINING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most significant factors that move state budget into the shadow are determined. Current condition of shadow processes in state budget is highlighted. The paper also provides an analysis of relationship between political processes and shadow economy in public sector of Ukraine.

  17. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  18. Personal healthcare budgets: What can England learn from the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, E. van; Groenewegen, P.P.; McKee, M.

    2012-01-01

    The English Department of Health wants to give patients more control over the care they receive. One way they propose to do this is through personal healthcare budgets for people eligible for NHS continuing care. The health secretary, Andrew Lansley, says the “budgets will give them more control ove

  19. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    at the Beginning of the Year Changes to Debt Held by the Public Deficit or surplus (-) CHAPTER ONE THE BUDGET OUTLOOK 21Figure 1-5. Debt Subject to...Standardized- Budget Deficit (-) or Surplusa Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Standardized

  20. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 60.4140 Section 60.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4140 State trading budgets. The State...

  1. Zero-Base Budgeting for Libraries: A Second Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, William J.

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews the key features of zero base budgeting as a budgeting/planning system, discusses the applications of ZBB reported in the literature, and summarizes its special benefits and problems for libraries. Fifteen references are included. (Author/RAA)

  2. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  3. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. Aan de Brugh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension. We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95% and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%. We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match, while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  4. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic.

  5. Draving Up a Budget Using The Activity Based Budgeting Methodology Through The Simulation Of Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Janíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a connection between financial and quality management systems. These departments only rarely cooperate on projects, which could be a loss, because this connection has many improvement opportunities. The author shows through the simple example of catering deliveries a possible procedure of how to reach a more realistic evaluation of production costs for each product and how to connect budgeting and process analysis.

  6. Capital Budgeting Management Practices in Japan : A Focus on the Use of Capital Budgeting Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shinoda, Tomonari

    2010-01-01

    Capital budgeting is one of the most important factors in the process of corporate decision-making. Data from numerous previous studies show that managers prefer the simple payback period method (non-discounted payback model) over the net present value method (discounted cash flow model), which academics consider as superior. In particular, almost all investigative research in Japan has shown that the managers of Japanese firms tend to prefer a non-discounted cash flow model, such as a simple...

  7. Army Corps of Engineers: Budget Formulation Process Emphasizes Agencywide Priorities, but Transparency of Budget Presentation Could be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    used for specific projects, and projects are classified mainly into these accounts. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program ( FUSRAP ) is...weapons and relatively small size (the fiscal year 2010 budget request for the Corps included 24 FUSRAP projects). To understand the Corps’ budget

  8. Execution of local budgets in 2014: tension is not decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Putin’s “May decrees” have received the status of a national goal. On the background of decreasing economic performance exacerbated by external shocks, the implementation of these decrees has become a heavy burden for regional budgets without an adequate financial support from the federal budget. As a result, almost every Russian region has suffered losses by the end of 2014. The fallacy of the ongoing course of budget policy has long been criticized by many leading scholars and experts; moreover, they proposed positive recommendations on the development of alternative policies. Unfortunately, the results of 2014 prove that the RF Government has not abandoned the policy of budget consolidation. On the contrary, gratuitous financial assistance to the regions is actively transformed into debt financing in the form of budget loans. However, the regional authorities can rely on this quasi-support, which is a temporary factor, only provided that the budget is deficit-free and at the expense of abandonment of spending on economic development and on the improvement of welfare of the population. The results of the analysis of the facts indicate that the budget-related problems of the regions, arising largely from the inefficient federal budget policy, have reached the critical level. One fourth of the subjects that had a predominant share of market debt turned out to be in a pre-default state. The breakdown of public finances has affected the most prosperous regions, which is contrary to the paradigm of sustainable regional development. The regions entered the crisis of 2014 with huge debt and budget deficit; the situation was not so grave during the financial and economic crisis of 2009. In terms of the upcoming 10% cut of federal budget expenditures [5], the subjects of the Russian Federation can hardly expect an increase in financial support. They will obviously have to adapt their budgets to the changing economic situation. But in

  9. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC, including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002–2011, EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1PgC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. GATM was low in 2011

  10. The global carbon budget 1959–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9–3.5% in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr−1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1

  11. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  12. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  13. The institutional logics of local government budget in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palupi Ade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study asks how and why a local government settings budget. It aims to deliver an understanding on how a government entity perceives that budget is important element to manage public expenditures. It uses the S local government in Indonesia as a case study. This study applies Institutional Logics Theory as a theoretical framework in order to analyze data. Data is collected by interviewing seven key persons who directly involves in budgeting process. This research shows that the budgeting process includes determining the purposes of annual budget, setting up planned programs and actvities, determining the amount of revenue that will be collected, allocating resources to expenditures and setting up standar pricing. Some important points in the budgeting process are identified. Those are considering political aspect to determine local tax rate, focusing on competition with other local governments, fulfilling the political promise of local government leader to the constituents, involving community to determine planned program and activities, and allocating resources based on community basic needs. This study concludes that those points develop the institutional logics of politic and managerial in budget setting process.

  14. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh G. Tali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  15. Drivers and predictions of coral reef carbonate budget trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of coral-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Coral bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for coral reef growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of coral mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of reef carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of reef growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles reefs from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these reefs lost more than 90% of coral cover. All 21 reefs had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven reefs were comparable with 1994, but on all reefs where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. Reefs with higher massive coral cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of corals from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight reefs with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that reef accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of coral reefs that support resilient carbonate budgets. PMID:28123092

  16. The Impact of Global Budgets on Pharmaceutical Spending and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Afendulis PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts implemented a global budget-based payment system, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC, in which provider groups assumed accountability for spending. We investigate the impact of global budgets on the utilization of prescription drugs and related expenditures. Our analyses indicate no statistically significant evidence that the AQC reduced the use of drugs. Although the impact may change over time, early evidence suggests that it is premature to conclude that global budget systems may reduce access to medications.

  17. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  18. The Strategic stakes of budget policies after 2008-financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma ZAOUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the current budget policies during sub primes crisis answering two original issues: bring together the principal theoretical arguments and the analysis of events the most remarkable of crisis. Then, we tackle matters of budget policy from many points of view. Here, the challenge is to highlight the current stakes and future challenges of budget policies on one hand, to smooth economic cycle in the short term; and to back up growth and employment in the long term on the other.

  19. Role of Customs Duties in the Formation of Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela - Anca Postole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accession to the European Union, starting price and trade exchange liberalization, alongside a strong exchange rate reform, required a depth rethinking of the customs duty system and also influenced the role of this category of tax in establishing budgetary resources.This study reviews the impact of customs duties on changing levels of revenues collected at the state budget. The analysis used is the econometric modeling based on a single- factor regression model.But in Romania, customs duties do not have any major impact on budget revenues and the effects of their collection on the state budget revenues are felt within two months of collection.

  20. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  1. Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Forecasting model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James Robert

    2009-10-01

    This report documents The Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Water Forecasting model. The model has been constructed using Powersim Studio (PS), a software package designed to investigate complex systems where flows and accumulations are central to the system. Here PS has been used as a platform for modeling various aspects of Nambe Pueblo's current and future water use. The model contains three major components, the Water Forecast Component, Irrigation Scheduling Component, and the Reservoir Model Component. In each of the components, the user can change variables to investigate the impacts of water management scenarios on future water use. The Water Forecast Component includes forecasting for industrial, commercial, and livestock use. Domestic demand is also forecasted based on user specified current population, population growth rates, and per capita water consumption. Irrigation efficiencies are quantified in the Irrigated Agriculture component using critical information concerning diversion rates, acreages, ditch dimensions and seepage rates. Results from this section are used in the Water Demand Forecast, Irrigation Scheduling, and the Reservoir Model components. The Reservoir Component contains two sections, (1) Storage and Inflow Accumulations by Categories and (2) Release, Diversion and Shortages. Results from both sections are derived from the calibrated Nambe Reservoir model where historic, pre-dam or above dam USGS stream flow data is fed into the model and releases are calculated.

  2. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  3. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  4. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  5. The Cash Flow Budget. Part I--Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehm, Rudy

    1978-01-01

    With the cash flow budget a college store manager can prepare himself and the business office to meet current obligations during periods of cash shortfall. Its development is described and guidelines are offered. (LBH)

  6. Energy and helicity budgets of solar quiet regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tziotziou, K; Georgoulis, M K; Kontogiannis, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of solar quiet regions. Using a novel non-linear force-free method requiring single solar vector magnetograms we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 55 quiet-Sun vector magnetograms. As in a previous work on active regions, we construct here for the first time the (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of quiet-Sun regions. We find that quiet-Sun regions have no dominant sense of helicity and show monotonic correlations a) between free magnetic energy/relative helicity and magnetic network area and, consequently, b) between free magnetic energy and helicity. Free magnetic energy budgets of quiet-Sun regions represent a rather continuous extension of respective active-region budgets towards lower values, but the corresponding helicity transition is discontinuous due to the incoherence of the helicity sense contrary to active regions. We further estimate the instantaneous free...

  7. FY 2012 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The yearly Supplement to the President`s Budget for the NITRD Program is designed to present a succinct technical summary of the research activities planned and...

  8. Public Budget Database - Outlays and offsetting receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical outlays and offsetting receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to...

  9. EVOLUTION OF APPROACHES TO FINANCE THE BUDGET DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cherkashyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the causes and existence of the state budget deficit are defined. The main source of budget deficit financing in historical retrospective are considered. The most popular government securities which issued in foreign countries are compared in the article. The dynamics of the budget deficit in Ukraine and the sources of its coverage are analyzed in the article. There are three main types of government securities in Ukraine, such as: national currency-denominated government bonds, foreign currency-denominated government bonds and target government bonds. The main market maker of the government bonds' market is National Bank of Ukraine. The volume of resources, which are mobilized from the issue of the national currency-denominated government bonds are major then the volume of resources, which are mobilized from the issue of the foreign currency-denominated government bonds The necessity of further improvement of government securities as an important source of budget deficit financing is emphasized.

  10. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  11. 7 CFR 3015.114 - Budgets-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions... for each share. (b) Subdivision by programmatic segments. Some grants, subgrants, and cooperative agreements contain two or more programmatic segments (such as discrete programs, projects, functions,...

  12. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    The University of Montreal's choice of the rational model of decision-making in managing budget cutbacks is explored and compared with other approaches, including the bureaucratic, garbage can, political, and collegial models. (MSE)

  13. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  14. R&D budget request reverses long decline

    CERN Multimedia

    Rivera, A

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to revitalise Spain's science community the government has announced plans to ask for a major increase in research funding in the 1999 budget. The increase should be around 8 per cent excluding military programs (4 paragraphs).

  15. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  16. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Data and Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  17. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

  18. FY 2004 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 summarizes the NITRD agencies coordinated research activities and FY 2004 plans, as required by...

  19. An Analysis of the President’s 2014 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE CBO An Analysis of the President’s 2014 Budget MAY 2013 Report Documentation Page Form ...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 CBONotes Unless...Administration’s, and incorporates estimates by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation ( JCT ) for the President’s tax proposals.1 In conjunction

  20. Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    Senate versions of the bill would have done). The ships for which most of the total cost is authorized in FY2012 include two Virginia -class submarines, a...New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions, by Amy F. Woolf . Defense: FY2012 Budget Request, Authorization and Appropriations...Missile Defense and Offensive Arms Reductions: A Review of the Historical Record, by Steven A. Hildreth and Amy F. Woolf . Defense: FY2012 Budget

  1. Anytime Prediction: Efficient Ensemble Methods for Any Computational Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Streeter and Golovin , 2008, Das and Kempe, 2011] typically used in the submodular optimization and sparse approximation domains. We will use a cost...Krause and Golovin [2012]. Most relevant to our work are the approaches for the budgeted or knapsack constrained sub- modular maximization problem. In... Golovin [2008], which gives an approximation guarantee for certain budgets dependent on the problem. Finally, our work will build off of previous work

  2. Ways to improve conceptual aspects of balancing the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodon Svetlana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analyze the various concepts, techniques and procedures applied in different periods by different countries in order to balance state budget. There are analyzed positive parts and deficiencies at legislative level of different concepts concerning budgetary balance and as a result are developed a series of measures that aim to balance the budget of Moldova

  3. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  5. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Budgets. Each monthly Energy Cost Budget is the product of the monthly Building Energy Consumption of each... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.502... Cost Budget BECONmi = The monthly Budget Energy Consumption of the ith type of energy ECOSmi =...

  6. Toward a Framework for a Budget Law for Economies in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Allan

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses basic principles underlying budget law and reviews key features of budget legislation in several OECD countries as a basis for development of budget legislation in economies in transition to a market environment (EITs). It recommends a broad structure and a number of specific provisions that could be included in budget law for EITs.

  7. Methods for Determining the Advertising Budget and its Distribution in Different Media

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Comanescu Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining and establishing the necessary advertising budget is approached based on the situations that precede it. There will be virtually no easy task for marketers, with the risk overvaluation or undervaluation of the budget. To avoid broader range of situations, the company uses specific tools and methods for determining the advertising budget. An advertising budget is established for each product.

  8. To Improve the Budget or Beyond the Budget%改进预算还是超越预算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the problems of traditional budget, this paper introduces two kinds of popular modes to make up the drawbacks of traditional budget management, namely"improve the budget"and"beyond the budget". Aiming at the existing problems in the budget management in China, combined with the research of foreign scholars and analysis of the market environment Chinese enterprises are facing, this paper attempts to explore a budget reform direction that suitable for China's national conditions.%本文通过对传统预算存在的问题进行分析,引出了当前较为流行的两种弥补传统预算管理缺陷的模式,即“改进预算”和“超越预算”。针对我国预算管理中存在的问题,结合国外学者的研究及我国企业目前面临的市场环境分析,试图探索出适合我国国情的预算改革方向。

  9. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  10. EU BUDGET – THE POLICY OF SHARING THE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella GERTH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the EU budget aiming at casting light on the relationship between political and economic matters and on the importance that they function as a mechanism. Somehow the budget could be compared to a barometer showing the political pressure and the level of integration inside the European Union. Discussing the structure of the budget, where the EU money come from and how are the funds distributed afterwards, and also referring to important moments in the historical development of the European Union’s budget, the paper emphasizes the same idea of financial matters strong related to the political choices. It argues also, by describing the complexity of the budgetary procedure and the importance of financial control, that the budget is an important interplay between actors, is an important balance of power trying to reach equilibrium and efficiency. The paper also reviews the main issues of the present budgetary debates, the positions taken by European actors, counting their losses and gains, and to which extent their choices are more a national concern or following the European interest, aiming at presenting the actual state of the European Union taking into account both the economic and the political integration. The budget being one of the key elements forming the structure of the big edifice, the European Union, it is of great importance when discussing budgetary matters to have in mind the present context as a whole, determined by issues like the failure of the summit for setting a new budgetary framework, or the rejection of the European Constitution by the citizens of two of its founding members. Though, it is important when discussing the budget, economical matters to put them in a political context and also to see them in the present context.

  11. salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2013-04-01

    Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

  12. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  13. Optimal Referral Reward Considering Customer’s Budget Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of budget constraints. We study these questions in the context of a referral reward program (RRP. RRP is a prominent marketing strategy that utilizes recommendations passed from existing customers to their friends and effectively stimulates word of mouth (WoM. We build a stylized game-theoretical model with a nested Stackelberg game involving three players: a firm, an existing customer, and a potential customer who is a friend of the existing customer. The budget is the friend’s private information. We show that RRPs might be optimal when the friend has either a low or a high valuation, but they work differently in each situation because of the budget. Furthermore, there are two budget thresholds, a fixed one and a variable one, which limit a firm’s ability to use rewards.

  14. Assimilation impacts on Arctic Ocean circulation, heat and freshwater budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao; Mugford, Ruth I.; Haines, Keith; Smith, Gregory C.

    We investigate the Arctic basin circulation, freshwater content (FWC) and heat budget by using a high-resolution global coupled ice-ocean model implemented with a state-of-the-art data assimilation scheme. We demonstrate that, despite a very sparse dataset, by assimilating hydrographic data in and near the Arctic basin, the initial warm bias and drift in the control run is successfully corrected, reproducing a much more realistic vertical and horizontal structure to the cyclonic boundary current carrying the Atlantic Water (AW) along the Siberian shelves in the reanalysis run. The Beaufort Gyre structure and FWC and variability are also more accurately reproduced. Small but important changes in the strait exchange flows are found which lead to more balanced budgets in the reanalysis run. Assimilation fluxes dominate the basin budgets over the first 10 years (P1: 1987-1996) of the reanalysis for both heat and FWC, after which the drifting Arctic upper water properties have been restored to realistic values. For the later period (P2: 1997-2004), the Arctic heat budget is almost balanced without assimilation contributions, while the freshwater budget shows reduced assimilation contributions compensating largely for surface salinity damping, which was extremely strong in this run. A downward trend in freshwater export at the Canadian Straits and Fram Strait is found in period P2, associated with Beaufort Gyre recharge. A detailed comparison with observations and previous model studies at the individual Arctic straits is also included.

  15. Behavior-Based Budget Management Using Predictive Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the mechanisms to perform forecasting have primarily used two common factors as a basis for future predictions: time and money. While time and money are very important aspects of determining future budgetary spend patterns, organizations represent a complex system of unique individuals with a myriad of associated behaviors and all of these behaviors have bearing on how budget is utilized. When looking to forecasted budgets, it becomes a guessing game about how budget managers will behave under a given set of conditions. This becomes relatively messy when human nature is introduced, as different managers will react very differently under similar circumstances. While one manager becomes ultra conservative during periods of financial austerity, another might be un-phased and continue to spend as they have in the past. Both might revert into a state of budgetary protectionism masking what is truly happening at a budget holder level, in order to keep as much budget and influence as possible while at the same time sacrificing the greater good of the organization. To more accurately predict future outcomes, the models should consider both time and money and other behavioral patterns that have been observed across the organization. The field of predictive analytics is poised to provide the tools and methodologies needed for organizations to do just this: capture and leverage behaviors of the past to predict the future.

  16. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  17. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  18. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  19. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  20. Femicidio: la forma più estrema di violenza contro le donne / Fémicide : la forme la plus extrême de violence faite aux femmes / Femicide: the most extreme form of violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadole Cristina

    2012-04-01

    the victims and, especially, the clear links between this crime and violence against women. Le fémicide, comme forme extrême de violence faite aux femmes, est un phénomène encore méconnu car il existe encore peu d’études sur le sujet en Italie. À l’issue d’une revue de la littérature criminologique et féministe internationale, cet article vise à définir le concept de « fémicide » et ses différentes déclinaisons dans la recherche scientifique et dans la lutte politique féministe. Le texte met en évidence la particularité de ce délit, qui doit être considéré différemment par rapport aux autres formes d’homicides. En effet, il s’agit d’un crime qui découle de la relation de pouvoir entre les hommes et les femmes ; le fémicide est l'acte final du cycle de la violence masculine contre les femmes, dont il représente le point culminant. Contrairement au sens commun et à la représentation médiatique et comme cet essai tente de le démontrer, le fémicide n’existe pas dans les cultures autres qu’occidentales, pas plus qu’il n’est particulièrement rattaché aux situations de difficulté sociale ou de marginalité culturelle, mais il s'inscrit, en tant que violence à l’égard des femmes, dans des rapports « normaux » et dans le conflit homme/femme. Cela signifie que des situations considérées comme « sûres » peuvent pourtant comporter des facteurs de risque d’être victimes de fémicide pour les femmes concernées. En effet, les fémicides peuvent intervenir chez soi ou au domicile de la famille, dans une relation conjugale comme pour des couples non mariés.Ensuite, l’auteur analyse aussi bien les premières études sociologiques et criminologiques italiennes que des données sur le phénomène. La seconde partie de ce texte est dédiée à la lecture des informations tirées d’une étude sur les articles de presse menée par le Groupe d'études sur le fémicide de l'association bolognaise contre la violence

  1. Perspectives On The Global Budget of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. K.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Shearer, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Early budgets of methane focused on the emissions from individual sources but the estimates had large uncertainties. These uncertainties have been reduced considerably in recent years, but we need an understanding of the trends in the sources as well as their spatial distributions if we are to use methane to control global warming. A nearly 30 year long time series of global atmospheric methane concentrations has accumulated that can provide some of the answers. One of the most dramatic findings is that the increase of methane has nearly stopped in the last decade. But the record also shows that the trend was falling ever since systematic measurements were taken, and perhaps even before that. This finding has led to some puzzles. There is a belief that the anthropogenic sources of methane are increasing but to explain the falling trend we need decreasing sources (or increasing sinks). In fact, the atmospheric measurements show only that the most probable explanation for the decreasing trend and the present near constancy of concentrations is that the global source of methane has been more or less constant over the last 30 years with many short-term ups and downs. Moreover, there is good evidence that some of the major man-made sources of methane, such as cattle, biomass burning and possibly others, have stopped increasing some time back and other sources such as rice agriculture may have decreased over the last 30 years. This allows some smaller energy based sources to have increased, consistent with expectations, and balance out the decreasing sources to keep the total more or less constant. A credible quantitative case can be made for a stable global source based on available information on the trends of the various sources and sinks of methane, but uncertainties remain. We will argue that the stability of sources and sinks is the most likely explanation of the methane concentration trends. We will use this result to re-evaluate the future of man- made methane

  2. Monitoring the Efficiency of Budget Management of Trade Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Larysa V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the actuality of carrying out the monitoring of budget management efficiency at trade enterprises in Ukraine. It has been found that the efficiency of each trade enterprise management system, in particular the efficiency of budget management system, is determined by several factors, among which there considered the enterprise business profile, the competitive situation in the market and the standard of living of the population. The efficiency of budget management and, as a result, the efficiency of trade enterprises’ activity is reflected in the results of the effectiveness of the main indicators of the financial budgets of enterprises. Therefore, using the method of fuzzy sets, there carried out an integral evaluation of the efficiency of budget management based on the efficiency of financial budgets: the budget revenues and expenditures, cash flow budget and budgeted balance sheet. The study is carried out for Ukraine as a whole, and its most developed regions.

  3. A note on India’s water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Narasimhan

    2008-06-01

    Some recent analyses of India ’s water budget are based on information attributed to the Ministry of Water Resources.An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapotranspiration estimate that is significantly lower than what one may expect based on information from other sources.If such is the case,India ’s water resources situation may be more dire than is otherwise perceived.For,higher evapotranspiration implies correspondingly reduced availability of water for human use.It should be worthwhile to investigate and reconcile the apparent discrepancy between water budget and evapotranspiration,considering the importance of water in the national context.

  4. TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING PROJECTS RISK IN CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real problems that can arise in capital budgeting process. Trough case study in article we analyzed risks that may emerge from different techniques. Conclusion that emerges from analyzing different methods of risk techniques is that only with right combination of these techniques corporate manager could decide correctly to choose optimal capital project.

  5. Fulfill Your Digital Preservation Goals with a Budget Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill digital preservation goals, many institutions use high-end scanners for in-house scanning of historical print and oversize materials. However, high-end scanners’ prices do not fit in many small institutions’ budget. As digital single-lens reflex (DSLR camera technologies advance and camera prices drop quickly, a budget photography studio can help to achieve institutions’ preservation goals.  This paper compares images delivered by a high-end overhead scanner and a consumer level DSLR camera, discusses pros and cons of using each method, demonstrates how to set up a cost efficient shooting studio, and presents a budget estimate for a studio.

  6. Line-item Budgeting and Film-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the role of line-item budgeting in film production in an effort to illustrate the positive effects that budgetary constraints can have on creativity. Design/methodology/approach – Using Elster’s (2000) constraint theory as a basis for the research, this paper...... options from hampering the creative process. Originality/value – The paper contributes to management control research in two ways. By addressing calls to provide more insight into the positive effects management control constraints might have on creativity, this study explores somewhat ignored aspects...... of line-item budgeting, adding greater insight into the interrelations between creativity and control. By exploring the ways in which line-item budgeting might take on the role of pre-commitment advice and devices in the creative process, this paper further exposes the links between accounting constraints...

  7. Obama Budget Proposal Would Increase Science Agency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    Although the Obama administration’s $3.8 trillion U.S. federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 2011, announced on 1 February, would push the federal deficit to $1.6 trillion and include a 3-year budget freeze for a number of nondefense programs, science and technology “are doing very well,” according to John Holdren, assistant to the president for science and technology. While President Barack Obama announced in his State of the Union speech his intention to hold down costs, it “did not mean he was imposing a mindless across-the-board freeze,” Holdren said at a 2 February briefing. “In making the tough decisions embodied in the 2011 budget, he managed to preserve and expand what most needed to be preserved and expanded in the government's investments in research and development, and in science, technology, engineering, and math education.”

  8. Global budgeting in Germany: lessons for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, K D; Murray, M A; Ade, C

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 Germany implemented significant health reform legislation that, among other things, strengthened the global budgeting of physicians and instituted global budgeting of pharmaceutical expenditures. German physician expenditures are now capped at the growth in income of members of the sickness funds, in contrast to prior years, in which some growth above a targeted level was allowed. For the first time, dental services also are subject to the budget cap. The new reform legislation also limits growth in pharmaceutical expenditures by increasing the level of copayments and by placing physicians as a group at financial risk for growth over the limit. This paper examines the effect of these reforms during the first year and offers lessons for reform of the U.S. system.

  9. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  10. INTEGRATION OF SHIP HULL ASSEMBLY SEQUENCE PLANNING, SCHEDULING AND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Romuald Iwańkowicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.

  11. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  12. Reorienting programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA towards disinvestment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remarkable progress has been made over the past 40 years in developing rational, evidence-based mechanisms for the allocation of health resources. Much of this progress has centred on mechanisms for commissioning new medical devices and pharmaceuticals. The attention of fund-managers and policy-makers is only now turning towards development of mechanisms for decommissioning, disinvesting or redeploying resources from currently funded interventions. While Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis would seem well-suited to this purpose, past applications include both successes and failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release. Discussion Drawing on recent successes/failures in achieving disinvestment and resource release via PBMA, this paper identifies four barriers/enablers to disinvestment via PBMA: (i specification of the budget constraint, (ii scope of the programme budget, (iii composition and role of the advisory group, and (iv incentives for/against contributing to a 'shift list' of options for disinvestment and resource release. A number of modifications to the PBMA process are then proposed with the aim of reorienting PBMA towards disinvestment. Summary The reoriented model is differentiated by four features: (i hard budget constraint with budgetary pressure; (ii programme budgets with broad scope but specific investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals with similar input requirements; (iii advisory/working groups that include equal representation of sectional interests plus additional members with responsibility for advocating in favour of disinvestment, (iv 'shift lists' populated and developed prior to 'wish lists' and investment proposals linked to disinvestment proposals within a relatively narrow budget area. While the argument and evidence presented here suggest that the reoriented model will facilitate disinvestment and resource release, this remains an empirical question. Likewise

  13. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  14. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  15. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  16. 7 CFR 3560.303 - Housing project budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing project budgets. 3560.303 Section 3560.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... renting expensive party halls or hotel rooms and payment for alcoholic beverages or gifts to...

  17. EFFECIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN BUDGET ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina A. Tsvetochkina; Ruslan A. Baryshev

    2015-01-01

    The importance of motivation aspects isincreasing in the modern human resourcesmanagement system. Motivation and staffincentive are the main means of ensuring theoptimal use of the enterprise resources, mobilizing workforce capacity. The article presents the results of a study to determine the types ofemployee motivation. Recommendations aregiven for the formation of an effective personnel motivation system in budget organizations.

  18. Budget Allocation for Maximizing Viral Advertising in Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Lei Zhang; Zhu-Zhong Qian; Wen-Zhong Li; Bin Tang; Xiaoming Fu

    2016-01-01

    Viral advertising in social networks has arisen as one of the most promising ways to increase brand awareness and product sales. By distributing a limited budget, we can incentivize a set of users as initial adopters so that the advertising can start from the initial adopters and spread via social links to become viral. Despite extensive researches in how to target the most influential users, a key issue is often neglected: how to incentivize the initial adopters. In the problem of influence maximization, the assumption is that each user has a fixed cost for being initial adopters, while in practice, user decisions for accepting the budget to be initial adopters are often probabilistic rather than deterministic. In this paper, we study optimal budget allocation in social networks to maximize the spread of viral advertising. In particular, a concave probability model is introduced to characterize each user’s utility for being an initial adopter. Under this model, we show that it is NP-hard to find an optimal budget allocation for maximizing the spread of viral advertising. We then present a novel discrete greedy algorithm with near optimal performance, and further propose scaling-up techniques to improve the time-efficiency of our algorithm. Extensive experiments on real-world social graphs are implemented to validate the effectiveness of our algorithm in practice. The results show that our algorithm can outperform other intuitive heuristics significantly in almost all cases.

  19. Novel test structures for dedicated temperature budget determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik J.; Wolters, Rob A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for determining the temperature budget of the process side of silicon substrates and chips, based on well-known silicide formation reactions of metal–Si systems and (four-point probe) resistance measurements. In this paper, we focus on the Pd–Si system that is most temperat

  20. Promoting multiculturalism in healthcare on a zero budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, S; Butler, V

    1996-01-01

    When a B.C. health commission proposed strategies for promoting cultural awareness in healthcare, members of one hospital staff took up the challenge. With no budget and in addition to their regular duties, they researched and developed practical tools for healthcare workers in the midst of Victoria's diverse community.

  1. Gel Electrophoresis on a Budget to Dye for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important tools used in molecular biology and has facilitated the entire field of genetic engineering by enabling the separation of nucleic acids and proteins. However, commercial electrophoresis kits can cost up to $800 for each setup, which is cost prohibitive for most classroom budgets. This article…

  2. Decentralized University Budgeting, United with a More Flexible Tuition Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Gary

    2014-01-01

    With tuition revenues replacing state appropriations as the primary source of public university funding, it becomes difficult for universities to use historically based budget allocations and inflexible tuition structures to subsidize high-cost programs. It is argued here that combining targeted subsidies with a flexible tuition structure and…

  3. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The Board is authorized to incur such expenses for research, development, advertising, or promotion of... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... disbursements in the administration of this Plan, including probable costs of research, development,...

  4. EFFECIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN BUDGET ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Tsvetochkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of motivation aspects isincreasing in the modern human resourcesmanagement system. Motivation and staffincentive are the main means of ensuring theoptimal use of the enterprise resources, mobilizing workforce capacity. The article presents the results of a study to determine the types ofemployee motivation. Recommendations aregiven for the formation of an effective personnel motivation system in budget organizations.

  5. Proposed State Budget Doesn't Do Enough for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2015-16 state budget does not do enough for California's top priority--the children. The failure to fund new preschool slots breaks last year's commitment to provide access to quality preschool for every low-income 4-year-old. The proposal also misses opportunities to fully support and improve access…

  6. State Budgets Are Likely to Squeeze 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges in nearly half of the states will probably face midyear reductions in their appropriations, according to a survey of members of the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges. The study paints a bleak picture of a widening fiscal crisis among state governments, which started in the most recent budget year and is…

  7. Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Stacke, T.; Wiltshire, A.; Lucas-Picher, P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation

  8. THE INTERTEMPORAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET CONSTRAINT - AN APPLICATION FOR THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, J; SIERMANN, CLJ

    1993-01-01

    In this paper it is examined whether fiscal policy in the Netherlands is in accordance with the intertemporal budget constraint. After a careful review of previous studies, it is decided to use the test as proposed by Trehan and Walsh [1989, 1991], which consists of examining the stationarity of the

  9. FY 2005 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Supplement to the President`s FY 2005 Budget reports on the FY 2004 research and development R and D activities and FY 2005 plans of the multiagency Networking...

  10. Budget constraint and vaccine dosing: A mathematical modelling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Standaert, Baudouin A.; Curran, Desmond; Postma, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing the number of vaccine doses may potentially improve overall efficacy. Decision-makers need information about choosing the most efficient dose schedule to maximise the total health gain of a population when operating under a constrained budget. The objective of this study is to

  11. 7 CFR 1218.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... budget shall include: (1) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2) A summary of anticipated revenue, with comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for... by the Council shall be expended only for startup costs and capital outlays and are limited to...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.40 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... include: (1) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2) A summary of anticipated revenue, with comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3... for startup costs and capital outlays and are limited to the first year of operation of the Board....

  13. 7 CFR 1209.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart. Each such budget shall include: (i) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (ii) A summary of anticipated revenue, with comparative data for at least one preceding... Council, for administrative costs incurred by the Secretary in implementing and administering this...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1216.50 Section 1216.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2) A summary of...

  15. A grid broker pricing mechanism for temporal and budget guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, RE; Djemame, KD

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a pricing mechanism for Grid computing, with the aim of showing how a broker can accept the most appropriate jobs to be computed on time and on budget. We analyse the mechanism’s performance via discrete event simulation, and illustrate its viability, the benefits of a new admission policy and to how slack relates to machine heterogeneity.

  16. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  17. Budget update: Future is looking gloomier for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the wheels of the new Republican-controlled Congress have been turning, it looks like belts are indeed going to be tighter around U.S. research and development budgets. In mid-March, the House Budget Committee voted to cut $100 billion over the next five years from federal agency budgets and published guidelines for how this could be done. NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Geological Survey were again mentioned as potential targets and so was the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. If the reduction bill goes the legislative mile, the appropriations committees in each house of Congress will have to figure out where the cuts will fall. Republican and Democratic members of the House Science Committee quickly jumped into the traditional fray with their respective “Views and Estimates” on how science dollars should be doled out for fiscal year 1996. President Clinton has also jumped in the budget-cutting game with the release last week of a plan to cut $13 billion from four federal agencies over the next 5 years. In the meantime, a rescission bill for FY 1995 has been on the fast track through Congress. Here are some of the latest highlights:

  18. Amid Tight Budgets, Two-Year Colleges Play Growing Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Faced with a multibillion-dollar budget deficit, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and state higher education officials are trying to relieve the burden on the state by redirecting several thousand high school seniors from California's public four-year universities to community colleges for their first two years of school. The California effort emerges…

  19. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  20. US physics begins to crumble under budget strain

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The reality of the US budget cuts to particle physics has hit home. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, US, has just announced a trio of painful consequences: the end of work on the International Linear Collider, the imminent closure of its BaBar antimatter experiment, and the layoff of 125 workers.

  1. UK committee to push for CERN budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Walgate, Robert

    1985-01-01

    A committee set up to assess Britain's continued membership of CERN will suggest that spending on high energy physics should be reduced. Germany and France also believe that CERN could survive cuts but the Director General Professor Schopper defended the CERN budget saying that increased spending was needed to increase the energy of LEP and to fulfill pension requirements (1 page)

  2. Library Budgets in the Independent Liberal Arts College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, David H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of 43 liberal arts colleges' library budgets for the first half of the 1970s is described. The combined effects of inflation and financial crunch have led to a materials v staff struggle which could result in an improper balance between these two items. (Author/MLW)

  3. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Conditional political budget cycles: a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of m

  5. Conditional political budget cycles : a review of recent evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most research on political budget cycles was based on the (often implicit) presumption that these cycles do not differ across countries. However, more recent studies focus on heterogeneity. This paper surveys studies examining the factors conditioning the occurrence and strength of m

  6. U.S. Homeland Security R&D Budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorson, C S

    2009-03-30

    The FY09 budgets for homeland security research and development programs in the U.S. are summarized. Homeland security policy developments that can influence future efforts are discussed. Initial indications of the new administration direction on homeland security R&D are summarized. An overview of the Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V conference is presented.

  7. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...

  8. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012 to 2022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    substantially as a percentage of GDP, decrease spending significantly from projected levels, or adopt some combi - nation of those two approaches...prepared by the Budget Analysis Division, supervised by Peter Fontaine, Theresa Gullo, Holly Harvey, Janet Airis, Tom Bradley, Kim Cawley, Jean Hearne

  9. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Financial and Programmatic Reporting § 603.885...

  10. Community Colleges and the State Budget: The Nuts and Bolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Scott

    2003-01-01

    This article provides insight into the California state budget process and gives an overview of California's growing deficit. The author examines the decline in personal income gained from stock options and capital gains as a means of illustrating the economic factors that resulted in a $28 billion deficit. Next, the author turns his attention to…

  11. Prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark - in a contingency perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

    spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt de største danskevirksomheder. Konklusionen er at 4,5% har afskaffet det traditionelle årsbudget (eller er igang med at gøre det) og 7,7% overvejer at afskaffe det. Disse "Beyond Budgeting" virksomheder er endvidere mere kritiske overfor det traditionelle årsbudget end andre virksomheder...

  12. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia

    2013-01-01

    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  13. Budgets come first as Bush chooses NASA head

    CERN Multimedia

    Schrope, M

    2001-01-01

    President Bush has nominated a budget expert with no aerospace or scientific background as the agency's administrator. Sean O'Keefe, formerly scrutinized overspending in the International Space Station programme. If appointed, he will have to implement reforms he himself recommended (1/2 page).

  14. Revenue Prediction in Budget-constrained Sequential Auctions with Complementarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verwer (Sicco); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhen multiple items are auctioned sequentially, the ordering of auctions plays an important role in the total revenue collected by the auctioneer. This is true especially with budget constrained bidders and the presence of complementarities among items. In such sequential auction setting

  15. Doing More with Less: Coping with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Budget cuts are common in education, but nothing like the scale that schools have seen in the last two years. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan calls the current situation "the New Normal," meaning that schools will see increasing demands for performance in a climate of declining resources. Most of the literature suggests that schools cannot…

  16. Photon budget analysis for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Q.; Young, I.T.; De Jong, J.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a mathematical model to analyze the photon efficiency of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The power of the light source needed for illumination in a FLIM system and the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector have led us to a photon “budget.” These

  17. Cinematic Creativity and Production Budgets: Does Money Make the Movie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2005-01-01

    Although filmmaking requires substantial capital investment, it is not known whether cinematic creativity is positively correlated with the size of the film's budget. Therefore, budgetary impact was investigated in a sample of feature films released between 1997 and 2001. Although production costs were positively related to box office success (as…

  18. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have pur

  19. Topics in Finance Part VI--Capital Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This series on the theory of financial management offers insight into the roles of stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts as they apply to major topics in finance. The current article investigates capital budgeting. Much literature addresses this topic, with a number of articles challenging mainstream…

  20. A Guaranteed FiX for the Budget Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allan Sloan; Fortune

    2012-01-01

    Okay, everyone knows that we've got big federal budget problems. Repub- licans aren't willing to raise taxes to solve them. Democrats aren't willing to cut benefits to solve the problems with- out taxes being increased, and maybe not even then.

  1. FY09-FY10 NITRD Budget Cross Cut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — This data set represents a cross cut of 13 Federal agencies R&D budget in the area of networking and information technology for FY09 and FY10 brokendown by...

  2. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run outp

  3. Rules Relaxed on Budget Cuts to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on controversial new guidance issued by the federal government which will allow districts to make permanent cuts in special education spending. In the past, federal law was interpreted to mean that once a district set its special education budget, it could not be reduced permanently except for very specific reasons. The…

  4. FY 2003 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Supplement to the President?s Budget, also known as the Blue Book, reports on the coordinated research priorities and activities of the NITRD agencies for FY...

  5. CBTs Budget for 1997 og Arbejdsplaner for 1996 - 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    For Center for Bredbånds Telekommunikation beskrives budget for 1997 samt forskningsplaner for 1996-1999 for områderne optiske netværk, gigabit elektronik, optiske bølgeledere og bredbåndsswitching samt for højhastighedssystemer....

  6. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) power system and battery history. ERBS spacecraft and battery cell failures are listed with the reasons for failure. The battery management decision and stabilization of the batteries is discussed. Present battery operations are shown to be successful.

  7. Strategy to Arrange Gender Responsive Budget in ex Besuki Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistio Adiwinarto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the participation of women in development planning meeting, knowing the form of gender responsive policies, identifying the cause of the gender responsive policy problem, and strategy formulation of the budget in ex Besuki Residency such as Jember, Bondowoso, Situbondo, and Banyuwangi which still not responsive to the needs of women. In the first year, this study intends to identify the process of formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the local budget in Ex Besuki residency conducted by the respective local governments. Based on the research in the first year, researchers will formulate development strategies in the formulation of gender-responsive policies. The method of research is quantitative descriptive study, study documentation, primary and secondary data analysis, interviews and focus group discussions. In the second year of the study are expected to form a strategy and policy formulation concept of gender responsive budgeting through a combination previously existing concepts, adapted to the results of the first year of study at the study site. How To Cite: Adiwinarto, S., & Nusanto, B. (2015. Strategy to Arrange Gender Responsive Budget in ex Besuki Residency. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 65-78. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.5

  8. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  9. PERENCANAAN PARTISIPASI LOKAL: PENGALAMAN ADVOKASI PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING LSM DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poerwanti Hadi Pratiwi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pelaksanaan pembangunan dikatakan berhasil bila mampu menjawab kebutuhan dan permasalahan yang dihadapi anggota masyarakat. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis membahas tentang peran serta warga masyarakat dalam perencanaan dan penganggaran APBD di daerahnya masing-masing melalui advokasi yang dilakukan oleh NGO. Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Fakta menunjukkan bahwa keberhasilan pembangunan dapat terwujud salah satunya dengan mengikutsertakan anggota masyarakat sejak awal proses kegiatan, khususnya dalam penyusunan rencana pembangunan. Partisipasi dalam perencanaan pembangunan wujudnya bisa berupa kehadiran dalam rapat/musyawarah, pemikiran, dan waktu. Dalam rangka menyesuaikan dengan kepentingan masyarakat, maka penyusunan Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Daerah (APBD tidak cukup dilakukan oleh lembaga-lembaga formal dari unsur eksekutif dan legislatif saja. Kelompok-kelompok masyarakat lokal dan Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM/ NGO dapat turut berpartisipasi dalam penyusunan anggaran agar lebih dapat dipertanggungjawabkan, atau dengan kata lain lebih sesuai dengan kepentingan masyarakat.Implementation of the development is successful if it is able to answer the needs and problems faced by members of the community. In this study, the author specifically addresses the participation of citizens in local budget planning and budgeting in their respective regions through advocacy carried out by NGOs. Methods of research used in this research was a qualitative approach, data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The evidence suggests that successful development can be realized by involving members of the community since the beginning of the activity, particularly in the preparation of development plans. The form of participation in development planning can be a presence at a meeting / deliberation, thought and time. In order to adapt to

  10. 7 CFR 3560.302 - Accounting, bookkeeping, budgeting, and financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Financial Management § 3560.302 Accounting, bookkeeping, budgeting, and financial management systems. (a) General. Borrowers must establish the accounting, bookkeeping, budgeting and financial management... preparation, and financial management reporting systems through a revision of their management plan....

  11. 78 FR 24438 - Board of Directors Finance, Budget & Program Committee: Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...-2376; ehall@nw.org . AGENDA: I. CALL TO ORDER II. FY 2013 Budget Update III. Atlanta Lease IV. CHC and NC Grants V. FY 2014 Budget VI. Financial Report VII. DC Move Update VIII. FY 13 Corporate...

  12. 77 FR 6571 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Coast Guard... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kenlinishia Tyler, Office of Information Management,...

  13. 77 FR 9951 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget AGENCY: Coast Guard... Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kenlinishia Tyler, Office of Information Management, telephone...

  14. 17 CFR 202.11 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; (vii) Descriptions of the operations, processes, staff skills, information and other technologies..., including advances in technology, could have on program operations and administration. (10) Supplemental..., budget justification, supplemental budget and other report or communication in compliance with...

  15. Capital Budgeting: Do Private Sector Methods of Budgeting for Capital Assets Have Applicability to the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Professor Michael Porter and recognize the strategic importance of conducting a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis as part...business use and not 28 expected to be converted to cash in the current or upcoming fiscal year, such as manufacturing equipment, real estate , etc... ANALYSIS .......................................................................5 A. DOD CAPITAL BUDGETING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS..............5 1

  16. The Sediment Budget Calculator: A Webtool to Develop a Family of Viable Inlet and Adjacent Beach Sediment Budget Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    SBC ), an online webtool that calculates a...littoral sediment, and gross change in the inlet system (channel infilling plus shoal growth). The SBC applies the Bodge Method (Bodge 1999) as...dataset is used to illustrate operation of the SBC . To access the SBC , go to the CIRP website1. Under Products, click on Sediment Budget Tools and

  17. Importing budget systems from other countries: what can we learn from the German drug budget and the British GP fundholding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.; Brenner, G.

    2000-01-01

    The rising costs of pharmaceutical expenditures are a common problem for policy makers in most European countries. In two countries, budget systems for pharmaceutical spending exist(ed). In Great Britain, between 1991 and 1999 GP fundholders were responsible for prescribing costs, and in Germany an

  18. Why Agencies Budget For Results : Exploring Institutional Explanations for Performance Budgeting: The Case of Forestry and Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary This PhD research examines institutional explanations for the use of performance information (PI) to learn and improve by government agencies. Despite widespread criticism of and disappointment with New Public Management (NPM) reforms, performance budgeting (PB) is credite

  19. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  20. 40 CFR 35.4130 - What must be included in my group's budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... budget? 35.4130 Section 35.4130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Tag § 35.4130 What must be included in my group's budget? Your budget must clearly show how: (a) You... provide the required cash and/or in-kind contributions; and (c) Your group derived the figures included...

  1. 22 CFR 96.33 - Budget, audit, insurance, and risk assessment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget, audit, insurance, and risk assessment... for Convention Accreditation and Approval Financial and Risk Management § 96.33 Budget, audit, insurance, and risk assessment requirements. (a) The agency or person operates under a budget approved...

  2. 76 FR 7204 - Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... AGENCY Status of Motor Vehicle Budgets in Submitted State Implementation Plan for Transportation... Adequacy of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... the 2010 particulate matter of ten microns or less (PM-10) motor vehicle emission budget (MVEB)...

  3. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  4. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  5. 7 CFR 1940.350 - Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number....350 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number. The collection of information requirements in this regulation has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and has been assigned...

  6. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S. Department of…

  7. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Establishing Self-Governance Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium...

  8. 28 CFR 58.15 - Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. 58.15 Section 58.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As used in this section the term “agency” means nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency....

  9. 40 CFR 96.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207...

  11. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal....

  12. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  13. Exploring the Dynamics and Modeling National Budget as a Supply Chain System: A Proposal for Reengineering the Budgeting Process and for Developing a Management Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Depression, it was generally accepted that the budget should be balanced, Keynes proposed that budget deficits may be desirable in periods of recession to...debt matter? As aforementioned, balanced budgets was the prevailing strategy, until Keynes developed his theory according to which deficits may be...schools of economic thought seems to have started on October 1932. In particular, Keynes and five more economists (MacGregor, Pigou, Layton, Salter and

  14. Fiscal policy in Indonesia: Analysis of state budget 2017 in Islamic economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jaelani, Aan

    2016-01-01

    This study of fiscal policy in State Budget (APBN) 2017 that the task of the Indonesian government to run them to create prosperity for the community. The state budget is prepared using the rules of public economics consisting of state revenues, state expenditures, and budget financing have the posture of the budget, the issues of fiscal policy, and the role of the government in carrying out its functions. With the analysis of Islamic economics, fiscal policy in the State Budget 2017 is the d...

  15. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    , and using left overs, expressed some kind of extra resources in comparison to the interviewees with negative experiences in the shape of e.g. more secure life circumstances, cooking skills, and a supporting social network. The qualitative study also indicated that certain similar coping strategies...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...... in eating, first seemed to appear when food budget restriction increased. The qualitative study revealed important factors that link strategies to either positive or negative experiences. Interviewees who made a positive experiences out of cooking with more filling ingredients, reducing eating out...

  16. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  17. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  18. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  19. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  20. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 1: Agency summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA FY 1994 budget request of $15,265 million concentrates on (1) investing in the development of new technologies including a particularly aggressive program in aeronautical technology to improve the competitive position of the United States, through shared involvement with industry and other government agencies; (2) continuing the nation's premier program of space exploration, to expand our knowledge of the solar system and the universe as well as the earth; and (3) providing safe and assured access to space using both the space shuttle and expendable launch vehicles. Budget estimates are presented for (1) research and development, including space station, space transportation capability development, space science and applications programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, space research and technology, commercial programs, aeronautics technology programs, safety and mission quality, academic programs, and tracking and data advanced systems; and (2) space operations, including space transportation programs, launch services, and space communications.

  1. Improvement of Information Support to Socialisation of Budget Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hvasaliia Diana S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new approaches to assessment of social direction of expenditures and social security of population, which allow conduct of a complex assessment of the social state of the society. It justifies urgency of improvement of a methodical approach to information support of realisation of budget relations by means of development of the system of ratios of assessment of social direction of expenditures and social security of population with the use of elements of cluster and integral analysis for interpretation of the obtained data. The article offers a model of results of cluster and integral analysis of the state of the social sphere, which takes into account all author’s ratios that allows diagnostics of the state of the social sphere and conduct leading impact on justified indicators and, thereby, achieve improvement of the state of the social sphere under conditions of a limited social budget.

  2. Diffraction and polarization effects in Earth radiation budget measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J R; Barki, A R; Priestley, K J

    2016-12-01

    Thermal radiation emitted and reflected from the Earth and viewed from near-Earth orbit may be characterized by its spectral distribution, its degree of coherence, and its state of polarization. The current generation of broadband Earth radiation budget instruments has been designed to minimize the effect of diffraction and polarization on science products. We used Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) models that treat individual rays as quasi-monochromatic, polarized entities to explore the possibility of improving the performance of such instruments by including measures of diffraction and polarization during calibration and operation. We have demonstrated that diffraction and polarization sensitivity associated with typical Earth radiation budget instrument design features has a negligible effect on measurements.

  3. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  4. Element budgets in an Arctic mesocosm CO2 perturbation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Boxhammer, T.; Bellerby, R. G. J.; Büdenbender, J.; Engel, A.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Nachtigall, K.; Nondal, G.; Niehoff, B.; Siljakova, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining the temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air/sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification using KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation) all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down some of the mentioned uncertainties. Water column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic constituents were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution, as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon uptake in 2 of the 3 experimental phases but did not significantly affect particle elemental composition. Enhanced carbon consumption appears to result in accumulation of dissolved organic compounds under nutrient recycling summer conditions. This carbon over-consumption effect becomes evident from budget calculations, but was too small to be resolved by direct measurements of dissolved organics. The out-competing of large diatoms by comparatively small algae in nutrient uptake caused reduced production rates under future ocean CO2 conditions in the end of the experiment. This CO2 induced shift away from diatoms towards smaller phytoplankton and enhanced cycling of

  5. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  6. UV Diagnostics for the Energy Budget of Flares and CMEs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. C. Raymond

    2008-03-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections convert large amounts of magnetic free energy into thermal, kinetic and potential energies, and into energy of non-thermal particles. The partitioning among these forms of energy is fundamental to both the physics of the eruptive events and the space weather consequences of the eruptions. This talk describes some aspects of the energy budget that can be derived from ultraviolet observations of the corona.

  7. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    OpenAIRE

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation. This paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental setup. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle

  8. Forecasting Foreign Currency Exchange Rates for Air Force Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    performs no worse than the univariate time series models, unconstrained VAR, or candidate structural models in forecasting real exchange rates (Meese... forecast a budgeted rate for that currency for that year. The process was then repeated for each year and currency. For example, the time series ... forecasted rate MAPE against the status quo MAPE from FY06 to FY14. For example, the time series of annual FRB H.10 foreign exchange rates until

  9. Conceptual Regional Sediment Budget for USACE North Atlantic Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Environmental exposure provides greater weighting to endangered habitat and wetlands . Figure 6 shows the Region 1 sediment budget (left) and...moraine islands, drowned glacial valleys, sand spits, salt marshes , and bedrock outcrops. Paraglacial coasts are located in regions formerly covered by...Narragansett Bay, a drowned glacial valley with a combination of bedrock outcrops, till bluffs, limited sand and gravel beaches, and limited salt marshes

  10. U.S. science and technology under budget stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A set of hearings was held a few weeks ago by the House Science and Technology Committee, Don Fuqua, chairman, during which White House science advisor George A. Keyworth II ‘reiterated the Reagan Administration's wisdom of the marketplace philosophy’ (Chemical and Engineering News, Dec. 14, 1981). National Academy of Sciences President Frank Press responded to Keyworth's continuing statements on the ‘hard choices’ ahead with a proposed ‘compact’ among the public, private and academic research sectors. Representatives of the science R & D community are hanging on every word released from the White House, hoping to find some solace from the picture of disastrous budget cuts that appears to be emerging in all sectors. The budget cuts, cumulative for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, do not, in notable examples, leave room for hard choices; dismantling of entire programs appears to be expected. Two examples are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary scientific program and the programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). When NASA's program was recently described as ‘planetary science in extremis,’ the meaning intended was ‘near death,’ not ‘in the extreme’ (Science, Dec. 18, 1981). In the same light, Douglas M. Castle, former EPA director, defined ‘EPA under siege:’ ‘It's hard to find a rational explanation for [the 1983 fiscal year budget proposed by OMB] except that [the current EPA administrators] are, in fact, a wrecking crew’ (Environmental Science and Technology, December 1981). Meanwhile, the so-called ‘research universities’ in the United States are turning to more practical and applied avenues to secure funds for their R & D budgets. According to science policy analyst, Wil Lepkowski, ‘The practical goals of technology are fast swallowing academic science, and nothing seems likely to be the same again.’ (Chem. Eng. News, Nov. 23, 1981).

  11. Element budgets in an Arctic mesocosm CO2 perturbation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siljakova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining the temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air/sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification using KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down some of the mentioned uncertainties. Water column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic constituents were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution, as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon uptake in 2 of the 3 experimental phases but did not significantly affect particle elemental composition. Enhanced carbon consumption appears to result in accumulation of dissolved organic compounds under nutrient recycling summer conditions. This carbon over-consumption effect becomes evident from budget calculations, but was too small to be resolved by direct measurements of dissolved organics. The out-competing of large diatoms by comparatively small algae in nutrient uptake caused reduced production rates under future ocean CO2 conditions in the end of the experiment. This CO2 induced shift away from diatoms towards smaller phytoplankton and

  12. An Analysis of the President’s 2013 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES An Analysis of the President’s 2013 Budget March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Notes Unless otherwise indicated, the years referred to...in the tax treatment of certain investments in equipment by small businesses. As estimated by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxa- tion ( JCT

  13. The terrestrial nitrogen budget of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Burt, T. P.; Howden, N. K.; Whelan, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study estimates the total annual nitrogen budget of the UK from 1990 to 2020. The following inputs of nitrogen are considered: inorganic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition; food and feed imports; and biological nitrogen fixation. The outputs considered include: atmospheric emissions; direct losses of sewage and industrial effluent to the sea; fluvial losses at source; food and feed exports; and terrestrial and aquatic denitrification to N2. The study is the first to include in-stream losses and terrestrial denitrification to N2 into a national nitrogen budget: in so doing it does not have to assume the total budget is in balance following inter-annual changes. Unlike previous studies, this study is not limited to reactive nitrogen species. It is shown here that: i) Inputs of inorganic fertilizer declined significantly over the study period; atmospheric deposition showed no change and food and feed imports significantly increased. ii) Outputs of fluvial nitrogen rose significantly, but atmospheric emissions of N20 and NH3 declined dramatically, while dentrification to N2 remained steady. iii) The UK was a net source of total nitrogen in 1990 of 527 (±40%) ktonnes N/yr (22 kg N/ha/yr). By 2005, it was a net source of 172 (±106%) ktonnes N/yr (7 kg N/ha/yr). iv) The prognosis for the N budget of the UK to 2020 is critically dependent upon the future trends and trade-offs between atmospheric emissions and applications of inorganic fertilisers. If atmospheric emissions follow current trends then by 2020 the net sink of total N in the UK will be 44 ktonnes N/yr, if atmospheric emissions are restricted to current UK government emissions targets, then the UK will be a net source of Total N of 151 ktonnes N/yr as reductions in the application of inorganic fertiliser outstrip declines in atmospheric emissions.

  14. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiat...... radiation. The paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental set-up. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle...

  15. The Atlantic Coast of Maryland, Sediment Budget Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    by Joseph C. Reed PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) describes a case study to update the sediment budget... coastal zone. Areas of future study could pertain to pursuing the cause of the erosional trend evident at the southern end of the project...package (BMAP): Beach nourishment engineering and management considerations. In Proceedings, Coastal Zone ’93. New Orleans, LA: American Society of

  16. Do Shared Interests Affect the Accuracy of Budgets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of budgetary slack is a phenomenon associated with various behavioral aspects. This study focuses on accuracy in budgeting when the benefit of the slack is shared between the unit manager and his/her assistant. In this study, accuracy is measured by the level of slack in the budget, and the benefit of slack represents a financial consideration for the manager and the assistant. The study aims to test how shared interests in budgetary slack affect the accuracy of budget reports in an organization. To this end, an experimental study was conducted with a sample of 90 employees in management and other leadership positions at a cooperative that has a variable compensation plan based on the achievement of organizational goals. The experiment conducted in this study is consubstantiated by the study of Church, Hannan and Kuang (2012, which was conducted with a sample of undergraduate students in the United States and used a quantitative approach to analyze the results. In the first part of the experiment, the results show that when budgetary slack is not shared, managers tend to create greater slack when the assistant is not aware of the creation of slack; these managers thus generate a lower accuracy index than managers whose assistants are aware of the creation of slack. When budgetary slack is shared, there is higher average slack when the assistant is aware of the creation of slack. In the second part of the experiment, the accuracy index is higher for managers who prepare the budget with the knowledge that their assistants prefer larger slack values. However, the accuracy level differs between managers who know that their assistants prefer maximizing slack values and managers who do not know their assistants' preference regarding slack. These results contribute to the literature by presenting evidence of managers' behavior in the creation of budgetary slack in scenarios in which they share the benefits of slack with their assistants.

  17. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  18. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  19. Review of Geologic Data Sources for Coastal Sediment Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    shape analysis ( Schwarcz and Shane 1969, Ehrlich and Weinberg 1970). Automated scanning systems for obtaining data on each grain are now available, and...dimensional outline of a particle by a Fourier series in closed form was described by Schwarcz and Shane (1969) and Erlich and Weinberg (1970). Rather than...Reynolds, W. S. 1987. "Sediment Budget Analysis and Interpretation," Coastal Sediments 87, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. Schwarcz

  20. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  1. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 2: Construction of facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Construction of Facilities (CoF) appropriation provides contractual services for the repair, rehabilitation, and modification of existing facilities; the construction of new facilities and the acquisition of related collateral equipment; the acquisition or condemnation of real property; environmental compliance and restoration activities; the design of facilities projects; and advanced planning related to future facilities needs. Fiscal year 1994 budget estimates are broken down according to facility location of project and by purpose.

  2. Participative Budgeting as a Communication Process: A Model and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Partici- pative Budgeting on Managerial Behavior. New York: National Association of Accountants , 1975. Vroom , Victor H . Some Personality...Determinants of the Effects of Participation. Englewood Cliffs , N.J.: Prentice—Hall , Inc., 1960. Vroom , Victor H . and Yetton , Philli p W. Leadership and...about which you are concerned 3. Does your immediate superior ask your opi nion when a p rcb lem comes up that involves your work 16Victor H . Vroom

  3. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanwu

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Series publishes reference works and handbooks in three core sub-topic areas: Intelligent Automation, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Intelligent Computing. They include theoretical studies, design methods, and real-world implementations and applications. The series' readership is broad, but focuses on engineering, electronics, and computer science. Budget constraints and optimization in sponsored search auctions takes into account consideration of the entire life cycle of campaigns for researchers and developers working on search systems and ROI maximization

  4. Cinematic creativity and production budgets: Does money make the movie?

    OpenAIRE

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2005-01-01

    Although filmmaking requires substantial capital investment, it is not known whether cinematic creativity is positively correlated with the size of the film's budget. Therefore, budgetary impact was investigated in a sample of feature films released between 1997 and 2001. Although production costs were positively related to box office success (as measured by both first weekend and gross), such expenditures had no correlation with best picture awards and were negatively correlated with critica...

  5. Program Direction FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Program Direction enables EERE to maintain and support a world-class federal workforce to accomplish its mission of creating and sustaining American leadership in the sustainable transportation, renewable power, and energy efficiency sectors. The FY 2017 Program Direction budget request provides resources for program and project management, administrative support, contract administration, human capital management, headquarters and field site non-laboratory facilities and infrastructure, and contractor support.

  6. United States Department of Energy Budget Highlights FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    The President`s Fiscal Year 1994 budget request for the Department of Energy reflects the Administration`s goal of redressing the balance between the Nation`s energy and economic requirements and protection of the environment. The Department plans to undertake a careful restructuring of its national defense responsibilities, in line with post Cold War exigencies; contribute to the Administration`s deficit reduction objectives; and fulfill the President`s commitment to invest in science and technology development and transfer.

  7. Sub-Facet Heterogeneity of the Urban Surface Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM) and observational data are combined to understand the influence of urban sub-facet heterogeneity, and the associated influence of material properties, on the urban surface energy budget. This heterogeneity is related to the different surfaces and materials (asphalt, concrete, grass, black roofs, green roofs, etc.) that are typically found within one urban facet (roof, wall, and ground). Of particular interest is the role of water storage and evaporation from urban surfaces in modulating the energy budget. The PUCM is evaluated at sites of various urban densities. Subsequently, one densely-built site is selected for in-depth analysis and the model is applied, with sub-facet resolution, to simulate the water and energy budgets. Our analyses show that while all built surfaces convert most of the incoming energy into sensible rather than latent heat, sensible heat fluxes from asphalt and non-reflective rooftops are twice as high as those from concrete surfaces and light colored roofs. Another important and commonly observed characteristic of urban areas- the shift in peak time of sensible heat compared to rural areas, is shown to be mainly linked to concrete's high heat storage capacity. Our results also indicate that while evaporation from built surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall, these surfaces accounted for nearly 16% of latent heat fluxes (LE) at the study site during the study period. More importantly, this contribution is mainly concentrated during the 48 hours following a rain event and thus its accurate representation is critical to our understanding of the urban surface energy budget during wet periods.

  8. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  9. BUDGET IN DANGER : OUR LETTER TO THE MINISTERS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In edition no. 104 of Echo we told you about the Finance Committee meeting which took place on Wednesday 16 June and the tense atmosphere that reigned during this meeting. Echoing the alarming news from most of our countries (budget cuts, restrictions, reforms), CERN’s global budget is indeed under pressure. This is extremely serious. How can we carry out our mission if our Member States do not give us the means? Basic research cannot progress with budget cuts. The Management tried to make this understood at the meeting, however, most delegations could not or would not see reason. Refusing to sit idly by, the Staff Association decided to act immediately. It sent a letter to all ministers in the twenty Member States concerned by CERN and its financing. A copy was also sent to all Finance Committee and Council delegates. We thus hope to help convince all our Member States that it is essential that they continue to invest in basic research, a breeding ground for new ideas and at the roo...

  10. A budget impact analysis of natalizumab use in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2011-10-20

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is the commonest cause of disability in young Irish adults. Natalizumab reduces disability progression in those patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who are suitable for it. First line disease modifying therapies are given in the community and are paid for by the hi-tech drug scheme. Natalizumab is given in hospital and is paid for from the hospital\\'s budget. Access to natalizumab has been problematic in some Irish hospitals. A budget impact analysis was performed to look at the overall cost to the Health Service Executive of giving natalizumab. METHODS: A budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Health Service Executive comparing the use of natalizumab with first line disease modifying therapies for 2009-2011. RESULTS: The study showed that currently, the use of natalizumab is likely to be cost saving to the Health Service Executive overall, because some of the costs for natalizumab are borne by private insurers, whereas, all of the costs of disease modifying therapies are borne by the Health Service Executive. CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of natalizumab is cost saving, current funding arrangements in the Health Service Executive do not allow for the transfer of money saved from drugs paid for in the hi-tech scheme, to hospitals who are supplying alternative treatments.

  11. The impact of global budgeting on treatment intensity and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kamhon; Li, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Wei-Der

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the effects of global budgets on the amount of resources devoted to cardio-cerebrovascular disease patients by hospitals of different ownership types and these patients' outcomes. Theoretical models predict that hospitals have financial incentives to increase the quantity of treatments applied to patients. This is especially true for for-profit hospitals. If that's the case, it is important to examine whether the increase in treatment quantity is translated into better treatment outcomes. Our analyses take advantage of the National Health Insurance of Taiwan's implementation of global budgets for hospitals in 2002. Our data come from the National Health Insurance's claim records, covering the universe of hospitalized patients suffering acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke. Regression analyses are carried out separately for government, private not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals. We find that for-profit hospitals and private not-for-profit hospitals did increase their treatment intensity for cardio-cerebrovascular disease patients after the 2002 implementation of global budgets. However, this was not accompanied by an improvement in these patients' mortality rates. This reveals a waste of medical resources and implies that aggregate expenditure caps should be supplemented by other designs to prevent resources misallocation.

  12. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  13. Difference and Relation Analysis of Comprehensive Budget and Financial Budget%浅析全面预算和财务预算的区别与联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2013-01-01

    The financial budget and the budget as an important means of enterprise management, financial budget management is an impor⁃tant part of the overall budget management, on the other hand, implementation of a comprehensive budget management is an effective mecha⁃nism and important means of strengthening the financial management function.%  财务预算与全面预算作为企业管理资源的重要手段,财务预算管理是全面预算管理的重要组成部分,另一方面实施全面预算管理则是强化财务管理功能的有效机制和重要手段。

  14. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  15. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE, NECESSITY AND USAGE OF MULTIANNUAL BUDGETS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăpăduşi Mihaela Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The material is intended to be an easy to read one, structured in a way to be a theoreticalframework concerning the importance, necessity and usage of multi-annual budgets inRomania. The article puts particular emphasis on explaining the terminology specific to thedomain regarding multi-annual budgeting, on principles and less on methodology, whichonce learned and applied, can lead to the improvement of the financing mechanismsthrough multi-annual budgets. Without constituting a monograph of the legislation in force,the article refers also to the legal regulation that will be applied. In Romania budgets arevoted on annually, and this short time horizon has often been criticized that it wouldadversely affect the efficient management of expenditures. Decisions on resource allocationare taken without an overall vision, ignoring the implications of past decisions or set on atime horizon longer than one year. Most European countries have implemented in one formor another, multi-annual budgets, to counter the disadvantages of annual budgets. For themost part, universities that will apply multi-annual budgets will build a direct relationshiprelated to expectations regarding the evolution of the activity, not with the objectives set bythe university. In the case in which the expectations regarding the evolution of theuniversity are not expressed in clearly stated objectives, and are not employed indeveloping budgets, the answers received by performing an efficiency analysis of theuniversity, from the verification analysis of the projected and budgeted amounts, are verysimple and do not give added value to the budget process.

  16. Budget Environment, Budget Implementation Audit and Budget Violation:An Empirical Study on the Basis of the Central Budget Implementation Audit Data%预算环境、预算执行审计与预算违规--基于中央各部门预算执行审计数据的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑石桥; 孙硕

    2015-01-01

    预算违规是我国公共财政领域需要长期治理的问题。从预算环境和预算执行审计两个角度根据中央各部门预算执行审计数据探究预算违规的原因,结果显示:较高的财务充裕度会诱发更高比率的预算违规,更高的公众关注程度则会抑制预算违规,而部门首长的政治动力对预算违规并无影响,预算执行审计频度和预算违规程度显著负相关。因此,优化预算编制、完善预算公开、加速推进预算执行审计“全覆盖”势在必行。%Budget violation is the“psoriasis” which could not be cured in the field of Chinese public finance. This article ex-plores the reasons for the budget violation from two angles:budget environment and budget implementation audit. According to the research of central budget implementation audit, we found that higher financial adequacy will induce higher ratio of budget violation, a higher degree of public concern will restrain budget violation, and the head of department’ s political power does not have influence on the budget violation, the budget implementation audit frequency and the degree of budget violation is negatively correlated. Therefore, it is imperative to optimize the preparation of the budget, improve budget disclosure and ac-celerate the full coverage of budget implementation audit.

  17. The role of reservoirs in global sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, G.; Renwick, W.; Poesen, J.; de Vente, J.; Vinogradova, N.; Bazzoffi, P.; Lajczak, A.; Radoane, M.; Rey, F.

    2009-04-01

    Man-made reservoirs are an important sink for sediment eroded from the land and thus constitute an important aspect of the sediment budget. Their impact has mostly been assessed at the scale of an individual river basin but rarely on a continental or even a global scale. Although there are recent estimates of global sediment retention by dams, these studies have solely focussed on the role reservoirs play in controlling sediment fluxes to the oceans, thus on their net impact for global sediment budgets. However, the net impact of reservoirs is much larger than the gross amount of sediment stored within all reservoirs on the globe. Furthermore, the impact of smaller waterholding structures is mostly neglected. In this paper, we present a first comprehensive assessment of global annual sediment storage within reservoirs based on sedimentation rates obtained from over 3700 reservoirs, representing nearly 25% of the global storage capacity. We argue that at least 27 petagrams (Pg) sediment are stored annually in all larger reservoirs, with possible sediment retention of an additional 27 Pg in smaller man-made water bodies. These values are 2 to 4 times larger than the estimated sediment mass transported annually to the global coastal ocean, and 8 to 15 times larger than the net reduction of sediment flux to the oceans attributed to reservoirs. These estimates provide minimum annual continental erosion rates and comparison with soil erosion data suggest that soil erosion on agricultural land is not the dominant source of sediment deposited in reservoirs or exported to the ocean. In recent decades, reservoir sedimentation has become as least as important as floodplain sediment storage and can nowadays be considered as one of the most important sediment sinks in continental sediment budgets.

  18. The Energy Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Components of the atmospheric energy budget from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) are evaluated in polar regions for the period 1979-2005 and compared with previous estimates, in situ observations, and contemporary reanalyses. Closure of the energy budget is reflected by the analysis increments term, which results from virtual enthalpy and latent heating contributions and averages -11 W/sq m over the north polar cap and -22 W/sq m over the south polar cap. Total energy tendency and energy convergence terms from MERRA agree closely with previous study for northern high latitudes but convergence exceeds previous estimates for the south polar cap by 46 percent. Discrepancies with the Southern Hemisphere transport are largest in autumn and may be related to differences in topography with earlier reanalyses. For the Arctic, differences between MERRA and other sources in TOA and surface radiative fluxes maximize in May. These differences are concurrent with the largest discrepancies between MERRA parameterized and observed surface albedo. For May, in situ observations of the upwelling shortwave flux in the Arctic are 80 W/sq m larger than MERRA, while the MERRA downwelling longwave flux is underestimated by 12 W/sq m throughout the year. Over grounded ice sheets, the annual mean net surface energy flux in MERRA is erroneously non-zero. Contemporary reanalyses from the Climate Forecast Center (CFSR) and the Interim Re-Analyses of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-I) are found to have better surface parameterizations, however these collections are also found to have significant discrepancies with observed surface and TOA energy fluxes. Discrepancies among available reanalyses underscore the challenge of reproducing credible estimates of the atmospheric energy budget in polar regions.

  19. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  20. Managing the Cash and Liquidity of the Croatian Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Anto Bajo

    2005-01-01

    The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a gov...

  1. Heat Budget Monitoring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Neale, C. M. U.; Jaworowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent estimation of heat flux in active hydrothermal areas are required to monitor the variation in activity. Natural changes in geothermal and hydrothermal features can include rapid significant changes in surface temperature distribution and may be an indication of "re-plumbing" of the systems or potential hydrothermal explosions. Frequent monitoring of these systems can help Park managers make informed decisions on infrastructure development and/or take precautionary actions to protect the public. Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) is one of Yellowstone National Park's hottest and most dynamic basins. Airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing was used to estimate radiometric temperatures within NGB and allow for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface temperatures and the heat flow budget. The airborne monitoring occurred in consecutive years 2008-2012 allowing for the temporal comparison of heat budget in NGB. Airborne thermal infrared images in the 8-12 µm bands with 1-m resolution were acquired using a FLIR SC640 scanner. Digital multispectral images in the green (0.57 μm), red (0.65 μm), and near infrared (0.80 μm) bands were also acquired to classify the terrain cover and support the atmospheric and emissivity correction of the thermal images. The airborne images were taken in the month of September on selected days with similar weather and under clear sky conditions. In the winter of 2012, images were also taken in March to compare the effect of the cold weather and snow cover on the heat budget. Consistent methods were used to acquire and process the images each year to limit the potential variability in the results to only the variability in the hydrothermal system. Data from radiation flux towers installed within the basin were used to compare with airborne radiometric surface temperatures and compensate for residual solar heating in the imagery. The presentation will discuss the different mechanisms involved in

  2. Sediment budget in a Himalayan Valley (Middle Kali Gandaki, Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active mountains supply the largest sediment fluxes experienced on earth. At mountain range scale, sediment budgets are controlled by rock uplift and climate, hence by a wide range of erosion processes (detachment, transport and deposition), all operating within drainage basin units, with time and spatial patterns that indeed are quite complex at local scale. In the Himalayas, the sediment cascade is particularly efficient, as favoured by high, glaciated peaks, together with narrow valleys and steep hillslopes, in a monsoon-contrasted, climatic context. We focus on the Kali Gandaki valley, along the gorge section across Higher Himalaya (e.g. from Jomosom down to Tatopani). Along this reach, we identify sediment sources, sediment stores and sinks, and specifically consider hillslope interactions with valley floor at short and longer time scales, and their impact on sediment budgets and fluxes. We present a detailed sediment budget, constrained by available dates and/or relative chronology. Studied sites include rock-avalanches (Jomosom, Dhumpu), Pairothapla-Talbagar and Tatopani landslides, Ghatte khola debris fan, and terraces systems preserved at confluence sites along the lower slopes of the valley. On the basis of geomorphic surveys and mapping, and thanks to DEM facilities, we estimate the volume of each sedimentary unit, including lacustrine sediments trapped upstream of landslide and/or glacial dams. Debris volume eroded and/or deposited during the last decades is also calculated. Alternation of alluviation events and incision stages are then reconstructed, and their relation with sismo-tectonic and/or climatic triggering events suggested, according to the time scale considered. From our results it appears that if large landslides contribute significantly to the denudation history of active mountain range, more frequent, medium to small scales landslides are in fact of primary concern for Himalayan population. This conclusion suggests that in this very

  3. The Effect of Production Planning and Budgeting on Organizational Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Adebisi Olusegun ADEGBUYI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improved productivity and proper organizational structure are desired by most manufacturing outfits within the highly turbulent business environment of Nigeria. With various contributing factors, scientific basis for decision making that will lead to enhanced policies for organizational operations is stronlgy established. Five statistical hypotheses which are influence of education, government policies, planning and organizational output, and production planning/budgeting and technological advancement, propounded in this work were investigated to establish a valid decision basis on a confidence level assumed to be 0.05. The work finally examined the impact of the hypotheses on productivity.

  4. What if simulation for a Brazilian company regarding marketing budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo André PINTO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article research is a case study regarding how to design the marketing budget for a small Brazilian company that started the activity one year ago. Taking into account the data that we gather, we decided to use What-if simulation. The case study is a simplified model representation of a company, adjusted according to the data that is released as target for the following year. In practice, the formulation of a scenario allows the construction of a hypothetical world that the analyst can see and navigate.

  5. What if simulation for a Brazilian company regarding marketing budget

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo André PINTO

    2016-01-01

    The article research is a case study regarding how to design the marketing budget for a small Brazilian company that started the activity one year ago. Taking into account the data that we gather, we decided to use What-if simulation. The case study is a simplified model representation of a company, adjusted according to the data that is released as target for the following year. In practice, the formulation of a scenario allows the construction of a hypothetical world that the analyst can se...

  6. Capital Budgeting: a Tax Shields’ “Mirage”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DRAGOTĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The mainstream in Finance studies recognizes the impact of tax shields on capital budgeting. This study offers some evidences regarding a bias in direct investment projects valuation in the case of taking into account of the allowance of recovery of the losses recorded in the past financial exercises from future profits as long as the classical indicators (e.g., Net Present Value are used. Also, this tax regime seems to favour the adoption of less-performer projects by lessperformer companies, as long as these projects should be otherwise rejected by a performer company.

  7. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen budgets of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somasundar, K.; Rajendran, A.; DileepKumar, M.; SenGupta, R.

    grams (Tg) for carbon, and 8.06 and 3.60 Tg for nitrogen, respectively. The carbon budget was found to be negatively balanced by 84 Tg year- t. A possible source to compensate for this deficit could be from the northward movement of Antarctic Bottom... with adjoining seas and rivers. This in turn affects the nutrient dynamics of both the Arabian Sea and the Red Sea. Bethoux ( 1988 ) further emphasized the importance of the effect of deep outflow of materials (carbon, nutrients and oxygen) from the Red Sea...

  9. Facilities and Infrastructure FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Facilities and Infrastructure Program includes EERE’s capital investments, operations and maintenance, and site-wide support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It is the nation’s only national laboratory with a primary mission dedicated to the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of energy efficiency, renewable energy and related technologies. EERE is NREL’s steward, primary client and sponsor of NREL’s designation as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center. The Facilities and Infrastructure (F&I) budget maintains NREL’s research and support infrastructure, ensures availability for EERE’s use, and provides a safe and secure workplace for employees.

  10. BUDGET MECHANISM IN REGULATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vitalievna Chaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewed and analyzed budget mechanism in regulating the development of the social sphere in Ukraine.The purpose of this article is to study the theoretical foundations of the functioning of the budgetary mechanism in regulating the development of the social sphere.When writing articles following methods were used: the statistical method of comparison and generalization, the dialectical method of deduction method.The results of the study can be used by the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ministry of social policy of Ukraine.

  11. Mining remittances corresponding to metalliferous ores: regulation and budget impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asaloș

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic statistics and forecasting show that Romania has a very favourable potential as far as the metalliferous ores are concerned. As these are owned by the state, once they are allowed to be exploited, they generate considerable amounts for the consolidated public budget. The present paper is meant to conduct a synthetic analysis on the topic of mining remittances from an economic perspective, by considering the juridical framework of capitalizing deposits of ferrous and non-ferrous ores, correlated with the general regulations concerning property and the specific existing regulations of the EU and of the countries that have experience and potential in the mining sector.

  12. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically....... First, by modeling the SBC problem as a war of attrition between the applicant countries' governments and firms, we find that outside conditionality can foster SBC hardening. Second, estimating SBC hardening in a partial adjustment model by measuring the development of labor productivity, we find...

  13. Threat to AIDS funding continues past fiscal 1996 budget battles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M

    1996-01-01

    AIDS community advocates face an ongoing battle to gain funding for AIDS research, care, and prevention within the upcoming 1997 fiscal year. The level of uncertainty experienced by the advocates has never been this high. The Democrats' and Republicans' call for a balanced budget will hurt AIDS programs, and domestic discretionary spending will be severely restricted in fiscal years 1996 to 2002. The challenge to AIDS advocates is to try to preserve the integrity of vital programs and safeguard the already fragile AIDS care infrastructure.

  14. Robust quadratic assignment problem with budgeted uncertain flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Feizollahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalization of the classical quadratic assignment problem, where material flows between facilities are uncertain, and belong to a budgeted uncertainty set. The objective is to find a robust solution under all possible scenarios in the given uncertainty set. We present an exact quadratic formulation as a robust counterpart and develop an equivalent mixed integer programming model for it. To solve the proposed model for large-scale instances, we also develop two different heuristics based on 2-Opt local search and tabu search algorithms. We discuss performance of these methods and the quality of robust solutions through extensive computational experiments.

  15. Fairness and the EC budget: Is Spain tilting at windmills?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Roger; Jones, Philip

    1991-01-01

    The poorer member states of the EC are often disappointed at what they see as a very limited degree of redistribution of resources away from the richer members towards the less well off. In a recent paper to the intergovernmental conference (IGC) on political union, for example, Spain calls for a number of measures, including explicit inter-state budget transfers, in order to increase the rate of convergence of income levels across member states. The purpose of this paper is to review the deg...

  16. Dollars and sense: Mitigating budget risk for ICD-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Lucy Mancini; DeSilva, Joseph J

    2013-02-01

    The extended deadline for ICD-10 implementation is time that should not be wasted. Healthcare leaders should keep three things in mind: CFOs should approach the effort knowing the costs of ICD-10 implementation will be high and spread over multiple budget years. Training, productivity, and contractual issues are among key areas that will be challenged by ICD-10 implementation. Healthcare finance leaders should work to improve cash-on-hand and cash reserves prior to the ICD-10 deadline to ensure liquidity post-compliance.

  17. Cash budgeting: an underutilized resource management tool in not-for-profit health care entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R C; Edwards, D E; Edwards, J T

    1991-01-01

    Cash budgeting is generally considered to be an important part of resource management in all businesses. However, respondents to a survey of not-for-profit health care entities revealed that some 40 percent of the participants do not currently prepare cash budgets. Where budgeting occurred, the cash forecasts covered various time frames, and distribution of the document was inconsistent. Most budgets presented cash receipts and disbursements according to operating, investing, and financing activities--a format consistent with the year-end cash flow statement. By routinely preparing monthly cash budgets, the not-for-profit health care entity can project cash inflow/outflow or position with anticipated cash insufficiencies and surpluses. The budget should be compared each month to actual results to evaluate performance. The magnitude and timing of cash flows is much too critical to be left to chance.

  18. Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

  19. Place of Budget Management in the General System of Trade Enterprise Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Olena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article grounds urgency of identification of the place of budget management in the general system of trade enterprise management. It analyses points of view of economists with respect to definitions of the “budgeting” and “budget management” terms. It considers main functions of budget management. It identifies the place of budget management in the general system of enterprise management. Pursuant to definition of the budget management as a managerial technology, which should meet a number of requirements, which would be determined by specific features of enterprise practical activity, the article identifies its main principles. It groups principles of budget management in accordance with the functions it performs.

  20. Research on a New Approach of R&D Budgeting based on Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce value chain and uses stage-gate model, which is widely used in programming, to find a new approach of R&D budgeting based on value chain. The expense of R&D of contemporary enterprises is taking larger and larger part of the whole production cost, so R&D budgeting, as a forward feed management mode, has been paid great attention to. R&D budgeting model is a management system that contains relevant basic concepts, procedures and methods correspondingly. The present model most enterprises are using follows the budgeting method in the field of manufacturing, which is more difficult to adapt to the characteristics of R&D activities, leading to adverse effects on R&D budget slack, as well as low management efficiency. Actually, the process of budgeting is the allocation of scarce resources to organize all kinds of work.