WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget experiment erbe

  1. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  2. 1999-2003 Shortwave Characterizations of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS)/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Broadband Active Cavity Radiometer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, George L.; Wong, Takmeng

    2008-01-01

    From October 1984 through May 2005, the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS/ )/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)ERBE nonscanning active cavity radiometers (ACR) were used to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components of the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), earth-reflected TSI, and earth-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). From September1984 through September 1999, using on-board calibration systems, the ERBS/ERBE ACR sensor response changes, in gains and offsets, were determined from on-orbit calibration sources and from direct observations of the incoming TSI through calibration solar ports at measurement precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m , at satellite altitudes. On October 6, 1999, the onboard radiometer calibration system elevation drive failed. Thereafter, special spacecraft maneuvers were performed to observe cold space and the sun in order to define the post-September 1999 geometry of the radiometer measurements, and to determine the October 1999-September 2003 ERBS sensor response changes. Analyses of these special solar and cold space observations indicate that the radiometers were pointing approximately 16 degrees away from the spacecraft nadir and on the anti-solar side of the spacecraft. The special observations indicated that the radiometers responses were stable at precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m . In this paper, the measurement geometry determinations and the determinations of the radiometers gain and offset are presented, which will permit the accurate processing of the October 1999 through September 2003 ERBE data products at satellite and top-of-the-atmosphere altitudes.

  3. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  4. Thermal Orbital Environmental Parameter Study on the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The natural thermal environmental parameters used on the Space Station Program (SSP 30425) were generated by the Space Environmental Effects Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) utilizing extensive data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), a series of satellites which measured low earth orbit (LEO) albedo and outgoing long-wave radiation. Later, this temporal data was presented as a function of averaging times and orbital inclination for use by thermal engineers in NASA Technical Memorandum TM 4527. The data was not presented in a fashion readily usable by thermal engineering modeling tools and required knowledge of the thermal time constants and infrared versus solar spectrum sensitivity of the hardware being analyzed to be used properly. Another TM was recently issued as a guideline for utilizing these environments (NASA/TM-2001-211221) with more insight into the utilization by thermal analysts. This paper gives a top-level overview of the environmental parameters presented in the TM and a study of the effects of implementing these environments on an ongoing MSFC project, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), compared to conventional orbital parameters that had been historically used.

  5. The potential for collocated AGLP and ERBE data for fire, smoke, and radiation budget studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, S.A.; Chou, J.

    1997-01-01

    One month of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) Land Pathfinder (AGLP) data from September 1985 are used to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires over four major ecosystems in South America. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner data are used to examine the top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave and longwave fluxes over smoke generated from biomass burn- ing. The relationship between the AGLP-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ERBE-estimated clear sky albedos are also examined as a function of the four ecosystems. This study shows that the grassland areas in South America have the highest number of fires for September 1985, and their corresponding NDVI values are smaller than the tropical rainforest region where the number of fires were comparatively small. Clear sky statistics accumulated during the days when smoke was not present show that clear sky albedos derived from ERBE are higher for grassland areas when compared to the tropical rainforest. The results show that the AGLP can be used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires along with vegetation characteristics, while ERBE data can provide necessary information on broadband albedos and regional top of atmosphere radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols. Since the AGLP data are available from 1981 to the present day, several climate-related issues can be addressed

  6. ERB-II operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.N.; Cissel, D.W.; Smith, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    As originally designed and operated, EBR-II successfully demonstrated the concept of a sodium-cooled fast breeder power plant with a closed fuel reprocessing cycle (mini-nuclear park). Subsequent operation has been as an irradiation facility, a role which will continue into the foreseeable future. Since the beginning of operation in 1961, operating experience of EBR-II has been very satisfactory. Most of the components and systems have performed well. In particular, the mechanical performance of heat-removal systems has been excellent. A review of the operating experience reveals that all the original design objectives have been successfully demonstrated. To date, no failures or incidents resulting in serious in-core or out-of-core consequences have occurred. No water-to-sodium leaks have been detected over the life of the plant. At the present time, the facility is operating very well and continuously except for short shutdowns required by maintenance, refueling, modification, and minor repair. A plant factor of 76.9% was achieved for the calendar year 1976

  7. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  8. Radiation budget studies using collocated observations from advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2, and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, Richard A.; Smith, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Collocated observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2 (HIRS/2), and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments onboard the NOAA 9 satellite are combined to describe the broadband and spectral radiative properties of the earth-atmosphere system. Broadband radiative properties are determined from the ERBE observations, while spectral properties are determined from the HIRS/2 and AVHRR observations. The presence of clouds, their areal coverage, and cloud top pressure are determined from a combination of the HIRS/2 and the AVHRR observations. The CO2 slicing method is applied to the HIRS/2 to determine the presence of upper level clouds and their effective emissivity. The AVHRR data collocated within the HIRS/2 field of view are utilized to determine the uniformity of the scene and retrieve sea surface temperature. Changes in the top of the atmosphere longwave and shortwave radiative energy budgets, and the spectral distribution of longwave radiation are presented as a function of cloud amount and cloud top pressure. The radiative characteristics of clear sky conditions over oceans are presented as a function of sea surface temperature and atmospheric water vapor structure.

  9. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  10. Zero-Based Budgeting: The Texas Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting was instituted in all Texas state-funded agencies in 1975-76, including colleges. The first two years of using this procedure are reviewed and its applicability to higher education institutions is examined in light of the need to consider educational quality as well as costs. (MSE)

  11. Top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes - Validation of ERBE scanner inversion algorithm using Nimbus-7 ERB data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Vemury, Sastri

    1992-01-01

    The ERBE algorithm is applied to the Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) scanner data for June 1979 to analyze the performance of an inversion method in deriving top-of-atmosphere albedos and longwave radiative fluxes. The performance is assessed by comparing ERBE algorithm results with appropriate results derived using the sorting-by-angular-bins (SAB) method, the ERB MATRIX algorithm, and the 'new-cloud ERB' (NCLE) algorithm. Comparisons are made for top-of-atmosphere albedos, longwave fluxes, viewing zenith-angle dependence of derived albedos and longwave fluxes, and cloud fractional coverage. Using the SAB method as a reference, the rms accuracy of monthly average ERBE-derived results are estimated to be 0.0165 (5.6 W/sq m) for albedos (shortwave fluxes) and 3.0 W/sq m for longwave fluxes. The ERBE-derived results were found to depend systematically on the viewing zenith angle, varying from near nadir to near the limb by about 10 percent for albedos and by 6-7 percent for longwave fluxes. Analyses indicated that the ERBE angular models are the most likely source of the systematic angular dependences. Comparison of the ERBE-derived cloud fractions, based on a maximum-likelihood estimation method, with results from the NCLE showed agreement within about 10 percent.

  12. Participatory health system priority setting: Evidence from a budget experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2015-12-01

    Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

  14. Choosing health: qualitative evidence from the experiences of personal health budget holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacqueline; Baxter, Kate; Glendinning, Caroline; Irvine, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Personal health budgets were piloted in the English National Health Service between 2009 and 2012. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of early budget holders aimed to explore their experiences of receiving and using a budget. Over 2000 people from 20 pilot sites were recruited to a multi-method evaluation of the personal health budget pilots. A sub-sample of 58 people was selected for qualitative interviews three months after the offer of a budget; 52 were re-interviewed six months later. The purposively selected sample reflected a range of health conditions, locality, age and gender. Personal health budgets were reported to have positive impacts on health, health care and relatives/family. Benefits often extended beyond the condition for which the budget had been awarded. However, interviewees rarely knew the level of their budget; some reported difficulty in agreeing acceptable uses for their budget; and delays could occur in procuring chosen services or equipment. Patients' experiences offer valuable insights for the roll-out of personal health budgets beyond the pilot phase. Flexibility in how budgets are used may allow maximum benefits to be derived. Clear information about what budgets can and cannot be used for, with suggestions offered, will be useful. People with newly diagnosed or recent sudden onset conditions may need more help to plan their support, but all budget holders are likely to benefit from regular contact with staff for reassurance and continued motivation.

  15. A Predictor Analysis Framework for Surface Radiation Budget Reprocessing Using Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Patricia Allison

    Earth's Radiation Budget (ERB) is an accounting of all incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy reflected and radiated to space by earth's surface and atmosphere. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces and archives long-term datasets representative of this energy exchange system on a global scale. The data are comprised of the longwave and shortwave radiative components of the system and is algorithmically derived from satellite and atmospheric assimilation products, and acquired atmospheric data. It is stored as 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of 1° x 1° grid cells. Input parameters used by the algorithms are a key source of variability in the resulting output data sets. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to estimate the effects this variability has on the output data sets using linear techniques. This entails varying one input parameter at a time while keeping all others constant or by increasing all input parameters by equal random percentages, in effect changing input values for every cell for every three hour period and for every day in each month. This equates to almost 11 million independent changes without ever taking into consideration the interactions or dependencies among the input parameters. A more comprehensive method is proposed here for the evaluating the shortwave algorithm to identify both the input parameters and parameter interactions that most significantly affect the output data. This research utilized designed experiments that systematically and simultaneously varied all of the input parameters of the shortwave algorithm. A D-Optimal design of experiments (DOE) was chosen to accommodate the 14 types of atmospheric properties computed by the algorithm and to reduce the number of trials required by a full factorial study from millions to 128. A modified version of the algorithm was made

  16. Canada can learn from Uganda's gender budgeting experience ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-11

    Jan 11, 2018 ... I recently attended an event on gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) in ... a commitment to gender parity in the Cabinet, and the recent launch of a Feminist ... Policy, Canada is demonstrating its commitment to gender equality.

  17. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    The University of Montreal's choice of the rational model of decision-making in managing budget cutbacks is explored and compared with other approaches, including the bureaucratic, garbage can, political, and collegial models. (MSE)

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  19. Growth inhibitory effects of the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI-166 on human prostate cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Tran, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L

    2002-09-15

    Experiments with human prostate cancer cell lines have shown that forced overexpression of the ErbB2-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) promotes androgen-independent growth and increases androgen receptor-transcriptional activity in a ligand-independent fashion. To investigate the relationship between ErbB-RTK signaling and androgen in genetically unmanipulated human prostate cancer, we performed biochemical and biological studies with the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 RTK inhibitor PKI-166 using human prostate cancer xenograft models with isogenic sublines reflecting the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent growth. In the presence of low androgen concentrations, PKI-166 showed profound growth-inhibitory effects on tumor growth, which could be partially reversed by androgen add-back. At physiological androgen concentrations, androgen withdrawal greatly enhanced the ability of PKI-166 to retard tumor growth. The level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation correlated with the response to PKI-166 treatment, whereas the expression levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 did not. These results suggest that ErbB1/ErbB2 RTKs play an important role in the biology of androgen-independent prostate cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of inhibitors targeted to this pathway.

  20. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Gruber, M. R. (2011, 13 December). Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas). Guest lecture at the IPMZ - Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research, Devision Media Change & Innovation, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Continuity of Earth Radiation Budget Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Su, W.; Wong, T.; Priestley, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions. Earth's radiation budget (ERB) involves a balance between how much solar energy Earth absorbs and how much terrestrial thermal infrared radiation is emitted to space. Because of its critical role in climate, continuous monitoring of the ERB is necessary for improved understanding and prediction of climate variability and change. NASA's long history in observing the TOA ERB is acknowledged in the 2007 and 2013 reports of the IPCC (IPCC 2007, 2013), the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey (NRC 2007), and the GCOS implementation plan of the WMO (GCOS 2016). A key reason for NASA's success in this area is due to its support of the CERES Project and its predecessor, ERBE. During ERBE, the TOA ERB was observed using both scanner and nonscanner broadband instruments. The CERES project consists of six scanner instruments flying alongside high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS, VIIRS) in morning and afternoon sun-synchronous orbits. In addition to extending the ERBE TOA radiation budget record, CERES also provides observations of Earth's surface radiation budget with unprecedented accuracy. Here we assess the likelihood of a measurement gap in the ERB record. We show that unless a follow-on ERB instrument to the last available CERES copy (FM6) is built and launched, there is a significant risk of a measurement gap in the ERB record by the mid-2020s. A gap is of concern not only because the ERB would not be monitored during the gap period but also because it would be exceedingly difficult to tie the records before and after the gap together with sufficient accuracy for climate analyses. While ERB instruments are highly stable temporally, they lack the absolute accuracy needed to bridge a gap. Consequently, there is a requirement that

  2. Modulation of the Neuregulin 1/ErbB system after skeletal muscle denervation and reinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Michela; Ronchi, Giulia; Nicolò, Valentina; Fornasari, Benedetta Elena; Crosio, Alessandro; Perroteau, Isabelle; Geuna, Stefano; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Raimondo, Stefania

    2018-03-22

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a growth factor produced by both peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle. In muscle, it regulates neuromuscular junction gene expression, acetylcholine receptor number, muscle homeostasis and satellite cell survival. NRG1 signalling is mediated by the tyrosine kinase receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4 and their co-receptors ErbB1 and ErbB2. The NRG1/ErbB system is well studied in nerve tissue after injury, but little is known about this system in skeletal muscle after denervation/reinnervation processes. Here, we performed a detailed time-course expression analysis of several NRG1 isoforms and ErbB receptors in the rat superficial digitorum flexor muscle after three types of median nerve injuries of different severities. We found that ErbB receptor expression was correlated with the innervated state of the muscle, with upregulation of ErbB2 clearly associated with the denervation state. Interestingly, the NRG1 isoforms were differently regulated depending on the nerve injury type, leading to the hypothesis that both the NRG1α and NRG1β isoforms play a key role in the muscle reaction to injury. Indeed, in vitro experiments with C2C12 atrophic myotubes revealed that both NRG1α and NRG1β treatment influences the best-known atrophic pathways, suggesting that NRG1 might play an anti-atrophic role.

  3. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    The experiences of the University of Montreal in using a rational-analytic framework to allocate resources at a time of budget costs are discussed. The following characteristics for rational decision-making are identified and applied to the University of Montreal: whether goals were known, whether alternative methods of resource allocation were…

  4. Service experience through the eyes of budget hotel guests : do factors of importance influence performance dimensions?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, A.; Lengler, J.F.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the influence of dimensions of importance (expectations) in hotel services on performance (actual experience) within the context of budget hotels in China. A theoretical model and nine hypotheses are tested to indicate whether the dimensions of importance such as room service, room comfort and reservation process, have any impact on performance dimensions such as in-room dining, front office service, room amenities and hotel access and safety. A final model is...

  5. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin; Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Norman Mohd Saleh; Romlah Jaffar

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2) Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 a...

  6. Development of response models for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) sensors. Part 4: Preliminary nonscanner models and count conversion algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim; Choi, Sang H.

    1987-01-01

    Two count conversion algorithms and the associated dynamic sensor model for the M/WFOV nonscanner radiometers are defined. The sensor model provides and updates the constants necessary for the conversion algorithms, though the frequency with which these updates were needed was uncertain. This analysis therefore develops mathematical models for the conversion of irradiance at the sensor field of view (FOV) limiter into data counts, derives from this model two algorithms for the conversion of data counts to irradiance at the sensor FOV aperture and develops measurement models which account for a specific target source together with a sensor. The resulting algorithms are of the gain/offset and Kalman filter types. The gain/offset algorithm was chosen since it provided sufficient accuracy using simpler computations.

  7. Some heat and moisture budgets over Bay of Bengal during MONSOON 17 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar Rao, D.V.

    1985-12-01

    Heat and moisture budgets have been estimated for the period 13-18 August 1977 over Bay of Bengal using data collected from USSR ships during MONSOON 77 experiment. The divergence, relative vorticity and vertical p-velocity fields are derived. The apparent heat source and moisture sink are obtained for the period. The vertical-time sections of the derived fields are presented and the distributions are compared for undisturbed conditions during the period of study. The results show strong convective motions during the disturbed period indicating the importance of convection in the monsoon depressions. (author)

  8. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2 Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 and non-Big4 firms; 3 The results indicate that professional skepticism and experience have positive effects while time budget pressure has a negative effect on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; and 4 The positive effect of professional skepticism on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatement is stronger among more experienced auditors than that among less experienced. On the other hand, the positive effect of professional skepticism on risk assessment is weaker when auditors work under high time budget pressure than that when they work under low time budget pressure. Additional analysis on the samples from the two selected areas, Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, produces consistent results indicating that the use of separate models for different samples is not necessary. Hence, the study uses a single model for the final analysis. The results provide a better understanding on whether the auditors are able to sustain professional skepticism with a given amount of relevant audit experience and under different levels of time budget pressure.

  9. Budget Surpluses: Experiences of Other Nations and Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... should be used. While balancing the budget has been the clear and generally accepted fiscal goal for many years in the United States, there is not yet agreement on the appropriate fiscal policy during a period of budget surpluses...

  10. Comparison of ERBS orbit determination accuracy using batch least-squares and sequential methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Fabien, S. M.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Div. (FDD) at NASA-Goddard commissioned a study to develop the Real Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft on a DOS based personal computer (PC). An overview is presented of RTOD/E capabilities and the results are presented of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft obtained using RTOS/E on a PC with the accuracy of an established batch least squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. RTOD/E was used to perform sequential orbit determination for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) was used to perform the batch least squares orbit determination. The estimated ERBS ephemerides were obtained for the Aug. 16 to 22, 1989, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for ERBS were available. Independent assessments were made to examine the consistencies of results obtained by the batch and sequential methods. Comparisons were made between the forward filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions and definitive GTDS orbit solutions for ERBS; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.

  11. Comparison of ERBS orbit determination accuracy using batch least-squares and sequential methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Fabien, S. M.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Doll, C. E.

    1991-10-01

    The Flight Dynamics Div. (FDD) at NASA-Goddard commissioned a study to develop the Real Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft on a DOS based personal computer (PC). An overview is presented of RTOD/E capabilities and the results are presented of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft obtained using RTOS/E on a PC with the accuracy of an established batch least squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. RTOD/E was used to perform sequential orbit determination for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) was used to perform the batch least squares orbit determination. The estimated ERBS ephemerides were obtained for the Aug. 16 to 22, 1989, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for ERBS were available. Independent assessments were made to examine the consistencies of results obtained by the batch and sequential methods. Comparisons were made between the forward filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions and definitive GTDS orbit solutions for ERBS; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.

  12. Rev-erbα and Rev-erbβ coordinately protect the circadian clock and normal metabolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anne Skovsø; Feng, Dan; Everett, Logan J

    2012-01-01

    of binding sites across the genome, enriched near metabolic genes. Depletion of both Rev-erbs in liver synergistically derepresses several metabolic genes as well as genes that control the positive limb of the molecular clock. Moreover, deficiency of both Rev-erbs causes marked hepatic steatosis, in contrast......-autonomous clock as well as hepatic lipid metabolism. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were rendered arrhythmic by depletion of both Rev-erbs. In mouse livers, Rev-erbβ mRNA and protein levels oscillate with a diurnal pattern similar to that of Rev-erbα, and both Rev-erbs are recruited to a remarkably similar set...

  13. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. Using pooled budgets to integrate health and welfare services: a comparison of experiments in England and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Eva-Lisa; Glendinning, Caroline; Allebeck, Peter; Lönnroth, Knut

    2005-11-01

    The lack of collaboration between health, social and other welfare services is believed to impair efficiency and reduce effectiveness in addressing the complex problems of patients. Differences in funding streams, political accountabilities, organisational structures and professional cultures are all alleged to contribute to barriers between services. Drawing on their respective evaluations, this paper describes experiments in England and Sweden that use pooled budgets between services to improve interagency and interprofessional collaboration and presents evidence on their impact. Despite differences in the funding and organisation of health and welfare services in each country, some similar conclusions are reached. Among senior managers and politicians, budget pooling broadened their awareness of interdependencies with other agencies and professionals in promoting patients' welfare. However, these broadened perspectives were not immediately shared by professionals working at the front line, with whom patients had immediate contact. Moreover, neither experiment yielded unequivocal evidence of improved cost-effectiveness or of the benefits of budget pooling on the outcomes for service users. These experiments also raise questions about the equity and accountability of welfare services because in both countries only a limited range of services has been integrated under the umbrella of the pooled budgets.

  15. OCAM regulates embryonic spinal cord stem cell proliferation by modulating ErbB2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Deleyrolle

    Full Text Available The proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells are tightly controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Cell adhesion molecules are increasingly recognized as regulators of these processes. Here we report the expression of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM/NCAM2/RNCAM during mouse spinal cord development and in neural stem cells cultured as neurospheres. OCAM is also weakly expressed in the dormant adult stem cell niche around the central canal and is overexpressed after spinal cord injury. Both transmembrane (TM and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-linked isoforms are present in neurospheres. Electron microscopy and internalisation experiments revealed a dynamic trafficking of OCAM between the membrane and intracellular compartments. After differentiation, OCAM remains in neurons and oligodendrocytes whereas no expression is detected in astrocytes. Using OCAM knockout (KO mice, we found that mutant spinal cord stem cells showed an increased proliferation and self-renewal rates although no effect on differentiation was observed. This effect was reversed by lentivirus-mediated re-introduction of OCAM. Mechanistically, we identified the ErbB2/Neu/HER2 protein as being implicated in the enhanced proliferation of mutant cells. ErbB2 protein expression and phosphorylation level were significantly increased in KO cells whereas no difference was observed at the mRNA level. Overexpression of ErbB2 in wild-type and mutant cells also increased their growth while reintroduction of OCAM in mutant cells reduced the level of phosphorylated ErbB2. These results indicate that OCAM exerts a posttranscriptional control on the ErbB2 signalling in spinal cord stem cells. This study adds further support for considering cell adhesion molecules as regulators of the ErbB signalling.

  16. Ozone budgets from the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements from the Dynamics and Chemistry of marine Stratocumulus experiment have been used to study components of the regional ozone budget. The surface destruction rate is determined by eddy correlation of ozone and vertical velocity measured by a low-flying aircraft. Significant variability is found in the measured surface resistance; it is partially correlated with friction velocity but appears to have other controlling influences as well. The mean resistance is 4190 s/m which is higher (slower destruction) than most previous estimates for seawater. Flux and mean measurements throughout the marine boundary layer are used to estimate the net rate of in situ photochemical production/destruction of ozone. Averaged over the flights, ozone concentration is found to be near steady state, and a net of photochemical destruction of 0.02-0.07 ng/cu m per sec is diagnosed. This is an important confirmation of photochemical model results for the remote marine boundary layer. Ozone vertical distributions above the boundary layer show a strongly layered structure with very sharp gradients. These distributions are possibly related to the stratospheric ozone source.

  17. v-erbA overexpression is required to extinguish c-erbA function in erythroid cell differentiation and regulation of the erbA target gene CAII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disela, C; Glineur, C; Bugge, T

    1991-01-01

    The v-erbA oncoprotein represents a retrovirus-transduced oncogenic version of the thyroid hormone (T3/T4) receptor c-erbA (type alpha). It contributes to virus-induced erythroleukemia by efficiently arresting differentiation of red cell progenitors and by suppressing transcription of erythrocyte...... of this CAII reporter construct could only be suppressed by very high amounts of v-erbA. Our results suggest that overexpression of v-erbA is required for its function as an oncoprotein....

  18. ErbB2, but not ErbB1, reinitiates proliferation and induces luminal repopulation in epithelial acini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Li, Dongmei; Lelievre, Sophie; Bissell, Mina J; Brugge, Joan S

    2001-08-08

    Both ErbB1 and ErbB2 are overexpressed or amplified in breast tumors. To examine the effects of activating ErbB receptors in a context that mimics polarized epithelial cells in vivo, we activated ErbB1 and ErbB2 homodimers in preformed, growth-arrested mammary acini cultured in three-dimensional basement membrane gels. Activation of ErbB2, but not that of ErbB1, led to a reinitiation of cell proliferation and altered the properties of mammary acinar structures. These altered structures share several properties with early-stage tumors, including a loss of proliferative suppression, an absence of lumen, retention of the basement membrane and a lack of invasive properties. ErbB2 activation also disrupted tight junctions and the cell polarity of polarized epithelia, whereas ErbB1 activation did not have any effect. Our results indicate that ErbB receptors differ in their ability to induce early stages of mammary carcinogenesis in vitro and this three-dimensional model system can reveal biological activities of oncogenes that cannot be examined in vitro in standard transformation assays.

  19. TOA Radiation Balance Study through Reprocessed ERBS WFOV Nonscanner data from 1985 to 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Wong, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Doelling, D. R.; Loughman, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Wide-field-of-view (WFOV) nonscanner instrument onboard Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) provided broadband irradiances at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) from 1985 to 1999. However, earlier studies show that the uncertainty in this TOA radiation dataset is significantly higher during the period after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption and battery issue in 1991. In addition, the difference between daytime and nighttime longwave irradiance drifts with time throughout the lifetime of the instrument. We re-processed ERBS WFOV data using the algorithm similar to the one used in the CERES project and calibrated it with CERES-derived irradiances. In addition, the spatial coverage of ERBS irradiances is extended to global from near-global (60°N to 60°S latitudes) using CERES climatological ratio of the near-global to global mean irradiances. The near-global standard deviation of deseasonalized shortwave anomalies computed with Ed4 decreases to 3.2 Wm-2 from 8.0 Wm-2, computed with previous version. In addition, the drift of day-minus-night longwave irradiance is reduced by one third. Similar to the previous version, however, the Ed4 global shortwave irradiance averaged over the 1994 to 1997 period (second period) is smaller by 2.2 Wm-2 compared to that averaged over the 1985 to 1989 period (first period). In addition, the global longwave irradiance in the second period is larger by 0.7 Wm-2 compared to that averaged over the first period. When the difference of two periods is computed (second period minus first period) with the DEEP-C data product (Allan et al. 2014), the difference is 0.5 (-0.3) Wm-2 for shortwave (longwave). The global net imbalance at the TOA computed with ERBS and DEEP-C data sets are, respectively, 0.45 (1.89) Wm-2 and 0.17 (0.96) Wm-2 for the first (second) period. The net imbalance for the CERES period in the 2000s is 0.65 Wm-2. In this presentation, we will further compare Ed4 ERBS-derived TOA net imbalance with ocean heating rates. Re-processed ERBS

  20. Accrual Budgeting: Experiences of Other Nations and Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Responsibility Act FRAB Financial Reporting Advisory Board GAAP generally accepted accounting principles GDP gross domestic product IP Independency...investment while the NIPA budget shows current expenditures and thus excludes investments and includes the consumption of fixed capital ( depreciation ). Page...asset purchases below a certain amount if the department can fund them from depreciation reserves. See chapter 3 and country appendixes for

  1. The presence of c-erbB-2 gene product-related protein in culture medium conditioned by breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, O.; Yamaguchi, K.; Hitomi, J.; Honda, S.; Matsushima, T.; Abe, K.

    1990-01-01

    The Mr 185,000 glycoprotein encoded by human c-erbB-2/neu/HER2 gene, termed c-erbB-2 gene product, shows a close structural similarity with epidermal growth factor receptor and is now regarded to be a growth factor receptor for an as yet unidentified ligand. Abundant c-erbB-2 mRNA was demonstrated by Northern blot studies in the human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3. Cellular radiolabeling experiments followed by immunoprecipitation with three different anti-c-erbB-2 gene product antibodies, recognizing extracellular domain, kinase domain, and carboxyl-terminal portion, respectively, demonstrated the production of a large amount of c-erbB-2 gene product which had the capacity to be phosphorylated. Immunization of mice with concentrated culture medium conditioned by SK-BR-3 cells always generated antibodies against c-erbB-2 gene product, demonstrating that this culture medium contained substance(s) immunologically indistinguishable from c-erbB-2 gene product. This observation was supported by the successful development of a monoclonal antibody against c-erbB-2 gene product, GFD-OA-p185-1, by immunizing mice with this culture medium. The biochemical nature of the substance(s) present in the culture medium was further characterized. When the culture medium conditioned by [35S]cysteine-labeled SK-BR-3 cells was immunoprecipitated by three different anti-c-erbB-2 gene product antibodies, only the antibody recognizing extracellular domain precipitated the [35S]-labeled protein with a molecular weight of 110,000, namely p110. The newly developed monoclonal antibody also immunoprecipitated this protein

  2. Delivering on a gendered definition of health needs in local government budgeting: experiences and concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyana, K

    2009-10-01

    Local governments are granted budgetary power in the Local Governments Act of the Republic of Uganda, which allows for local-level participation and flexibility in the allocation of financial grants channelled annually from central to local governments. The act prescribes a legal mandate to allocate public resources based on local priorities including the health needs of women compared with men. This study investigated the responsiveness of local government budgeting to the health needs of women as compared to men. A qualitative study was conducted in Mpigi district using a set of data collection methods including: a) three (3) focus group discussions with 8 female and 8 male respondents in each group; b) face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 120 households, 75% of which were male-headed and 25% female-headed ; c) key informant interviews with a sample of 10 administrative officers in Mpigi district ; and d) desk-review of the Mpigi district Budget Framework Paper. Health needs consist of the daily requirements, which, arise out of common disease infections and the socioeconomic constraints that affect the well-being of women and men. However, the primary concern of the district health sector is disease control measures, without emphasis on the differing socio-economic interests of women as compared to men. Local government budgeting, therefore, does not reflect the broad community-wide understanding of health needs. Local government budgeting should be informed by a two-fold framework for the gendered definition of health needs. The two-fold framework combines both disease-based health needs and socio-economic needs of women as compared to men.

  3. Long-term global distribution of earth's shortwave radiation budget at the top of atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hatzianastassiou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean monthly shortwave (SW radiation budget at the top of atmosphere (TOA was computed on 2.5° longitude-latitude resolution for the 14-year period from 1984 to 1997, using a radiative transfer model with long-term climatological data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2 supplemented by data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction – National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR Global Reanalysis project, and other global data bases such as TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS and Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS. The model radiative fluxes at TOA were validated against Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE S4 scanner satellite data (1985–1989. The model is able to predict the seasonal and geographical variation of SW TOA fluxes. On a mean annual and global basis, the model is in very good agreement with ERBE, overestimating the outgoing SW radiation at TOA (OSR by 0.93 Wm-2 (or by 0.92%, within the ERBE uncertainties. At pixel level, the OSR differences between model and ERBE are mostly within ±10 Wm-2, with ±5 Wm-2 over extended regions, while there exist some geographic areas with differences of up to 40 Wm-2, associated with uncertainties in cloud properties and surface albedo. The 14-year average model results give a planetary albedo equal to 29.6% and a TOA OSR flux of 101.2 Wm-2. A significant linearly decreasing trend in OSR and planetary albedo was found, equal to 2.3 Wm-2 and 0.6% (in absolute values, respectively, over the 14-year period (from January 1984 to December 1997, indicating an increasing solar planetary warming. This planetary SW radiative heating occurs in the tropical and sub-tropical areas (20° S–20° N, with clouds being the most likely cause. The computed global mean OSR anomaly ranges within ±4 Wm-2, with signals from El Niño and La Niña events or Pinatubo eruption, whereas significant negative OSR anomalies, starting from year 1992, are also

  4. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  5. The ectodomain of cadherin-11 binds to erbB2 and stimulates Akt phosphorylation to promote cranial neural crest cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Mathavan

    Full Text Available During development, a multi-potent group of cells known as the cranial neural crest (CNC migrate to form craniofacial structures. Proper migration of these cells requires proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules, such as cadherins. In Xenopus laevis, preventing extracellular cleavage of cadherin-11 impairs CNC migration. However, overexpression of the soluble cleavage product (EC1-3 is capable of rescuing this phenotype. The mechanism by which EC1-3 promotes CNC migration has not been investigated until now. Here we show that EC1-3 stimulates phosphorylation of Akt, a target of PI3K, in X.laevis CNC. Through immunoprecipitation experiments, we determined that EC1-3 interacts with all ErbB receptors, PDGFRα, and FGFR1. Of these receptors, only ErbB2 was able to produce an increase in Akt phosphorylation upon treatment with a recombinant EC1-3. This increase was abrogated by mubritinib, an inhibitor of ErbB2. We were able to recapitulate this decrease in Akt phosphorylation in vivo by knocking down ErbB2 in CNC cells. Knockdown of the receptor also significantly reduced CNC migration in vivo. We confirmed the importance of ErbB2 and ErbB receptor signaling in CNC migration using mubritinib and canertinib, respectively. Mubritinib and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly decreased cell migration while canertinib nearly prevented it altogether. These data show that ErbB2 and Akt are important for CNC migration and implicate other ErbB receptors and Akt-independent signaling pathways. Our findings provide the first example of a functional interaction between the extracellular domain of a type II classical cadherin and growth factor receptors.

  6. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  7. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  8. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  9. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  10. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  11. Data on the effect of in vivo knockdown using artificial ErbB3 miRNA on Remak bundle structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Miyamoto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mature Schwann cells, the peripheral nervous system (PNS glial cells, have two major roles for neuronal axons (Bunge, 1993 [1]. For large diameter axons, Schwann cells form myelin sheaths with multiple layers. For small diameter axons, they form Remak bundle composed only of single layer of the Schwann cell plasma membrane. In the PNS, ErbB3 forms a dimer with ErbB2 on the Schwann cell plasma membrane. ErbB3 plays a key role in myelination by myelinating Schwann cells, that is to say, its role in myelin thickness. Herein we provide the data regarding the effect of in vivo knockdown of ErbB3 on the thickness between an axon and a neighboring axon in Remak bundle, which is formed by non-myelinating Schwann cells. Since ErbB3 knockout mice are embryonically lethal, Schwann cell lineage-specific transgenic mice transcribing ErbB3 shRNA with an artificial miRNA backbone were generated and used in these experiments (Torii et al., 2014 [2].

  12. Exclusion experiment for gaseous pollutants in spruces at Edelmannshof: concept and first element-budget data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seufert, G.; Evers, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The results presented focus on the translocation of substances in the canopy by water; analyses carried through on the element budget comprise, interalia, ion concentrations in leachate, element contents in needle and litter samples, and concentrations of exchangeable cations in soil. Depositions and leaching from needles depend on air quality. Whereas dissolved and solid phase depositions are identical, stress to trees from the different gas phase variants is non-uniform. Cation losses in the indicated site are immediately compensated by uptake in the area of the roots: so far, no difference in the nutrition status of spruces subjected to different treatments has been established by needle analysis. Provided the soil has sufficient capacity for compensating loss of nutritive elements, leaching processes do not trigger recognizable disturbance of mineral nutrition. (orig.) [de

  13. Corticosterone and time-activity budget: an experiment with Black-legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    In vertebrates, the well established increase in plasma corticosterone in response to food shortage is thought to mediate adjustments of foraging behavior and energy allocation to environmental conditions. However, investigating the functional role of corticosterone is often constrained by the difficulty to track time-activity budget of free-ranging animals. To examine how an experimental increase in corticosterone affects the activity budget of male Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), we used miniaturized activity loggers to record flying/foraging, presence on the sea surface and nest attendance. To investigate how corticosterone affects allocation processes between self-foraging and foraging devoted to the brood, we monitored body mass change of males from capture (day 0) to recapture (day 3). Among control birds, males in poor condition at day 0 spent significantly more time flying/foraging and less time attending the nest site than did males in good condition. Corticosterone treatment affected time spent flying/foraging in interaction with body condition at day 0: corticosterone-implanted males in good condition spent more time flying/foraging than control ones; this was not observed in poor condition males. In control birds, change in body mass was negatively correlated with body condition at day 0. This was reinforced by corticosterone treatment and, on average, corticosterone-implanted males gained much more mass than controls. These results suggest that in Black-legged kittiwakes, body condition and corticosterone levels can interact to mediate foraging decisions and possibly energy allocation: when facing stressful environmental conditions, birds in good body condition may afford to increase the time spent foraging probably to maintain brood provisioning, whereas poor body condition birds seemed rather to redirect available energy from reproduction to self-maintenance.

  14. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaula, Sadichha [Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458 (United States); Billon, Cyrielle [Department of Pharmacological & Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A. [Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458 (United States); Burris, Thomas P., E-mail: burristp@slu.edu [Department of Pharmacological & Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104 (United States)

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  15. Securing budget for and implementing your significant simulator upgrade: The Fermi experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    Detroit Edison has selected CAE to perform a total simulator upgrade (with the exception of the panel hardware and I/O system) of the Fermi 2 station simulator. The upgrade is intended to improve the performance of the simulator (and thus training effectiveness) while reducing associated operating costs by utilizing an industry standard operating platform, software applications, and off the shelf PC based computer hardware. Additionally, the upgrade is intended to provide the ability to conduct classroom presentations through the use of desktop simulators. Because the cost of a total upgrade is considerable, substantial work is necessary to convince site management that such an undertaking is necessary, can be performed efficiently, and that a return on investment is even possible. This effort was compounded by the lingering history of a previous simulator upgrade, which was completed considerably over-budget and beyond the intended Ready for Training date. As of this writing, the Fermi 2 Simulator Upgrade using CAE products is approximately 60% complete. This paper will describe the methods used to procure funding, as well as steps taken following funding approval to keep the project on track for successful completion. (author)

  16. A peptide antagonist of ErbB receptors, Inherbin3, induces neurite outgrowth from rat cerebellar granule neurons through ErbB1 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruodan; Pankratova, Stanislava; Christiansen, Søren Hofman

    2013-01-01

    ErbB receptors not only function in cancer, but are also key developmental regulators in the nervous system. We previously identified an ErbB1 peptide antagonist, Inherbin3, that is capable of inhibiting tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that inhibition of ErbB1 kinase ac...

  17. A three-dimensional ocean mesoscale simulation using data from the SEMAPHORE experiment: Mixed layer heat budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniaux, Guy; Planton, Serge

    1998-10-01

    A primitive equation model is used to simulate the mesoscale circulation associated with a portion of the Azores Front investigated during the intensive observation period (IOP) of the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment in fall 1993. The model is a mesoscale version of the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) developed at the Laboratoire d'Océanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie (LODYC) in Paris and includes open lateral boundaries, a 1.5-level-order turbulence closure scheme, and fine mesh resolution (0.11° for latitude and 0.09° for longitude). The atmospheric forcing is provided by satellite data for the solar and infrared fluxes and by analyzed (or reanalyzed for the wind) atmospheric data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast model. The extended data set collected during the IOP of SEMAPHORE enables a detailed initialization of the model, a coupling with the rest of the basin through time dependent open boundaries, and a model/data comparison for validation. The analysis of model outputs indicates that most features are in good agreement with independent available observations. The surface front evolution is subject to an intense deformation different from that of the deep front system, which evolves only weakly. An estimate of the upper layer heat budget is performed during the 22 days of the integration of the model. Each term of this budget is analyzed according to various atmospheric events that occurred during the experiment, such as the passage of a strong storm. This facilitates extended estimates of mixed layer or relevant surface processes beyond those which are obtainable directly from observations. Surface fluxes represent 54% of the heat loss in the mixed layer and 70% in the top 100-m layer, while vertical transport at the mixed layer bottom accounts for 31% and three-dimensional processes account for 14%.

  18. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  19. Clinical relevance of ErbB-2/HER2 nuclear expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Roxana; Charreau, Eduardo H; Maronna, Esteban; Roa, Juan C; Elizalde, Patricia V; Guzmán, Pablo; Cayrol, Florencia; Beguelin, Wendy; Díaz Flaqué, María C; Proietti, Cecilia J; Pineda, Viviana; Palazzi, Jorge; Frahm, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The biological relevance of nuclear ErbB-2/HER2 (NuclErbB-2) presence in breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study we assessed the clinical significance of ErbB-2 nuclear localization in primary invasive breast cancer. The reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK) guidelines were used as reference. Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 273 primary invasive breast carcinomas from women living in Chile, a Latin American country, were examined for membrane (MembErbB-2) and NuclErbB-2 expression by an immunofluorescence (IF) protocol we developed. ErbB-2 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a series of antibodies. Correlation between NuclErbB-2 and MembErbB-2, and between NuclErbB-2 and clinicopathological characteristics of tumors was studied. The prognostic value of NuclErbB-2 in overall survival (OS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox model was used to explore NuclErbB-2 as independent prognostic factor for OS. The IF protocol we developed showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of NuclErbB-2 than IHC procedures, while its specificity and sensitivity to detect MembErbB-2 were comparable to those of IHC procedures. We found 33.6% NuclErbB-2 positivity, 14.2% MembErbB-2 overexpression by IF, and 13.0% MembErbB-2 prevalence by IHC in our cohort. We identified NuclErbB-2 positivity as a significant independent predictor of worse OS in patients with MembErbB-2 overexpression. NuclErbB-2 was also a biomarker of lower OS in tumors that overexpress MembErbB-2 and lack steroid hormone receptors. We revealed a novel role for NuclErbB-2 as an independent prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome in MembErbB-2-positive breast tumors. Our work indicates that patients presenting NuclErbB-2 may need new therapeutic strategies involving specific blockage of ErbB-2 nuclear migration

  20. Clinical relevance of ErbB-2/HER2 nuclear expression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Roxana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological relevance of nuclear ErbB-2/HER2 (NuclErbB-2 presence in breast tumors remains unexplored. In this study we assessed the clinical significance of ErbB-2 nuclear localization in primary invasive breast cancer. The reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (REMARK guidelines were used as reference. Methods Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 273 primary invasive breast carcinomas from women living in Chile, a Latin American country, were examined for membrane (MembErbB-2 and NuclErbB-2 expression by an immunofluorescence (IF protocol we developed. ErbB-2 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC with a series of antibodies. Correlation between NuclErbB-2 and MembErbB-2, and between NuclErbB-2 and clinicopathological characteristics of tumors was studied. The prognostic value of NuclErbB-2 in overall survival (OS was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox model was used to explore NuclErbB-2 as independent prognostic factor for OS. Results The IF protocol we developed showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of NuclErbB-2 than IHC procedures, while its specificity and sensitivity to detect MembErbB-2 were comparable to those of IHC procedures. We found 33.6% NuclErbB-2 positivity, 14.2% MembErbB-2 overexpression by IF, and 13.0% MembErbB-2 prevalence by IHC in our cohort. We identified NuclErbB-2 positivity as a significant independent predictor of worse OS in patients with MembErbB-2 overexpression. NuclErbB-2 was also a biomarker of lower OS in tumors that overexpress MembErbB-2 and lack steroid hormone receptors. Conclusions We revealed a novel role for NuclErbB-2 as an independent prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome in MembErbB-2-positive breast tumors. Our work indicates that patients presenting NuclErbB-2 may need new therapeutic strategies involving specific blockage of ErbB-2 nuclear migration.

  1. Development of an ErbB4 monoclonal antibody that blocks neuregulin-1-induced ErbB4 activation in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Shogo; Nakatani, Fumi; Masuko, Kazue; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Ueda, Shiho; Masuko, Takashi; Saya, Hideyuki; Nagano, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for cancer therapy is one of the most important strategies for current cancer treatment. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which regulates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, is a major molecular target for antibody-based therapy. ErbB4/HER4, which contains a ligand-binding extracellular region, is activated by several ligands, including neuregulins (NRGs), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, betacellulin and epiregulin. Although there are clinically approved antibodies for ErbB1 and ErbB2, there are no available therapeutic mAbs for ErbB4, and it is not known whether ErbB4 is a useful target for antibody-based cancer therapy. In this study, we developed an anti-ErbB4 mAb (clone P6-1) that suppresses NRG-dependent activation of ErbB4 and examined its effect on breast cancer cell proliferation in the extracellular matrix. - Highlights: • We newly generated four clones of human ErbB4 specific mAb. • ErbB4 mAb clone P6-1 blocks ErbB4 phosphorylation induced by NRG-1. • ErbB4 mAb clone P6-1 suppresses NRG-1-promoted breast cancer cells proliferation on three dimensional culture condition.

  2. Development of an ErbB4 monoclonal antibody that blocks neuregulin-1-induced ErbB4 activation in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Shogo [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nakatani, Fumi [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 Japan (Japan); Masuko, Kazue; Tsuchihashi, Kenji [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Ueda, Shiho; Masuko, Takashi [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 Japan (Japan); Saya, Hideyuki [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagano, Osamu, E-mail: osmna@sb3.so-net.ne.jp [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2016-01-29

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for cancer therapy is one of the most important strategies for current cancer treatment. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which regulates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, is a major molecular target for antibody-based therapy. ErbB4/HER4, which contains a ligand-binding extracellular region, is activated by several ligands, including neuregulins (NRGs), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, betacellulin and epiregulin. Although there are clinically approved antibodies for ErbB1 and ErbB2, there are no available therapeutic mAbs for ErbB4, and it is not known whether ErbB4 is a useful target for antibody-based cancer therapy. In this study, we developed an anti-ErbB4 mAb (clone P6-1) that suppresses NRG-dependent activation of ErbB4 and examined its effect on breast cancer cell proliferation in the extracellular matrix. - Highlights: • We newly generated four clones of human ErbB4 specific mAb. • ErbB4 mAb clone P6-1 blocks ErbB4 phosphorylation induced by NRG-1. • ErbB4 mAb clone P6-1 suppresses NRG-1-promoted breast cancer cells proliferation on three dimensional culture condition.

  3. Anti-metastasis activity of black rice anthocyanins against breast cancer: analyses using an ErbB2 positive breast cancer cell line and tumoral xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Ping; Han, Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Li; Zou, Qiang; Li, Sui-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence from animal, epidemiological and clinical investigations suggest that dietary anthocyanins have potential to prevent chronic diseases, including cancers. It is also noteworthy that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2) protein overexpression or ErbB2 gene amplification has been included as an indicator for metastasis and higher risk of recurrence for breast cancer. The present experiments investigated the anti-metastasis effects of black rice anthocyanins (BRACs) on ErbB2 positive breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of BRACs (150 mg/kg/day) reduced transplanted tumor growth, inhibited pulmonary metastasis, and decreased lung tumor nodules in BALB/c nude mice bearing ErbB2 positive breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 xenografts. The capacity for migration, adhesion, motility and invasion was also inhibited by BRACs in MDA-MB-453 cells in a concentration dependent manner, accompanied by decreased activity of a transfer promoting factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Together, our results indicated that BRACs possess anti-metastasis potential against ErbB2 positive human breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro through inhibition of metastasis promoting molecules.

  4. Role of Erbin in ErbB2-dependent breast tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yanmei; Shen, Chengyong; Luo, Shiwen; Traoré, Wilfried; Marchetto, Sylvie; Santoni, Marie-Josée; Xu, Linlin; Wu, Biao; Shi, Chao; Mei, Jinghong; Bates, Ryan; Liu, Xihui; Zhao, Kai; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Borg, Jean-Paul; Mei, Lin

    2014-01-01

    ErbB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2), a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, is overexpressed in around 25% of breast cancers. In addition to forming a heterodimer with other ErbB receptors in response to ligand stimulation, ErbB2 can be activated in a ligand-independent manner. We report here that Erbin, an ErbB2-interacting protein that was thought to act as an antitumor factor, is specifically expressed in mammary luminal epithelial cells and facilitates ErbB2-dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Disruption of their interaction decreases ErbB2-dependent proliferation, and deletion of the PDZ domain in Erbin hinders ErbB2-dependent tumor development in MMTV-neu mice. Mechanistically, Erbin forms a complex with ErbB2, promotes its interaction with the chaperon protein HSP90, and thus prevents its degradation. Finally, ErbB2 and Erbin expression correlates in human breast tumor tissues. Together, these observations establish Erbin as an ErbB2 regulator for breast tumor formation and progression. PMID:25288731

  5. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  6. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  7. ErbB polymorphisms: Insights and implications for response to targeted cancer therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in high-throughput genomic-scanning have expanded the repertory of genetic variations in DNA sequences encoding ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors in humans, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, polymorphic repetitive elements, microsatellite variations, small-scale insertions and deletions. The ErbB family members: EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors are established as drivers of many aspects of tumor initiation and progression to metastasis. This knowledge has provided rationales for the development of an arsenal of anti-ErbB therapeutics, ranging from small molecule kinase inhibitors to monoclonal antibodies. Anti-ErbB agents are becoming the cornerstone therapeutics for the management of cancers that overexpress hyperactive variants of ErbB receptors, in particular ErbB2-positive breast cancer and non-small cell lung carcinomas. However, their clinical benefit has been limited to a subset of patients due to a wide heterogeneity in drug response despite the expression of the ErbB targets, attributed to intrinsic (primary and to acquired (secondary resistance. Somatic mutations in ErbB tyrosine kinase domains have been extensively investigated in preclinical and clinical setting as determinants for either high sensitivity or resistance to anti-ErbB therapeutics. In contrast, only scant information is available on the impact of SNPs, which are widespread in genes encoding ErbB receptors, on receptor structure and activity, and their predictive values for drug susceptibility. This review aims to briefly update polymorphic variations in genes encoding ErbB receptors based on recent advances in deep sequencing technologies, and to address challenging issues for a better understanding of the functional impact of single versus combined SNPs in ErbB genes to receptor topology, receptor-drug interaction, and drug susceptibility. The potential of exploiting SNPs in the era of stratified targeted therapeutics is discussed.

  8. Governing decentralization in health care under tough budget constraint: what can we learn from the Italian experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Gabriele, Stefania; Longo, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    In many European countries, since the World War II, there has been a trend towards decentralization of health policy to lower levels of governments, while more recently there have been re-centralization processes. Whether re-centralization will be the new paradigm of European health policy or not is difficult to say. In the Italian National Health Service (SSN) decentralization raised two related questions that might be interesting for the international debate on decentralization in health care: (a) what sort of regulatory framework and institutional balances are required to govern decentralization in health care in a heterogeneous country under tough budget constraints? (b) how can it be ensured that the most advanced parts of the country remain committed to solidarity, supporting the weakest ones? To address these questions this article describes the recent trends in SSN funding and expenditure, it reviews the strategy adopted by the Italian government for governing the decentralization process and discusses the findings to draw policy conclusions. The main lessons emerging from this experience are that: (1) when the differences in administrative and policy skills, in socio-economic standards and social capital are wide, decentralization may lead to undesirable divergent evolution paths; (2) even in decentralized systems, the role of the Central government can be very important to contain health expenditure; (3) a strong governance of the Central government may help and not hinder the enforcement of decentralization; and (4) supporting the weakest Regions and maintaining inter-regional solidarity is hard but possible. In Italy, despite an increasing role of the Central government in steering the SSN, the pattern of regional decentralization of health sector decision making does not seem at risk. Nevertheless, the Italian case confirms the complexity of decentralization and re-centralization processes that sometimes can be paradoxically reinforcing each other.

  9. Ligand stimulation of ErbB4 and a constitutively-active ErbB4 mutant result in different biological responses in human pancreatic tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, Christopher P.; Gettinger, Kathleen L.; Riese, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Indeed, it has been estimated that 37,000 Americans will die from this disease in 2010. Late diagnosis, chemoresistance, and radioresistance of these tumors are major reasons for poor patient outcome, spurring the search for pancreatic cancer early diagnostic and therapeutic targets. ErbB4 (HER4) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), a family that also includes the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ErbB1/HER1), Neu/ErbB2/HER2, and ErbB3/HER3. These RTKs play central roles in many human malignancies by regulating cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, invasiveness, motility, and apoptosis. In this report we demonstrate that human pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibit minimal ErbB4 expression; in contrast, these cell lines exhibit varied and in some cases abundant expression and basal tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3. Expression of a constitutively-dimerized and -active ErbB4 mutant inhibits clonogenic proliferation of CaPan-1, HPAC, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1 pancreatic tumor cell lines. In contrast, expression of wild-type ErbB4 in pancreatic tumor cell lines potentiates stimulation of anchorage-independent colony formation by the ErbB4 ligand Neuregulin 1β. These results illustrate the multiple roles that ErbB4 may be playing in pancreatic tumorigenesis and tumor progression.

  10. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  11. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  12. NCTN Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  13. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  14. Large-scale analysis by SAGE reveals new mechanisms of v-erbA oncogene action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Claudine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The v-erbA oncogene, carried by the Avian Erythroblastosis Virus, derives from the c-erbAα proto-oncogene that encodes the nuclear receptor for triiodothyronine (T3R. v-ErbA transforms erythroid progenitors in vitro by blocking their differentiation, supposedly by interference with T3R and RAR (Retinoic Acid Receptor. However, v-ErbA target genes involved in its transforming activity still remain to be identified. Results: By using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, we identified 110 genes deregulated by v-ErbA and potentially implicated in the transformation process. Bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequence and transcriptional assays point out a potential role of c-Myb in the v-ErbA effect. Furthermore, grouping of newly identified target genes by function revealed both expected (chromatin/transcription and unexpected (protein metabolism functions potentially deregulated by v-ErbA. We then focused our study on 15 of the new v-ErbA target genes and demonstrated by real time PCR that in majority their expression was activated neither by T3, nor RA, nor during differentiation. This was unexpected based upon the previously known role of v-ErbA. Conclusion: This paper suggests the involvement of a wealth of new unanticipated mechanisms of v-ErbA action.

  15. Interaction with epsin 1 regulates the constitutive clathrin-dependent internalization of ErbB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Monika; Fosdahl, Anne Marthe; Raiborg, Camilla; Dietrich, Markus; Liestøl, Knut; Stang, Espen; Bertelsen, Vibeke

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to other members of the EGF receptor family, ErbB3 is constitutively internalized in a clathrin-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that ErbB3 does not interact with the coated pit localized adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), and that ErbB3 lacks two AP-2 interacting internalization signals identified in the EGF receptor. Several other clathrin-associated sorting proteins which may recruit cargo into coated pits have, however, been identified, and the study was performed to identify adaptors needed for constitutive internalization of ErbB3. A high-throughput siRNA screen was used to identify adaptor proteins needed for internalization of ErbB3. Upon knock-down of candidate proteins internalization of ErbB3 was identified using an antibody-based internalization assay combined with automatic fluorescence microscopy. Among 29 candidates only knock-down of epsin 1 turned out to inhibit ErbB3. Epsin 1 has ubiquitin interacting motifs (UIMs) and we show that ErbB3 interacts with an epsin 1 deletion mutant containing these UIMs. In support of an ErbB3-epsin 1 UIM dependent interaction, we show that ErbB3 is constitutively ubiquitinated, but that both ubiquitination and the ErbB3-epsin 1 interaction increase upon ligand binding. Altogether the results are consistent with a model whereby both constitutive and ligand-induced internalization of ErbB3 are regulated through interaction with epsin 1. Internalization is an important regulator of growth factor receptor mediated signaling and the current study identify mechanisms regulating plasma membrane turnover of ErbB3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=1998-08-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  17. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=1998-08-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  18. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  19. The Lust for Efficiency: A Downhome Story or The Implications of Zero-Based Budgeting for Institutions of Higher Education as Seen from the State of Georgia's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    Reactions to zero-based budgeting in the State of Georgia as it pertains to institutions of higher education are discussed. Major advantages and disadvantages of zero-based budgeting as reported by budget analysts and selected department heads in state agencies were examined by George Minmier and Roger Hermanson (1976). Zero-based budgeting was…

  20. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Tram Thu [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Berger, Christian [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Stang, Espen [Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway); Madshus, Inger Helene, E-mail: i.h.madshus@medisin.uio.no [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo (Norway); Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-02-01

    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub{sub 4}) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ► A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ► Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ► Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ► ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  1. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Tram Thu; Berger, Christian; Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie; Stang, Espen; Madshus, Inger Helene

    2013-01-01

    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub 4 ) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub 4 chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub 4 was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub 4 was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub 4 was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ► A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ► Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ► Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ► ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  2. High spatial resolution radiation budget for Europe: derived from satellite data, validation of a regional model; Raeumlich hochaufgeloeste Strahlungsbilanz ueber Europa: Ableitung aus Satellitendaten, Validation eines regionalen Modells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2000-07-01

    Since forty years instruments onboard satellites have been demonstrated their usefulness for many applications in the field of meteorology and oceanography. Several experiments, like ERBE, are dedicated to establish a climatology of the global Earth radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere. Now the focus has been changed to the regional scale, e.g. GEWEX with its regional sub-experiments like BALTEX. To obtain a regional radiation budget for Europe in the first part of the work the well calibrated measurements from ScaRaB (scanner for radiation budget) are used to derive a narrow-to-broadband conversion, which is applicable to the AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer). It is shown, that the accuracy of the method is in the order of that from SCaRaB itself. In the second part of the work, results of REMO have been compared with measurements of ScaRaB and AVHRR for March 1994. The model reproduces the measurements overall well, but it is overestimating the cold areas and underestimating the warm areas in the longwave spectral domain. Similarly it is overestimating the dark areas and underestimating the bright areas in the solar spectral domain. (orig.)

  3. Transcriptional profiling of ErbB signalling in mammary luminal epithelial cells - interplay of ErbB and IGF1 signalling through IGFBP3 regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, Jenny; Bertani, Mariana; Chan, Hong-Lin; Gerrits, Bertran; Timms, John F

    2010-01-01

    Members of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors are intricately linked with epithelial cell biology, development and tumourigenesis; however, the mechanisms involved in their downstream signalling are poorly understood. Indeed, it is unclear how signal specificity is achieved and the relative contribution each receptor has to specific gene expression. Gene expression profiling of a human mammary luminal epithelial cell model of ErbB2-overexpression was carried out using cDNA microarrays with a common RNA reference approach to examine long-term overlapping and differential responses to EGF and heregulin beta1 treatment in the context of ErbB2 overexpression. Altered gene expression was validated using quantitative real time PCR and/or immunoblotting. One gene of interest was targeted for further characterisation, where the effects of siRNA-mediated silencing on IGF1-dependent signalling and cellular phenotype were examined and compared to the effects of loss of ErbB2 expression. 775 genes were differentially expressed and clustered in terms of their growth factor responsiveness. As well as identifying uncharacterized genes as novel targets of ErbB2-dependent signalling, ErbB2 overexpression augmented the induction of multiple genes involved in proliferation (e.g. MYC, MAP2K1, MAP2K3), autocrine growth factor signalling (VEGF, PDGF) and adhesion/cytoskeletal regulation (ZYX, THBS1, VCL, CNN3, ITGA2, ITGA3, NEDD9, TAGLN), linking them to the hyper-poliferative and altered adhesive phenotype of the ErbB2-overexpressing cells. We also report ErbB2-dependent down-regulation of multiple interferon-stimulated genes that may permit ErbB2-overexpressing cells to resist the anti-proliferative action of interferons. Finally, IGFBP3 was unique in its pattern of regulation and we further investigated a possible role for IGFBP3 down-regulation in ErbB2-dependent transformation through suppressed IGF1 signalling. We show that IGF1-dependent signalling and proliferation were

  4. REV-ERB and ROR: therapeutic targets for treating myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ryan D.; Flaveny, Colin A.

    2017-08-01

    Muscle is primarily known for its mechanical roles in locomotion, maintenance of posture, and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. There are numerous medical conditions that adversely affect muscle, myopathies that disrupt muscle development, regeneration and protein turnover to detrimental effect. Skeletal muscle is also a vital secretory organ that regulates thermogenesis, inflammatory signaling and directs context specific global metabolic changes in energy substrate preference on a daily basis. Myopathies differ in the causative factors that drive them but share common features including severe reduction in quality of life and significantly increased mortality all due irrefutably to the loss of muscle mass. Thus far clinically viable approaches for preserving muscle proteins and stimulating new muscle growth without unwanted side effects or limited efficacy has been elusive. Over the last few decades, evidence has emerged through in vitro and in vivo studies that suggest the nuclear receptors REV-ERB and ROR might modulate pathways involved in myogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Hinting that REV-ERB and ROR might be targeted to treat myopathies. However there is still a need for substantial investigation into the roles of these nuclear receptors in in vivo rodent models of degenerative muscle diseases and acute injury. Although exciting, REV-ERB and ROR have somewhat confounding roles in muscle physiology and therefore more studies utilizing in vivo models of skeletal muscle myopathies are needed. In this review we highlight the molecular forces driving some of the major degenerative muscular diseases and showcase two promising molecular targets that may have the potential to treat myopathies: ROR and REV-ERB.

  5. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M. [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Cleasby, Mark E. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent' s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010 (Australia); Millard, Susan; Leong, Gary M. [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Cooney, Gregory J. [Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent' s Hospital, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010 (Australia); Muscat, George E.O., E-mail: g.muscat@imb.uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, a previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.

  6. Ibrutinib (ImbruvicaTM) potently inhibits ErbB receptor phosphorylation and cell viability of ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, Nicole; Ewald, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Ibrutinib (formerly PCI-32765) is a specific, irreversible, and potent inhibitor of Burton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) developed for the treatment of several forms of blood cancer. It is now an FDA-approved drug marketed under the name Imbruvica(TM) (Pharmacyclics, Inc.) and successfully used as an orally administered second-line drug in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. Since BTK is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, the sensitivity of solid tumor cells to Ibrutinib has not been analyzed. In this study, we determined the effect of Ibrutinib on breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that Ibrutinib efficiently reduces the phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinases ErbB1, ErbB2 and ErbB3, thereby suppressing AKT and MAPK signaling in ErbB2-positive (ErbB2+) breast cancer cell lines. Treatment with Ibrutinib significantly reduced the viability of ErbB2+ cell lines with IC50 values at nanomolar concentrations, suggesting therapeutic potential of Ibrutinib in breast cancer. Combined treatment with Ibrutinib and the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 synergistically reduces cell viability of ErbB2+ breast cancer cells. Combination indices below 0.25 at 50% inhibition of cell viability were determined by the Chou-Talalay method. Therefore, the combination of Ibrutinib and canonical PI3K pathway inhibitors could be a new and effective approach in the treatment of breast cancer with activated ErbB receptors. Ibrutinib could thus become a valuable component of targeted therapy in aggressive ErbB2+ breast cancer.

  7. Rev-Erb co-regulates muscle regeneration via tethered interaction with the NF-Y cistrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Welch

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Disrupting Rev-Erb activity in injured muscle accelerates regenerative muscle repair/differentiation through transcriptional de-repression of myogenic programs. Rev-Erb, therefore, may be a potent therapeutic target for a myriad of muscular disorders.

  8. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 1: The solar channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hoyt, Douglas V.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment on the Nimbus-7 satellite measured the total solar irradiance plus broadband spectral components on a nearly daily basis from 16 Nov. 1978, until 16 June 1992. Months of additional observations were taken in late 1992 and in 1993. The emphasis is on the electrically self calibrating cavity radiometer, channel 10c, which recorded accurate total solar irradiance measurements over the whole period. The spectral channels did not have inflight calibration adjustment capabilities. These channels can, with some additional corrections, be used for short-term studies (one or two solar rotations - 27 to 60 days), but not for long-term trend analysis. For channel 10c, changing radiometer pointing, the zero offsets, the stability of the gain, the temperature sensitivity, and the influences of other platform instruments are all examined and their effects on the measurements considered. Only the question of relative accuracy (not absolute) is examined. The final channel 10c product is also compared with solar measurements made by independent experiments on other satellites. The Nimbus experiment showed that the mean solar energy was about 0.1 percent (1.4 W/sqm) higher in the excited Sun years of 1979 and 1991 than in the quiet Sun years of 1985 and 1986. The error analysis indicated that the measured long-term trends may be as accurate as +/- 0.005 percent. The worse-case error estimate is +/- 0.03 percent.

  9. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Links Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches & Statements Budgets Toggle Links FY 2018 Budget FY 2017 Budget FY 2017 Reconciliation FY 2016 Budget FY 2016 Reconciliation FY 2015

  10. ErbB2 regulates NHEJ repair pathway by affecting erbB1-triggered IR-induced Akt activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Peter Rodemann, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have already reported that erbBl-PI3K-AKT signaling is an important pathway in regulating radiation sensitivity and DNA double strand break repair of human tumor cells. In the present study using small interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines we investigated the role of Aktl on radiation-induced DNA-PKcs activity and DNA-double strand break (DNA-DSB) repair. Likewise, the function of erbB2 as hetrodimerization partner of erbBl in radiation-induced Akt activity and regulation of DNA-dsb repair through DNA-PKcs was evaluated. In A549 and H460 transfected with AKTl-siRNA radiation-induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs the key enzyme regulating NHEJ repair pathway was markedly inhibited. In both cell lines downregulation of Aktl led to a significant enhancement of residual DNA-DSB, i.e. impaired DNA-DSB repair. Interestingly, in cells transfected with DNA-PKcs-siRNA a lack of effect of AKTl-siRNA on enhancement of residual DNA-DSBs was observed. This results indicate that Aktl regulates NHEJ repair in a DNA-PKcs dependent manner

  11. [Bacterial synthesis, purification, and solubilization of transmembrane segments of ErbB family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, M V; Shul'ga, A A; Ermoliuk, Ia S; Tkach, E N; Goncharuk, S A; Pustovalova, Iu E; Mineev, K S; Bocharov, É V; Maslennikov, I V; Arsen'ev, A S; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    A family of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB, represents an important class of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing a leading role in cellular growth, development and differentiation. Transmembrane domains of these receptors transduce biochemical signals across plasma membrane via lateral homo- and heterodimerization. Relatively small size of complexes of ErbB transmembrane domains with detergents or lipids allows one to study their detailed spatial structure using three-dimensional heteronuclear high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the effective expression system and purification procedure for preparative-scale production of transmembrane peptides from four representatives of ErbB family, ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, for structural studies. The recombinant peptides were produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS as C-terminal extensions of thioredoxin A. The fusion protein cleavage was accomplished with the light subunit of human enterokinase. Several (10-30) milligrams of purified isotope-labeled transmembrane peptides were isolated with the use of a simple and convenient procedure, which consists of consecutive steps of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and cation-exchange chromatography. The purified peptides were reconstituted in lipid/detergent environment (micelles or bicelles) and characterized using dynamic light scattering, CD and NMR spectroscopy. The data obtained indicate that the purified ErbB transmembrane peptides are suitable for structural and dynamic studies of their homo- and heterodimer complexes using high resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  12. c-erbB-2 expression and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, O.; Sullivan, S.; Wingren, S.; Skoog, L.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Nordenskjoeld, B.; Carstensen, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Frozen tissue from primary tumours of 152 premenopausal breast cancer patients, who participated in a trial comparing radiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, CMF), was analysed for c-erbB-2 protein expression, measured by flow cytometry. The relative risk of distant recurrence or death in the chemotherapy group as compared with the radiotherapy group was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-7.8) for patients whose tumours showed high c-erbB-2 levels and 0.87 (95% CI 0.43-1.7) for those with tumours with low levels of c-erbB-2 protein. Patients with highly proliferative tumours that did not overexpress c-erbB-2 benefited most, in terms of survival, from CMF. In addition, we found an increased risk of locoregional recurrence for tumours overexpressing c-erbB-2 when radiotherapy was replaced by chemotherapy. (author)

  13. c-erbA and v-erbA modulate growth and gene expression of a mouse glial precursor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, T; Llanos, S; López-Barahona, M; Pérez-Aranda, A; Rodríguez-Peña, A; Bernal, J; Höhne, A; Seliger, B; Muñoz, A

    1994-07-01

    The c-erbA alpha protooncogene coding for the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR alpha 1) and the viral, mutated v-erbA oncogene were expressed in an immortal mouse glial cell line (B3.1) using retroviral vectors. c-erbA alpha expression led to a decrease in cell proliferation in high and low serum conditions, both in the presence and in the absence of T3. In serum-free medium, c-erbA-expressing cells (B3.1 + TR alpha 1) were completely arrested, whereas cells expressing v-erbA (B3.1 + v-erbA) showed a higher DNA synthesis rate than normal B3.1 cells. Although proliferation of all three cell types was stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, differences were also observed in the response to these agents. B3.1 + TR alpha 1 cells were more sensitive to platelet-derived growth factor than B3.1 and B3.1 + v-erbA cells. In contrast, B3.1 cells responded to basic fibroblast growth factor better than B3.1 + TR alpha 1 or B3.1 + v-erbA cells. Insulin-like growth factor I potentiated the action of platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Again, different responses to treatment with insulin-like growth factor I alone were observed; B3.1 + TR alpha 1 cells did not respond to it, whereas B3.1 + v-erbA cells showed a dramatic stimulation by this agent. Interestingly, in the presence of T3, the blockade in B3.1 + TR alpha 1 cell proliferation was accompanied by the down-regulation of the typical astrocytic genes, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin. These hormone effects were not found in v-erbA-expressing cells. In addition, v-erbA inhibited the basal expression of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene, an oligodendrocytic marker.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The neuregulin receptor ErbB-4 interacts with PDZ-containing proteins at neuronal synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando A. G.; Vasudevan, Kuzhalini; Buonanno, Andres

    2000-01-01

    Neuregulins regulate the expression of ligand- and voltage-gated channels in neurons and skeletal muscle by the activation of their cognate tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB 1–4. The subcellular distribution and mechanisms that regulate the localization of ErbB receptors are unknown. We have found that ErbB receptors are present in brain subcellular fractions enriched for postsynaptic densities (PSD). The ErbB-4 receptor is unique among the ErbB proteins because its C-terminal tail (T-V-V) conforms to a sequence that binds to a protein motif known as the PDZ domain. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that the C-terminal region of ErbB-4 interacts with the three related membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) PSD-95/SAP90, PSD-93/chapsyn-110, and SAP 102, which harbor three PDZ domains, as well as with β2-syntrophin, which has a single PDZ domain. As with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, ErbB4 interacts with the first two PDZ domains of PSD-95. Using coimmunoprecipitation assays, we confirmed the direct interactions between ErbB-4 and PSD-95 in transfected heterologous cells, as well as in vivo, where both proteins are coimmunoprecipitated from brain lysates. Moreover, evidence for colocalization of these proteins was also observed by immunofluorescence in cultured hippocampal neurons. ErbB-4 colocalizes with PSD-95 and NMDA receptors at a subset of excitatory synapses apposed to synaptophysin-positive presynaptic terminals. The capacity of ErbB receptors to interact with PDZ-domain proteins at cell junctions is conserved from invertebrates to mammals. As discussed, the interactions found between receptor tyrosine kinases and MAGUKs at neuronal synapses may have important implications for activity-dependent plasticity. PMID:10725395

  15. Role of ErbB receptors in cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eAppert-Collin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors mediate their diverse biologic responses (regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival by binding to and activating cell-surface receptors with intrinsic protein kinase activity named Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs. About 60 RTKs have been identified and can be classified into more than 16 different receptor families. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Overexpression of RTK proteins or functional alterations caused by mutations in the corresponding genes or abnormal stimulation by autocrine growth factor loops contribute to constitutive RTK signaling, resulting in alterations in the physiological activities of cells. The ErbB receptor family of RTKs comprises four distinct receptors: the EGFR (also known as ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2 (neu, HER2, ErbB3 (HER3 and ErbB4 (HER4. ErbB family members are often overexpressed, amplified, or mutated in many forms of cancer, making them important therapeutic targets. EGFR has been found to be amplified in gliomas and non-small-cell lung carcinoma while ErbB2 amplifications are seen in breast, ovarian, bladder, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as well as several other tumor types. Several data have shown that ErbB receptor family and its downstream pathway regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and tumor invasion by modulating extracellular matrix components. Recent findings indicate that extracellular matrix components such as matrikines bind specifically to EGF receptor and promote cell invasion. In this review, we will present an in-depth overview of the structure, mechanisms, cell signaling, and functions of ErbB family receptors in cell adhesion and migration. Furthermore, we will describe in a last part the new strategies developed in anti-cancer therapy to inhibit ErbB family receptor activation.

  16. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Géraldine M; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1-4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. A combination of Trastuzumab and 17-AAG induces enhanced ubiquitinylation and lysosomal pathway-dependent ErbB2 degradation and cytotoxicity in ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Srikumar M; Clubb, Robert J; Bhattacharyya, Mitra; Dimri, Manjari; Cheng, Hao; Pan, Wei; Ortega-Cava, Cesar; Lakku-Reddi, Alagarsamy; Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2008-10-01

    ErbB2 (or Her2/Neu) overexpression in breast cancer signifies poorer prognosis, yet it has provided an avenue for targeted therapy as demonstrated by the success of the humanized monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin). Resistance to Trastuzumab and eventual failure in most cases, however, necessitate alternate ErbB2-targeted therapies. HSP90 inhibitors such as 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), potently downregulate the cell surface ErbB2. While the precise mechanisms of Trastuzumab or 17-AAG action remain unclear, ubiquitinylation-dependent proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of ErbB2 appears to play a substantial role. As Trastuzumab and 17-AAG induce the recruitment of distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, Cbl and CHIP respectively, to ErbB2, we hypothesized that 17-AAG and Trastuzumab combination could induce a higher level of ubiquitinylation and downregulation of ErbB2 as compared to single drug treatments. We present biochemical and cell biological evidence that combined 17-AAG and Trastuzumab treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines leads to enhanced ubiquitinylation, downregulation from the cell surface and lysosomal degradation of ErbB2. Importantly, combined 17-AAG and Trastuzumab treatment induced synergistic growth arrest and cell death specifically in ErbB2-overexpressing but not in ErbB2-low breast cancer cells. Our results suggest the 17-AAG and Trastuzumab combination as a mechanism-based combinatorial targeted therapy for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer patients.

  18. States' experiences with loan repayment programs for health care professionals in a time of state budget cuts and NHSC expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathman, Donald E; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Konrad, Thomas R; Goldberg, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of education loan repayment programs for health care professionals has been turbulent in recent years, with doubling of the funding for the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) and cuts in funding for some states' programs. We sought to understand how this turbulence is being felt within the state offices involved in recruiting clinicians to rural and urban underserved communities. We conducted key informant telephone interviews with staff of state offices of rural health, primary care organizations, and/or related organizations within 28 diverse states to answer questions about perceived changes and interplay among solely state-funded loan repayment programs, joint state-federal programs, and the NHSC federal program. Interviews were transcribed, formally analyzed, and key issues summarized. Informants reported that solely state-funded and joint state-federal loan repayment programs are greatly valued for their ability to target a state's particular needs and to complement the NHSC federal program. However, budgets for state programs have been threatened, reduced, or eliminated entirely in many cases. All informants positively perceived the NHSC's recent growth and changes, which they feel are helping fill important workforce needs for their states. Nevertheless, the much larger NHSC federal program now competes with some states' programs for clinicians and service sites; states' programs are pushed to adjust their operations to maintain a unique "niche". States' key recruiters lament reductions in funding for states' loan repayment programs, and welcome the NHSC's recent growth and changes. Better coordination is needed to minimize competition and maximize complementarity between state and federal programs. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  20. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  1. Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Michel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family, consisting of four tyrosine kinase receptors, c-erbB1-4, seems to be influential in gliomagenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections from 31 cases were investigated by standard immunohistochemical procedures for expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins using commercial antibodies. EGFR gene amplification was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, NCL-EGFR-384 and NCL-EGFR, were used for EGFR detection and they displayed positive immunoreactivity in 97% and 71%, respectively. For c-erbB2 detection three monoclonal antibodies, CB11, 3B5, and 5A2, were applied and they displayed positive immunoreactivity in 45%, 100%, and 52%, respectively. Positive immunostaining for c-erbB3 and c-erbB4 was encountered in 97% and 74%, respectively. The EGFR gene was amplified in 9 out of 31 tumors (29%. After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance status, and extent of surgical resection, Cox multiple regression analysis with overall survival as the dependent variable revealed that c-erbB2 overexpression detected by the monoclonal antibody clone CB11 was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor (P = 0.004. This study shows the convenience and feasibility of immunohistochemistry when determining the expression of receptor proteins in tissue sections of human astrocytomas. The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Further, c-erbB2 overexpression seems to predict aggressive behaviour.

  2. Budget impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes who experience severe recurrent hypoglycemic episodes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Marga; Elías, Isabel; Álvarez, María; Quirós, Carmen; Conget, Ignacio

    Hypoglycemia is one of the most common complications to achieve a good metabolic control, and has been listed by several scientific associations as a common indication to start treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Use of CSII is still residual in Spain as compared to neighbouring countries, and cost of acquisition cost is one of the main reasons. This study estimates the budget impact of treatment with CSII, as compared to multiple daily insulin injections, of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who experience recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes from the National Healthcare System perspective. Budget impact was based on a retrospective, observational study evaluating the efficacy of CSII in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus conducted at Hospital Clínic i Universitari in Barcelona, where one of the main indications for switching to CSII were recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes. The mean number of annual episodes was 1.33 in the two years prior to CSII start and 0.08 in the last two years of follow up (p=0.003). Costs of treatment and major hypoglycemic events over a four-year period were considered. Costs were taken from different Spanish data sources and expressed in € of 2016. Treatment with CSII increased costs by €9,509 per patient as compared to multiple daily insulin injections (€11,902-€2,393). Cost associated to severe hypoglycemic events decreased by €19,330 per patient treated with CSIII (€1,371-€20,701). Results suggest mean total savings of €9,821 per patient during the four-year study period. The higher costs associated to CSII therapy may be totally offset by the severe hypoglycemic events prevented. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Patil, Sanjaykumar; Bianchini, Federico; Reichardt, Christian L. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, 313 David Caro building, Swanston St and Tin Alley, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); Baxter, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bleem, Lindsey E. [Argonne National Laboratory, High-Energy Physics Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Crawford, Thomas M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Holder, Gilbert P. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Manzotti, Alessandro, E-mail: srinivasan.raghunathan@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: s.patil2@student.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: ebax@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: federico.bianchini@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: bleeml@uchicago.edu, E-mail: tcrawfor@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: gholder@illinois.edu, E-mail: manzotti@uchicago.edu, E-mail: christian.reichardt@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E- and B-mode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, we examine the cluster mass uncertainties from CMB-cluster lensing as a function of an experiment's beam size and noise level. We predict the cluster mass uncertainties will be 3 - 6% for SPT-3G, AdvACT, and Simons Array experiments with 10,000 clusters and less than 1% for the CMB-S4 experiment with a sample containing 100,000 clusters. The mass constraints from CMB polarization are very sensitive to the experimental beam size and map noise level: for a factor of three reduction in either the beam size or noise level, the lensing signal-to-noise improves by roughly a factor of two.

  4. Endothelial ErbB4 deficit induces alterations in exploratory behavior and brain energy metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Lu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Qi-Bing; Tian, Yun; Ye, Wei-Feng; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Tao, Rong-Rong; Han, Feng; Lu, Ying-Mei

    2017-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is present throughout the primate brain and has a distinct functional profile. In this study, we investigate the potential role of endothelial ErbB4 receptor signaling in the brain. Here, we show that the endothelial cell-specific deletion of ErbB4 induces decreased exploratory behavior in adult mice. However, the water maze task for spatial memory and the memory reconsolidation test reveal no changes; additionally, we observe no impairment in CaMKII phosphorylation in Cdh5Cre;ErbB4 f/f mice, which indicates that the endothelial ErbB4 deficit leads to decreased exploratory activity rather than direct memory deficits. Furthermore, decreased brain metabolism, which was measured using micro-positron emission tomography, is observed in the Cdh5Cre;ErbB4 f/f mice. Consistently, the immunoblot data demonstrate the downregulation of brain Glut1, phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), and TIGAR in the endothelial ErbB4 conditional knockout mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that endothelial ErbB4 plays a critical role in regulating brain function, at least in part, through maintaining normal brain energy homeostasis. Targeting ErbB4 or the modulation of endothelial ErbB4 signaling may represent a rational pharmacological approach to treat neurological disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors in a schizophrenia model established with neonatal hippocampal lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Iwakura, Yuriko; Shibuya, Masako; Zheng, Yingjun; Eda, Takeyoshi; Kato, Taisuke; Takasu, Yohei; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Hyper-signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB) is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Various quinazoline inhibitors targeting ErbB1 or ErbB2 - 4 have been developed as anti-cancer agents and might be useful for antipsychotic treatment. In the present study, we used an animal model of schizophrenia established by neonatal hippocampal lesioning and evaluated the neurobehavioral consequences of ErbB1-inhibitor treatment. Subchronic administration of the ErbB1 inhibitor ZD1839 to the cerebroventricle of rats receiving neonatal hippocampal lesioning ameliorated deficits in prepulse inhibition as well as those in the latent inhibition of tone-dependent fear learning. There were no apparent adverse effects on basal learning scores or locomotor activity, however. The administration of other ErbB1 inhibitors, PD153035 and OSI-774, similarly attenuated the prepulse inhibition impairment of this animal model. In parallel, there were decreases in ErbB1 phosphorylation in animals treated with ErbB1 inhibitors. These results indicate an antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors. ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases may be novel therapeutic targets for schizophrenia or its related psychotic symptoms.

  6. CDO budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  7. The Experiences of Low-Income Latino/a Students in the California Community College System at a Time of Education Budget Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Justin Akers

    2013-01-01

    Budget cuts have reduced courses and student services within California community colleges. This coincides with the growth of low-income Latino male (Latinos) and Latina female (Latinas) student enrollment. Budget cuts have been implemented throughout the system, including in the Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS), which…

  8. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  9. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  10. MUREX: a land-surface field experiment to study the annual cycle of the energy and water budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The MUREX (monitoring the usable soil reservoir experimentally experiment was designed to provide continuous time series of field data over a long period, in order to improve and validate the Soil-vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT parameterisations employed in meteorological models. Intensive measurements were performed for more than three years over fallow farmland in southwestern France. To capture the main processes controlling land-atmosphere exchanges, the local climate was fully characterised, and surface water and energy fluxes, vegetation biomass, soil moisture profiles, surface soil moisture and surface and soil temperature were monitored. Additional physiological measurements were carried out during selected periods to describe the biological control of the fluxes. The MUREX data of 1995, 1996, and 1997 are presented. Four SVAT models are applied to the annual cycle of 1995. In general, they succeed in simulating the main features of the fallow functioning, although some shortcomings are revealed.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration; soil moisture; water-energy interactions.

  11. A Novel Pathway to Down-Regulate ErbB Signaling in Mammary Epithelial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Lei

    2001-01-01

    .... Based on these observations, this proposal is investigating the role of Cbl-mediated ubiquitination as a signal for targeting activated ErbB receptors to lysosomes where they undergo degradation...

  12. Novel Peptide/Protein Delivery System Targeting erbB2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Dihua

    2002-01-01

    .... During this funding year, we focused on the delivery of erbB2 signal-blocking ESP peptides (objective 2) . Because of the complexity of biotin-penetratin-AHNP-ESP, the synthesis was unsuccessful...

  13. Selective Inhibition of Tumor Growth by Clonal NK Cells Expressing an ErbB2/HER2-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Kurt; Sahm, Christiane; Zhang, Congcong; Naundorf, Sonja; Brendel, Christian; Odendahl, Marcus; Nowakowska, Paulina; Bönig, Halvard; Köhl, Ulrike; Kloess, Stephan; Köhler, Sylvia; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Jauch, Anna; Schmidt, Manfred; Schubert, Ralf; Kühlcke, Klaus; Seifried, Erhard; Klingemann, Hans G; Rieger, Michael A; Tonn, Torsten; Grez, Manuel; Wels, Winfried S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an important effector cell type for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Similar to T cells, NK cells can be modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance antitumor activity, but experience with CAR-engineered NK cells and their clinical development is still limited. Here, we redirected continuously expanding and clinically usable established human NK-92 cells to the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2) antigen. Following GMP-compliant procedures, we generated a stable clonal cell line expressing a humanized CAR based on ErbB2-specific antibody FRP5 harboring CD28 and CD3ζ signaling domains (CAR 5.28.z). These NK-92/5.28.z cells efficiently lysed ErbB2-expressing tumor cells in vitro and exhibited serial target cell killing. Specific recognition of tumor cells and antitumor activity were retained in vivo, resulting in selective enrichment of NK-92/5.28.z cells in orthotopic breast carcinoma xenografts, and reduction of pulmonary metastasis in a renal cell carcinoma model, respectively. γ-irradiation as a potential safety measure for clinical application prevented NK cell replication, while antitumor activity was preserved. Our data demonstrate that it is feasible to engineer CAR-expressing NK cells as a clonal, molecularly and functionally well-defined and continuously expandable cell therapeutic agent, and suggest NK-92/5.28.z cells as a promising candidate for use in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25373520

  14. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  15. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  16. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  17. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  18. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  19. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  20. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CERES:CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  1. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  2. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  3. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  4. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  5. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  6. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  7. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  8. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  9. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  10. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  11. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  12. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  13. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  14. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2002-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  15. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  16. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  17. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  18. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  19. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  20. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  1. Use of the Charge/Discharge (C/D) ratio to aument voltage limit (V sub T) charge control in the ERBS spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.

    1982-01-01

    A 50-ampere hour nickel cadmium cell test pack was operated in a power profile simulating the orbit of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). The objective was to determine the ability of the temperature compensated voltage limit (V sub T) charge control system to maintain energy balance in the half sine wave-type current profile expected of this mission. The four-cell pack (50 E) was tested at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) at Crane, Indiana. The ERBS evaluation test consisted of two distinct operating sequences, each having a specific purpose. The first phase was a parametric test involving the effect of V sub T level, temperature, and Beta angle on the charge/discharge (C/D) ratio, an indicator of the amount of overcharge. The second phase of testing made use of the C/D ratio limit to augment the V sub T charge limit control. When the C/D limit was reached, the current was switched from the taper mode to a C/67 (0.75 A) trickle charge. The use of an ampere hour integrator limiting the overcharge to a C/67 rate provided a fine tuning of the charge control technique which eliminated the sensitivity problems noted in the initial operating sequence.

  2. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  3. Chimeric DNA Vaccines against ErbB2{sup +} Carcinomas: From Mice to Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglino, Elena; Riccardo, Federica; Macagno, Marco; Bandini, Silvio; Cojoca, Rodica; Ercole, Elisabetta [Molecular Biotechnology Center, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin (Italy); Amici, Augusto [Department of Molecular Cellular and Animal Biology, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Cavallo, Federica, E-mail: federica.cavallo@unito.it [2 Department of Molecular Cellular and Animal Biology, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2011-08-10

    DNA vaccination exploits a relatively simple and flexible technique to generate an immune response against microbial and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Its effectiveness is enhanced by the application of an electrical shock in the area of plasmid injection (electroporation). In our studies we exploited a sophisticated electroporation device approved for clinical use (Cliniporator, IGEA, Carpi, Italy). As the target antigen is an additional factor that dramatically modulates the efficacy of a vaccine, we selected ErbB2 receptor as a target since it is an ideal oncoantigen. It is overexpressed on the cell membrane by several carcinomas for which it plays an essential role in driving their progression. Most oncoantigens are self-tolerated molecules. To circumvent immune tolerance we generated two plasmids (RHuT and HuRT) coding for chimeric rat/human ErbB2 proteins. Their immunogenicity was compared in wild type mice naturally tolerant for mouse ErbB2, and in transgenic mice that are also tolerant for rat or human ErbB2. In several of these mice, RHuT and HuRT elicited a stronger anti-tumor response than plasmids coding for fully human or fully rat ErbB2. The ability of heterologous moiety to blunt immune tolerance could be exploited to elicit a significant immune response in patients. A clinical trial to delay the recurrence of ErbB2{sup +} carcinomas of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx is awaiting the approval of the Italian authorities.

  4. ErbB-2 nuclear function in breast cancer growth, metastasis and resistance to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Patricia V; Cordo Russo, Rosalía I; Chervo, Maria F; Schillaci, Roxana

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 15-20% of breast cancers (BC) show either membrane overexpression of ErbB-2 (MErbB-2), a member of the ErbBs family of receptor tyrosine kinases, or ERBB2 gene amplification. Until the development of MErbB-2-targeted therapies, this BC subtype, called ErbB-2-positive, was associated with increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Although these therapies have significantly improved overall survival and cure rates, resistance to available drugs is still a major clinical issue. In its classical mechanism, MErbB-2 activates downstream signaling cascades, which transduce its effects in BC. The fact that ErbB-2 is also present in the nucleus of BC cells was discovered over twenty years ago. Also, compelling evidence revealed a non-canonical function of nuclear ErbB-2 as a transcriptional regulator. As a deeper understanding of nuclear ErbB-2 actions would be crucial to the disclosure of its role as a biomarker and a target of therapy in BC, we will here review its function in BC, in particular, its role in growth, metastatic spreading and response to currently available MErbB-2-positive BC therapies. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. The atmospheric impacts of monoterpene ozonolysis on global stabilised Criegee intermediate budgets and SO2 oxidation: experiment, theory and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Newland

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase reaction of alkenes with ozone is known to produce stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs. These biradical/zwitterionic species have the potential to act as atmospheric oxidants for trace pollutants such as SO2, enhancing the formation of sulfate aerosol with impacts on air quality and health, radiative transfer and climate. However, the importance of this chemistry is uncertain as a consequence of limited understanding of the abundance and atmospheric fate of SCIs. In this work we apply experimental, theoretical and numerical modelling methods to quantify the atmospheric impacts, abundance and fate of the structurally diverse SCIs derived from the ozonolysis of monoterpenes, the second most abundant group of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. We have investigated the removal of SO2 by SCIs formed from the ozonolysis of three atmospherically important monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene in the presence of varying amounts of water vapour in large-scale simulation chamber experiments that are representative of boundary layer conditions. The SO2 removal displays a clear dependence on water vapour concentration, but this dependence is not linear across the range of [H2O] explored. At low [H2O] a strong dependence of SO2 removal on [H2O] is observed, while at higher [H2O] this dependence becomes much weaker. This is interpreted as being caused by the production of a variety of structurally (and hence chemically different SCIs in each of the systems studied, which displayed different rates of reaction with water and of unimolecular rearrangement or decomposition. The determined rate constants, k(SCI+H2O, for those SCIs that react primarily with H2O range from 4 to 310  ×  10−15 cm3 s−1. For those SCIs that predominantly react unimolecularly, determined rates range from 130 to 240 s−1. These values are in line with previous results for the (analogous stereo-specific SCI system of syn-/anti-CH3

  6. The atmospheric impacts of monoterpene ozonolysis on global stabilised Criegee intermediate budgets and SO2 oxidation: experiment, theory and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Mike J.; Rickard, Andrew R.; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J.; Vereecken, Luc; Muñoz, Amalia; Ródenas, Milagros; Bloss, William J.

    2018-05-01

    The gas-phase reaction of alkenes with ozone is known to produce stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs). These biradical/zwitterionic species have the potential to act as atmospheric oxidants for trace pollutants such as SO2, enhancing the formation of sulfate aerosol with impacts on air quality and health, radiative transfer and climate. However, the importance of this chemistry is uncertain as a consequence of limited understanding of the abundance and atmospheric fate of SCIs. In this work we apply experimental, theoretical and numerical modelling methods to quantify the atmospheric impacts, abundance and fate of the structurally diverse SCIs derived from the ozonolysis of monoterpenes, the second most abundant group of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. We have investigated the removal of SO2 by SCIs formed from the ozonolysis of three atmospherically important monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene) in the presence of varying amounts of water vapour in large-scale simulation chamber experiments that are representative of boundary layer conditions. The SO2 removal displays a clear dependence on water vapour concentration, but this dependence is not linear across the range of [H2O] explored. At low [H2O] a strong dependence of SO2 removal on [H2O] is observed, while at higher [H2O] this dependence becomes much weaker. This is interpreted as being caused by the production of a variety of structurally (and hence chemically) different SCIs in each of the systems studied, which displayed different rates of reaction with water and of unimolecular rearrangement or decomposition. The determined rate constants, k(SCI+H2O), for those SCIs that react primarily with H2O range from 4 to 310 × 10-15 cm3 s-1. For those SCIs that predominantly react unimolecularly, determined rates range from 130 to 240 s-1. These values are in line with previous results for the (analogous) stereo-specific SCI system of syn-/anti-CH3CHOO. The experimental results are

  7. Decreased internalisation of erbB1 mutants in lung cancer is linked with a mechanism conferring sensitivity to gefitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, B S; Griffiths, G J; Benson, R; Kenyon, D; Lazzara, M; Swinton, J; Beck, S; Hickinson, M; Beusmans, J M; Lauffenburger, D; de Graaf, D

    2006-11-01

    A majority of gefitinib (IRESSA)-responsive tumours in non-small cell lung cancer have been found to carry mutations in ErbB1. Previously, it has been observed that internalisation-deficient ErbB1 receptors are strong drivers of oncogenesis. Using a computational model of ErbB1 trafficking and signalling, it is found that a deficiency in ErbB1 internalisation is sufficient to explain the observed signalling phenotype of these gefitinib-responsive ErbB1 mutants in lung cancer cell lines. Experimental tests confirm that gefitinib-sensitive cell lines with and without ErbB1 mutations exhibit markedly slower internalisation rates than gefitinib-insensitive cell lines. Moreover, the computational model demonstrates that reduced ErbB1 internalisation rates are mechanistically linked to upregulated AKT signalling. Experimentally it is confirmed that impaired internalisation of ErbB1 is associated with increased AKT activity, which can be blocked by gefitinib. On the basis of these experimental and computational results, it is surmised that gefitinib sensitivity is a marker of a reliance on AKT signalling for cell survival that may be brought about by impaired ErbB1 internalisation.

  8. Expression of Eag1 K+ channel and ErbBs in human pituitary adenomas: cytoskeleton arrangement patterns in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pliego, Margarita González; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa; Paisano-Cerón, Karina; Valdovinos-Ramírez, Irene; Rangel-Morales, Carlos; Rodríguez-Mata, Verónica; Solano-Agama, Carmen; Martín-Tapia, Dolores; de la Vega, María Teresa; Saldoval-Balanzario, Miguel; Camacho, Javier; Mendoza-Garrido, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas can invade surrounded tissue, but the mechanism remains elusive. Ether à go-go-1 (Eag1) potassium channel and epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1 and ErbB2) have been associated to invasive phenotypes or poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, cells arrange their cytoskeleton in order to acquire a successful migration pattern. We have studied ErbBs and Eag1 expression, and cytoskeleton arrangements in 11 human pituitary adenomas. Eag1, ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression were studied by immunochemistry in tissue and cultured cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement was analyzed in cultured cells by immunofluorescence. Normal pituitary tissue showed ErbB2 expression and Eag1 only in few cells. However, Eag1 and ErbB2 were expressed in all the tumors analyzed. ErbB1 expression was observed variable and did not show specificity for a tumor characteristic. Cultured cells from micro- and macro-adenomas clinically functional organize their cytoskeleton suggesting a mesenchymal pattern, and a round leucocyte/amoeboid pattern from invasive clinically silent adenoma. Pituitary tumors over-express EGF receptors and the ErbB2 repeated expression suggests is a characteristic of adenomas. Eag 1 was express, in different extent, and could be a therapeutic target. The cytoskeleton arrangements observed suggest that pituitary tumor cells acquire different patterns: mesenchymal, and leucocyte/amoeboid, the last observed in the invasive adenomas. Amoeboid migration pattern has been associated with high invasion capacity.

  9. Breast cancer metastasis driven by ErbB2 and 14-3-3ξ: A division of labor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yingqun

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis remains the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. ErbB2, a metastasis-promoting oncoprotein, is overexpressed in 50–60% of noninvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, only 25% of invasive breast cancer (IBC) overexpress ErbB2, indicating that ErbB2 alone is not sufficient to drive metastasis and additional risk factors are necessary for the progression of ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS to IBC. A recent study published in Cancer Cell identified 14-3-3ξ as a risk fact...

  10. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  11. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  12. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanesi Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases.

  13. A peptide antagonist of the ErbB1 receptor inhibits receptor activation, tumor cell growth and migration in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruodan; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Soroka, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbBs) plays essential roles in tumorigenesis and cancer disease progression, and therefore has become an attractive target for structure-based drug design. ErbB receptors are activated by ligand-induced homo- and heterodimerization...... constitutes part of the dimerization arm of ErbB3. Inherbin3 binds to the extracellular domains of all four ErbB receptors, with the lowest peptide binding affinity for ErbB4. Inherbin3 functions as an antagonist of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-ErbB1 signaling. We show that Inherbin3 inhibits EGF-induced Erb....... Structural studies have revealed that ErbB receptor dimers are stabilized by receptor-receptor interactions, primarily mediated by a region in the second extracellular domain, termed the "dimerization arm". The present study is the first biological characterization of a peptide, termed Inherbin3, which...

  14. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  15. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  16. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  17. ErbB4 localization to cardiac myocyte nuclei, and its role in myocyte DNA damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icli, Basak; Bharti, Ajit; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Sawyer, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ErbB4 localizes to cardiac myocyte nuclei as a full-length receptor. ► Cardiac myocytes express predominantly JM-a/CYT-1 ErbB4. ► Myocyte p53 activation in response to doxorubicin requires ErbB4 activity. -- Abstract: The intracellular domain of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to translocate to the nucleus of cells where it can regulate p53 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ErbB4 can localize to the nucleus of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM), and regulate p53 in these cells. We demonstrate that ErbB4 does locate to the nucleus of cardiac myocytes as a full-length protein, although nuclear location occurs as a full-length protein that does not require Protein Kinase C or γ-secretase activity. Consistent with this we found that only the non-cleavable JM-b isoform of ErbB4 is expressed in ARVM. Doxorubicin was used to examine ErbB4 role in regulation of a DNA damage response in ARVM. Doxorubicin induced p53 and p21 was suppressed by treatment with AG1478, an EGFR and ErbB4 kinase inhibitor, or suppression of ErbB4 expression with small interfering RNA. Thus ErbB4 localizes to the nucleus as a full-length protein, and plays a role in the DNA damage response induced by doxorubicin in cardiac myocytes.

  18. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  19. A holistic approach to the management of Erb's palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srilakshmi, Dasari; Chaganti, Sreelakshmi

    2013-01-01

    A 4.5-month-old female baby, presenting with complete paralysis of right upper limb with typical waiter's tip deformity, diagnosed as Erb's palsy was brought to Sri Ganapati Sachchidananda Hospital. Patient was treated with an integrated approach of physiotherapy and Ayurvedic treatment with an intention of aiding faster recovery of the patient to lead a near normal life. As per Ayurvedic classics, this condition can be correlated to Ekangavata (Vata effecting any one part of the body), which is Apatarpana in nature (diseases with deprived growth of body tissue). Hence, the choice of treatment is Santarpana Chikitsa (nourishing treatment). Santarpana Bahyopakramas (nourishing external treatment modalities) such as Ashwagandhabalalakshadi Taila (Ayurvedic medicated oil) Abhyanga (oleation therapy) and Shastikashali Anna Lepa (application of processed rice paste) were administered along with electrical stimulation (physiotherapy modality), both galvanic and faradic current in three sessions. Appreciable results were observed in the form of reduction of disparity in length and mid-arm circumference of right upper limb compared to unaffected left upper limb and the muscle power too improved from zero to four, facilitating patient to near normal movement. PMID:24459391

  20. ErbB Proteins as Molecular Target of Dietary Phytochemicals in Malignant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Filippi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ErbB proteins overexpression, in both normal and mutated forms, is associated with invasive forms of cancer prone to metastasis and with stronger antiapoptotic mechanisms and therefore more challenging to treat. Downstream effectors of ErbB receptors mediating these phenotypic traits include MAPK, STAT, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Various phytochemical compounds were studied for their large number of biological effects including anticancer activity. Among these compounds, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main catechin from green tea leaves, and curcumin, component of the curry powder, constituted the object of numerous studies. Both compounds were shown to act directly either on ErbB expression, or on their downstream signaling molecules. In this paper we aim to review the involvement of ErbB proteins in cancer as well as the biologic activity of EGCG and curcumin in ErbB expressing and overexpressing malignancies. The problems arising in the administration of the two compounds due to their reduced bioavailability when orally administered, as well as the progress made in this field, from using novel formulations to improved dosing regimens or improved synthetic analogs, are also discussed.

  1. Expression of oncogen c-erbB-2 (neu/HER-2) in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino C.; Mayo, Jose

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women and represents the most serious challenge to therapeutic control. Amplification and overexpression of the c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene occurs in as many as 30 % of all breast cancers and has been correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This gene know as neu, HER-2 or c-erbB-2 in among those most frequently altered in human cancer. It was first identified as a transforming gene activated in chemically induced rat neuroectodermal tumors. Early critical studies linked changes in erbB-2 expression and gene copy number to several human cancer, notably breast, ovarian and gastric cancer. Owing to its accessible location at the cell surface, erbB-2 is now under intensive scrutiny as a therapeutic target. In this review we will summarize the involvement of the c-erbB-2 gene in tumorigenesis. (author)

  2. Kinesio arm taping as prophylaxis against the development of Erb's Engram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElKhatib, Radwa S; ElNegmy, Emam H; Salem, Amina H; Sherief, AbdelAziz A

    2013-11-01

    An Erb's Engram is a common debility that develops in recovering children with Erb's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesiotaping over the deltoid and the forearm on the development of proper upper extremity function in children recovering from Erb's palsy. Thirty patients with Erb's palsy participated for 3 months in this study and were equally divided into two groups; control group A and study group B. The two groups received the same designed physical therapy program, while group B along the program, received kinesiotaping over the deltoid and the forearm. The subjects were evaluated, pre and post-treatment, and scored functionally, using the Toronto Active Motion Scale, and objectively, using an EMG device utilized to obtain the percentages of degeneration of the deltoid and the biceps muscles. Post-treatment values of six out of nine measured variables, between the two groups, revealed significant difference in favor of group B. The obtained results strongly support the introduction of kinesiotaping of the deltoid and the forearm as an adjunct to the treatment program of Erb's palsied children.

  3. Site selection and directional models of deserts used for ERBE validation targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staylor, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements obtained from the Nimbus 7 Earth Radiation Budget scanner were used to develop reflectance and emittance models for the Sahara, Gibson, and Saudi Deserts. These deserts will serve as in-flight validation targets for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment being flown on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and two National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar satellites. The directional reflectance model derived for the deserts was a function of the sum and product of the cosines of the solar and viewing zenith angles, and thus reciprocity existed between these zenith angles. The emittance model was related by a power law of the cosine of the viewing zenith angle.

  4. Endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is stimulated by cleavage of its C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Bruun, Silas; Grandal, Michael Vibo

    2007-01-01

    inhibition of HSP90 with geldanamycin this cleavage is accompanied by proteasome-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2. However, it is unknown whether C-terminal cleavage is linked to endocytosis. To study ErbB2 cleavage and endocytic trafficking, we fused yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and cyan fluorescent...

  5. Identification of a novel antagonist of the ErbB1 receptor capable of inhibiting migration of human glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Riemer, Christian; Xu, Ruodan

    2013-01-01

    B1 targeting peptide, termed Herfin-1, was designed based on a model of the tertiary structure of the EGF-EGFR ternary complex. The binding kinetics of this peptide were determined employing surface plasmon resonance analyses. ErbB1-4 expression and phosphorylation in human glioblastoma cell lines U...... processing. RESULTS: The present study shows that Herfin-1 functions as an ErbB1 antagonist. It binds to the extracellular domain of ErbB1 with a KD value of 361 nM. In U87 and U118 cells, both expressing high levels of ErbB1, Herfin-1 inhibits EGF-induced ErbB1 phosphorylation and cell migration....... Additionally, Herfin-1 was found to increase neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons, likely through the inhibition of a sustained weak ErbB1 activation. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting the ErbB1 receptor dimerization interface is a promising strategy to inhibit receptor activation in ErbB1-expressing glioma...

  6. Repression of transcription mediated at a thyroid hormone response element by the v-erb-A oncogene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; Muñoz, A; Schmitt, J

    1989-01-01

    Several recent observations, such as the identification of the cellular homologue of the v-erb-A oncogene as a thyroid-hormone receptor, have strongly implicated nuclear oncogenes in transcriptional control mechanisms. The v-erb-A oncogene blocks the differentiation of erythroid cells, and changes...

  7. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  8. ERBS fuel addendum: Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A Model TFE731-2 engine with a low emission, variable geometry combustion system was tested to compare the effects of operating the engine on Commercial Jet-A aviation turbine fuel and experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuels. Low power emission levels were essentially identical while the high power NOx emission indexes were approximately 15% lower with the EBRS fuel. The exhaust smoke number was approximately 50% higher with ERBS at the takeoff thrust setting; however, both values were still below the EPA limit of 40 for the Model TFE731 engine. Primary zone liner wall temperature ran an average of 25 K higher with ERBS fuel than with Jet-A. The possible adoption of broadened proprties fuels for gas turbine applications is suggested.

  9. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  10. Comprehensive Binary Interaction Mapping of SH2 Domains via Fluorescence Polarization Reveals Novel Functional Diversification of ErbB Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Mark F.; Chuu, Chih-pin; Jones, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2) domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM) technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP) methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry procedures. This

  11. Comprehensive binary interaction mapping of SH2 domains via fluorescence polarization reveals novel functional diversification of ErbB receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Hause

    Full Text Available First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2 domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry

  12. Down-Regulation of Neuregulin1/ErbB4 Signaling in the Hippocampus Is Critical for Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Geng, Fei; Gao, Feng; Chen, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ji-Hong; Wu, Jian-Lin; Lan, Yu-Jie; Zeng, Yuan-Ning; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Jian-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Hippocampal function is important for learning and memory, and dysfunction of the hippocampus has been linked to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Neuregulin1 (NRG1) and ErbB4, two susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, reportedly modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses. However, little is known regarding the contribution of hippocampal NRG1/ErbB4 signaling to learning and memory function. Here, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein levels of NRG1 and ErbB4. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to manipulate NRG1/ErbB4 signaling, following which learning and memory behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, Y-maze test, and the novel object recognition test. Spatial learning was found to reduce hippocampal NRG1 and ErbB4 expression. The blockade of NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in hippocampal CA1, either by neutralizing endogenous NRG1 or inhibiting/ablating ErbB4 receptor activity, enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, spatial working memory, and novel object recognition memory. Accordingly, administration of exogenous NRG1 impaired those functions. More importantly, the specific ablation of ErbB4 in parvalbumin interneurons also improved learning and memory performance. The manipulation of NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in the present study revealed that NRG1/ErbB4 activity in the hippocampus is critical for learning and memory. These findings might provide novel insights on the pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia and a new target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function.

  13. Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Ariadna; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Roberts, Amanda J.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands. Recent studies in mice suggest that REV-ERB-specific synthetic agonists modulate metabolic activity as well as alter sleep architecture, inducing wakefulness during the light period. Therefore, these small molecules represent unique tools to extensively study REV-ERB regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In these studies, our aim was to further investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the REV-ERBs for regulation of sleep by characterizing efficacy, and optimal dosing time of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Applying different experimental paradigms in mice, our studies establish that SR9009 does not lose efficacy when administered more than once a day, nor does tolerance develop when administered once a day over a three-day dosing regimen. Moreover, through use of a time response paradigm, we determined that although there is an optimal time for administration of SR9009 in terms of maximal efficacy, there is a 12-hour window in which SR9009 elicited a response. Our studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag. PMID:27603791

  14. Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Juana M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ErbB2-positive breast cancer is characterized by highly aggressive phenotypes and reduced responsiveness to standard therapies. Although specific ErbB2-targeted therapies have been designed, only a small percentage of patients respond to these treatments and most of them eventually relapse. The existence of this population of particularly aggressive and non-responding or relapsing patients urges the search for novel therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cannabinoids might constitute a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of ErbB2-positive breast tumors. We analyzed their antitumor potential in a well established and clinically relevant model of ErbB2-driven metastatic breast cancer: the MMTV-neu mouse. We also analyzed the expression of cannabinoid targets in a series of 87 human breast tumors. Results Our results show that both Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the most abundant and potent cannabinoid in marijuana, and JWH-133, a non-psychotropic CB2 receptor-selective agonist, reduce tumor growth, tumor number, and the amount/severity of lung metastases in MMTV-neu mice. Histological analyses of the tumors revealed that cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce cancer cell apoptosis, and impair tumor angiogenesis. Cannabinoid antitumoral action relies, at least partially, on the inhibition of the pro-tumorigenic Akt pathway. We also found that 91% of ErbB2-positive tumors express the non-psychotropic cannabinoid receptor CB2. Conclusions Taken together, these results provide a strong preclinical evidence for the use of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management of ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

  15. ErbB2-Driven Breast Cancer Cell Invasion Depends on a Complex Signaling Network Activating Myeloid Zinc Finger-1-Dependent Cathepsin B Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bo; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Andersen, Sofie Hagel

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation in breast cancer is strongly linked to an invasive disease. The molecular basis of ErbB2-driven invasion is largely unknown. We show that cysteine cathepsins B and L are elevated in ErbB2 positive primary human breast cancer and function...... as effectors of ErbB2-induced invasion in vitro. We identify Cdc42-binding protein kinase beta, extracellular regulated kinase 2, p21-activated protein kinase 4, and protein kinase C alpha as essential mediators of ErbB2-induced cysteine cathepsin expression and breast cancer cell invasiveness. The identified...

  16. Understanding the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  17. Examining the protective role of ErbB2 modulation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sandy; Guo, Liang; Mussio, Jodie; Furniss, Mike; Hamre, John; Davis, Myrtle

    2014-10-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are being used as an in vitro model system in cardiac biology and in drug discovery (e.g., cardiotoxicity testing). Qualification of these cells for use in mechanistic investigations will require detailed evaluations of cardiomyocyte signaling pathways and cellular responses. ErbB signaling and the ligand neuregulin play critical roles in survival and functional integrity of cardiac myocytes. As such, we sought to characterize the expression and activity of the ErbB family of receptors. Antibody microarray analysis performed on cell lysates derived from maturing hiPSC-CMs detected expression of ∼570 signaling proteins. EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, and ErbB4, but not ErbB3 receptors, of the epidermal growth factor receptor family were confirmed by Western blot. Activation of ErbB signaling by neuregulin-1β (NRG, a natural ligand for ErbB4) and its modulation by trastuzumab (a monoclonal anti-ErbB2 antibody) and lapatinib (a small molecule ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor) were evaluated through assessing phosphorylation of AKT and Erk1/2, two major downstream kinases of ErbB signaling, using nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay. Downregulation of ErbB2 expression by siRNA silencing attenuated NRG-induced AKT and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Activation of ErbB signaling with NRG, or inhibition with trastuzumab, alleviated or aggravated doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte damage, respectively, as assessed by a real-time cellular impedance analysis and ATP measurement. Collectively, these results support the expanded use of hiPSC-CMs to examine mechanisms of cardiotoxicity and support the value of using these cells in early assessments of cardiotoxicity or efficacy. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Toxicological Sciences 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Pertuzumab Increases 17-AAG-Induced Degradation of ErbB2, and This Effect Is Further Increased by Combining Pertuzumab with Trastuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Juliana Bentes; Rødland, Marianne Skeie; Hasmann, Max; Madshus, Inger Helene; Stang, Espen

    2012-01-01

    ErbB2 is an important oncogenic protein involved in carcinogenesis of, among others, breast, gastric, and ovarian carcinoma. Over-expression of ErbB2 is found in almost 20% of breast cancers, and this results in proliferative and anti-apoptotic signalling. ErbB2 is therefore an important treatment target. Antibodies recognizing full-length ErbB2 are clinically established, and drugs targeting the ErbB2 stabilizing heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) are under clinical evaluation. We have investigated effects of the ErbB2-binding antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab alone and in combination, as well as the effect of the antibodies in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Our results confirm the notion that combination of different ErbB2-binding antibodies more efficiently down-regulates ErbB2 than does one antibody in isolation. Additionally, our data demonstrate that ErbB2 is most efficiently down-regulated upon incubation with anti-ErbB2 antibodies in combination with Hsp90 inhibitors. The combination of anti-ErbB2 antibodies, and especially the combination of antibodies with 17-AAG, did also increase the inhibition of Akt activation of either agent, which could suggest an anti-proliferative effect. In such case, combining these agents could be beneficial in treatment of tumors not responding to trastuzumab only. PMID:24281706

  19. Pertuzumab Increases 17-AAG-Induced Degradation of ErbB2, and This Effect Is Further Increased by Combining Pertuzumab with Trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bentes Hughes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ErbB2 is an important oncogenic protein involved in carcinogenesis of, among others, breast, gastric, and ovarian carcinoma. Over-expression of ErbB2 is found in almost 20% of breast cancers, and this results in proliferative and anti-apoptotic signalling. ErbB2 is therefore an important treatment target. Antibodies recognizing full-length ErbB2 are clinically established, and drugs targeting the ErbB2 stabilizing heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 are under clinical evaluation. We have investigated effects of the ErbB2-binding antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab alone and in combination, as well as the effect of the antibodies in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Our results confirm the notion that combination of different ErbB2-binding antibodies more efficiently down-regulates ErbB2 than does one antibody in isolation. Additionally, our data demonstrate that ErbB2 is most efficiently down-regulated upon incubation with anti-ErbB2 antibodies in combination with Hsp90 inhibitors. The combination of anti-ErbB2 antibodies, and especially the combination of antibodies with 17-AAG, did also increase the inhibition of Akt activation of either agent, which could suggest an anti-proliferative effect. In such case, combining these agents could be beneficial in treatment of tumors not responding to trastuzumab only.

  20. Solution structure of the human Grb7-SH2 domain/erbB2 peptide complex and structural basis for Grb7 binding to ErbB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancic, Monika; Daly, Roger J.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    The solution structure of the hGrb7-SH2 domain in complex with a ten amino acid phosphorylated peptide ligand representative of the erbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase (pY1139) is presented as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The hGrb7-SH2 domain structure reveals the Src homology 2 domain topology consisting of a central β-sheet capped at each end by an α-helix. The presence of a four residue insertion in the region between β-strand E and the EF loop and resulting influences on the SH2 domain/peptide complex structure are discussed. The binding conformation of the erbB2 peptide is in a β-turn similar to that found in phosphorylated tyrosine peptides bound to the Grb2-SH2 domain. To our knowledge this is only the second example of an SH2 domain binding its naturally occurring ligands in a turn, instead of extended, conformation. Close contacts between residues responsible for binding specificity in hGrb7-SH2 and the erbB2 peptide are characterized and the potential effect of mutation of these residues on the hGrb7-SH2 domain structure is discussed

  1. Neratinib induces ErbB2 ubiquitylation and endocytic degradation via HSP90 dissociation in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingqiu; Zhang, Jinrui; Liu, Congcong; Du, Sha; Feng, Lu; Luan, Xuelin; Zhang, Yayun; Shi, Yulin; Wang, Taishu; Wu, Yue; Cheng, Wei; Meng, Songshu; Li, Man; Liu, Han

    2016-11-28

    Receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2/HER2 is frequently observed to be overexpressed in human cancers, leading to over activation of downstream signaling modules. HER2 positive is a major type of breast cancer for which ErbB2 targeting is already proving to be an effective therapeutic strategy. Apart from antibodies against ErbB2, the small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib has had successful clinical outcomes, and other inhibitors such as neratinib are currently undergoing clinical investigations. In this study we report the effects of lapatinib and neratinib on the mRNA and protein levels of the ErbB2 receptor. We provide evidence that neratinib-induced down regulation of ErbB2 occurs through ubiquitin-mediated endocytic sorting and lysosomal degradation. At the mechanistic level, neratinib treatment leads to HSP90 release from ErbB2 and its subsequent ubiquitylation and endocytic degradation. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanism of ErbB2 inhibition by neratinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  3. CEA budget in 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  4. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  5. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  6. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  7. The Agency's budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  8. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  9. No evidence for c-erbB-2 overexpression in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, P.; Craanen, M. E.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    Conflicting data on c-erbB-2 overexpression in gastric carcinomas can be found in the literature with regard to overall prevalence, prognostic significance and the histological type according to Lauren. The majority of these studies have focused on advanced gastric carcinomas whereas data on

  10. Detection of erbB2 copy number variations in plasma of patients with esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andolfo, Immacolata; Orditura, Michele; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Fernando; Zollo, Massimo; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Vecchione, Loredana; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Capasso, Mario; Montanaro, Donatella; Gemei, Marica; Troncone, Giancarlo; Iolascon, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Mortality is high in patients with esophageal carcinoma as tumors are rarely detected before the disease has progressed to an advanced stage. Here, we sought to isolate cell-free DNA released into the plasma of patients with esophageal carcinoma, to analyze copy number variations of marker genes in the search for early detection of tumor progression. Plasma of 41 patients with esophageal carcinoma was prospectively collected before tumor resection and chemotherapy. Our dataset resulted heterogeneous for clinical data, resembling the characteristics of the tumor. DNA from the plasma was extracted to analyze copy number variations of the erbB2 gene using real-time PCR assays. The real-time PCR assays for erbB2 gene showed significant (P = 0.001) copy number variations in the plasma of patients with esophageal carcinoma, as compared to healthy controls with high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (95%). These variations in erbB2 were negatively correlated to the progression free survival of these patients (P = 0.03), and revealed a further risk category stratification of patients with low VEGF expression levels. The copy number variation of erbB2 gene from plasma can be used as prognostic marker for early detection of patients at risk of worse clinical outcome in esophageal cancer

  11. In silico prediction of ErbB signal activation from receptor expression ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    85

    Annals of biomedical engineering 35 1012-1025. Machado D, Costa RS, Rocha M, Ferreira EC, Tidor B, Rocha I 2011 Modeling formalisms in Systems Biology. AMB Express 1 45. McCabe Pryor M, et al. 2015 Orchestration of ErbB3 signaling through heterointeractions and homointeractions. Mol Biol Cell 26 4109-4123.

  12. 78 FR 73586 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board (PRB) and Executive Resources Board (ERB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...: Performance Review Board Leland L. Gardner, Chairman Rachel D. Campbell, Member Craig M. Keats, Member Lucille Marvin, Alternate Member Executive Resources Board Rachel D. Campbell, Chairman Lucille Marvin, Member Joseph H. Dettmar, Alternate Member These changes to the PRB and ERB membership are due to the departure...

  13. Cdk2-Null Mice Are Resistant to ErbB-2-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of targeting G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs in breast cancer treatments is supported by the fact that the genetic ablation of Cdk4 had minimal impacts on normal cell proliferation in majority of cell types, resulting in near-normal mouse development, whereas such loss of Cdk4 completely abrogated ErbB-2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice. In most human breast cancer tissues, another G1-regulatory CDK, CDK2, is also hyperactivated by various mechanisms and is believed to be an important therapeutic target. In this report, we provide genetic evidence that CDK2 is essential for proliferation and oncogenesis of murine mammary epithelial cells. We observed that 87% of Cdk2-null mice were protected from ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Cdk2-null mouse showed resistance to various oncogene-induced transformation. Previously, we have reported that hemizygous loss of Cdc25A, the major activator of CDK2, can also protect mice from ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis [Cancer Res (2007 67(14: 6605–11]. Thus, we propose that CDC25A-CDK2 pathway is critical for the oncogenic action of ErbB-2 in mammary epithelial cells, in a manner similar to Cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway.

  14. Characterization of the promoter region of the human c-erbB-2 protooncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, S.; Imamoto, F.; Yamanashi, Y.; Toyoshima, K.; Yamamoto, T.

    1987-01-01

    Three overlapping genomic clones that contain the 5'-terminal portion of the human c-erbB-2 gene (ERBB2) were isolated. The promoter region was identified by nuclease S1 mapping with c-erbB-2 mRNA. Seven transcriptional start sites were identified. DNA sequence analysis showed that the promoter region contains a TATA box and a CAAT box about 30 and 80 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the most downstream RNA initiation site. Two putative binding sites for transcription factor Sp1 were identified about 50 and 110 bp upstream of the CAAT box, and six GGA repeats were found between the CAAT box and the TATA box. This region had strong promoter activity when placed upstream of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and transfected into monkey CV-1 cells. These data indicate that the promoter of the human c-erbB-2 protooncogene is different from that of the protooncogene c-erbB-1 (epidermal growth factor receptor gene), which does not contain either a TATA box or a CAAT box. Comparison of the promoter sequences and activities of the two protooncogenes should be helpful in analysis of the regulatory mechanism of expression of their gene products, which are growth-factor receptors

  15. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  16. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  17. [Immunoexpression of c-erbB-2 in intraductal proliferative lesions of the female breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Agliberto Barbosa de; De Luca, Laurival Antônio; Carvalho, Grigna Teixeira; Arias, Victor Eduardo Arua; Carvalho, Lídia Raquel de; Assunção, Maria do Carmo

    2004-01-01

    Genetic modifications are related to genesis and development of cancer. Neoplasias in various organs express the c-erbB-2 oncogene. In intraductal proliferations of the breast it has been assessed as a risk factor for subsequent development of carcinoma. The c-erbB-2 immunoexpression in intraductal epithelial proliferations and the relationship with histopathological characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were evaluated. File material from 88 women, which were tissue samples formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks, was used. Of these 51 presented with DCIS and 37 with ductal hyperplasia without atypia. Ages of the women ranged from 35 to 76 years. All cases were reviewed and nuclear grade, presence of necrosis, preponderance of histological subtype and its extension were verified. Specimens were obtained for the c-erB-2 immunohistochemical study of 84 of the women in question. No expression of the oncogene was verified in the hyperplasias without atypias and in tissues adjacent to all tissue samples. Expression of c-erbB-2 was verified in 9 (19.1%) of the DCIS (p = 0.0001). Immunoexpression was not related to the extension of the lesions. The c-erbB-2 immunoexpression in DCIS was correlated to the histological subtype (p = 0.019), necrosis (p = 0.0066), nuclear grade (p = 0.0084) and Van Nuys Classification (p = 0.039). Expression of c-erbB-2 was significant in proliferative lesions with risk (DCIS) and was correlated to histopathological characteristics: high nuclear grade, presence of necrosis and comedy subtype. There was no expression in the hyperplasias without atypias and adjacent tissues.

  18. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  19. Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget wide field of view climate data set improvement. II - Deconvolution of earth radiation budget products and consideration of 1982-1983 El Nino event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Phillip E.; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian S.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1987-01-01

    A deconvolution technique is employed that permits recovery of daily averaged earth radiation budget (ERB) parameters at the top of the atmosphere from a set of the Nimbus 7 ERB wide field of view (WFOV) measurements. Improvements in both the spatial resolution of the resultant fields and in the fidelity of the time averages is obtained. The algorithm is evaluated on a set of months during the period 1980-1983. The albedo, outgoing long-wave radiation, and net radiation parameters are analyzed. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-stationary patterns that appear in the spatially deconvolved fields describe the radiation budget components for 'normal' as well as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode years. They delineate the seasonal development of large-scale features inherent in the earth's radiation budget as well as the natural variability of interannual differences. These features are underscored by the powerful emergence of the 1982-1983 ENSO event in the fields displayed. The conclusion is that with this type of resolution enhancement, WFOV radiometers provide a useful tool for the observation of the contemporary climate and its variability.

  20. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  1. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  2. ErbB receptors and cell polarity: New pathways and paradigms for understanding cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, Michael E.; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.

    2009-01-01

    The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases is involved in initiation and progression of a number of human cancers, and receptor activation or overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. Research over the past two decades has elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying ErbB-induced tumorigenesis, which has resulted in the development of effective targeted therapies. ErbB-induced signal transduction cascades regulate a wide variety of cell processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell polarity, migration and invasion. Within tumors, disruption of these core processes, through cooperative oncogenic lesions, results in aggressive, metastatic disease. This review will focus on the ErbB signaling networks that regulate migration and invasion and identify a potential role for cell polarity pathways during cancer progression

  3. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  4. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  6. Jackson Revenue Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  7. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  8. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  9. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  10. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  11. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  12. Dynamic ErbB4 Activity in Hippocampal-Prefrontal Synchrony and Top-Down Attention in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhibing; Robinson, Heath L; Yin, Dong-Min; Liu, Yu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Hongsheng; Lin, Thiri W; Xing, Guanglin; Gan, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2018-04-18

    Top-down attention is crucial for meaningful behaviors and impaired in various mental disorders. However, its underpinning regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony associates with levels of top-down attention. Both attention and synchrony are reduced in mutant mice of ErbB4, a receptor of neuregulin-1. We used chemical genetic and optogenetic approaches to inactivate ErbB4 kinase and ErbB4+ interneurons, respectively, both of which reduce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. Such inhibitions in the hippocampus impair both hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony and top-down attention, whereas those in the prefrontal cortex alter attention, but not synchrony. These observations identify a role of ErbB4-dependent GABA activity in the hippocampus in synchronizing the hippocampal-prefrontal pathway and demonstrate that acute, dynamic ErbB4 signaling is required to command top-down attention. Because both neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 are susceptibility genes of schizophrenia and major depression, our study contributes to a better understanding of these disorders. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of ErbB3, EGFR and Erk is essential for growth of human breast cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frogne, Thomas; Benjaminsen, Rikke; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    cell lines concomitant with inhibition of Erk and unaltered Akt activation. In concert, inhibition of Erk with U0126 preferentially reduced growth of resistant cell lines. Treatment with ErbB3 neutralizing antibodies inhibited ErbB3 activation and resulted in a modest but statistically significant...... activation was observed only in the parental MCF-7 cells. The downstream kinases pAkt and pErk were increased in five of seven and in all seven resistant cell lines, respectively. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib preferentially inhibited growth and reduced the S phase fraction in the resistant...... growth inhibition of two resistant cell lines. These data indicate that ligand activated ErbB3 and EGFR, and Erk signaling play important roles in fulvestrant resistant cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased level of ErbB4 in resistant cells may facilitate heterodimerization of ErbB3 with EGFR and ErbB2...

  14. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  15. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  16. Neratinib, an irreversible ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Harold J; Sun, Yan; Dirix, Luc Y; Jiang, Zefei; Paridaens, Robert; Tan, Antoinette R; Awada, Ahmad; Ranade, Anantbhushan; Jiao, Shunchang; Schwartz, Gary; Abbas, Richat; Powell, Christine; Turnbull, Kathleen; Vermette, Jennifer; Zacharchuk, Charles; Badwe, Rajendra

    2010-03-10

    Neratinib is an oral, irreversible pan-ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The efficacy and safety of neratinib were evaluated in two cohorts of patients with advanced ErbB2-positive breast cancer-those with and those without prior trastuzumab treatment-in an open-label, multicenter, phase II trial. Patients in the two cohorts (prior trastuzumab, n = 66; no prior trastuzumab, n = 70) received oral neratinib 240 mg once daily. The primary end point was the 16-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate for the evaluable population (prior trastuzumab, n = 63; no prior trastuzumab, n = 64), as assessed by independent review. The 16-week PFS rates were 59% for patients with prior trastuzumab treatment and 78% for patients with no prior trastuzumab treatment. Median PFS was 22.3 and 39.6 weeks, respectively. Objective response rates were 24% among patients with prior trastuzumab treatment and 56% in the trastuzumab-naïve cohort. The most common adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. Diarrhea was the most frequent grades 3 to 4 adverse event, occurring in 30% of patients with prior trastuzumab treatment and in 13% of patients with no prior trastuzumab treatment, which prompted dose reductions in 29% and 4% of patients, respectively, but treatment discontinuation in only one patient. No neratinib-related, grades 3 or 4 cardiotoxicity was reported. Oral neratinib showed substantial clinical activity and was reasonably well tolerated among both heavily pretreated and trastuzumab-naïve patients who had advanced, ErbB2-positive breast cancer. Diarrhea was the most common adverse effect but was manageable with antidiarrheal agents and dose modification.

  17. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  18. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearth, Robert K; Kuiatse, Isere; Wang, Yu-Fen; Liao, Lan; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Brown, Powel H; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Adrian V

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic), TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt). Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm 3 . For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65). Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23). There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas) between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands. Using the first transgenic animal model to

  19. Auditory ERB like admissible wavelet packet features for TIMIT phoneme recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Sahu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years wavelet transform has been found to be an effective tool for time–frequency analysis. Wavelet transform has been used as feature extraction in speech recognition applications and it has proved to be an effective technique for unvoiced phoneme classification. In this paper a new filter structure using admissible wavelet packet is analyzed for English phoneme recognition. These filters have the benefit of having frequency bands spacing similar to the auditory Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth (ERB scale. Central frequencies of ERB scale are equally distributed along the frequency response of human cochlea. A new sets of features are derived using wavelet packet transform's multi-resolution capabilities and found to be better than conventional features for unvoiced phoneme problems. Some of the noises from NOISEX-92 database has been used for preparing the artificial noisy database to test the robustness of wavelet based features.

  20. A novel mouse monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB2 suppresses breast cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, Seiji [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Matsushita, Hirohisa; Ohbayashi, Hirokazu [Department of Research and Development, Nichirei Biosciences Inc., Tokyo 104-8402 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Overexpression of ErbB2 in breast cancer is associated with increased recurrence and worse prognosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that molecular targeted therapy is a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we produced a novel anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, 6G10, that recognized an epitope distinct from the trastuzumab binding site. 6G10 induced aggregation of BT474 breast cancer cells and inhibited proliferation of various breast cancer cell lines including BT474. A growth inhibition assay showed that 6G10 had EC{sub 50} values comparable to trastuzumab, indicating that the drugs have a similar level of potency. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of 6G10 completely inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors derived from BT474 and SK-BR-3 cells. These data suggested that 6G10 has great therapeutic potential and could be administered to patients alternatively, or synergistically, with trastuzumab.

  1. ErbB2 Pathway Activation upon Smad4 Loss Promotes Lung Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death. Genome sequencing of lung tumors from patients with squamous cell carcinoma has identified SMAD4 to be frequently mutated. Here, we use a mouse model to determine the molecular mechanisms by which Smad4 loss leads to lung cancer progression. Mice with ablation of Pten and Smad4 in airway epithelium develop metastatic adenosquamous tumors. Comparative transcriptomic and in vivo cistromic analyses determine that loss of PTEN and SMAD4 results in ELF3 and ErbB2 pathway activation due to decreased expression of ERRFI1, a negative regulator of ERBB2 in mouse and human cells. The combinatorial inhibition of ErbB2 and Akt signaling attenuate tumor progression and cell invasion, respectively. Expression profile analysis of human lung tumors substantiated the importance of the ErbB2/Akt/ELF3 signaling pathway as both a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic drug target for treating lung cancer.

  2. ErbB2 Pathway Activation upon Smad4 Loss Promotes Lung Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Cho, Sung-Nam; Akkanti, Bindu; Jin, Nili; Mao, Jianqiang; Long, Weiwen; Chen, Tenghui; Zhang, Yiqun; Tang, Ximing; Wistub, Ignacio I; Creighton, Chad J; Kheradmand, Farrah; DeMayo, Francesco J

    2015-03-03

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death. Genome sequencing of lung tumors from patients with squamous cell carcinoma has identified SMAD4 to be frequently mutated. Here, we use a mouse model to determine the molecular mechanisms by which Smad4 loss leads to lung cancer progression. Mice with ablation of Pten and Smad4 in airway epithelium develop metastatic adenosquamous tumors. Comparative transcriptomic and in vivo cistromic analyses determine that loss of PTEN and SMAD4 results in ELF3 and ErbB2 pathway activation due to decreased expression of ERRFI1, a negative regulator of ERBB2 in mouse and human cells. The combinatorial inhibition of ErbB2 and Akt signaling attenuate tumor progression and cell invasion, respectively. Expression profile analysis of human lung tumors substantiated the importance of the ErbB2/Akt/ELF3 signaling pathway as both a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic drug target for treating lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  4. Preliminary study of p53 and c-erbB-2 expression in gallbladder cancer in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Usha

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene and activation of the proto-oncogene are the key steps in the development of the human cancer. The p53 and c-erbB-2 are the best examples of it. In the present study, our aim was to determine the role of these genes in the carcinogenesis of gallbladder by immunohistochemistry. Methods In all 78 consecutive patients of gall bladder diseases were studied for p53 and c-erbB-2 expression immunohistochemically and their expression was correlated with the age, grades and stages of the disease and presence of stone. An informed consent was obtained in each case. Chi square and z test were applied to see the association of p53 and c-erbB-2 over expression with other clinicopathological factors. Results Eight (20% patients of gall bladder cancer were positive for p53 expression and 10 (25% patients for c-erbB-2. The p53 positivity increased with increasing grade while cerbB-2 positivity decreased with increasing grade of gall bladder cancer. Mean age in cerbB-2 positive cases were lesser as compared to negative cases while p53 did not show such association with age. Conclusion Only one case of gall bladder cancer co-expressed the p53 and c-erbB-2, thereby suggesting that p53 and c-erbB-2 may have independent role in carcinogenesis of gall bladder cancer. c-erbB-2 over expression in adenoma and younger age group indicates its role as an early event in carcinogenesis of gallbladder. However study of larger sample is required to further validate the results.

  5. Expressão imuno-histoquímica de c-erb-B2 e p53 em carcinomas gástricos Imunohistochemical expression of c-erb-B2 and p53 in gastric carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dirlei F. S. Begnami

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em nosso meio, os carcinomas gástricos ainda são neoplasias bastante freqüentes e responsáveis por altas taxas de mortalidade. Recentemente, têm-se demonstrado a expressão de p53 e a amplificação do gene c-erb-B2 nos carcinomas gástricos. A relevância e o significado biológico destas alterações ainda não foram totalmente estabelecidos. OBJETIVO: Estudar as expressões imuno-histoquímicas de p53 e c-erb-B2 em 482 casos de carcinomas gástricos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram construídos três blocos de tissue microarray (TMA utilizando-se duplicatas de 482 casos de carcinomas gástricos. Os cortes foram corados por hematoxilina e eosina (HE, tendo sido feita pesquisa para p53 e c-erb-B2. Foram considerados positivos para p53 os casos com marcação nuclear em mais de 10% das células tumorais. Para o c-erb-B2 foram considerados positivos os casos com marcação de membrana completa em mais de 10% das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: A expressão de p53 e c-erb-B2 foi observada em 30% e 12% dos casos, respectivamente. Em relação aos tipos histológicos observou-se correlação entre os carcinomas do tipo intestinal e a expressão de c-erb-B2 (p INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer is one of the commonest cancers in our country being responsible for a high mortality rate. Recently, the expression of p53 and amplification of c-erb-B2 gene have been described in gastric carcinoma. The relevance and biological significance of these findings are not established yet. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated p53, c-erb-B2 immunohistochemical expression in 482 cases of gastric carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissue microarray (TMA blocks were designed using replicate samples of paraffin-embedded tissue from 482 gastric carcinomas. Sections were stained with HE, and antibodies to p53 and c-erb-B2. Cases were considered p53 positive if nuclear staining was detected in > 10% of the tumor cells. Cases were assessed c-erb-B2 positive if the

  6. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  7. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG reduces ErbB2 levels and inhibits proliferation of the trastuzumab resistant breast tumor cell line JIMT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsebik, Barbara; Citri, Ami; Isola, Jorma; Yarden, Yosef; Szöllosi, János; Vereb, György

    2006-04-15

    ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family of tyrosine kinases is overexpressed on many tumor cells of epithelial origin and is the molecular target of trastuzumab (Herceptin), the first humanized antibody used in the therapy of solid tumors. Trastuzumab, which is thought to act, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB2 expression is only effective in approximately 30-40% of ErbB2 positive breast tumors. Geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG are potential antitumor agents capable of downregulating client proteins of Hsp90, including ErbB2. To investigate the ability of 17-AAG to downregulate ErbB2 in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cells and the possibility of 17-AAG and trastuzumab potentiating each other's effect, the recently established trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cell line, JIMT-1 was compared to the known trastuzumab sensitive SKBR-3 line. Baseline and stimulus-evoked dimerization and activation levels of ErbB2, and the effects of trastuzumab and 17-AAG alone and in combination on cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as on ErbB2 expression and phosphorylation have been measured. Baseline activation and amenability to activation and downregulation by trastuzumab was much lower in the resistant line. However, 17-AAG enhanced ErbB2 homodimerization after 5-10 min of treatment in both cell lines, and decreased proliferation with an IC50 of 70 nM for SKBR-3 and 10nM for JIMT-1. Thus, 17-AAG may be a useful drug in trastuzumab resistant ErbB2 overexpressing tumors. The antiproliferative effect of 17-AAG was positively correlated with phosphorylation and downregulation of ErbB2 and was dominated by apoptosis, although, especially at higher doses, necrosis was also present. Interestingly, IC50 values for ErbB2 downregulation and phosphorylation, in the 30-40 nM range, were not significantly different for the two cell lines. This observation and the negative correlation between resting ErbB2 levels and the antiproliferative effect of 17-AAG may

  8. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  9. AGF program budget 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.) [de

  10. Budget Pressures Churn Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    When the budget-cutting ended this year in one rural North Texas school district, the people-moving began. Forced to chop its total staff to 55 employees from 64, the Perrin-Whitt Consolidated Independent school system went the route of many districts across the country: It made the majority of its reductions by encouraging early retirements and…

  11. AGF program budget 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  12. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  13. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  14. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  15. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  16. Budgeting and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Call for a Budgetary Theory: The appeal of Valdimer Key for a budgetary theory marks the interest in public budgeting in modern history. He clearly referred to a normative theory, raising the question: ‘on what basis shall it be decided to allocate X dollars to activity A instead of

  17. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  18. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  20. Sabotage in Capital Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    for honesty inhibits sabotage. Moreover, honesty suppresses negative reciprocity and thus reduces sabotage not only directly but also indirectly. Our findings warn firms to consider the sabotage of investments as a hidden cost of control in budgeting. They show that honesty has a spill-over effect...

  1. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  2. Small molecule ErbB inhibitors decrease proliferative signaling and promote apoptosis in philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Irwin

    Full Text Available The presence of the Philadelphia chromosome in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+ALL is a negative prognostic indicator. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI that target BCR/ABL, such as imatinib, have improved treatment of Ph(+ALL and are generally incorporated into induction regimens. This approach has improved clinical responses, but molecular remissions are seen in less than 50% of patients leaving few treatment options in the event of relapse. Thus, identification of additional targets for therapeutic intervention has potential to improve outcomes for Ph+ALL. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 is expressed in ~30% of B-ALLs, and numerous small molecule inhibitors are available to prevent its activation. We analyzed a cohort of 129 ALL patient samples using reverse phase protein array (RPPA with ErbB2 and phospho-ErbB2 antibodies and found that activity of ErbB2 was elevated in 56% of Ph(+ALL as compared to just 4.8% of Ph(-ALL. In two human Ph+ALL cell lines, inhibition of ErbB kinase activity with canertinib resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the phosphorylation of an ErbB kinase signaling target p70S6-kinase T389 (by 60% in Z119 and 39% in Z181 cells at 3 µM. Downstream, phosphorylation of S6-kinase was also diminished in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (by 91% in both cell lines at 3 µM. Canertinib treatment increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim by as much as 144% in Z119 cells and 49% in Z181 cells, and further produced caspase-3 activation and consequent apoptotic cell death. Both canertinib and the FDA-approved ErbB1/2-directed TKI lapatinib abrogated proliferation and increased sensitivity to BCR/ABL-directed TKIs at clinically relevant doses. Our results suggest that ErbB signaling is an additional molecular target in Ph(+ALL and encourage the development of clinical strategies combining ErbB and BCR/ABL kinase inhibitors for this subset of ALL patients.

  3. Assessment of staging, prognosis and mortality of colorectal cancer by tumor markers: receptor erbB-2 and cadherins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eliane C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance and correlation with staging and degree of cell differentiation of the tumoral expression of the proteins c-erbB-2 and E-cadherin, in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: The study included 117 patients with an average age of 63.1 years and an average follow-up duration of 28.1 months. The disease-free interval, survival, incidence of recurrence and specific mortality were evaluated. c-erbB-2 anti-oncoprotein antibodies (Dako were utilized via the streptavidin-biotin technique. Samples were considered to be positive for c-erbB-2 if 10% or more of the tumor cell membranes were stained.The anti-E-cadherin antibodies (Dako, evaluated this protein and is considered positive, if 50% or more of the cell membranes were stained. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier's estimator, the log-rank test and Wilcoxon's test (Breslow version, setting the level of statistical significance at 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: 52 of 108 patients studied for c-erbB-2 were positive (48,1%, 47 of 93 patients studied for E-cadherin were negative (50,5%. These data do not express any correlation with TNM (tumor, node and metastasis staging and the degree of cell differentiation or with the tumor recurrence rate. The disease-free interval among patients who were positive for c-erbB-2 and negative for E-cadherin was 68.0 months and did not differ from those with c-erbB-2 negative and E-cadherin positive ( 55.0 months - p = 0.5510. The average survival among patients positive for c-erbB-2 and negative for E-cadherin was 75 months without statistical significance difference with the other group ( 61 months - p = 0.5256. Specific mortality occurred in 20.0% of the cases and did not correlate with the expression of c-erbB-2 (p=0,446, E-cadherin (p=0,883. CONCLUSION: The tumoral expression of c-erbB-2 and E-cadherin did not demonstrate a correlation with the

  4. Checking and Balancing: Banking and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…

  5. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  6. Characterization of the hormone-binding domain of the chicken c-erbA/thyroid hormone receptor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Zenke, M; Gehring, U

    1988-01-01

    mutations present in the carboxy-terminal half of P75gag-v-erbA co-operate in abolishing hormone binding, and that the ligand-binding domain resides in a position analogous to that of steroid receptors. Furthermore, a point mutation that is located between the putative DNA and ligand-binding domains of P75......To identify and characterize the hormone-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor, we analyzed the ligand-binding capacities of proteins representing chimeras between the normal receptor and P75gag-v-erbA, the retrovirus-encoded form deficient in binding ligand. Our results show that several......gag-v-erbA and that renders it biologically inactive fails to affect hormone binding by the c-erbA protein. These results suggest that the mutation changed the ability of P75gag-v-erbA to affect transcription since it also had no effect on DNA binding. Our data also suggest that hormone...

  7. Hyaluronan-induced masking of ErbB2 and CD44-enhanced trastuzumab internalisation in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pályi-Krekk, Zsuzsanna; Barok, Márk; Isola, Jorma; Tammi, Markku; Szöllosi, János; Nagy, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Although trastuzumab, a recombinant humanised anti-ErbB2 antibody, is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, neither its mechanism of action, nor the factors leading to resistance are fully understood. We have previously shown that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is pivotal in the in vivo effect of trastuzumab against JIMT-1, a cell line showing in vitro resistance to the antibody, and suggested that masking of the trastuzumab-binding epitope by MUC-4, a cell surface mucin, took place. Here, we further explored the role of masking of ErbB2 in connection with CD44 expression and synthesis of its ligand, hyaluronan. We show that high expression of CD44 observed in JIMT-1 cells correlates with ErbB2 downregulation in vivo, while siRNA-mediated inhibition of CD44 expression leads to decreased rate of trastuzumab internalisation and low cell proliferation in vitro. An inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferon (4-MU) significantly reduced the hyaluronan level of JIMT-1 cells both in vivo and in vitro leading to enhanced binding of trastuzumab to ErbB2 and increased ErbB2 down-regulation. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on the growth of JIMT-1 xenografts was significantly increased by 4-MU treatment. Our results point to the importance of the CD44-hyaluronan pathway in the escape of tumour cells from receptor-oriented therapy.

  8. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Gomez-Abellán, Purificación; Ordovás-Montañés, María; Lee, Yu-Chi; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovás, José M

    2014-04-01

    Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. Participants were 2214 subjects from Spanish Mediterranean (n = 1404) and North American (n = 810) populations. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and genotype analyses were performed. We found novel associations between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 genotype and obesity in two independent populations: in Spanish Mediterranean and North American groups, the frequency of the minor-allele-carriers (AA+ AG) was significantly lower in the "abdominally obese" group than in those of the "nonabdominally obese" group (p obesity than noncarriers, and the effect was of similar magnitude for both populations (OR ≈ 1.50). There were consistent associations between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 genotype and obesity-related traits (p obesity was also detected in the Mediterranean population. This new discovery highlights the importance of REV-ERB-ALPHA1 in obesity and provides evidence for the connection between our biological clock and obesity-related traits. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ablating ErbB4 in PV neurons attenuates synaptic and cognitive deficits in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Dongming; He, Xiao; Wang, Dongpi; Pan, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Mei, Yufei; Qian, Qi; Zheng, Tingting; Jones, Frank E; Sun, Binggui

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) induces neuronal, synaptic, and cognitive deficits in patients and animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Aβ interacted with ErbB4, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and mainly expressed in GABAergic interneurons. Deleting ErbB4 in parvalbumin-expressing neurons (PV neurons) significantly attenuated oligomeric Aβ-induced suppression of long term potentiation (LTP). Furthermore, specific ablation of ErbB4 in PV neurons via Cre/loxP system greatly improved spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice. The deposition of Aβ detected by 3D6 and Thioflavin S staining and the proteolytic processing of hAPP analyzed by western blotting were not affected in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice by deleting ErbB4 in PV neurons. Our data suggested that ErbB4 in PV neurons mediated Aβ-induced synaptic and cognitive dysfunctions without affecting Aβ levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  11. Breast cancer cells can switch between estrogen receptor alpha and ErbB signaling and combined treatment against both signaling pathways postpones development of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Norrie, Ida C; Emdal, Kristina Bennet

    2010-01-01

    circumvent development of resistance. Limited effects were observed when targeting EGFR and ErbB2 with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab, whereas the pan-ErbB inhibitor CI-1033 selectively inhibited growth of fulvestrant resistant cell lines. CI-1033 inhibited Erk but not Akt...

  12. A single amino acid substitution is sufficient to modify the mitogenic properties of the epidermal growth factor receptor to resemble that of gp185erbB-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Fiore, P P; Helin, K; Kraus, M H

    1992-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and the erbB-2 gene product, gp185erbB-2, exhibit distinct abilities to stimulate mitogenesis in different target cells. By using chimeric molecules between these two receptors, we have previously shown that their intracellular juxtamembrane regio...

  13. A pathological study on overexpression of c-erbB-2, EGFR proteins in human radiation skin ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Po; Yang Zhixiang; Wang Dewen; Li Guomin; Gao Yabin

    1996-01-01

    We performed an immunohistochemical study in 25 cases of human radiation skin ulcer by using c-erbB-2, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), protein antibodies and repairing method of antigen with microwave oven. The results show that the positive rate for overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was 92.0% (23/25), and EGFR was 73.7%(14/19). The positive position for overexpression of c-crbB-2 was mainly observed on cell membrane of squamous epithelial cells and cell plasma of fibroblasts, endotheliocytes, and leiomyocytes in media and fibrocytes in adventitia of the arterioles in mesenchyme. It is suggested that the overexpression of c-erbB-2 and EGFR proteins might be related to cancer transformation and poor healing in radiation skin ulcers

  14. Electrocardiographic Characterization of Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice that Overexpress the ErbB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sysa-Shah, Polina; Sørensen, Lars L; Abraham, M Roselle

    2015-01-01

    , the ECG recordings of ErbB2(tg) mice were characterized by higher P- and R-wave amplitudes, broader QRS complexes, inverted T waves, and ST interval depression. Pearson's correlation matrix analysis of combined WT and ErbB2(tg) data revealed significant correlation between heart weight and the ECG...... parameters of QT interval (corrected for heart rate), QRS interval, ST height, R amplitude, P amplitude, and PR interval. In addition, the left ventricular posterior wall thickness as determined by echocardiography correlated with ECG-determined ST height, R amplitude, QRS interval; echocardiographic left...... ventricular mass correlated with ECG-determined ST height and PR interval. In summary, we have determined phenotypic ECG criteria to differentiate ErbB2(tg) from WT genotypes in 98.8% of mice. This inexpensive and time-efficient ECG-based phenotypic method might be applied to differentiate between genotypes...

  15. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  16. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  17. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  18. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  19. Overexpression of c-erbB-2 and loss of p16 have molecular diagnostic relevance but no prognostic value in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-li; Li, Ling; Gao, Yan-ning; Zhang, Jian-jun; Xiao, Ting; Ying, Jian-ming; Gao, Ji-dong; Sun, Yun-tian; Cheng, Shu-jun

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the expression of C-erbB-2 and p16 in lung cancers using tissue microarray technology and to determine their clinical and pathological significance. Immunohistochemical C-erbB-2 and p16 expressions and their associations with clinical and pathological features were analyzed in two tissue microarrays. The membranous and cytoplasmic expression rates of C-erbB-2 were 40.5 and 66.5% in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), and 0 and 9.5% in small cell lung cancers (SCLCs), respectively. The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression rates of p16 were 11.5 and 32.2% in NSCLs, and 45 and 80% in SCLCs, respectively. The cytoplasmic expression of both C-erbB-2 and p16 was more frequent than the membranous expression of C-erbB-2 and the nuclear expression of p16. The rates of overexpression of C-erbB-2 and loss of p16 expression were significantly higher in NSCLCs than in SCLCs (P < 0.05). Neither C-erbB-2 nor p16 expression was significantly associated with age, tumor grade or stage, presence of lymph node metastasis or survival duration. The abnormal expressions of p16 and C-erbB-2 may play a role in the progression of lung cancers. The variations in the expression patterns of C-erbB-2 and p16 between NSCLCs and SCLCs may aid the molecular classification of lung cancer. The abnormal expression of p16 may be involved in the development of NSCLCs, and the overexpression of C-erbB-2 in NSCLCs indicates that it can be a candidate target for gene therapy.

  20. Lack of prognostic significance of C-erbB-2 expression in low- and high- grade astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallaoglu, Saik; Besen, Ali Ayberk; Ata, Alper; Mertsoylu, Huseyin; Arican, Ali; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Ozyilkan, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors, the most common primary glial tumors of the central nervous system, are classified from low to high grade according to the degree of anaplasia and presence of necrosis. Despite advances in therapeutic management of high grade astrocytic tumors, prognosis remains poor. In the present study, the frequency and prognostic significance of c-erb-B2 in astrocytic tumors was investigated. Records of 72 patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors were evaluated. The expression of C-erbB-2 was determined immunohistochemically and intensity was recorded as 0 to 3+. Tumors with weak staining (1+) or no staining (0) were considered Her-2 negative, while tumors with moderate (2+) and strong (3+) staining were considered Her-2 positive. Of the 72 patients, 41 (56.9%) had glioblastoma (GBM), 10 (13.9%) had diffuse astrocytoma, 15 (20.8%) had anaplastic astrocytoma, 6 (8.3%) had pilocytic astrocytoma. C-erbB-2 overexpression was detected in the tumor specimens of 17 patients (23.6%). Six (8.3%) tumors, all GBMs, exhibited strong staining, 2 (2.7%) specimens, both GBMs, exhibited moderate staining, and 9 specimens, 5 of them GBMs (12.5%), exhibited weak staining. No staining was observed in diffuse astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma specimens. Median overall survival of patients with C-erbB-2 negative and C-erbB-2 positive tumors were 30 months (95%CI: 22.5-37.4 months) and 16.9 months (95%CI: 4.3-29.5 months), respectively (p=0.244). Although there was no difference in survival, C-erbB-2 overexpression was observed only in the GBM subtype.

  1. The ErbB family and androgen receptor signaling are targets of Celecoxib in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzolara, Antonella; Benelli, Roberto; Venè, Roberta; Barboro, Paola; Poggi, Alessandro; Tosetti, Francesca; Ferrari, Nicoletta

    2017-08-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in prostate cancer (PCa) development through significant crosstalk between the COX-2-ErbB family receptor network and androgen receptor (AR)-EGFR signaling pathways. The purpose of this work was to determine the ability of the COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib to modulate the EGFR-AR signaling pathway in androgen-dependent PCa cells and to provide a rationale for its beneficial use in chemopreventive strategies. Functional studies of Celecoxib activity were performed on LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Western blotting, gene expression analysis, dual-luciferase reporter assay and ELISA were applied to assess the Celecoxib mechanisms of action. We found that Celecoxib, through EGF and amphiregulin (AREG) induction, caused EGFR and ErbB2 activation and consequent degradation associated with the inhibition of androgenic signaling. By upregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1, Celecoxib also efficiently downregulated ErbB3, which is strongly implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Lastly, Celecoxib directly regulated AR transcription and translation independent of ErbB activation by downregulating the RNA binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). The simultaneous suppression of ErbB kinases and androgen signaling by Celecoxib represents a novel strategy to interrupt the vicious cycle of AR/ErbB cross-talk with the primary purpose of undermining their resilient signaling in prostate cancer progression. Our data provide important premises for the chemopreventive use of Celecoxib in the clinical management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The sorting protein PACS-2 promotes ErbB signalling by regulating recycling of the metalloproteinase ADAM17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob; Petersen, Camilla Hansson

    2015-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM17 activates ErbB signalling by releasing ligands from the cell surface, a key step underlying epithelial development, growth and tumour progression. However, mechanisms acutely controlling ADAM17 cell-surface availability to modulate the extent of ErbB ligand release....... PACS-2 co-localizes with ADAM17 on early endosomes and PACS-2 knockdown decreases the recycling and stability of internalized ADAM17. Hence, PACS-2 sustains ADAM17 cell-surface activity by diverting ADAM17 away from degradative pathways. Interestingly, Pacs2-deficient mice display significantly reduced...

  3. Prognostic impact of p53, c-erbB-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor on head and neck carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Parise Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: p53, c-erbB-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are cancer-related proteins that are usually expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Their prognostic value remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic impact of p53, c-erbB-2 and EGFR expression in head and neck SCC. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective. SETTING: Head and Neck Surgery Department, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-four patients were studied for p53, c-erbB-2 and EGFR expression in head and neck SCC and adjacent mucosa, via immunohistochemistry. These data were correlated with histoclinical data and survival. RESULTS: There was a direct association of p53 expression in SCC and mucosa (p = 0.001; loss of c-erbB-2 expression (- from normal mucosa to SCC (p = 0.04; lower frequency of association of c-erbB-2 (+ with EGFR (- in SCC (p = 0.02; and a direct association of EGFR (+ expression in SCC and mitotic index (p = 0.03. The 60-month actuarial survival rates for patients presenting lymph node metastasis were higher when there was no capsule rupture by SCC (48.3%; p = 0.02, no more than one positive lymph node (52.3%; p = 0.004 or clear surgical margins (47.0%; p = 0.01, in comparison with patients presenting capsule rupture (20.2%, two or more positive lymph nodes (18.7% or compromised surgical margins (0.0%, respectively. Patients presenting SCC p53 (+ and EGFR (- demonstrated greater survival (75.0%; p = 0.03 than for the remaining group (33.1%. Multivariate analysis confirmed the positive impact of p53 (+ and EGFR (- on survival (p = 0.02. DISCUSSION: Associations were found for p53, c-erbB-2 and EGFR expression with histoclinical data and prognosis. Interestingly, these results suggest that loss of mucosal c-erbB-2 expression could be involved in SCC carcinogenesis; EGFR expression in SCC is related to tumor mitotic index; and presence of p53 with absence of EGFR expression in head and neck SCC may be a prognostic factor for

  4. ErbB1-4-dependent EGF/neuregulin signals and their cross talk in the central nervous system: pathological implications in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko eIwakura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ligands for ErbB1-4 receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF and neuregulins, regulate brain development and function. Thus, abnormalities in their signaling are implicated in the etiology or pathology of schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Among the ErbB receptors, ErbB1 and ErbB4 are expressed in dopamine and GABA neurons, while ErbB1, 2, and/or 3 are mainly present in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and their precursors. Thus, deficits in ErbB signaling might contribute to schizophrenia neuropathology stemming from these cell types. By incorporating the latest cancer molecular biology as well as our recent progress, we discuss signal cross talk between the ErbB1-4 subunits and their neurobiological functions in each cell type. The potential contribution of virus-derived cytokines (virokines that mimic EGF and neuregulin-1 in brain diseases are also discussed.

  5. Effects of monetary reserves and rate of gain on human risky choice under budget constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Cynthia J; Searcy, Gabriel D; Huitema, Brad E; Brandt, Andrew E

    2008-07-01

    The energy-budget rule is an optimal foraging model that predicts that choice should be risk averse when net gains plus reserves meet energy requirements (positive energy-budget conditions) and risk prone when net gains plus reserves fall below requirements (negative energy-budget conditions). Studies have shown that the energy-budget rule provides a good description of risky choice in humans when choice is studied under economic conditions (i.e., earnings budgets) that simulate positive and negative energy budgets. In previous human studies, earnings budgets were manipulated by varying earnings requirements, but in most nonhuman studies, energy budgets have been manipulated by varying reserves and/or mean rates of reinforcement. The present study therefore investigated choice in humans between certain and variable monetary outcomes when earnings budgets were manipulated by varying monetary reserves and mean rates of monetary gain. Consistent with the energy-budget rule, choice tended to be risk averse under positive-budget conditions and risk neutral or risk prone under negative-budget conditions. Sequential choices were also well described by a dynamic optimization model, especially when expected earnings for optimal choices were high. These results replicate and extend the results of prior experiments in showing that humans' choices are generally consistent with the predictions of the energy-budget rule when studied under conditions analogous to those used in nonhuman energy-budget studies, and that choice patterns tend to maximize reinforcement.

  6. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  7. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  8. Model-based global sensitivity analysis as applied to identification of anti-cancer drug targets and biomarkers of drug resistance in the ErbB2/3 network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Galina; Sorokin, Anatoly; Faratian, Dana; Mullen, Peter; Goltsov, Alexey; Langdon, Simon P.; Harrison, David J.; Goryanin, Igor

    2012-01-01

    High levels of variability in cancer-related cellular signalling networks and a lack of parameter identifiability in large-scale network models hamper translation of the results of modelling studies into the process of anti-cancer drug development. Recently global sensitivity analysis (GSA) has been recognised as a useful technique, capable of addressing the uncertainty of the model parameters and generating valid predictions on parametric sensitivities. Here we propose a novel implementation of model-based GSA specially designed to explore how multi-parametric network perturbations affect signal propagation through cancer-related networks. We use area-under-the-curve for time course of changes in phosphorylation of proteins as a characteristic for sensitivity analysis and rank network parameters with regard to their impact on the level of key cancer-related outputs, separating strong inhibitory from stimulatory effects. This allows interpretation of the results in terms which can incorporate the effects of potential anti-cancer drugs on targets and the associated biological markers of cancer. To illustrate the method we applied it to an ErbB signalling network model and explored the sensitivity profile of its key model readout, phosphorylated Akt, in the absence and presence of the ErbB2 inhibitor pertuzumab. The method successfully identified the parameters associated with elevation or suppression of Akt phosphorylation in the ErbB2/3 network. From analysis and comparison of the sensitivity profiles of pAkt in the absence and presence of targeted drugs we derived predictions of drug targets, cancer-related biomarkers and generated hypotheses for combinatorial therapy. Several key predictions have been confirmed in experiments using human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. We also compared GSA-derived predictions with the results of local sensitivity analysis and discuss the applicability of both methods. We propose that the developed GSA procedure can serve as a

  9. Clinical Significance of ErbB Receptor Family in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyan Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic importance of examining ErbB receptor family expression in human bladder cancer remains uncertain. Using published evidence, we examined the clinical value and the updated results of clinical trials targeting ErbB receptor family members. Twenty-seven articles from 65 references related to ErbB receptor expression assessment in bladder cancer were reviewed. The estimates included the association significance, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs from actuarial curves and survival analyses. A meta-analysis was done on those reports using univariate log-rank tests or a Cox-regression model. The methods of analysis and study subjects chosen varied widely among studies. The overall risks of disease progression for patients with EGFR or ErbB2 overexpression were 4.5 (95% CI: 2.5–8.4 and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6–1.9, and the risks of mortality were 3.0 (95% CI: 1.6–5.9 and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.2, respectively. However, the significance of coexpression patterns of the ErbB receptor family remains controversial. None of six clinical trials yielded convincing results for blockading ErbB receptor signaling in urothelial carcinoma. The results of this analysis suggest that assessing co-expression patterns of the ErbB family may provide better prognostic information for bladder cancer patients.

  10. Long Term Measurement of the Earth's Radiation Budget using a constellation of Broadband Radiometers hosted on Iridium NEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Thoma, Donald; Chaloner, Chris; Russell, Jacqueline; Simpson, Bill; Spilling, David; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Oneill, Alan

    The WMO called for "bringing new missions to operational status" and that "ERB should be measured through a constellation of sensors". A unique opportu-nity exists to host a set of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) sensors on the Iridium NEXT (NEXT) LEO constellation in a cost effective manner that can deliver these requirements. The NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of Earth observation missions including ERB. Launches are planned to begin in 2014 through 2016. The ERB both drives and responds to global climate and monitoring it can provide much insight into the climate system and how it might be changing. A climate quality measurement of the ERB requires high absolute accuracy and excellent stability and a long-term (decades) data record in order to inform the debate about global warming. Measurement of the ERB in terms of the broadband reflected solar (0.3 to 4 µm) and emitted thermal (4 to 200 µm) components have been identified as high priority by the WMO for climate observations. High temporal resolution is the key advantage offered by the NEXT platform and can provide a great step forward in accurately monitoring the energy balance of the planet. The sensor we propose will consist of a broad band instrument and associated imager for scene identification and cloud classification. There is the chance to place two such sensors in each of six different orbital planes this will improve the product refresh time from currently 12 hours to 3 hours. The increased temporal resolution will allow direct measure-ment of the changes to the broadband radiances that result from rapidly varying components of the climate such as cloud and aerosol, and avoid the need of relying on narrow band sensors to infer such changes. Considering that the prediction of cloud response to climate change is still a major source of uncertainty; improved measurement of the cloud effect and

  11. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  12. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  13. c-erbB2 and topoisomerase IIα protein expression independently predict poor survival in primary human breast cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Cabrera, Cristina M; Dippon, Jürgen; Gerteis, Andreas; Simon, Wolfgang; Aulitzky, Walter E; Kuip, Heiko van der

    2005-01-01

    c-erbB2 (also known as HER-2/neu) and topoisomerase IIα are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively whether the expression of c-erbB2 and topoisomerase IIα protein influences the long-term outcome of patients with primary breast cancer. In this study c-erbB2 and topoisomerase IIα protein were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 225 samples of primary breast cancer, obtained between 1986 and 1998. The prognostic value of these markers was analyzed. Of 225 primary breast tumor samples, 78 (34.7%) showed overexpression of either c-erbB2 (9.8%) or topoisomerase IIα protein (24.9%), whereas in 21 tumors (9.3%) both proteins were found to be overexpressed. Patients lacking both c-erbB2 and topoisomerase IIα overexpression had the best long-term survival. Overexpression of either c-erbB2 or topoisomerase IIα was associated with shortened survival, whereas patients overexpressing both c-erbB2 and topoisomerase IIα showed the worst disease outcome (P < 0.0001). Treatment with anthracyclines was not capable of reversing the negative prognostic impact of topoisomerase IIα or c-erbB2 overexpression. The results of this exploratory study suggest that protein expression of c-erbB2 and topoisomerase IIα in primary breast cancer tissues are independent prognostic factors and are not exclusively predictive factors for anthracycline response in patients with primary breast cancer

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the global carbon budget - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the global carbon budget – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC, mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM, the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016, EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr−1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr−1, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be

  16. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  17. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  18. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  19. A peptide conjugate of vitamin E succinate targets breast cancer cells with high erbB2 expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, X. F.; Birringer, M.; Dong, L.F.; Vepřek, Pavel; Low, P.; Swettenham, E.; Stantic, M.; Yuan, L. H.; Zobalová, Renata; Wu, K.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2007), s. 3337-3344 ISSN 0008-5472 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vitamin e E * erbB2 * breast cancer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2007

  20. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  1. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  2. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  3. Neuregulin-1/erbB-activation improves cardiac function and survival in models of ischemic, dilated, and viral cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifu; Gu, Xinhua; Li, Zhaoming; Li, Xinyan; Li, Hui; Chang, Jianjie; Chen, Ping; Jin, Jing; Xi, Bing; Chen, Denghong; Lai, Donna; Graham, Robert M; Zhou, Mingdong

    2006-10-03

    We evaluated the therapeutic potential of a recombinant 61-residue neuregulin-1 (beta2a isoform) receptor-active peptide (rhNRG-1) in multiple animal models of heart disease. Activation of the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases by rhNRG-1 could provide a treatment option for heart failure, because neuregulin-stimulated erbB2/erbB4 heterodimerization is not only critical for myocardium formation in early heart development but prevents severe dysfunction of the adult heart and premature death. Disabled erbB-signaling is also implicated in the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to failure, whereas erbB receptor-activation promotes myocardial cell growth and survival and protects against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. rhNRG-1 was administered IV to animal models of ischemic, dilated, and viral cardiomyopathy, and cardiac function and survival were evaluated. Short-term intravenous administration of rhNRG-1 to normal dogs and rats did not alter hemodynamics or cardiac contractility. In contrast, rhNRG-1 improved cardiac performance, attenuated pathological changes, and prolonged survival in rodent models of ischemic, dilated, and viral cardiomyopathy, with the survival benefits in the ischemic model being additive to those of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. In addition, despite continued pacing, rhNRG-1 produced global improvements in cardiac function in a canine model of pacing-induced heart failure. These beneficial effects make rhNRG-1 promising as a broad-spectrum therapeutic for the treatment of heart failure due to a variety of common cardiac diseases.

  4. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  5. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  6. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  7. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  8. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  9. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  10. The CEA budget in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management [fr

  11. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  12. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Building information modeling in budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction activity is one of the financially demanding and ever-changing locations of implementation. The basic idea of the budget is to determine all the possible costs that will arise during construction work. The budget must be a transparent and effective way of communication in the context of supplier-customer relationships. For this reason it is essential to give the budget the structure that is now represented by the price system. It is important to adhere to the principles of budgeting and technical standards. It is necessary to have good documentation for budgeting such as project documentation and much more. However, the construction product range is one of the most extensive, the product group can be changed several times in the investment phase not only materially but also cost-effectively because of the longest production cycle in the construction industry.

  14. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  15. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  18. A Novel Screen for Suppressors of Breast Tumor Cell Growth Using an Oriented Random Peptide Library Method to Identify Inhibitors of the ErbB2 Tyrosine Kinase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carraway, Kermit

    1998-01-01

    .... To identify potential antagonists, the extracellular ligand binding domain of the ErbB2 is immobilized on a column support, and used to affinity purify cyclic peptides from oriented random peptide libraries...

  19. A Novel Screen for Suppressors of Breast Tumor Cell Growth Using an Oriented Random Peptide Library Method to Identify Inhibitors of the ErbB2 Tyrosine Kinase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carraway, Kermit

    1999-01-01

    .... To identify potential antagonists, the extracellular ligand binding domain of the ErbB2 is immobilized on a column support, and used to affinity purify cyclic peptides from oriented random peptide libraries...

  20. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget data set, November 1985 to October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Rutan, David; Bess, T. Dale

    1992-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented for 21 months from Nov. 1985 to Oct. 1987. These data were retrieved from measurements made by the shortwave wide-field-of-view radiometer of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 spacecraft. Profiles of zonal mean albedos and absorbed solar radiation were tabulated. These geographical distributions are provided as a resource for researchers studying the radiation budget of the Earth. The El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1986-1987 is included in this data set. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation extends to 12 years the period covered by two similar atlases: NASA RP-1230 (Jul. 1975 - Oct. 1978) and NASA RP-1231 (Nov. 1978 - Oct. 1985). These three compilations complement the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith in NASA RP-1185, RP-1186, and RP-1261, which were also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  1. ErbB-targeted CAR T-cell immunotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Maher, John

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based immunotherapy has been under development for the last 25 years and is now a promising new treatment modality in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The approach involves genetically engineering T cells to target malignant cells through expression of a bespoke fusion receptor that couples an HLA-independent antigen recognition domain to one or more intracellular T-cell activating modules. Multiple clinical trials are now underway in several centers to investigate CAR T-cell immunotherapy of diverse hematologic and solid tumor types. The most successful results have been achieved in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies, in whom several complete and durable responses have been achieved. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of CAR T-cell immunotherapy of solid cancers, targeted against members of the ErbB family.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor coexpression modulates susceptibility to Herceptin in HER2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells via specific erbB-receptor interaction and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diermeier, Simone; Horvath, Gabor; Knuechel-Clarke, Ruth; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Szoellosi, Janos; Brockhoff, Gero

    2005-01-01

    Background: Growth factors and Herceptin specifically and differentially modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action on erbB-receptor level is incompletely understood. We evaluated Herceptin's capacity to modulate erbB-receptor activation and interaction on the cell surface level and thereby potentially impair cell proliferation of HER2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, both in the presence and absence of relevant growth factors. Methods: BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Heregulin, and with Herceptin in different combinations. Kinetics of cell proliferation were evaluated flow cytometrically based on BrdU-labeling. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, ELISAs and phosphorylation site specific Western Blotting was performed to investigate erbB-receptor interaction and activation. Results: EGF induced EGFR/EGFR and EGFR/c-erbB2 interactions correlate with stimulation of cell proliferation in BT474 cells. Both homo- and heterodimerization are considerably less pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells and heterointeraction is additionally reduced by EGF treatment, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. Heregulin stimulates cell proliferation extensively in both cell lines. Herceptin drives BT474 cells more efficiently into quiescence than it does with SK-BR-3 cells and thereby blocks cell cycle progress. In SK-BR-3 Herceptin treatment causes c-erbB2 phosphorylation of Y877 and Y1248, EGF induces Y877 and Y1112 phosphorylation. The Y1112 phosphorylation site, activated by EGF in SK-BR-3 cell, is bypassed in BT474. In addition the inhibitory capacity of Herceptin on BT474 and SK-BR-3 cell proliferation depends on the presence and absence of growth factors to a various extent. Conclusion: The growth inhibitory effect of Herceptin on c-erbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells is considerably modulated by EGFR coexpression and consequently EGFR/c-erbB2 homo- and

  3. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  4. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  5. Centralization versus Delegation in an Experimental Capital Budgeting Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus C. Arnold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment, we model two stylized facts about capital budgeting practice, budgetary slack creation and delegation of decision-making authority. In our setting, under centralization, headquarters announces a budget, the division manager gives a cost report, and headquarters decides on the project. Under delegation, headquarters allocates a budget to the manager, and the manager is authorized to make the investment decision. We argue that the ability of headquarters to commit to a budget moderates the effect of delegation, and we find evidence in favor of our argument as there is an interaction effect of delegation and commitment to budgets. The effects of delegation are particularly strong when budgets are non-binding as delegation serves as a substitute for commitment in this case. This leads to smaller expenditures and to a higher headquarters’ payoff under delegation than under centralization. In contrast, when headquarters can commit to the budget, the descriptive data are consistent with our conjectures about the effects of honesty preferences, but the effects are too small to be significant.

  6. Budgeting in an imaging Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyalla, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    budgeting form an integral part of an imaging department. It is a plan to cope with necessary expenses in the future. It involves identifying the needs and income sources required to cover the needs.Covers specific items and time-usually a year and is expressed in monetary terms. The micro budget is put in the macro budget of the hospital. defines financial support for the department. Considers: a fiscal year, projection of patients, types of examinations, type of equipment, monetary exchange, and inflation rate

  7. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  8. US science spared budget axe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite initial fears of significant funding cuts, America’s 2017 budget largely maintains support for research. But as Peter Gwynne reports, the relief may only be temporary and funding for science may be slashed next year instead

  9. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  10. Detection of survivin, carcinoembryonic antigen and ErbB2 level in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xia; Yang, Yan-Qi; Jin, Li-Jian; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the survivin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ErbB2 in the saliva, serum and local tumor-exfoliated cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, for providing reliable tumor markers for the early detection of oral malignant cancer. The saliva, serum, and local tumor-exfoliated cell samples of 26 OSCC patients without chemotherapy and 10 non-cancer patients were collected in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Peking University. The contents of survivin, CEA and ErbB2 using were detected usingenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The survivin and CEA levels in saliva and local tumor-exfoliated cells of OSCC patients were significantly higher than those in the non-cancer patients (P oral malignant cancer.

  11. The Regional Biomass-Energy Agency (ERBE): an opportunity for the biomass-energy development in Wallonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, P.; Menu, J.F.; Belle, J.F. van; Schenkel, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the European Commission (Directorate-General for Energy) and the Walloon government set up a biomass-energy agency (ERBE), to promote and build biomass-energy projects in Wallonia (Belgium). A survey of biomass-energy potential indicates that wood-energy seems to offer the best utilization opportunities. Forest and logging residues, sawmills' and joineries' off-cuts, pallets residues, etc. could be burnt in wood district heating units with a significant social benefit. Consequently, the ERBE Agency is trying to set up projects in this way in Austria (+/- 100 wood heating systems) or in Sweden. It serves to inform industries and municipalities about biomass-energy, to advise them in the building of biomass-energy projects, to identify their energy needs and their biomass resources, to carry out prefeasibility studies, to inform them about financing opportunities, and so on. (author)

  12. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 2: The Earth flux channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Douglas Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Penn, Lanning M.; Groveman, Brian S.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Nine years (November 1978 to October 1987) of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) products have shown that the global annual mean emitted longwave, absorbed shortwave, and net radiation were constant to within about + 0.5 W/sq m. Further, most of the small annual variations in the emitted longwave have been shown to be real. To obtain this measurement accuracy, the wide-field-of-view (WFOV) Earth-viewing channels 12 (0.2 to over 50 micrometers), 13 (0.2 to 3.8 micrometers), and 14 (0.7 to 2.8 micrometers) have been characterized in their satellite environment to account for signal variations not considered in the prelaunch calibration equations. Calibration adjustments have been derived for (1) extraterrestrial radiation incident on the detectors, (2) long-term degradation of the sensors, and (3) thermal perturbations within the ERB instrument. The first item is important in all the channels; the second, mainly in channels 13 and 14, and the third, only in channels 13 and 14. The Sun is used as a stable calibration source to monitor the long-term degradation of the various channels. Channel 12, which is reasonably stable to both thermal perturbations and sensor degradation, is used as a reference and calibration transfer agent for the drifting sensitivities of the filtered channels 13 and 14. Redundant calibration procedures were utilized. Laboratory studies complemented analyses of the satellite data. Two nearly independent models were derived to account for the thermal perturbations in channels 13 and 14. The global annual mean terrestrial shortwave and longwave signals proved stable enough to act as secondary calibration sources. Instantaneous measurements may still, at times, be in error by as much as a few Wm(exp -2), but the long-term averages are stable to within a fraction of a Wm(exp -2).

  13. [Construction of the lentiviral expression vector for anti-p185(erbB2) mouse/human chimeric antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Li, Li; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This research was to construct the lentiviral expression vector for anti- p185(erbB2) mouse/human chimeric antibody and to determine the expression of the chimeric antibody gene in 293T cells transfected with this vector. The genes (vL and vH) coding light and heavy chain of variable regions of anti-p185(erbB2) mAb and the constant regions of human IgG1 (kappa and gamma1) were cloned with PCR method. The target genes were assembled by three-primers PCR method to obtain the chimeric light chain (L) and the chimeric heavy chain (H). Both chains inserted into the down stream and upper stream of IRES gene of the plasmid pVAX1/IRES respectively. We digested the plasmid pVAX1/ H-IRES-L with endoenzyme and subcloned H-IRES-L into the lentiviral vector pWPI. The enzyme digestion and sequence analysis showed that the lentiviral expression vector pWPI/H-IRES-L was constructed correctly. Then, it was transfected into 293T cells and after 48h, GFP protein expression in 293T cells were detected by fluorescent microscope and the chimeric antibody expression was detected by RT-PCR and direct ELISA. The results showed that after 293T cells were transfected with recombination plasmid, both light and heavy chains of the chimeric antibody genes could express together. The chimeric antibody expressed could bind to p185(erbB2) specifically. This research may lay a sound foundation for further study of anti-p185(erbB2) engineered antibody.

  14. Defining the ATM-mediated barrier to tumorigenesis in somatic mammary cells following ErbB2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jay P; Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Bu, Wen; Zhao, Jing; Haricharan, Svasti; Du, Yi-Chieh Nancy; Podsypanina, Katrina; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Donehower, Larry A; Li, Yi

    2010-02-23

    p53, apoptosis, and senescence are frequently activated in preneoplastic lesions and are barriers to progression to malignancy. These barriers have been suggested to result from an ATM-mediated DNA damage response (DDR), which may follow oncogene-induced hyperproliferation and ensuing DNA replication stress. To elucidate the currently untested role of DDR in breast cancer initiation, we examined the effect of oncogene expression in several murine models of breast cancer. We did not observe a detectable DDR in early hyperplastic lesions arising in transgenic mice expressing several different oncogenes. However, DDR signaling was strongly induced in preneoplastic lesions arising from individual mammary cells transduced in vivo by retroviruses expressing either PyMT or ErbB2. Thus, activation of an oncogene after normal tissue development causes a DDR. Furthermore, in this somatic ErbB2 tumor model, ATM, and thus DDR, is required for p53 stabilization, apoptosis, and senescence. In palpable tumors in this model, p53 stabilization and apoptosis are lost, but unexpectedly senescence remains in many tumor cells. Thus, this murine model fully recapitulates early DDR signaling; the eventual suppression of its endpoints in tumorigenesis provides compelling evidence that ErbB2-induced aberrant mammary cell proliferation leads to an ATM-mediated DDR that activates apoptosis and senescence, and at least the former must be overcome to progress to malignancy. This in vivo study also uncovers an unexpected effect of ErbB2 activation previously known for its prosurvival roles, and suggests that protection of the ATM-mediated DDR-p53 signaling pathway may be important in breast cancer prevention.

  15. ERBB4 Mutations that Disrupt the Neuregulin-ErbB4 Pathway Cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Fukuda, Yoko; Yoshimura, Jun; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kurppa, Kari; Moritoyo, Hiroyoko; Belzil, Veronique V.; Dion, Patrick A.; Higasa, Koichiro; Doi, Koichiro; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Jun; Date, Hidetoshi; Ahsan, Budrul; Matsukawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Moritoyo, Takashi; Ikoma, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Tsukasa; Kimura, Fumiharu; Murayama, Shigeo; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Yoshida, Mari; Atsuta, Naoki; Sobue, Gen; Fifita, Jennifer A.; Williams, Kelly L.; Blair, Ian P.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Gonzalez-Perez, Paloma; Brown, Robert H.; Nomoto, Masahiro; Elenius, Klaus; Rouleau, Guy A.; Fujiyama, Asao; Morishita, Shinichi; Goto, Jun; Tsuji, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disorder characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons and typically results in death within 3–5 years from onset. Familial ALS (FALS) comprises 5%–10% of ALS cases, and the identification of genes associated with FALS is indispensable to elucidating the molecular pathogenesis. We identified a Japanese family affected by late-onset, autosomal-dominant ALS in which mutations in genes known to be associated with FALS were excluded. A whole- genome sequencing and parametric linkage analysis under the assumption of an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance revealed the mutation c.2780G>A (p. Arg927Gln) in ERBB4. An extensive mutational analysis revealed the same mutation in a Canadian individual with familial ALS and a de novo mutation, c.3823C>T (p. Arg1275Trp), in a Japanese simplex case. These amino acid substitutions involve amino acids highly conserved among species, are predicted as probably damaging, and are located within a tyrosine kinase domain (p. Arg927Gln) or a C-terminal domain (p. Arg1275Trp), both of which mediate essential functions of ErbB4 as a receptor tyrosine kinase. Functional analysis revealed that these mutations led to a reduced autophosphorylation of ErbB4 upon neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) stimulation. Clinical presentations of the individuals with mutations were characterized by the involvement of both upper and lower motor neurons, a lack of obvious cognitive dysfunction, and relatively slow progression. This study indicates that disruption of the neuregulin-ErbB4 pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS and potentially paves the way for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies such using NRGs or their agonists to upregulate ErbB4 functions. PMID:24119685

  16. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principal and agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in-depth interviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget.

  17. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  18. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  19. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  20. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  1. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  2. Imunoexpressão do c-erbB-2 nas lesões epiteliais proliferativas intraductais da mama de mulheres Immunoexpression of c-erbB-2 in intraductal proliferative lesions of the female breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agliberto Barbosa de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Alterações genéticas são relacionadas à gênese e progressão do câncer. Neoplasias de vários órgãos expressam o oncogene c-erbB-2. Nas proliferações intraductais da mama tem sido avaliado como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de câncer. Foram avaliadas a imunoexpressão do c-erbB-2 em lesões epiteliais proliferativas intraductais e as possíveis correlações com características anatomopatológicas do carcinoma ductal "in situ" (CDIS. MÉTODOS: Foi utilizado material de arquivo, amostras teciduais fixadas em formalina e incluídas em blocos de parafina de 88 mulheres. Destas, 51 com CDIS e 37 com hiperplasia ductal sem atipias (HDT. A idade variou de 35 a 76 anos. Revisados todos os casos, verificou-se: o grau nuclear, a presença de necrose, o subtipo histológico predominante e sua extensão. Obteve-se material suficiente para o estudo imunohistoquímico do c-erbB-2 de 84 sujeitos do estudo. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada a expressão do oncogene nas hiperplasias sem atipias e nos tecidos adjacentes a todas amostras teciduais. A expressão do c-erbB-2 foi verificada em nove (19,1% dos CDIS (p= 0,0001. A imunoexpressão não se relacionou à extensão das lesões. A imunoexpressão do c-erbB-2 no CDIS correlacionou-se com subtipo histológico (p=0,019, com a presença de necrose (p=0,0066, com o grau nuclear (p=0,0084 e com a Classificação de Van Nuys (p=0,039. CONCLUSÕES: A expressão do c-erbB-2 foi estatisticamente significante nas lesões proliferativas de risco (CDIS e correlacionou-se com características histopatológicas: alto grau nuclear, presença de necrose, subtipo comedo. Não houve expressão nas hiperplasias sem atipias e tecidos adjacentes.OBJECTIVES: Genetic modifications are related to genesis and development of cancer. Neoplasias in various organs express the c-erbB-2 oncogene. In intraductal proliferations of the breast it has been assessed as a risk factor for subsequent development of

  3. Exercise training and return to a well-balanced diet activate the neuregulin 1/ErbB pathway in skeletal muscle of obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennequin, Gaël; Boisseau, Nathalie; Caillaud, Kevin; Chavanelle, Vivien; Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Etienne, Monique; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Courteix, Daniel; Niu, Airu; Li, Yi-Ping; Capel, Fréderic; Sirvent, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that the signalling pathway of neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a protein involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism, could be altered by nutritional and exercise interventions. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity could lead to alterations of the NRG1 signalling pathway and that chronic exercise could improve NRG1 signalling in rat skeletal muscle. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats received a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 16 weeks. At the end of this period, NRG1 and ErbB expression/activity in skeletal muscle was assessed. The obese rats then continued the HF/HS diet or were switched to a well-balanced diet. Moreover, in both groups, half of the animals also performed low intensity treadmill exercise training. After another 8 weeks, NRG1 and ErbB expression/activity in skeletal muscle were tested again. The 16 week HF/HS diet induced obesity, but did not significantly affect the NRG1/ErbB signalling pathway in rat skeletal muscle. Conversely, after the switch to a well-balanced diet, NRG1 cleavage ratio and ErbB4 amount were increased. Chronic exercise training also promoted NRG1 cleavage, resulting in increased ErbB4 phosphorylation. This result was associated with increased protein expression and phosphorylation ratio of the metalloprotease ADAM17, which is involved in NRG1 shedding. Similarly, in vitro stretch-induced activation of ADAM17 in rat myoblasts induced NRG1 cleavage and ErbB4 activation. These results show that low intensity endurance training and well-balanced diet activate the NRG1-ErbB4 pathway, possibly via the metalloprotease ADAM17, in skeletal muscle of diet-induced obese rats. PMID:25820551

  4. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... this critique as well as the current status of the traditional annual budget in a contingency perspective by using data from a survey among the largest Danish companies. The conclusion is that only 4% of the companies claim to have abandoned the traditional, annual budget, 2% have decided or are in the process...... of doing so and 11% are considering abandoning it. These "Beyond Budgeting" companies are more critical towards the traditional budget than other companies. The study also shows that the critical attitude towards annual budgets as well as the decision of abandoning the budget cannot be associated...

  5. ON THE ESSENCE AND EFFICIENCY OF PROGRAMME BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei PETROIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The program budgeting applies to cases where expenditure is classified in the budget by objectives (outcomes and outputs rather than solely by economic categories (i.e., inputs such as salaries and organizational category. Performance budgeting (or performance-informed budgeting refers to a wider set of initiatives intended to strengthen the links between the funds provided and the results achieved through ensuring performance information is used in resource allocation decision making. Program and performance budgeting reforms should, therefore, provide information in a way that informs choices about spending alternatives and should improve transparency and accountability of government. There is no “best practice” approach, more “best fit” and the unique context of each country needs to be considered. It could be noted that some key public finance specialists recommend getting the “basics” right first as a priority. At the end of given research, there is introduced an experience of programme budgeting in Hungary, which has already have good results of its use.

  6. WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE OPERA TIVE INFORMATION SUPPORT SERVICE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH A T THE MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAMED AFTER A.F . TSYB – BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL STATE BUDGET INSTITUTION "NATIONAL MEDICAL RESEARCH RADIOLOGICAL CENTER” OF T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Savina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The Operative Information Support Service for Scientific Research of the Medical Radiological Research Center named after A. F. Tsyb — Branch of the FSBI «National Medical Research Radiological Center” of the RF Health Ministry presented a report on providing off-budget support for scientific activities over the period from 1993 to 2014 using domestic and foreign information resources. The dynamics of employee activities in institutional sectors with aim to receive financial support for fundamental and applied scientific research on a competitive and non-competitive basis was given. The analysis of the obtained data indicated that a multi-channeling in off-budget funding was formed. It also showed to some extent a situation at the open market of grants in the field of medical radiology, radiobiology, and radiation epidemiology among leading investors in intellectual products.

  7. Stimulation of nuclear receptor REV-ERBs regulates tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules in C6 astroglial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Norimitsu, E-mail: mnori@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Tomori, Mizuki; Zhang, Fang Fang; Saeki, Munenori; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-08

    Under physiological conditions, astrocytes maintain homeostasis in the CNS. Following inflammation and injury to the CNS, however, activated astrocytes produce neurotoxic molecules such as cytokines and chemokines, amplifying the initial molecular-cellular events evoked by inflammation and injury. Nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ (REV-ERBs) are crucial in the regulation of inflammation- and metabolism-related gene transcription. The current study sought to elucidate a role of REV-ERBs in rat C6 astroglial cells on the expression of inflammatory molecules following stimulation with the neuroinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Stimulation of C6 cells with TNF (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the mRNA expression of CCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9, but not fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and MMP-2. Treatment with either REV-ERB agonists GSK4112 or SR9009 significantly blocked TNF-induced upregulation of CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA, but not IL-6 mRNA and iNOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment with RGFP966, a selective histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibitor, potently reversed the inhibitory effects of GSK4112 on TNF-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA, but not CCL2 mRNA. Expression of Rev-erbs mRNA in C6 astroglial cells, primary cultured rat cortical and spinal astrocytes was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, the findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect, downregulating of MMP-9 and CCL2 transcription, of astroglial REV-ERBs activation through HDAC3-dependent and HDAC3-independent mechanisms. - Highlights: • Rev-erbα mRNA and Rev-erbβ mRNA are expressed in C6 astroglial cells. • TNF increases the expression of CCL2, IL-6, MMP-9 and iNOS mRNA. • REV-ERB activation inhibits CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA expression. • HDAC3 activity is involved in the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB on MMP-9 induction.

  8. Stimulation of nuclear receptor REV-ERBs regulates tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules in C6 astroglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Norimitsu; Tomori, Mizuki; Zhang, Fang Fang; Saeki, Munenori; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, astrocytes maintain homeostasis in the CNS. Following inflammation and injury to the CNS, however, activated astrocytes produce neurotoxic molecules such as cytokines and chemokines, amplifying the initial molecular-cellular events evoked by inflammation and injury. Nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ (REV-ERBs) are crucial in the regulation of inflammation- and metabolism-related gene transcription. The current study sought to elucidate a role of REV-ERBs in rat C6 astroglial cells on the expression of inflammatory molecules following stimulation with the neuroinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Stimulation of C6 cells with TNF (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the mRNA expression of CCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9, but not fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and MMP-2. Treatment with either REV-ERB agonists GSK4112 or SR9009 significantly blocked TNF-induced upregulation of CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA, but not IL-6 mRNA and iNOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment with RGFP966, a selective histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibitor, potently reversed the inhibitory effects of GSK4112 on TNF-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA, but not CCL2 mRNA. Expression of Rev-erbs mRNA in C6 astroglial cells, primary cultured rat cortical and spinal astrocytes was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, the findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect, downregulating of MMP-9 and CCL2 transcription, of astroglial REV-ERBs activation through HDAC3-dependent and HDAC3-independent mechanisms. - Highlights: • Rev-erbα mRNA and Rev-erbβ mRNA are expressed in C6 astroglial cells. • TNF increases the expression of CCL2, IL-6, MMP-9 and iNOS mRNA. • REV-ERB activation inhibits CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA expression. • HDAC3 activity is involved in the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB on MMP-9 induction.

  9. SOME ASPECTS OF STATE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the market, the public purse money materialized in fact all relations that are contained in the sphere of public finances. The state budget is an economic category that is expressed in the form of values, which mobilizes economic relations, is distributed and used the funds of the state. The state budget is a fundamental category of financial sciences. We can address the legal and economic terms. In terms of its legal budget is an act that are set and approved annual revenue and expenditure of the state. Economic activity takes place in each country according to its own mechanism, called the economic mechanism. This is a system of economic management methods for determining management objectives and organizational structures (institutional, superstructure, legal means for driving

  10. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Gu

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD, which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  11. RUNX1 positively regulates the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway through modulating SOS1 expression in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, Yoshihide; Morita, Ken; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Taniguchi, Junichi; Bando, Toshikazu; Obara, Moeka; Hirata, Masahiro; Kataoka, Tatsuki R; Muto, Manabu; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Liu, Pu Paul; Adachi, Souichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko

    2018-04-23

    The dual function of runt-related transcriptional factor 1 (RUNX1) as an oncogene or oncosuppressor has been extensively studied in various malignancies, yet its role in gastric cancer remains elusive. Up-regulation of the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway is frequently-encountered in gastric cancer and contributes to the maintenance of these cancer cells. This signaling cascade is partly mediated by son of sevenless homolog (SOS) family, which function as adaptor proteins in the RTK cascades. Herein we report that RUNX1 regulates the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells through transactivating SOS1 expression, rendering itself an ideal target in anti-tumor strategy toward this cancer. Mechanistically, RUNX1 interacts with the RUNX1 binding DNA sequence located in SOS1 promoter and positively regulates it. Knockdown of RUNX1 led to the decreased expression of SOS1 as well as dephosphorylation of ErbB2/HER2, subsequently suppressed the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. We also found that our novel RUNX inhibitor (Chb-M') consistently led to the deactivation of the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway and was effective against several gastric cancer cell lines. Taken together, our work identified a novel interaction of RUNX1 and the ErbB2/HER2 signaling pathway in gastric cancer, which can potentially be exploited in the management of this malignancy.

  12. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... institute GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  13. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  14. The chicken c-erbA alpha-product induces expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor-deficient rat hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Höppner, W; Sap, J

    1990-01-01

    To determine the capacity of the chicken c-erbA (cTR-alpha) gene product in regulating expression of known thyroid hormone-responsive genes, both the cTR-alpha and the viral v-erbA genes were expressed in FAO cells, a rat hepatoma cell line defective for functional thyroid hormone receptors. Upon...

  15. Do budget balance rules anchor budget balance expectations? -- Some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rülke, Jan-Christoph; Frenkel, Michael; Lis, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study that analyzes whether budget balance expectations are anchored and whether budget balance rules effectively anchor expectations. To this end, we use a unique data set which covers budget balance expectations in 17 countries that implemented a budget balance rules. While our results are mixed concerning the general impact of budget balance rules on anchoring expectations, we do find that specific features of budget balance rules are important to successfully anchor budg...

  16. The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 1989-1993 A Report to the Senate and House Committees on the Budget - Part 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) now anticipates that the economy will experience a pronounced slowdown in growth in early 1988, but will regain strength in the second half of 1988 and in 1989...

  17. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  18. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  19. Constituency Input into Budget Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents techniques for ensuring constituency involvement in district- and site-level budget management. Outlines four models for securing constituent input and focuses on strategies to orchestrate the more complex model for staff and community participation. Two figures are included. (LMI)

  20. Monitoring personal budgets and restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ab van der Torre; Ingrid Ooms; Mirjam de Klerk

    2013-01-01

    The personal budget is a sum of money which recipients can use to arrange and pay for their own care provider. Since its introduction, demand for this provision, which is funded through the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (AWBZ) has grown rapidly, prompting the Dutch government to take a number

  1. Pain Relief for Budget Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Grand Blanc (Michigan) Community School District sets budget priorities by (1) surveying students, taxpayers, and teachers to learn their preferences for current programs and services; (2) determining the costs of state-mandated programs; (3) listing nonmandated programs and determining their costs; and (4) considering proposed new programs.…

  2. Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Dean

    Planning Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) have been considered as either synonymous with abstract, advanced, mathematical systems analysis or as an advanced accounting and control system. If PPBS is to perform a useful function, both viewpoints must be combined such that a number of standardized procedures and reports are required and…

  3. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  4. Zero-Based Budgeting Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Zero-based, programmatic budgeting involves four basic steps: (1) define what needs to be done; (2) specify the resources required; (3) determine the assessment procedures and standards to use in evaluating the effectiveness of various programs; and (4) assign dollar figures to this information. (MLF)

  5. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  6. The effects of awarness of social dilemmas on advertising budget setting: A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Riezebos, Rik

    2001-01-01

    In this study, which examines the dynamics involved in setting advertising budgets, the social dilemma theory was applied in an attempt to understand the interdependency problems of advertisers in their investment decisions. In an experiment, a budget decision was made for a company after a period

  7. Continental Ice Sheets and the Planetary Radiation Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction between continental ice sheets and the planetary radiation budget is potentially important in climate-sensitivity studies. A simple ice-sheet model incorporated in an energybalance climate model provides a tool for studying this interaction in a quantitative way. Experiments in which

  8. Can savannas help balance the South African greenhouse gas budget?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the South African Greenhouse Experiment on Savannas (SAGES) study conducted by the CSIR' Division of Forest Science and Technology (Foretek) on the role of savannas in the balance of the greenhouse gas budget of South Africa...

  9. Molecularly targeted therapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer: a review of the ErbB family inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacco AG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assuntina G Sacco,1 Francis P Worden2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California at San Diego Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: The majority of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC present with locally advanced disease, which requires site-specific combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite aggressive therapy, survival outcomes remain poor, and treatment-related morbidity is not negligible. For patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, therapeutic options are further limited and prognosis is dismal. With this in mind, molecularly targeted therapy provides a promising approach to optimizing treatment efficacy while minimizing associated toxicity. The ErbB family of receptors (ie, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], ErbB2/human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2, ErbB3/HER3, and ErbB4/HER4 is known to contribute to oncogenic processes, such as cellular proliferation and survival. EGFR, specifically, is upregulated in more than 90% of HNSCC, has been implicated in radiation resistance, and correlates with poorer clinical outcomes. The central role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of HNSCC suggests that inhibition of this pathway represents an attractive treatment strategy. As a result, EGFR inhibition has been extensively studied, with the emergence of two classes of drug therapy: monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. While the monoclonal antibody cetuximab is currently the only US Food and Drug Administration–approved EGFR inhibitor for the treatment of HNSCC, numerous investigational drugs are being evaluated in clinical trials. This paper will review the role of the ErbB family in the pathogenesis of HNSCC, as well as the evidence-based data for the use of ErbB family inhibition in clinical

  10. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on ErbB1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F

    2013-12-15

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) is a major site for maintaining whole body pH homeostasis and is responsible for reabsorbing ∼80% of filtered HCO3(-), the major plasma buffer, into the blood. The PT adapts its rate of HCO3(-) reabsorption (JHCO3(-)) in response to acute acid-base disturbances. Our laboratory previously showed that single isolated perfused PTs adapt JHCO3(-) in response to isolated changes in basolateral (i.e., blood side) CO2 and HCO3(-) concentrations but, surprisingly, not to pH. The response to CO2 concentration can be blocked by the ErbB family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD-168393. In the present study, we exposed enriched rabbit PT suspensions to five acute acid-base disturbances for 5 and 20 min using a panel of phosphotyrosine (pY)-specific antibodies to determine the influence of each disturbance on pan-pY, ErbB1-specific pY (four sites), and ErbB2-specific pY (two sites). We found that each acid-base treatment generated a distinct temporal pY pattern. For example, the summated responses of the individual ErbB1/2-pY sites to each disturbance showed that metabolic acidosis (normal CO2 concentration and reduced HCO3(-) concentration) produced a transient summated pY decrease (5 vs. 20 min), whereas metabolic alkalosis produced a transient increase. Respiratory acidosis (normal HCO3(-) concentration and elevated CO2 concentration) had little effect on summated pY at 5 min but produced an elevation at 20 min, whereas respiratory alkalosis produced a reduction at 20 min. Our data show that ErbB1 and ErbB2 in the PT respond to acute acid-base disturbances, consistent with the hypothesis that they are part of the signaling cascade.

  11. Comparative immunohistochemical expression of β-catenin, EGFR, ErbB2, and p63 in adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshebaa, Gh.E.; Hassan, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare epithelial tumors located mainly in the sellar/parasellar region. CPs have been classified into histopathologically, genetically, clinically and prognostically two distinctive subtypes: adamantinomatous and papillary variants. Aim To determine the immunohistochemical expression of β-catenin, EGFR, ErbB2, and p63 in adamantinomatous and papillary CPs. Materials and methods β-Catenin, EGFR, ErbB2, and p63 immunostaining was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections of 25 CPs including 18 adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and 7 cases of papillary craniopharyngiomas (PCPs). Results 17 cases (94%) of ACP exhibited strong nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin. On the contrary, all cases of PCP showed exclusively membranous expression (ρ value <0.0001). Regarding EGFR, 15 (83%) and 5 cases (71%) of APC and PCP respectively were positive. On the other hand, only 3 cases (17%) of APC and none of PCP exhibited positivity for ErbB2. p63 over-expression was observed in 16 cases of ACP (89%) and 6 cases of PCP (86%). However, the distribution of p63 staining was diffuse in ACP, while in PCP; the staining was mainly restricted to the basal cell layer. Conclusion Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a diagnostic hallmark of the ACP and is very helpful in the differential diagnosis between both ACP and PCP in the setting of small biopsies. Moreover, the restricted nuclear β-catenin accumulation in the cohesive cell clusters within the whorl-like areas supports that aberrant β-catenin expression may play a role in the morphogenesis of ACP.

  12. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  13. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyotani, Yoji, E-mail: cd147@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Ota, Hiroyo [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Zhao, Jing; Ozawa, Kentaro; Nagayama, Kosuke; Ito, Satoyasu [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Takasawa, Shin [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Uno, Masayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masanori [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned medium significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ●In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ●IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell. ●Epiregulin m

  14. Contribution of EGFR and ErbB-3 Heterodimerization to the EGFR Mutation-Induced Gefitinib- and Erlotinib-Resistance in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby D Wang

    Full Text Available EGFR mutation-induced drug resistance has become a major threat to the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Essentially, the resistance mechanism involves modifications of the intracellular signaling pathways. In our work, we separately investigated the EGFR and ErbB-3 heterodimerization, regarded as the origin of intracellular signaling pathways. On one hand, we combined the molecular interaction in EGFR heterodimerization with that between the EGFR tyrosine kinase and its inhibitor. For 168 clinical subjects, we characterized their corresponding EGFR mutations using molecular interactions, with three potential dimerization partners (ErbB-2, IGF-1R and c-Met of EGFR and two of its small molecule inhibitors (gefitinib and erlotinib. Based on molecular dynamics simulations and structural analysis, we modeled these mutant-partner or mutant-inhibitor interactions using binding free energy and its components. As a consequence, the mutant-partner interactions are amplified for mutants L858R and L858R_T790M, compared to the wild type EGFR. Mutant delL747_P753insS represents the largest difference between the mutant-IGF-1R interaction and the mutant-inhibitor interaction, which explains the shorter progression-free survival of an inhibitor to this mutant type. Besides, feature sets including different energy components were constructed, and efficient regression trees were applied to map these features to the progression-free survival of an inhibitor. On the other hand, we comparably examined the interactions between ErbB-3 and its partners (EGFR mutants, IGF-1R, ErbB-2 and c-Met. Compared to others, c-Met shows a remarkably-strong binding with ErbB-3, implying its significant role in regulating ErbB-3 signaling. Moreover, EGFR mutants corresponding to poor clinical outcomes, such as L858R_T790M, possess lower binding affinities with ErbB-3 than c-Met does. This may promote the communication between ErbB-3 and c-Met in these cancer cells. The

  15. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Yoji; Ota, Hiroyo; Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo; Zhao, Jing; Ozawa, Kentaro; Nagayama, Kosuke; Ito, Satoyasu; Takasawa, Shin; Kimura, Hiroshi; Uno, Masayuki; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned medium significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ●In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ●IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell. ●Epiregulin m

  16. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  17. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  18. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  19. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  20. Strategic plan creates a blueprint for budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D

    1990-05-01

    Effective healthcare organizations develop budgets that reflect and support a strategic plan. Senior managers set a framework that expresses the hospital's future strategic objectives. The budget enables executives to determine which specific service lines are profitable or unprofitable. Administrators and clinicians at all levels are involved in the budgeting process.

  1. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  2. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  3. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  4. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under this...

  5. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  6. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  7. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee may...

  8. Pure Nash Equilibria in Restricted Budget Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Maximilian Werner; Feldotto, Matthias; Riechers, Sören; Skopalik, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In budget games, players compete over resources with finite budgets. For every resource, a player has a specific demand and as a strategy, he chooses a subset of resources. If the total demand on a resource does not exceed its budget, the utility of each player who chose that resource equals his

  9. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal approval...

  10. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  11. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  12. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee shall...

  13. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2012 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 15, 2011 Top Stories Commanders Cite Department is losing billions of dollars by Congress' failure to pass the department's fiscal 2011 budget . Gates told a Senate committee. Story Gates, Mullen Take Budget to Senate WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 2011 - The

  14. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  15. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  16. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 6. Enter detailed budget notes for each line item. Use the “add new row “ button if more rows are needed. (Refer to page 7 on user guider for more information on budget notes). 7. On the “indirect cost” sheet, enter a fixed percentage or amount(s) a. For fixed ...

  17. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  18. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  19. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of an...

  20. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  1. The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Hanafin, J. A.; Brindley, H.; Futyan, J.; Rufus, J.; Kellock, S.; Matthews, G.; Wrigley, R.; Last, A.; Mueller, J.; Mossavati, R.; Ashmall, J.; Sawyer, E.; Parker, D.; Caldwell, M.; Allan, P. M.; Smith, A.; Bates, M. J.; Coan, B.; Stewart, B. C.; Lepine, D. R.; Cornwall, L. A.; Corney, D. R.; Ricketts, M. J.; Drummond, D.; Smart, D.; Cutler, R.; Dewitte, S.; Clerbaux, N.; Gonzalez, L.; Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.; Joukoff, A.; Crommelynck, D.; Nelms, N.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Butcher, G.; Smith, G. L.; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Mlynczak, P. E.; Slingo, A.; Allan, R. P.; Ringer, M. A.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made every 15 min, with a spatial resolution at the subsatellite point of 44.6 km (north south) by 39.3 km (east west). With knowledge of the incoming solar constant, this gives the primary forcing and response components of the top-of-atmosphere radiation. The first GERB instrument is an instrument of opportunity on Meteosat-8, a new spin-stabilized spacecraft platform also carrying the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared (SEVIRI) sensor, which is currently positioned over the equator at 3.5°W. This overview of the project includes a description of the instrument design and its preflight and in-flight calibration. An evaluation of the instrument performance after its first year in orbit, including comparisons with data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensors and with output from numerical models, are also presented. After a brief summary of the data processing system and data products, some of the scientific studies that are being undertaken using these early data are described. This marks the beginning of a decade or more of observations from GERB, as subsequent models will fly on each of the four Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

  2. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING

  3. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  4. Is Zero-Based Budgeting Different from Planning--Programming--Budgeting Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1977-01-01

    Successful adoption of zero-base budgeting (ZBB) will be greater than that of planning-programming-budgeting-systems (PPBS) because perceived problems inherent in PPBS are largely missing in ZBB; ZBB appears to fit current school district budgeting behavior; and ZBB seems to improve communication about the need for budget reform. (Author/IRT)

  5. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    use the da Silva ocean flux data to identify composite structure of departures of latent heat flux from climatology. We also show how these patterns arise out of associated wind and humidity anomaly distributions. Our preliminary work shows that evaporation sensitivity estimates from the da Silva / COADS data, computed for the tropical oceans (30 degrees N/S) are in the neighborhood of 5 to 6 W/square m K. Model estimates are also quite close to this figure. This rate is only slightly less than a rate corresponding to constant relative humidity; however, substantial regional departures from constant relative humidity are present. These patterns are robust and we relate the associated wind and humidity fluctuations noted in previous investigations to the derived evaporation anomalies. Finally, these results are interpreted with other data from the Earth radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and NASA's Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data set to characterize the tropical energetics of ENSO-related climate variability.

  6. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  7. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  8. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  9. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  10. Capital Construction Fund Program :: Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaders Budget Policy Work for NOAA Fisheries Contact Us Programs Sustainable Fisheries Protected Regional Fishery Management Councils Congress Activities Budget Testimony Educators and Students Education Budget Home Appeals Division Budget FOIA Financial Services Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program Fisheries

  11. Zero-base budgeting and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, C W

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  12. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  13. Mammary gland cancer in a colony of beagle dogs: Inheritance, and p53 ampersand erbB-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, Tierney, L.A.; Lechner, J.F.; Hahn, F.F.

    1994-01-01

    One American woman in nine will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. This somber statistic translates into 182,000 new diagnoses and 46,000 deaths per year. Efforts to decrease breast cancer mortality have focused on early detection and improved treatment. Such efforts would be facilitated by the identification of individuals predisposed to the disease. A family history of the disease can increase a woman's risk for developing breast cancer by two- to six-fold. Inheritance of this disease is consistent with at least one susceptibility locus on chromosome 17 (17q12-21) with incomplete penetrance. However, other mechanisms of inherited susceptibility also contribute to the high incidence of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to characterize familial pattern of mammary cancer development in the dog colony. In addition, the expression of the p53 tumor supressor gene and c-erbB2 (p185 erbB2 ) oncogene proteins, which are frequently altered in human breast cancer, were examined in dogs susceptible and resistant to mammary cancer

  14. The negative cell cycle regulator, Tob (transducer of ErbB-2), is involved in motor skill learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinming; Gao Xiang; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming

    2006-01-01

    Tob (transducer of ErbB-2) is a negative cell cycle regulator with anti-proliferative activity in peripheral tissues. Our previous study identified Tob as a protein involved in hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation (M.L. Jin, X.M. Wang, Y.Y. Tu, X.H. Zhang, X. Gao, N. Guo, Z.Q. Xie, G.P. Zhao, N.H. Jing, B.M. Li, Y.Yu, The negative cell cycle regulator, Tob (Transducer of ErbB-2), is a multifunctional protein involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, Neuroscience 131 (2005) 647-659). Here, we provide evidence that Tob in the central nervous system is engaged in acquisition of motor skill. Tob has a relatively high expression in the cerebellum. Tob expression is up-regulated in the cerebellum after rats receive training on a rotarod-running task. Rats infused with Tob antisense oligonucleotides into the 4th ventricle exhibit a severe deficit in running on a rotating rod or walking across a horizontally elevated beam

  15. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  16. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Vitamin E analogs trigger apoptosis in HER2/erbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells by signaling via the mitochondrial pathway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, X.-F.; Witting, P. K.; Salvatore, B.A.; Neužil, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 326, č. 4 (2005), s. 282-289 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vitamin E analogs * apoptosis * ErbB2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  18. Activation of MAPK overrides the termination of myelin growth and replaces Nrg1/ErbB3 signals during Schwann cell development and myelination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Sheean (Maria); E. McShane (Erik); C. Cheret (Cyril); J. Walcher (Jan); T. Müller (Thomas); A. Wulf-Goldenberg (Annika); S. Hoelper (Soraya); A.N. Garratt (Alistair); M. Krüger (Markus); K. Rajewsky (Klaus); D.N. Meijer (Dies); W. Birchmeier (Walter); G.R. Lewin (Gary); M. Selbach (Matthias); C. Birchmeier (Carmen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMyelination depends on the synthesis of large amounts of myelin transcripts and proteins and is controlled by Nrg1/ErbB/Shp2 signaling. We developed a novel pulse labeling strategy based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to measure the dynamics of myelin

  19. Relationship of PCNA, C-erbB2 and CD44s expression with tumor grade and stage in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ayhan; Kösem, Mustafa; Sayar, İlyas; Gelincik, İbrahim; Yavuz, Alparslan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Bayram, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the intention was to reveal the relationship of histological grade and stage with c-erbB2, CD44s, and PCNA immunoreactivity in bladder urothelial carcinomas (UC). In our study, we evaluated 46 items of transurethral resection material of patients submitted by YYU Faculty of Medicine, Main Department of Pathology, with a mass revealed in their bladder after clinical and radiological studies at our laboratories and who were diagnosed with urothelial carcinomas. PCNA, c-erbB2, and CD44s were applied in an immunohistochemical manner comprised from nine low-malignant potential papillary urothelial neoplasia, 23 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and 14 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. Immunostaining was scored according to the percentage of positive cells. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the c-erbB2 and PCNA staining ratio increased when an increase occurred in stage and grade. The CD44s staining ratio decreased. C-erbB2, PCNA, and CD44s appear to be a useful marker in the assessment of the prognosis and treatment options in urothelial carcinomas. PMID:25035774

  20. Development of the correlation study between mammographic appearances and expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and C-erbB-2 in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common female malignant tumors. The occurrence and development of breast cancer are often accompanied by abnormal gene expression. It has been well accepted that estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and C-erbB-2 (epidermal growth factor receptor-2) are the main reference indexes for clinical endocrine therapy and prognosis prediction. Oncogene expression reflects the malignant biological behavior of breast cancer from different perspectives. Those aggressive behaviors cause a variety of changes in histopathology and thus in imaging. Therefore, the imaging features of breast cancer may indirectly demonstrate the status of ER, PR and C-erbB-2 to a certain extent. Until now, because of its simple operation,low cost and high accuracy, mammography is still the preferred method in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, and has been proposed as a noninvasive technique for prediction of the expression of ER, PR and C-erbB-2. It has potential clinical value in preoperative assessment and non-surgical treatment for those who are not able to perform immunohistochemistry. This review summarized previous related studies and explored mammography as a noninvasive predictor for ER, PR and C-erbB-2. (authors)

  1. Prognostic value of Laurén classification and c-erbB-2 oncogene overexpression in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polkowski, W.; van Sandick, J. W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Mulder, J.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of the Laurén classification and of c-erbB-2 oncogene overexpression has been described for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of these factors in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and/or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Forty-one

  2. Exercise training and return to a well-balanced diet activate the neuregulin 1/ErbB pathway in skeletal muscle of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennequin, Gaël; Boisseau, Nathalie; Caillaud, Kevin; Chavanelle, Vivien; Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Etienne, Monique; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Courteix, Daniel; Niu, Airu; Li, Yi-Ping; Capel, Fréderic; Sirvent, Pascal

    2015-06-15

    Some studies suggest that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) could be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism in rodents. Here we assessed whether unbalanced diet is associated with alterations of the NRG1 signalling pathway and whether exercise and diet might restore NRG1 signalling in skeletal muscle of obese rats. We show that diet-induced obesity does not impair NRG1 signalling in rat skeletal muscle. We also report that endurance training and a well-balanced diet activate the NRG1 signalling in skeletal muscle of obese rats, possibly via a new mechanism mediated by the protease ADAM17. These results suggest that some beneficial effects of physical activity and diet in obese rats could be partly explained by stimulation of the NRG1 signalling pathway. Some studies suggest that the signalling pathway of neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a protein involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism, could be altered by nutritional and exercise interventions. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity could lead to alterations of the NRG1 signalling pathway and that chronic exercise could improve NRG1 signalling in rat skeletal muscle. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats received a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 16 weeks. At the end of this period, NRG1 and ErbB expression/activity in skeletal muscle was assessed. The obese rats then continued the HF/HS diet or were switched to a well-balanced diet. Moreover, in both groups, half of the animals also performed low intensity treadmill exercise training. After another 8 weeks, NRG1 and ErbB expression/activity in skeletal muscle were tested again. The 16 week HF/HS diet induced obesity, but did not significantly affect the NRG1/ErbB signalling pathway in rat skeletal muscle. Conversely, after the switch to a well-balanced diet, NRG1 cleavage ratio and ErbB4 amount were increased. Chronic exercise training also promoted NRG1 cleavage, resulting in increased ErbB4 phosphorylation. This result was

  3. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 is highly expressed in Her2-positive breast cancer and regulates erbB2 protein stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Overexpression of HER-2/Neu occurs in about 25–30% of breast cancer patients and is indicative of poor prognosis. While Her2/Neu overexpression is primarily a result of erbB2 amplification, it has recently been recognized that erbB2 levels are also regulated on the protein level. However, factors that regulate Her2/Neu protein stability are less well understood. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of specific pSer/Thr-Pro motifs that have been phosphorylated in response to mitogenic signaling. We have previously reported that Pin1-catalyzed post-phosphorylational modification of signal transduction modulates the oncogenic pathways downstream from c-neu. The goal of this study was to examine the expression of prolyl isomerase Pin1 in human Her2+ breast cancer, and to study if Pin1 affects the expression of Her2/Neu itself. Methods Immunohistochemistry for Her2 and Pin1 were performed on two hundred twenty-three human breast cancers, with 59% of the specimen from primary cancers and 41% from metastatic sites. Pin1 inhibition was achieved using siRNA in Her2+ breast cancer cell lines, and its effects were studied using cell viability assays, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Results Sixty-four samples (28.7% stained positive for Her2 (IHC 3+, and 54% (122/223 of all breast cancers stained positive for Pin1. Of the Her2-positive cancers 40 (62.5% were also Pin1-positive, based on strong nuclear or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Inhibition of Pin1 via RNAi resulted in significant suppression of Her2-positive tumor cell growth in BT474, SKBR3 and AU565 cells. Pin1 inhibition greatly increased the sensitivity of Her2-positive breast cancer cells to the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin, while it did not increase their sensitivity to Trastuzumab, suggesting that Pin1 might act on Her2 signaling. We found that Pin1 interacted with the protein complex that contains ubiquitinated erbB2 and that Pin1 inhibition accelerated erbB2

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  5. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  6. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  7. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Graham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.

  8. Role of RBP2-Induced ER and IGF1R-ErbB Signaling in Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Joo; Joo, Hyeong-Seok; Won, Hee-Young; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Kim, Hyung-Yong; Son, Taekwon; Oh, Young-Ha; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Kong, Gu

    2018-04-01

    Despite the benefit of endocrine therapy, acquired resistance during or after treatment still remains a major challenge in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We investigated the potential role of histone demethylase retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBP2) in endocrine therapy resistance of breast cancer. Survival of breast cancer patients according to RBP2 expression was analyzed in three different breast cancer cohorts including METABRIC (n = 1980) and KM plotter (n = 1764). RBP2-mediated tamoxifen resistance was confirmed by invitro sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric, colony-forming assays, and invivo xenograft models (n = 8 per group). RNA-seq analysis and receptor tyrosine kinase assay were performed to identify the tamoxifen resistance mechanism by RBP2. All statistical tests were two-sided. RBP2 was associated with poor prognosis to tamoxifen therapy in ER-positive breast cancer (P = .04 in HYU cohort, P = .02 in KM plotter, P = .007 in METABRIC, log-rank test). Furthermore, RBP2 expression was elevated in patients with tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer (P = .04, chi-square test). Knockdown of RBP2 conferred tamoxifen sensitivity, whereas overexpression of RBP2 induced tamoxifen resistance invitro and invivo (MCF7 xenograft: tamoxifen-treated control, mean [SD] tumor volume = 70.8 [27.9] mm3, vs tamoxifen-treated RBP2, mean [SD] tumor volume = 387.9 [85.1] mm3, P < .001). Mechanistically, RBP2 cooperated with ER co-activators and corepressors and regulated several tamoxifen resistance-associated genes, including NRIP1, CCND1, and IGFBP4 and IGFBP5. Furthermore, epigenetic silencing of IGFBP4/5 by RBP2-ER-NRIP1-HDAC1 complex led to insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) activation. RBP2 also increased IGF1R-ErbB crosstalk and subsequent PI3K-AKT activation via demethylase activity-independent ErbB protein stabilization. Combinational treatment with tamoxifen and PI3K inhibitor could overcome RBP2-mediated tamoxifen

  9. AGU testifies on NASA Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Witnesses from outside the U.S. government—including Frank Eden, representing AGU—testified about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget on March 12 before the House Science Committee's subcommittee on space. One major topic of the hearing was familiar: what should NASA's top priority be, space science or human exploration of space.“Obviously this committee has a huge job of trying to set priorities—consistent with the budget restraints—that will end up giving the American taxpayer the most bang for his buck, as well as providing direction for our space program,” said F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), the subcommittee's ranking Republican. Another recurring topic, cited by the subcommittee's new chairman, Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.), as well as by other committee members, was how to translate NASA-developed technologies into commercial gain for the U.S. in the global marketplace. Hall and others also posed a number of questions on a topic the chairman called a special concern of his: whether it would be economically and scientifically plausible for the U.S. to use the Soviet space station Mir for certain activities, such as medical applications.

  10. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  11. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  12. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye

    2017-01-01

    We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...

  13. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  14. STATE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY PROCEDURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA George Dorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the budget process is governed by the Constitution and the Law of Public Finance no. 500/2002, act that includes the elaboration of the draft budget, approving the state budget, budget execution and budget control. All these activities are carried out in a legal way and administrative- institutional way, presenting features from country to country. The budget shows many traits in common: it is a decision process, because its essence consists in allocating budgetary resources for public goods such as education, health, national defence and so on. On the other hand is an essentially political process because allocation decisions budgetary resources are determined by the political groups, the mechanism of representation and voting, is a complex process with many participants (schools, hospitals, ministries, etc.. The budgetary process is a cyclic process, as it follows a well-defined calendar as a consequence of yearly and advertising budget. In conclusion, the budget process is a set of consecutive stages of development, approval, execution, control and reporting of the state budget, which ends with the approval of its execution account.

  15. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  16. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  17. Evaluating Observation Influence on Regional Water Budgets in Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Mocko, David; Robertson, Franklin R.; daSilva, Arlindo M.

    2014-01-01

    The assimilation of observations in reanalyses incurs the potential for the physical terms of budgets to be balanced by a term relating the fit of the observations relative to a forecast first guess analysis. This may indicate a limitation in the physical processes of the background model, or perhaps inconsistencies in the observing system and its assimilation. In the MERRA reanalysis, an area of long term moisture flux divergence over land has been identified over the Central United States. Here, we evaluate the water vapor budget in this region, taking advantage of two unique features of the MERRA diagnostic output; 1) a closed water budget that includes the analysis increment and 2) a gridded diagnostic output data set of the assimilated observations and their innovations (e.g. forecast departures). In the Central United States, an anomaly occurs where the analysis adds water to the region, while precipitation decreases and moisture flux divergence increases. This is related more to a change in the observing system than to a deficiency in the model physical processes. MERRAs Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) data narrow the observations that influence this feature to the ATOVS and Aqua satellites during the 06Z and 18Z analysis cycles. Observing system experiments further narrow the instruments that affect the anomalous feature to AMSUA (mainly window channels) and AIRS. This effort also shows the complexities of the observing system, and the reactions of the regional water budgets in reanalyses to the assimilated observations.

  18. Discovery of new erbB4 inhibitors: Repositioning an orphan chemical library by inverse virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Assunta; Forte, Giovanni; Massimo, Luigia; Riccio, Raffaele; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Di Micco, Simone

    2018-04-12

    Inverse Virtual Screening (IVS) is a docking based approach aimed to the evaluation of the virtual ability of a single compound to interact with a library of proteins. For the first time, we applied this methodology to a library of synthetic compounds, which proved to be inactive towards the target they were initially designed for. Trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamides 3-21 were repositioned by means of IVS identifying new lead compounds (14-16, 19 and 20) for the inhibition of erbB4 in the low micromolar range. Among these, compound 20 exhibited an interesting value of IC 50 on MCF7 cell lines, thus validating IVS in lead repurposing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  20. Exogenous HGF Bypasses the Effects of ErbB Inhibition on Tumor Cell Viability in Medulloblastoma Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walderik W Zomerman

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials investigating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitors showed a limited clinical response in medulloblastoma. The present study investigated the role of micro-environmental growth factors expressed in the brain, such as HGF and EGF, in relation to the effects of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET and epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB1-4 inhibition in medulloblastoma cell lines. Medulloblastoma cell lines were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib or canertinib, targeting MET and ErbB1-4, respectively. Upon treatment, cells were stimulated with VEGF-A, PDGF-AB, HGF, FGF-2 or EGF. Subsequently, we measured cell viability and expression levels of growth factors and downstream signaling proteins. Addition of HGF or EGF phosphorylated MET or EGFR, respectively, and demonstrated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 as well as increased tumor cell viability. Crizotinib and canertinib both inhibited cell viability and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Specifically targeting MET using shRNA's resulted in decreased cell viability. Interestingly, addition of HGF to canertinib significantly enhanced cell viability as well as phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. The HGF-induced bypass of canertinib was reversed by addition of crizotinib. HGF protein was hardly released by medulloblastoma cells itself. Addition of canertinib did not affect RTK cell surface or growth factor expression levels. This manuscript points to the bypassing capacity of exogenous HGF in medulloblastoma cell lines. It might be of great interest to anticipate on these results in developing novel clinical trials with a combination of MET and EGFR inhibitors in medulloblastoma.

  1. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  2. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  3. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  4. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells

  5. Cell cycle synchronization and BrdU incorporation as a tool to study the possible selective elimination of ErbB1 gene in the micronuclei in A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauand, C.; Niero, E.L.; Dias, V.M.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Lung cancer often exhibits molecular changes, such as the overexpression of the ErbB1 gene that encodes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). ErbB1 amplification and mutation are associated with tumor aggressiveness and low response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to design a schedule to synchronize the cell cycle of A549 cell line (a non-small cell lung cancer) and to analyze the possible association between the micronuclei (MNs) and the extrusion of ErbB1 gene extra-copies. After double blocking, by the process of fetal bovine serum deprivation and vincristine treatment, MNs formation was monitored with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, which is an S-phase marker. Statistical analyses allowed us to infer that MNs may arise both in mitosis as well as in interphase. The MNs were able to replicate their DNA and this process seemed to be non-synchronous with the main cell nuclei. The presence of ErbB1 gene in the MNs was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). ErbB1 sequences were detected in the MNs, but a relation between the MNs formation and extrusion of amplified ErbB1could not be established. The present study sought to elucidate the meaning of MNs formation and its association with the elimination of oncogenes or other amplified sequences from the tumor cells.

  6. Minimal investment risk of a portfolio optimization problem with budget and investment concentration constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint can be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget constraint). Moreover, a numerical experiment shows the effectiveness of our proposed analysis. In contrast, the standard operations research approach failed to identify accurately the minimal investment risk of the portfolio optimization problem.

  7. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  8. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. The 2013 Budget contains a number of steps to put the country on a fiscally sustainable path. First, this Budget implements the tight…

  9. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  10. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  11. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent

  12. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  13. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  14. The Budget. Introduction to Financial Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Dexter K.

    A school budget is a carefully drawn plan to allow for the efficient educational operation of the school. Everyone connected with the management of an independent school has something to learn about a budget, the most obvious person being the new headmaster. Similarly, all department heads, the librarian, the athletic director, the members of the…

  15. Children's Budget 2016. 10th Anniversary Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsif, John, Ed.; Gluck, Elliott, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Federal spending dedicated to children represents just 7.83 percent of the federal budget in fiscal year 2016, and total spending on children's programs has decreased by five percent in the last two years, according to "Children's Budget 2016." The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include…

  16. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  17. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  18. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ying C.

    1977-01-01

    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)

  19. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  20. Do Shared Interests Affect the Accuracy of Budgets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of budgetary slack is a phenomenon associated with various behavioral aspects. This study focuses on accuracy in budgeting when the benefit of the slack is shared between the unit manager and his/her assistant. In this study, accuracy is measured by the level of slack in the budget, and the benefit of slack represents a financial consideration for the manager and the assistant. The study aims to test how shared interests in budgetary slack affect the accuracy of budget reports in an organization. To this end, an experimental study was conducted with a sample of 90 employees in management and other leadership positions at a cooperative that has a variable compensation plan based on the achievement of organizational goals. The experiment conducted in this study is consubstantiated by the study of Church, Hannan and Kuang (2012, which was conducted with a sample of undergraduate students in the United States and used a quantitative approach to analyze the results. In the first part of the experiment, the results show that when budgetary slack is not shared, managers tend to create greater slack when the assistant is not aware of the creation of slack; these managers thus generate a lower accuracy index than managers whose assistants are aware of the creation of slack. When budgetary slack is shared, there is higher average slack when the assistant is aware of the creation of slack. In the second part of the experiment, the accuracy index is higher for managers who prepare the budget with the knowledge that their assistants prefer larger slack values. However, the accuracy level differs between managers who know that their assistants prefer maximizing slack values and managers who do not know their assistants' preference regarding slack. These results contribute to the literature by presenting evidence of managers' behavior in the creation of budgetary slack in scenarios in which they share the benefits of slack with their assistants.

  1. Effect of combined irradiation and EGFR/Erb-B inhibition with BIBW 2992 on proliferation and tumour cure in cell lines and xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtner, Kristin; Ebert, Nadja; Pfitzmann, Dorothee; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild

    2014-01-01

    In previous experiments an enhanced anti-proliterative effect of the EGFR/ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BIBW 2992 with single dose irradiation was observed in FaDu tumour xenografts. Aim of the present experiment was to determine if this effect can also be seen in combination with a fractionated radiotherapy. Secondly we investigate the efficacy of BIBW 2992 on local tumour control for UT-SCC-15. Tumour pieces of FaDu, UT-SCC-14, A431, UT-SCC-15 (squamous cell carcinomas) and A7 (glioma) tumour models were transplanted onto the right hind leg of NMRI (nu/nu) nude mice. For evaluation of tumour growth mice were either treated daily orally with BIBW 2992 (30 mg/kg body weight), or carrier up to a final tumour size of 15 mm or with a fractionated radiotherapy (15f/15d, 30 Gy) with simultaneous application of BIBW 2992 or carrier. For local tumour control UT-SCC-15 tumours were treated with a fractionated radiotherapy (30f/6weeks) or received 30f/6 weeks in combination with daily orally BIBW 2992 (22.5 mg/kg b.w.) during RT. A significant effect on tumour growth time was observed in all tumour models for BIBW 2992 application alone. However, substantial intertumoural heterogeneity could be seen. In the UT-SCC-14, UT-SCC-15 and A431 tumour models a total regression of the tumours and no recurrence during treatment time (73 days) were determined where as for the A7 tumour only a slight effect was noticeable. For the combined treatment of fractionated radiotherapy (15f/15d) and BIBW 2992 administration a significant effect on tumour growth time was seen compared to irradiation alone for A7, UT-SCC-15 and A431 (ER 1.2 – 3.7), this advantage could not be demonstrated for FaDu and UT-SCC-14. However, the local tumour control was not altered for the UT-SCC-15 tumour model when adding BIBW 2992 to fractionated irradiation (30f/6weeks). A heterogeneous effect on tumour growth time of BIBW 2992 alone as well as in combination with fractionated irradiation could be

  2. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism (P.105-118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principaland agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in depthinterviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989 Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values   in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget. Keywords: budget, capitalist, symbolic interactionism,principal,agent

  3. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  4. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  5. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holland, Jeffrey; Blom, Barry; Arnold, Robert; Trimarco, Gerard; Booth, Mark; Hays, Ellen; Russek, Frank; Brauer, David; Futrell, Ann; Smith, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide baseline projections of the federal budget...

  6. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  7. Disruption of the ErbB signaling in adolescence increases striatal dopamine levels and affects learning and hedonic-like behavior in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, Idit; Tadmor, Hagar; Buonanno, Andres; Kremer, Ilana; Shamir, Alon

    2014-11-01

    The ErbB signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in schizophrenia. Numerous findings support the dysregulation of Neuregulin (NRG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether alterations of these pathways in the adult brain or during development are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein we characterized the behavioral profile and molecular changes resulting from pharmacologically blocking the ErbB signaling pathway during a critical period in the development of decision making, planning, judgments, emotions, social cognition and cognitive skills, namely adolescence. We demonstrate that chronic administration of the pan-ErbB kinase inhibitor JNJ-28871063 (JNJ) to adolescent mice elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sucrose without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In adulthood, adolescent JNJ-treated mice continue to consume less sucrose and needed significantly more correct-response trials to reach the learning criterion during the discrimination phase of the T-maze reversal learning task than their saline-injected controls. In addition, JNJ mice exhibited deficit in reference memory but not in working memory as measured in the radial arm maze. Inhibition of the pathway during adolescence did not affect exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in the open field, social interaction, social memory, and reversal learning in adult mice. Our data suggest that alteration of ErbB signaling during adolescence resulted in changes in the dopaminergic systems that emerge in pathological learning and hedonic behavior in adulthood, and pinpoints the possible role of the pathway in the development of cognitive skills and motivated behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of C-ErbB-2 Overexpression and Her-2/neu Gene Copy Number Heterogeneity in Barrett’s Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Walch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplifiction of the Her-2/neu gene is accompanied by overexpression of its cell surface receptor product, c‐erbB‐2 protein. To investigate the degree of intratumoural heterogeneity we applied immunohistochemistry in primary Barrett’s adenocarcinoma (BCA (n = 6 and dysplasia adjacent to the carcinoma (n = 4. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH was performed in primary BCA (n=5 and dysplastic areas (n=4. For an objective evaluation digital image analysis and laser scanning microscopy were used. Five of six BCA showed a marked intratumoural heterogeneous staining pattern ranging from areas in which the tumour cells were negative or faintly positive to tumour areas with a strong staining of the entire membrane. Among the two dysplastic areas also a heterogenous staining pattern was observed. FISH analysis revealed marked heterogeneity of intratumoural gene copy number changes in all BCA showing populations with different fractions of cells with polysomy, low level amplification and high level amplification. One dysplasia showed a minor population with Her‐2/neu signal clusters. In conclusion, we observed marked intratumoural heterogeneity of c‐erbB‐2 protein overexpression and Her‐2/neu gene copy number in the majority of the primary BCA analyzed. Digital image analysis and laser scanning microscopy were helpful in quantifying the variations in protein expression and DNA copy number in individual tumour cells. The observed heterogeneity could hamper the exact diagnostic determination of the c‐erbB‐2 status in small biopsies and possibly influence the effectiveness of a potential c‐erbB‐2 targeting therapy.

  9. Studies of the Earth Energy Budget and Water Cycle Using Satellite Observations and Model Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G. G.; VonderHarr, T. H.; Randel, D. L.; Kidder, S. Q.

    1997-01-01

    During this research period we have utilized the ERBE data set in comparisons to surface properties and water vapor observations in the atmosphere. A relationship between cloudiness and surface temperature anomalies was found. This same relationship was found in a general circulation model, verifying the model. The attempt to construct a homogeneous time series from Nimbus 6, Nimbus 7 and ERBE data is not complete because we are still waiting for the ERBE reanalysis to be completed. It will be difficult to merge the Nimbus 6 data in because its observations occurred when the average weather was different than the other periods, so regression adjustments are not effective.

  10. Zero-based budgeting: implications for social services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, G L

    1977-01-01

    It is now fact that there is a commitment to the implementation of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) at the federal level. In all likelihood, the adoption of the zero-based approach will have unique implications for the administration and administrators of social service agencies. The following article explores the impetus behind budgetary reform, with a primary focus on the current appeal of ZBB. The author strongly suggests that there are similarities between the now passé Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System and ZBB that permit inferences about any implementation difficulties that ZBB may experience. It is further suggested that ZBB will present social workers with situations and opportunities that will severely challenge many on their current approaches to social service administration.

  11. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  13. Increased level of phosphorylated akt measured by chemiluminescence-linked immunosorbent assay is a predictor of poor prognosis in primary breast cancer overexpressing ErbB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, Jonas; Urban, Patrick; Vuaroqueaux, Vincent; Labuhn, Martin; Küng, Willy; Wight, Edward; Mayhew, Mark; Eppenberger, Urs; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella

    2005-01-01

    Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 kinases are downstream components of phosphoinositol 3-kinase derived signals from receptor tyrosine kinases, which influence cell growth, proliferation and survival. Akt2 overexpression and amplification have been described in breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of activated Akt in primary breast cancer and its association with other tumour biomarkers. Using a two-site chemiluminescence-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured the quantitative expression levels of total phosphorylated (P-S473) Akt (Akt1/Akt2/Akt3) on cytosol fractions obtained from fresh frozen tissue samples of 156 primary breast cancer patients. Akt phosphorylation was not associated with nodal status or ErbB-2 protein expression levels. High levels of phosphorylated Akt correlated (P < 0.01) with poor prognosis, and the significance of this correlation increased (P < 0.001) in the subset of patients with ErbB-2 overexpressing tumours. In addition, phosphorylated Akt was found to be associated with mRNA expression levels of several proliferation markers (e.g. thymidylate synthase), measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings demonstrate that, in breast cancer patients, Akt activation is associated with tumour proliferation and poor prognosis, particularly in the subset of patients with ErbB2-overexpressing tumours

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Cytoplasmic Domain Affects ErbB Protein Degradation by the Lysosomal and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Glogowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic domains of EGF-like ligands, including EGF cytoplasmic domain (EGFcyt, have important biological functions. Using specific constructs and peptides of human EGF cytoplasmic domain, we demonstrate that EGFcyt facilitates lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation, and this coincided with growth inhibition of human thyroid and glioma carcinoma cells. EGFcyt and exon 22–23-encoded peptide (EGF22.23 enhanced procathepsin B (procathB expression and procathB-mediated lysosomal degradation of EGFR/ErbB1 as determined by inhibitors for procathB and the lysosomal ATPase inhibitor BafA1. Presence of mbEGFctF, EGFcyt, EGF22.23, and exon 23-encoded peptides suppressed the expression of the deubiqitinating enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1. This coincided with hyperubiquitination of total cellular proteins and ErbB1/2 and reduced proteasome activity. Upon small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of endogenously expressed UCH-L1, a similar hyperubiquitinylation phenotype, reduced ErbB1/2 content, and attenuated growth was observed. The exon 23-encoded peptide region of EGFcyt was important for these biologic actions. Structural homology modeling of human EGFcyt showed that this molecular region formed an exposed surface loop. Peptides derived from this EGFcyt loop structure may aid in the design of novel peptide therapeutics aimed at inhibiting growth of cancer cells.

  15. Osteossarcomas humanos de alto grau: imunoexpressão de p53, erb-2 e P-glicoproteína, e correlação com o parâmetro anaplasia P-glycoprotein, erb2 and p53 expression in high-grade human osteosarcomas and their correlation with anaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa de Seixas Alves

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Osteossarcoma (OS, o mais freqüente tumor primário maligno do osso, tem comportamento local agressivo e alto índice de disseminação sistêmica. Os eventos que permitem o crescimento e a disseminação tumoral ainda permanecem controversos. Os estudos sobre a carcinogênese e a progressão dessa neoplasia, com base na imunoexpressão de c-erb-B2, P-glicoproteína (P-gp e p53, apresentam resultados conflitantes acerca do real valor prognóstico e suas correlações com parâmetros histológicos. A anaplasia, em neoplasias na infância, constitui parâmetro histológico de agressividade tumoral e quimiorresistência. Nos OS primários ou metastáticos, seu significado permanece controverso. Por outro lado, em outras neoplasias humanas, a expressão do c-erb-B2 relaciona-se com p53, grau nuclear e outros parâmetros de agressividade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a imunoexpressão de p53, c-erb-B2 e P-gp em OS, correlacionando os par��metros entre si e com a presença de anaplasia. MÉTODO: O estudo incluiu 96 biópsias pré-quimioterapia de pacientes com OS de alto grau, diagnosticados entre 1991 e 2000. A pesquisa imuno-histoquímica de p53, P-gp e c-erb-B2 foi feita pela técnica da estreptoavidina-biotina-peroxidase. Foram considerados positivos os casos onde havia imunoexpressão em 10% ou mais das células neoplásicas. Somente colorações membranosa (para cerb-B2 e P-gp e nuclear (para p53 foram consideradas positivas. Anaplasia foi definida como no tumor de Wilms, sendo considerada presente ou ausente. RESULTADOS: Anaplasia pôde ser avaliada em 82/96 casos, estando presente em 29 (35,36%. Imunoexpressão de p53 foi detectada em 25 dos 60 casos (36,23%; de P-gp, em 30 dos 73 casos (41,1%; e de c-erb-B2, em 22 dos 55 casos (40%. Os resultados demonstraram associação entre as imunoexpressões de c-erb-B2 e p53 (p = 0,042, p53 e o parâmetro anaplasia (p = 0,015, anaplasia e Pg (p = 0.034 CONCLUSÕES: A imunoexpressão de p53, c-erb

  16. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  17. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.

  18. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  19. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  20. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  1. ERBB2 in Cat Mammary Neoplasias Disclosed a Positive Correlation between RNA and Protein Low Expression Levels: A Model for erbB-2 Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rui M. V.; Bastos, Estela; Amorim, Irina; Gut, Ivo G.; Gärtner, Fátima; Chaves, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Human ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 epithelial growth factor receptor. In human breast cancer (HBC), erbB-2 protein overexpression has been repeatedly correlated with poor prognosis. In more recent works, underexpression of this gene has been described in HBC. Moreover, it is also recognised that oncogenes that are commonly amplified or deleted encompass point mutations, and some of these are associated with HBC. In cat mammary lesions (CMLs), the overexpression of ERBB2 (27%–59.6%) has also been described, mostly at the protein level and although cat mammary neoplasias are considered to be a natural model of HBC, molecular information is still scarce. In the present work, a cat ERBB2 fragment, comprising exons 10 to 15 (ERBB2_10–15) was achieved for the first time. Allelic variants and genomic haplotype analyses were also performed, and differences between normal and CML populations were observed. Three amino acid changes, corresponding to 3 non-synonymous genomic sequence variants that were only detected in CMLs, were proposed to damage the 3D structure of the protein. We analysed the cat ERBB2 gene at the DNA (copy number determination), mRNA (expression levels assessment) and protein levels (in extra- and intra protein domains) in CML samples and correlated the last two evaluations with clinicopathological features. We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of the ERBB2 RNA and erbB-2 protein, corresponding to the intracellular region. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between higher mRNA expression and better clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the ERBB2 gene is post-transcriptionally regulated and that proteins with truncations and single point mutations are present in cat mammary neoplastic lesions. We would like to emphasise that the recurrent occurrence of low erbB-2 expression levels in cat mammary tumours, suggests the cat mammary neoplasias as a valuable model for erbB-2 negative HBC

  2. ErbB2 and NFκB overexpression as predictors of chemoradiation resistance and putative targets to overcome resistance in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Koga

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC patients frequently impairs their quality of life (QOL due to urinary diversion. To improve their QOL, a bladder-sparing alternative strategy using chemoradiation has been developed. In bladder-sparing protocols, complete response (CR to induction chemoradiation is a prerequisite for bladder preservation and favorable survival. Thus predicting chemoradiation resistance and overcoming it would increase individual MIBC patients' chances of bladder preservation. The aim of this study is to investigate putative molecular targets for treatment aimed at improving chemoradiation response. Expression levels of erbB2, NFκB, p53, and survivin were evaluated immunohistochemically in pretreatment biopsy samples from 35 MIBC patients in whom chemoradiation sensitivity had been pathologically evaluated in cystectomy specimens, and associations of these expression levels with chemoradiation sensitivity and cancer-specific survival (CSS were investigated. Of the 35 patients, 11 (31% achieved pathological CR, while tumors in the remaining 24 patients (69% were chemoradiation-resistant. Multivariate analysis identified erbB2 and NFκB overexpression and hydronephrosis as significant and independent risk factors for chemoradiation resistance with respective relative risks of 11.8 (P = 0.014, 15.4 (P = 0.024 and 14.3 (P = 0.038. The chemoradiation resistance rate was 88.5% for tumors overexpressing erbB2 and/or NFκB, but only 11.1% for those negative for both (P <0.0001. The 5-year CSS rate was 74% overall. Through multivariate analysis, overexpression of erbB2 and/or NFκB was identified as an independent risk factor for bladder cancer death with marginal significance (hazard ratio 21.5, P = 0.056 along with chemoradiation resistance (P = 0.003 and hydronephrosis (P = 0.018. The 5-year CSS rate for the 11 patients achieving pathological CR was 100%, while that for the 24 with

  3. The Predictive and Prognostic Significance of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassullu, Nuray; Turkmen, Ilknur; Dayangac, Murat; Yagiz Korkmaz, Pinar; Yasar, Reyhan; Akyildiz, Murat; Yaprak, Onur; Tokat, Yaman; Yuzer, Yildiray; Bulbul Dogusoy, Gulen

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common fatal cancer and an important healthcare problem worldwide. There are many studies describing the prognostic and predictive effects of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erb-B2) and epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR), transmembrane tyrosine kinases that influence cell growth and proliferation in many tumors. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the expression levels of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation with other clinicopathologic features. Patients and Methods Fifty HCC cases were stained immunohistochemically with these markers. Correlations between the markers and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed. Results No membranous c-erb-B2 staining was seen, whereas cytoplasmic positivity was present in 92% of HCC samples, membranous EGFR was observed in 40%, PI3K was found in all samples, and mTOR was seen in 30%, whereas reduced or absent PTEN expression was observed in 56% of samples and loss of p27 was seen in 92% of the cases. c-erb-B2 and mTOR overexpression, as well as reduced expression of p27, all correlated with multiple tumors (P = 0.041, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). P27 loss, and mTOR and EGFR positivity were significantly correlated with AFP (P = 0.047, P = 0.004, and P = 0.008, respectively). Angiolymphatic invasion was more commonly seen in EGFR- and ERCC1-positive cases (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005). EGFR was also correlated with histological grade (P = 0.039). No significant correlations were found among PTEN , PI3K, and the clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free or overall survival rates showed significant differences among therapy modalities, AFP levels, angiolymphatic or lymph node invasions, and ERCC1 and p27 expression levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions c-erb-B2, EGFR, mTOR, ERCC1 overexpression levels, and loss of p27 may play roles in

  4. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  5. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  6. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  7. Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance ... in data collection, and another module that facilitates gender responsive and ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  8. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  9. Budget Scoring: An Impediment to Alternative Financing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Donald E; San Miguel, Joseph G

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  10. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  11. USGS budget request up for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  12. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  13. Budget Elements of Economic Security: Specifics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of economic security in conjunction with budget components such as “budget interests” and “budget necessities” are analyzed. Key positions of the categories “budget interests” and “budget necessities” in the theory of economic security in the budgetary area are substantiated given their priority role in setting up its implementation strategy. The category “budget interests” is defined as the system of budget necessities of the interest holders, implemented through budget activities of entities and aimed at seeking benefits through the budget, in order to guarantee functioning and development of the society, the state, legal entities and physical persons. “Budget necessities” are defined as the need in budget funds to achieve and sustain, at a certain level, life activities of individuals, social groups, society, state and legal entities. Classification of budget interests by various criteria is made in the context of their impact on the economic security of the state. It is demonstrated that the four-tier classification of the budget interests by interest holder is essential to guaranteeing economic security in the budgetary area: budget interests of the state: the interests held by central and local power offices; budget interests of legal entities: the interests of profit and non-profit (public, budgetary, party and other organizations; budget interests of individuals: basic necessities of individuals, met by budget transfers, which stand out of the array of public necessities by their individual character.

  14. A carbon budget for overfishing off Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.

    1981-03-26

    The anchovy harvest off the coast of Peru has decreased from a maximum of about 12 million tons in 1970 to about 1 million tons/year between 1977 and 1979. This rise and collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery between the 1950s and the 1970s was accompanied by marked changes in the fluxes of a carbon budget for the upwelling ecosystem. These carbon budget changes are discussed in relation to anchovy production. (JMT)

  15. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan.

  16. Negotiating Creativity on a Small Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Møller

    2018-01-01

    for fiction series, the ambivalent cooperation behind this production exemplifies the low-budget efforts of a traditional public service institution to produce the fiction series that their younger target audience desires. The article uses a narrative-discursive approach to creativity and develops the term...... quite different assumptions about how production conditions can promote creativity, and suggests that a low-budget production can still be labelled as “successful”....

  17. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  18. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  19. Reagan's budget slashes geophysics R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When President Ronald Reagan outlined to a joint session of Congress his proposed revisions to the Carter fiscal 1982 budget (Eos, February 10, p. 49), Congress responded with 13 bursts of applause and one standing ovation. Geophysicists, however, may not greet the budget pruning with equal fanfare. Reagan's across-the-board cuts include proposals for slashing research and development funds. Among those hardest hit are NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

  20. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...

  1. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  2. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udeh Francis Nnoli; Sopekan Sam Adeyemi; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ...

  3. Research on budget management under IT environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IT technology has become a key element of core competitiveness of enterprises, and also the basis for its daily operation. The budget is a management process of forecasting and planning of the future operation and financial activities under the guidance of the strategic objectives, and completion of the strategic objectives to a maximum extent. Whether both of them can be effectively combined with is the key to effective implementation of the budget. Through analysis of the existing problems of the traditional budget of the enterprise and the budget under the information technology environment, analysis of the internal and external influencing factors of the budget management of the large and medium sized enterprises under the current environment with SWOT, factor quantization and weight with AHP, development of the strategic program according to the priority of weight, and finally verification with a case, this paper concludes that, the budget management work can be more strategic and forward-looking through combination with AHP and SWOT analysis.

  4. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  5. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  6. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  7. 'Vagabondic' and 'touristic' paths to saving money on household food budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    socioeconomic characteristics, who experienced food budget constraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints...... on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies...... strategies to either positive or negative experiences. Interviewees who made a positive experiences out of cooking with more filling ingredients, reducing eating out, and using left overs, expressed some kind of extra resources in comparison to the interviewees with negative experiences in the shape of e...

  8. Small Molecule Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors of ErbB2/HER2/Neu in the Treatment of Aggressive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Schroeder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is a member of the erbB class of tyrosine kinase receptors. These proteins are normally expressed at the surface of healthy cells and play critical roles in the signal transduction cascade in a myriad of biochemical pathways responsible for cell growth and differentiation. However, it is widely known that amplification and subsequent overexpression of the HER2 encoding oncogene results in unregulated cell proliferation in an aggressive form of breast cancer known as HER2-positive breast cancer. Existing therapies such as trastuzumab (Herceptin® and lapatinib (Tyverb/Tykerb®, a monoclonal antibody inhibitor and a dual EGFR/HER2 kinase inhibitor, respectively, are currently used in the treatment of HER2-positive cancers, although issues with high recurrence and acquired resistance still remain. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide attractive therapeutic targets, as they are able to block cell signaling associated with many of the proposed mechanisms for HER2 resistance. In this regard we aim to present a review on the available HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as those currently in development. The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as sequential or combinatorial therapeutic strategies with other HER family inhibitors is also discussed.

  9. Alterations in cell growth and signaling in ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myounghee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1 belongs to a family of DNA/RNA binding proteins implicated in cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. However, the physiological role of Ebp1 in the whole organism is not known. Therefore, we generated Ebp1-deficient mice carrying a gene trap insertion in intron 2 of the Ebp1 (pa2g4 gene. Results Ebp1-/- mice were on average 30% smaller than wild type and heterozygous sex matched littermates. Growth retardation was apparent from Day 10 until Day 30. IGF-1 production and IGBP-3 and 4 protein levels were reduced in both embryo fibroblasts and adult knock-out mice. The proliferation of fibroblasts derived from Day 12.5 knock out embryos was also decreased as compared to that of wild type cells. Microarray expression analysis revealed changes in genes important in cell growth including members of the MAPK signal transduction pathway. In addition, the expression or activation of proliferation related genes such as AKT and the androgen receptor, previously demonstrated to be affected by Ebp1 expression in vitro, was altered in adult tissues. Conclusion These results indicate that Ebp1 can affect growth in an animal model, but that the expression of proliferation related genes is cell and context specific. The Ebp1-/- mouse line represents a new in vivo model to investigate Ebp1 function in the whole organism.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the single-chain variable fragment of antibody chA21 in complex with an N-terminal fragment of ErbB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huihao; Zhu, Juanjuan; Gao, Yongxiang; Niu, Liwen; Liu, Jing; Teng, Maikun

    2009-01-01

    An antibody–antigen complex consisting of a single-chain variable fragment of the potential therapeutic antibody chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192) of the human ErbB2 extracellular domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.45 Å resolution. ErbB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase, the overexpression of which causes abnormality and disorder in cell signalling and leads to cell transformation. Previously, an anti-ErbB2 single-chain chimeric antibody chA21 that specifically inhibits the growth of ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was developed. Here, an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192, named EP I) of the ErbB2 extracellular domain was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.45 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal; the crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1

  11. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  12. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  13. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  14. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  15. Defense.gov Special Report: 2015 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search FY 2015 Fiscal Budget News Stories Dempsey Calls for Budget Increase increase its budget, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said. Story James: Air Force Grapples with Congress to Fund Readiness The Air Force fiscal 2015 budget request is shrinking because of Congressional

  16. Defense.gov Special Report: 2013 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2013 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 13, 2012 Top Stories Budget Proposal Slows Cost Growth, Pentagon Leaders Say The Defense Department's proposed fiscal 2013 budget request Department officials told a Senate panel. Story Officials Seek Construction Funds, More BRAC in Budget

  17. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Obama's 2017 Budget makes critical investments while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement he signed into the previous fall, and it lifts sequestration in…

  18. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  19. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  20. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...