WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget estimates fiscal

  1. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  2. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  3. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  5. Mid-Session Review, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... This supplemental update of the Budget, commonly known as the Mid-Session Review, contains revised estimates of the budget surplus, receipts, outlays, and budget authority for fiscal years 2001...

  6. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  7. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holland, Jeffrey; Blom, Barry; Arnold, Robert; Trimarco, Gerard; Booth, Mark; Hays, Ellen; Russek, Frank; Brauer, David; Futrell, Ann; Smith, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide baseline projections of the federal budget...

  8. Fiscal Year 2003 Budget of the U.S. Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003 contains the Budget Message of the President and information on the President's budget and management priorities, including assesments of agencies performance...

  9. Deficit Limits, Budget Rules, and Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Manasse

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a simple model for discussing the effects of deficit limits and budget rules on fiscal policy. I find that limits on deficit- output ratios provide incentives to implement procyclical policies when the economy is in intermediate states, and countercyclical policies only in very “good” and very “bad” economic times. As a result, fiscal “reaction functions” are not monotonically related to the state of the economy. Deficit limits are found to exert discipline only provided th...

  10. The fiscal gap: An estimate for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Goryunov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal gap is an indicator of the long-term balance of public finance and is calculated based on the intertemporal government budget constraint, which links government tax revenues and expenditures over long intervals. The estimate of the fiscal gap for the Russian general government has been determined according to three scenarios with varying assumptions regarding demographic trends, productivity growth rates, oil and gas prices and the quantity of extractable reserves. The calculations show that the current fiscal policy cannot provide for the stability of public finance in the long run. The main factors of budget imbalances are the growth of pension and health care expenditures caused by demographic trends and the gradual decline in tax receipts from the oil and gas sector.

  11. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2001-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  12. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2003-2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crippen, Dan

    2002-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  13. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to 2017

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...) each fiscal year from 2007 to 2010, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects. Those deficits would be smaller than last year's budgetary shortfall, which equaled 1.9 percent of GDP (see Summary Table 1...

  14. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run

  15. Review of the President's Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request for the Defense Health Program's Private Sector Care Budget Activity Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fantone, Denise M; Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The Conference Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 2008 Department of Defense Appropriations bill directed us to review the President's fiscal year 2009 budget request for the Defense Health Program's...

  16. Fiscal Year 2003 Appendix, Budget of the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003 contains the Budget Message of the President and information on the President's budget and management priorities, including assessments of agencies performance...

  17. Fiscal Year 2003 Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003 contains the Budget Message of the President and information on the President's budget and management priorities, including assessments of agencies performance...

  18. Fiscal Year 2003 Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003 contains the Budget Message of the President and information on the President's budget and management priorities, including assessments of agencies performance...

  19. FISCAL YEAR 2003 BUDGET REQUEST. U.S. General Accounting Office

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... General Accounting Office (GAO) to report on GAO's fiscal year 2001 performance and results, current challenges and future plans, and budget request for fiscal year 2003 to support the Congress and serve the American public...

  20. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement of the President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Supplement to the President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program...

  1. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Projections of Corporate Income Tax Receipts and Tax Bases 934-7. CBO’s Projections of Excise Tax Receipts, by Category 964-8. CBO’s Projections of Other...the 1990s. 96 THE BUDGET AND ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: FISCAL YEARS 2008 TO 2018Table 4-7. CBO’s Projections of Excise Tax Receipts, by Category (Billions...telecommunications taxes were also one of the major sources of excise tax revenues. However, in May 2006, after several successful court cases challenging

  2. FISCAL POLICY AND BUDGET DEFICIT STABILITY IN A CONTINUOUS TIME STOCHASTIC ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Joao L.M. Amador

    2000-01-01

    The study of fiscal policy and budget deficits has been an active field of research in economic theory throughout the decades. This literature has addressed very different questions such as the consequences of running budget deficits, the optimal financing of budget deficits or the required conditions to avoid an unsustainable path for the public debt. Nowadays, fiscal policy analysis has gained increased interest in the face of the new monetary union in Europe. In fact, public spending and t...

  3. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012 to 2022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    changes in GNP are a better measure of a policy’s effects on U.S. residents’ income than are changes in GDP .6 CBO estimates that the effects of...the alternative fiscal scenario on GNP would be similar to its effects on GDP in 2012 and 2013. Real GNP would be greater than pro- jected under...important in the models used to calculate those effects. GDP = gross domestic product; GNP = gross national product. a. Changes in GNP exclude foreigners

  4. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1990/91 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1989. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    deconditioning of crew members during space station assignments or long-duration space missions. (U) FY 1989 Planned Program: - (U) The Air Force...Estimate Complete Program 2301 Physics 20,641 20,532 20,335 20,683 Continuing TBD 2302 Structures 11,121 11,741 11,627 11,827 Continuing TBD 2303...year. C. (U) PROGRAM ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND PLANS: 1. (U) Project 2301, Physics : This project provides scientific knowledge to support the development of

  5. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1986 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1985, Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    COM« i-l XI CJ iH U CJ «H Q C « O o> w M «> 60 J= M CTi •« O 01 3 to MOX ...l O 0) 3 core a ro oc u iH r-l CO 0> >. 00 P O 4> W * O l_ CM 0- £ vO «k o~ J * as 0£M...Facility Computer & Network Improvement J PROJECT NUMBER 830361 • PROJCCT COST lamei 764.7 9 COST ESTIMATES IttM Equipment Installation

  6. The impact of extreme weather events on budget balances and implications for fiscal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lis, Eliza M.; Nickel, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores implications of climate change for fiscal policy by assessing the impact of large scale extreme weather events on changes in public budgets. We apply alternative measures for large scale extreme weather events and conclude that the budgetary impact of such events ranges between 0.23% and 1.1% of GDP depending on the country group. Developing countries face a much larger effect on changes in budget balances following an extreme weather event than do advanced economies. Base...

  7. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-04

    Glorietta Pass (NM) Targeted Parks: America’s Crown Jew- els.—To help meet the increasing demand for 60 Part Two-90 THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 1992...Anniversary celebration, the President is proposing a special $10 million program that will improve monitoring and protection in ten " crown jewel" national...an- nuities, the costs for Federal retirees’ health care are not charged to agencies as they ac- crue . Thus, agencies are charged less than the

  8. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  9. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  10. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  11. Neo-isolationism, balanced-budget conservatism, and the fiscal impacts of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G A; Espenshade, T J

    1997-01-01

    "A rise in neo-isolationism in the United States has given encouragement to a new fiscal politics of immigration. Growing anti-immigrant sentiment has coalesced with forces of fiscal conservatism to make immigrants an easy target of budget cuts. Limits on legal alien access to social welfare programs that are contained in the 1996 welfare and immigration reform acts seem motivated not so much by a guiding philosophy of what it means to be a member of American society as by a desire to shrink the size of the federal government and to produce a balanced budget. Even more than in the past, the consequence of a shrinking welfare state is to metamorphose legal immigrants from public charges to windfall gains for the federal treasury." excerpt

  12. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  13. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. Supplement to the President’s Budget for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    framework and mechanisms for coordination among Federal agencies that support R&D in advanced networking and information technology . The NITRD...Supplement describes the FY 2011 networking and information technology R&D plans and current technical and coordination activities of the 13 Federal member...This Supplement to the President’s Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information

  14. State-Wide Microcomputer Software for Fiscal and Evaluation Reporting. [and] West Virginia Microcomputer Budget File, 1983: Apple II+ Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Keith; And Others

    A state-wide microcomputer software program and support system for local education agency (LEA) reporting of Chapter 1 fiscal and evaluation information was developed. The microcomputer budget application for West Virginia was developed by the Technical Assistance Center at RMC Corporation. The program is intended for use by the Chapter 1 staff of…

  15. U.S. States’ fiscal constraints and effects on budget policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannella Mario

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at fiscal constraints adopted by the U.S. States. It questions the ability of those rules to determine sound budgetary policies. To assess this point it analyses, in the general part, the major kind of constraints so far adopted. Of each major category the focus is upon institutional weaknesses that create the room for the adoption of circumventing practices. The following section focuses instead on three case studies, to show examples of the way in which the constraints influenced policy-making without mining the ability of government to adopt unbalanced budgetary policies. The weaknesses are combined with the adoption of a deferential approach by the Courts that generally legitimized the accounting devices adopted by the States. The outcome is a system in which budget policies are influenced by several factors that go beyond the institutional framework. On the other side, legal boundaries create distortions and unwanted effects in policies implemented by the States.

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-05-12

    The Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Budget-Risk Management Summary report is prepared to support the annual request to sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex by DOE, Headquarters. The request requires sites to provide supplementary crosscutting information related to ES&H activities and the ES&H resources that support these activities. The report includes the following: (1) A summary status of fiscal year (FY) 1999 ES&H performance and ES&H execution commitments; (2)Status and plans of Hanford Site Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup activities; (3) Safety and health (S&H) risk management issues and compliance vulnerabilities of FY 2001 Target Case and Below Target Case funding of EM cleanup activities; (4) S&H resource planning and crosscutting information for FY 1999 to 2001; and (5) Description of indirect-funded S&H activities.

  17. Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994. Budget Estimate Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Developed new heuristic techniques for processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data and algorithms for robotic systems. - (U) Utilized research...neuropsychiatric test standards to improve the accuracy of aeromedical evaluation of aircrew members. (U) Investigate echocardiography as a safe, non-invasive...for hypertension. (U) FY 1994 Planned Proaram: - (U) Enhance diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of echocardiography for detecting structural heart

  18. Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan P.; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Riahi, Keywan; Allen, Myles; Knutti, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust

  19. Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan P.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Riahi, Keywan; Allen, Myles; Knutti, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust

  20. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2017-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination ( R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  1. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  2. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  3. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  4. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  5. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  6. Alternative Approaches to Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Stances in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Farina, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    From Maastricht on, how did fiscal authorities (FAs) deal with the two objectives of output stabilization and debt consolidation? To answer this question, we need a measure of the fiscal stance, in order to single out discretionary fiscal policy. Fiscal stance = variation of the primary budget (fiscal impulse), to accomplish the target for total budget.

  7. Women and Budget Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Krogstrup; Sébastien Wälti

    2007-01-01

    If women have different economic preferences than men, then female economic and political empowerment is likely to change policy and household decisions, and in turn macroeconomic outcomes. We test the hypothesis that female enfranchisement leads to lower government budget deficits due gender differences in preferences over fiscal outcomes. Estimating the impact of women's vote on budget deficits in a differences-in-differences regression for Swiss cantonal panel data, we find that including ...

  8. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  9. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Extract for Fiscal Year 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    that they combine hundreds of related programs and activities. However, they contain far greater coherence and consistency relative to the...507.2 428.7 -121.0 552.6 Trust funds 465.1 Interfund transactions -129.9 Total, budget receipts 600.6 600.9 294.3 -99.2 670.1 628.8 306.4...81.4 745.1 687.2 350.8 -112.6 814.9 737.9 375.2 -121.0 887.8 Budget outlays: Federal funds 797.5 Trust funds 400.6 Interfund

  10. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...

  11. Where Is the Library Budget Going? Using ILS Fund Codes and Reports for Fiscal Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Debbi

    2017-01-01

    Our collections continue to migrate to an online environment, but often administrators outside the library are tied to fiscal concepts that do not reflect new formats and modes of access. Administrators look at electronic resource expenditures and don’t always understand that they are not just for databases but also for e-journals and e-books that can be subscribed to or owned. Fund code structures that are built into instrument landing systems (ILS) such as Innovative’s Sierra can be used to...

  12. Long-term fiscal projections and their relationship with the intertemporal budget constraint: An application to New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    John Janssen

    2002-01-01

    The fiscal gap calculates the change in fiscal policy settings needed to achieve a particular debt target at some point in the future. This working paper calculates fiscal gaps for New Zealand under a range of scenarios, including alternative spending growth, debt targets and interest rates. A positive (negative) fiscal gap indicates that a permanent increase (decrease) in the primary surplus is required to achieve a selected debt target in a particular terminal year. The scenarios suggest th...

  13. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1983 Submitted to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    changing. This project includes work in Image Understanding and Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research and Applications. In the area of Image Understanding...Defense Research Sciences DoD Mission Area: 530 Budget Activity: 1. Technology Base support artificial intelligence research. These efforts address...FY 1983 RDT&E DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY oject: #CCS-I Title: Inteligent ys tems Program Element: #61101E Title: Defense Research Sciences DoD Mission Area

  14. Fiscal Year 1985 Congressional budget request. Volume 1. Atomic energy defense activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Contents include: summaries of estimates by appropriation, savings from management initiatives, staffing by subcommittee, staffing appropriation; appropriation language; amounts available for obligation; estimates by major category; program overview; weapons activities; verification and control technology; materials production; defense waste and by-products management; nuclear safeguards and security; security investigations; and naval reactors development.

  15. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  16. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  17. Estimated Budget Impact of Adopting the Affordable Care Act's Required Smoking Cessation Coverage on United States Healthcare Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Bruno, Marianna; Kowal, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Despite abundant information on the negative impacts of smoking, more than 40 million adult Americans continue to smoke. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tobacco cessation as a preventive service with no patient cost share for all FDA-approved cessation medications. Health plans have a vital role in supporting smoking cessation by managing medication access, but uncertainty remains on the gaps between smoking cessation requirements and what is actually occurring in practice. This study presents current cessation patterns, real-world drug costs and plan benefit design data, and estimates the 1- to 5-year pharmacy budget impact of providing ACA-required coverage for smoking cessation products to understand the fiscal impact to a US healthcare plan. A closed cohort budget impact model was developed in Microsoft Excel® to estimate current and projected costs for US payers (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid) covering smoking cessation medicines, with assumptions for coverage and smoking cessation product utilization based on current, real-world national and state-level trends for hypothetical commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid plans with 1 million covered lives. A Markov methodology with five health states captures quit attempt and relapse patterns. Results include the number of smokers attempting to quit, number of successful quitters, annual costs, and cost per-member per-month (PMPM). The projected PMPM cost of providing coverage for smoking cessation medications is $0.10 for commercial, $0.06 for Medicare, and $0.07 for Medicaid plans, reflecting a low incremental PMPM impact of covering two attempts ranging from $0.01 for Medicaid to $0.02 for commercial and Medicare payers. The projected PMPM impact of covering two quit attempts with access to all seven cessation medications at no patient cost share remains low. Results of this study reinforce that the impact of adopting the ACA requirements for smoking cessation coverage will have a limited near-term impact

  18. Budget Estimating Relationships for Depot-Level Reparables in the Air Force Flying Hour Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildebrandt, Gregory G

    2007-01-01

    Budget estimating relationships "BERs" for flying depot-level reparables "DLRs" explain the direct effect of specified variables on obligated funds associated with spare parts that directly support the U.S...

  19. An Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012 to 2022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    GDP = gross domestic product; GNP = gross national product. a. Changes in GNP exclude foreigners’ earnings on investments in the domestic economy...according to CBO’s central estimates. 13. GNP differs from GDP primarily by including the capital income that residents earn from investments abroad...2012), pp. 29–40.In years beyond 2022, rising deficits under that scenario would lead to larger negative effects on GDP and GNP and to larger

  20. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 1988/FY 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    92,506 85,847 83,974 94,624 RDT4E 33,609 36,724 43,719 44,203 Special Forign Currency 2 4 - - Lev. 4 Mgat. Funds S U 1.201 1,132 DoD Bill 274,034...a direction for Administration programs. This posture considers overall economic goals such as budget deficits, receipts, outlays, tax policies ...from 0MB linked to actual DoD purchase price experience calculated by the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). 2. Base Year The

  1. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  2. 78 FR 14633 - Sequestration Order for Fiscal Year 2013 Pursuant to Section 251A of the Balanced Budget and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Management and Budget in its report to the Congress of March 1, 2013. Pursuant to sections 250(c)(6), 251A... authority, and obligation limitations. All sequestrations shall be made in strict accordance with the requirements of section 251A of the Act and the specifications of the Office of Management and Budget's report...

  3. 78 FR 22407 - Sequestration Order for Fiscal Year 2014 Pursuant to Section 251A of the Balanced Budget and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Management and Budget in its report to the Congress of April 10, 2013. All sequestrations shall be made in strict accordance with the requirements of section 251A of the Act and the specifications of the Office of Management and Budget's report of April 10, 2013, prepared pursuant to section 251A(11) of the Act...

  4. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how a key component of fiscal governance, the ability of governments to pass a budget on time, affects government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample of 36 US states from 1988 to 1997, and using an original data set on budget enactment dates, we estimate that a 30. day budget delay h...... a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time....

  5. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  6. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  7. Internal Revenue Service: Assessment of Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2003 and Interim Results of 2002 Tax Filing Season

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, James

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the 2002 tax filing season. As you requested, our statement assesses the support for various aspects of IRS s budget request, including the linkage between resources requested and expected results, and IRS's performance...

  8. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  9. Congressional budget oversight of the Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR) Satellite Communications System, fiscal years 1982-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Julius W.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis examines the congressional budgetary oversight exercised by Congress for the Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR) Satellite Communications System acquisition program during Fiscal Years 1982-1995. Authorization and appropriation defense bills for these years are reviewed for their insight into how and why the four Defense Committees exercised their budgetary oversight. The MILSTAR program generated significant congressional debate and was nearly terminated. The program ...

  10. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2...... indicator can be given a normative interpretation, and this issue is extensively discussed. The paper ends by discussing the formulation of fiscal policy targets to ensure fiscal sustainability....

  11. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Model to Estimate Hydrologic Budget of Upper Klamath Lake Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed and accurate hydrologic budgets of lake or reservoirs are essential for sustainable water supply and ecosystem managements due to increasing water demand and uncertainties related to climate change. Ensuring sustainable water allocation to stakeholders requires accurate heat and hydrologic budgets. A number of micrometeorological methods have been developed to approximate heat budget components, such as evaporative and sensible heat loss, that are not directly measurable. Although micrometeorological methods estimate the sensible and evaporative loss well for stationary (i.e. ideal) condition, these methods can rarely be approximated for non-idealized condition. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ), developed at UC Davis, with the goal of correctly estimating the hydrologic budget of Upper Klamath Lake Oregon, USA. The measured and DLM-WQ estimated lake water temperatures and water elevation are in excellent agreement with correlation coefficient equals 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. Consistent with previous studies, the sensible and latent heat exchange coefficients were found to be site specific. Estimated lake mixing shows that the lake became strongly stratified during summer (between late April and the end of August). For the hypereutrophic shallow Upper Klamath Lake, longer stratification results in low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at the sediment surface causing DO sensitive habitat destruction and ecological problems. The updated DLM-WQ can provide quantitative estimates of hydrologic components and predict the effects of natural- or human-induced changes in one component of the hydrologic cycle on the lake supplies and associated consequences.

  12. National Science Foundation proposed budget could see another increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 would provide the agency with $7.37 billion, a $340 million increase, 4.8% above the FY 2012 estimated budget under which NSF has been operating. NSF has fared well during previous budget cycles, and the Obama administration's budget document for FY 2013 states that “NSF plays a critical role in the implementation of the President's Plan for Science and Technology.” With federal agencies operating under tighter budgets in a difficult financial climate, NSF director Subra Suresh said the budget includes substantial increases for core programs, frontier science, education, and human resources. “I am confident that NSF merits the $7.4 billion the president proposed. I'm optimistic Congress will approve the budget,” Suresh said at a 13 February NSF budget briefing.

  13. Institutions improving fiscal performance: Evidence from Swedish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria

    2014-01-01

    degrees of conflicts of interests, calling for further research to understand the incentives given by the result carry-over rules. We further find that the fiscal surplus is higher in municipalities where local managers face a relatively high risk of dismissal as a consequence of budget deficits.......Conflicts of interest within hierarchic government organizations regarding the importance of fiscal discipline create the need for institutions that curb the bargaining power of units in charge of implementing policy and align their incentives to the interests of the whole organization. We examine...... this general public sector problem by collecting unique data on budget institutions and conflicts of interest within the Swedish municipalities. Our estimations suggest that institutions pertaining to both the planning stage and the implementation stage of the budget process are important for fiscal...

  14. Budget and Appropriations - Congressional Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Congressional Justification is prepared when the President submits an annual budget to Congress, to justify the President's request by explaining NCI's mission, objectives for the coming fiscal year, and providing comparative budget data and analysis.

  15. Development of Monthly Water Budget Estimates for the CONUS and Application to the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M.; Sanford, W. E.; Senay, G. B.; Kress, W. H.; Ladd, D.

    2016-12-01

    As water resources become increasingly strained in the US and globally, the development of reliable methods of water availability estimation becomes ever more critical for making informed water use management decisions. Here we present new monthly 1km-resolution estimates of the set of water budget components of evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff, snow storage, and recharge for the modern time period of 2000-2013. We use a combination of remote sensing products and empirical estimates from ground-based data, to leverage both the spatial/temporal resolution of remote sensing and the overall magnitude checks from field data. For ET we use a combination of the MODIS-based USGS SSEBop data set and long-term ET magnitude estimates based on water balance data. We estimate runoff with an empirical regression against soil and surficial geology data, and use the SNODAS snow water equivalent product of the National Snow and Ice Data Center to incorporate snow storage. Recharge and groundwater storage change are then estimated as the balance of the precipitation for the month. After presenting the methods and CONUS-scale maps, we show an application of this work to understanding water availability in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain region, which has seen significant impacts on water resources due to irrigation and groundwater pumping. Our monthly timescale estimates are compared with results from other methods, and synthesized into a summary of water budget trends in the region.

  16. Fiscal Policy Stance in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu Marinas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The budgetary position in the euro area and the EU improved significantly in 2007 compared to the previous year. The headline deficit declined to 1.6 % of GDP in 2006 and 1.1 % of GDP in 2007, down from 2.5% of GDP in 2005. The structural budget deficit diminished from 2% of GDP in 2005 to 0.8% in 2007, reflecting a restrictive fiscal policy in euro area. The fiscal policy became pro-cyclically because the economy of euro area is characterized by a slightly negative output-gap (estimated at 0.2% of potential GDP in 2007.

  17. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece's organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, nearly half of the gains from the measure's application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government's revenue, i.e., losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers' high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure's inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy's deprivation of useful resources.

  18. Estimating the fiscal effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos eSouliotis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country’s economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, near half of the gains from the measure’s application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government’s revenue, i.e. losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers’ high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure’s inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy’s deprivation of useful resources.

  19. The FY2011 Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    costs of federal health care programs and baby boomer retirements present further challenges to fiscal stability. Operating these programs in their...costs and baby boomer retirements. Budget Fiscal Year 2011 The Obama Administration released its FY2011 budget on February 1, 2010. Congress began its...11 Healthcare Legislation .................................................................................................. 12

  20. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  1. Investigating the Cyclical Behavior of Fiscal Policy in the Republic of Macedonia during the Period of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Angelovska Bezovska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to investigate the cyclical behavior of fiscal policy with respect to output gap fluctuations in the Republic of Macedonia during the period 1991-2009. We use two different fiscal policy measures: 1 the cyclically unadjusted primary budget balance and 2 the cyclically adjusted primary budget balance as a proxy indicator of the fiscal policy stance. This analysis also aims to explore whether there was a substantial change in the fiscal policy behavior prior to 1996 due to the turbulent initial period of transition and the switch in monetary policy strategy. We additionally control for other factors that also seem to have had a significant impact over the fiscal policy behavior, such as the armed conflict in 2001 and the impact of public debt as a proxy indicator of budget financing constraints. The estimated results with respect to both measures, the cyclically unadjusted and cyclically adjusted budget balance, indicate differences in the fiscal policy behavior prior to and after 1996. More precisely, the results imply that the fiscal policy behavior prior to 1996 was procyclical, whereas afterwards the fiscal policy became countercyclical. These results are robust to different measures of the output gap and different frequency of the data sets.

  2. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Extract for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    defense contracts. In 1984 and 1985, the Department saved an estimated $4.8 billion from competition in shipbuilding and acquisi- tion of spare parts...overall national economy. In 1987 alone, for example, Congress used the EDA program to target $7.5 million for the renovation of stockyards in Fort...estimate estimate estimate Department of Defense-Military—Con. Procurement—Con. Shipbuilding and conversion, Navy 051 Appropriation, current BA

  3. The groundwater budget: A tool for preliminary estimation of the hydraulic connection between neighboring aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaroli, Stefano; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Lotti, Francesca; Paolucci, Vittorio; Mazza, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater management authorities usually use groundwater budget calculations to evaluate the sustainability of withdrawals for different purposes. The groundwater budget calculation does not always provide reliable information, and it must often be supported by further aquifer monitoring in the case of hydraulic connections between neighboring aquifers. The Riardo Plain aquifer is a strategic drinking resource for more than 100,000 people, water storage for 60 km2 of irrigated land, and the source of a mineral water bottling plant. Over a long period, the comparison between the direct recharge and the estimated natural outflow and withdrawals highlights a severe water deficit of approximately 40% of the total groundwater outflow. A groundwater budget deficit should be a clue to the aquifer depletion, but the results of long-term water level monitoring allowed the observation of the good condition of this aquifer. In fact, in the Riardo Plain, the calculated deficit is not comparable to the aquifer monitoring data acquired in the same period (1992-2014). The small oscillations of the groundwater level and the almost stable streambed spring discharge allows the presumption of an additional aquifer recharge source. The confined carbonate aquifer locally mixes with the above volcanic aquifer, providing an externally stable recharge that reduces the effects of the local rainfall variability. The combined approach of the groundwater budget results and long-term aquifer monitoring (spring discharge and/or hydraulic head oscillation) provides information about significant external groundwater exchanges, even if unidentified by field measurements, and supports the stakeholders in groundwater resource management.

  4. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  6. Fiscal councils as a mechanism for establishing fiscal discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of the global economic crisis, the contemporary budget systems have been subject to extensive reforms. There is a growing number of scholars advocating the establishment of fully independent fiscal institutions which would be in charge of administering a sustainable fiscal policy. The bodies available in hitherto practice are fiscal councils, parliament committees on budgetary control or fiscal 'watchdogs'. The institutionalization of fiscal councils should provide for improving the quality of the public debate on fiscal policy and make the governments more fiscally accountable. The existing fiscal councils generally have an advisory role and they are expected to contribute to strengthening the role of national parliaments in scrutinizing the national budget. In fact, the establishment of fiscal councils ensues only after introducing the fiscal rules which serve as statutory limitations on the activities of the executive branch in the budget-related matters. The current economic crisis has substantially hindered the efficient application of these fiscal restrictions. Some states see the solution in establishing independent fiscal institutions which would control the compliance with these rules. As one of the participants in the budgetary process, fiscal councils are in a position to provide better information to the voters on the current state of affairs in public finances and (thus increase the political costs of the government's fiscal unaccountability. In practice, there are several models for the organization of fiscal councils which primarily focus on ex ante or ex post review and assessment concerning whether the relevant institutions have observed the fiscal rules and accomplished the fiscal goals. Considering that their role is to eliminate the asymmetry of information in relations between the legislative and executive breach of government, fiscal councils should contribute to reinforcing the legitimacy of the budgetary

  7. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY LAWS: ARE THEY NEEDED?

    OpenAIRE

    IAN LIENERT

    2013-01-01

    Can fiscal transparency, accountability and macro-fiscal stabilization be imposed by adopting a fiscal responsibility law (FRL)? Skeptics argue that law is impotent or that the existing legal framework for the budget system suffices. In Europe, supranational fiscal rules were previously seen to be adequate. After reviewing the experience with FRLs around the world, this paper concludes that FRLs enhance fiscal transparency and accountability. However, the adoption of a FRL for attaining fisca...

  8. Estimating the water budget for a peat filter treating septic tank effluent in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geel, Paul J.; Parker, Wayne J.

    2003-02-01

    The use of peat as a filter medium for the treatment of a variety of liquid and gas waste streams has increased over the past decade. Peat has been used as an alternate treatment medium to treat septic tank effluent (STE) from domestic and small communal systems. Very little research has been completed to study the hydraulics and water budget of a peat filter operating in the field. This study evaluated the water budget of a peat filter operating at an elementary school near Ottawa, Canada. The peat filter was instrumented with tensiometers to measure the pore water pressures within the filter and a weather station to collect weather data required to estimate potential evapotranspiration. A one-dimensional unsaturated flow model, SoilCover, was calibrated using the pressure data and weather data collected in the field. The calibrated model was use to estimate the water budget for the filter operating with and without STE loading. The calibrated model predicted that the annual precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration for both scenarios. For the filter treating 50 mm/day of STE, there was a slight dilution due to the infiltration resulting in a net dilution factor of 0.97 (loading divided by the loading plus infiltration). The largest rainfall event of 49.9 mm resulted in a dilution factor of approximately 0.87, which corresponded to an approximate decrease in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of between 12 and 33% depending on the calculation used to determine the HRT. When the filter does not receive STE, the precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration and hence the filter should not dry out when the filter is not in use.

  9. Mercury mass budget estimates and cycling seasonality in the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; Kalla, Peter; Scheidt, Daniel; Richards, Jennifer; Scinto, Leonard J; Gaiser, Evelyn; Appleby, Charlie

    2008-03-15

    We estimated the mass budget for mercury (Hg) seasonally deposited into the Florida Everglades and investigated seasonality of Hg cycling by analyzing data obtained for water, soil, flocculent detrital material (floc), periphyton, and mosquitofish collected throughout the Everglades freshwater marshes in the 2005 dry and wet seasons. Higher wet season total Hg (THg) in soil, floc, and periphyton agreed with greater Hg amounts entering these compartments during the wet season, probably owing to substantially greater Hg deposition in the wet season than in the dry season. Seasonal differences were absent for THg in surface water. Methylmercury (MeHg) showed mixed seasonal patterns, with higher water and soil MeHg and lower periphyton MeHg in the dry season but no seasonality for floc MeHg. Seasonal variations in Hg deposition, MeHg production and transport, and mass of ecosystem compartments could be responsible for the seasonality of MeHg cycling. Higher mosquitofish THg, higher bioaccumulation factors, and higher biomagnification factors from periphyton to mosquitofish were observed in the wet season than in the dry season, indicating that the wet season is more favorable for Hg bioaccumulation. The mass budget estimation agreed with this result.

  10. FISCAL RULES AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Florentina GAVRILUŢĂ (VATAMANU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, against the background experience of countries which have known consecutive periods of fiscal instability, place all more often the problem of consolidating public finances and establish a sustainable and stable fiscal policies that respect fiscal responsibility criteria. Government decisions have a role well determined in critical periods of the economy and their approach with the purpose of putting in practice, dictate the future of entire generations. A way to counteract negative effects of the crisis and of the various factors that affecting the economy, is undoubtedly the increase of domestic supply. But in business reform process, it is also necessary to take into account a good instrumentation of fiscal budgetary policy, imposing the need to provide particular attention to the mechanisms of public finances and the specific instruments (expenditure, budget, revenue, public debt. The aim of this paper is to show the degree of compliance with the principles of fiscal responsibility, emphasizing which is the degree of convergence on fiscal responsibility. The methodology used is qualitative, which concerns the analysis on the contents of a series key documents: Statute of fiscal rules in the EU member states 28, the origin of fiscal rules and corroboration with specific elements of the public administration system, all this documents, enabling to build a index which validates the hypothesis of this research.

  11. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...

  12. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  13. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  14. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Algorithms to Estimate Lake Tahoe Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The evaporative loss is a dominant component in the Lake Tahoe hydrologic budget because watershed area (813km2) is very small compared to the lake surface area (501 km2). The 5.5 m high dam built at the lake's only outlet, the Truckee River at Tahoe City can increase the lake's capacity by approximately 0.9185 km3. The lake serves as a flood protection for downstream areas and source of water supply for downstream cities, irrigation, hydropower, and instream environmental requirements. When the lake water level falls below the natural rim, cessation of flows from the lake cause problems for water supply, irrigation, and fishing. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to correctly estimate the lake hydrologic budget. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ). We generated the stream flows and pollutants loadings of the streams using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) supported watershed model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC). The bulk transfer coefficients were calibrated using correlation coefficient (R2) as the objective function. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the meteorological inputs and model parameters. The DLM-WQ estimated lake water level and water temperatures were in agreement to those of measured records with R2 equal to 0.96 and 0.99, respectively for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average evaporation from the lake, stream inflow, precipitation over the lake, groundwater fluxes, and outflow from the lake during 1994 to 2008 were found to be 32.0%, 25.0%, 19.0%, 0.3%, and 11.7%, respectively.

  15. Estimating regional-scale methane flux and budgets using CARVE aircraft measurements over Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartery, Sean; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Sweeney, Colm; Henderson, John; Mountain, Marikate; Steiner, Nicholas; McDonald, Kyle; Dinardo, Steven J.; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.

    2018-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas but its emissions from northern regions are still poorly constrained. In this study, we analyze a subset of in situ CH4 aircraft observations made over Alaska during the growing seasons of 2012-2014 as part of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Net surface CH4 fluxes are estimated using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model which quantitatively links surface emissions from Alaska and the western Yukon with observations of enhanced CH4 in the mixed layer. We estimate that between May and September, net CH4 emissions from the region of interest were 2.2 ± 0.5 Tg, 1.9 ± 0.4 Tg, and 2.3 ± 0.6 Tg of CH4 for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. If emissions are only attributed to two biogenic eco-regions within our domain, then tundra regions were the predominant source, accounting for over half of the overall budget despite only representing 18 % of the total surface area. Boreal regions, which cover a large part of the study region, accounted for the remainder of the emissions. Simple multiple linear regression analysis revealed that, overall, CH4 fluxes were largely driven by soil temperature and elevation. In regions specifically dominated by wetlands, soil temperature and moisture at 10 cm depth were important explanatory variables while in regions that were not wetlands, soil temperature and moisture at 40 cm depth were more important, suggesting deeper methanogenesis in drier soils. Although similar environmental drivers have been found in the past to control CH4 emissions at local scales, this study shows that they can be used to generate a statistical model to estimate the regional-scale net CH4 budget.

  16. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  17. Estimation of Energy Savings Resulting From the BestPractices Program, Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, LF

    2003-09-24

    Within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has a vision of a future with clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable energy. Within EERE, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), formerly the Office of Industrial Technologies, works in partnership with industry to increase energy efficiency, improve environmental performance, and boost productivity. The BestPractices (BP) Program, within ITP, works directly with industries to encourage energy efficiency. The purpose of the BP Program is to improve energy utilization and management practices in the industrial sector. The program targets distinct technology areas, including pumps, process heating, steam, compressed air, motors, and insulation. This targeting is accomplished with a variety of delivery channels, such as computer software, printed publications, Internet-based resources, technical training, technical assessments, and other technical assistance. A team of program evaluators from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to evaluate the fiscal year 2002 (FY02) energy savings of the program. The ORNL assessment enumerates levels of program activity for technology areas across delivery channels. In addition, several mechanisms that target multiple technology areas--e.g., Plant-wide Assessments (PWAs), the ''Energy Matters'' newsletter, and special events--are also evaluated for their impacts. When possible, the assessment relies on published reports and the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database for estimates of energy savings that result from particular actions. Data were also provided by ORNL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Project Performance Corporation (PPC), the ITP Clearinghouse at Washington State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Energetics Inc., and the Industrial Technologies Program Office. The estimated energy savings in FY02 resulting from activities of the BP

  18. Department of the Navy Fiscal Year (FY) 2000/2001 Biennial Budget Estimates, Justification of Estimates, February 1999 Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy Budget Activity 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    t 05 CM oowB<tO’i-oo(ocooNO)mNfflcDonT-fflT-Ncown<if(oooo NNi-^OCOCOOinO)IO’<tCOO)*CON*mcOOO)»COO)NO)(OOS cMcocooc»ON’a-ocMcocoo5h- mT -oNCM...2 (0 w o si oS. tSrf epoc Q-S (0 ic DC UJ X UJ UJ Q DC Ui 03 E Z UJ UJ UJ -s -j O O OC DC a. a o E o o ü...00 00 co 0 CJ u° U g 0 CU (d cu 0 U id ld-rl MT ) CU co .ß 4J O rH cu 𔃻 00 < d CD w Q Pi rH id CO 0 Ä 4J co co 4 >1 M ^ ft ■0 S

  19. Development of methane emission factors for Indian paddy fields and estimation of national methane budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prabhat K; Gupta, Vandana; Sharma, C; Das, S N; Purkait, N; Adhya, T K; Pathak, H; Ramesh, R; Baruah, K K; Venkatratnam, L; Singh, Gulab; Iyer, C S P

    2009-01-01

    A state-wise assessment of methane (CH(4)) budget for Indian paddies, based on a decadal measurement data across India is presented for the calendar year (CY) 1994, the base year for India's Initial National Communication (NATCOM) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), along with national trend from CY 1979 to 2006. The NATCOM CH(4) emission factors (EFs) for Indian paddy cultivation areas, generally having less than 0.7% of soil organic carbon (SOC), have been estimated as 17.48+/-4 g m(-2) for irrigated continuously flooded (IR-CF), 6.95+/-1.86 g m(-2) for rain-fed drought prone (RF-DP), 19+/-6 g m(-2) for rain-fed flood prone (RF-FP) and deep-water (DW), 6.62+/-1.89 g m(-2) for irrigated intermittently flooded single aeration (IR-IF-SA) and 2.01+/-1.49 g m(-2) for IR-IF multiple aeration (MA) paddy water regimes. The state-wise study for 1994 has indicated national CH(4) budget estimate of 4.09+/-1.19 Tg y(-1) and the trend from 1979 to 2006 was in the range of 3.62+/-1 to 4.09+/-1.19 Tg y(-1). Four higher emitting or "hot spot" states (West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh) have accounted for 53.9% of total CH(4) emission with RF-FP paddy water regime as the major contributor. CH(4) emissions were enhanced by factors such as SOC ( approximately 1.5 times due to increase in SOC by approximately 1.8 times), paddy cultivars (approximately 1.5 times), age of seedlings (approximately 1.4 times), and seasons (approximately 1.8 times in Kharif or monsoon than in Rabi or winter season).

  20. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  1. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuxart, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martínez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius O.; Jiménez, Maria A.; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Hartogensis, Oscar; Dünnermann, Jens; Conangla, Laura; Garai, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB), for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddy-correlation method. The heterogeneities are estimated from satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader, while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection term becomes more important as the scales become finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast, surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values of the advection, which are probably only significant in the first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre scales.

  2. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cuxart

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate its importance as a term in the surface energy budget (SEB, for which the turbulent fluxes are computed using the eddy-correlation method. The heterogeneities are estimated from satellite and model fields for scales near 1 km or broader, while the smaller scales are estimated through direct measurements with remotely piloted aircraft and thermal cameras and also by high-resolution modelling. The variability of the surface temperature fields is not found to decrease clearly with increasing resolution, and consequently the advection term becomes more important as the scales become finer. The advection term provides non-significant values to the SEB at scales larger than a few kilometres. In contrast, surface heterogeneities at the metre scale yield large values of the advection, which are probably only significant in the first centimetres above the ground. The motions that seem to contribute significantly to the advection term in the SEB equation in our case are roughly those around the hectometre scales.

  3. Deepening Representative Democracy through Fiscal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideas behind composite budgeting for effective fiscal decentralisation are noble, but the implementation is constrained by organisational, coordination, structural and technical factors. The key unanswered question is whether the failure to deliver the goods of fiscal decentralisation is fettered by misnomer ...

  4. Compendium of Data for the Hanford Site (Fiscal Years 2004 to 2008) Applicable to Estimation of Recharge Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, William E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-09-24

    This report is a compendium of recharge data collected in Fiscal Years 2004 through 2008 at various soil and surface covers found and planned in the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The addition of these new data to previously published recharge data will support improved estimates of recharge with respect to location and soil cover helpful to evaluations and risk assessments of radioactive and chemical wastes at this site. Also presented are evaluations of the associated uncertainties, limitations, and data gaps in the existing knowledge base for recharge at the Hanford Site.

  5. MEASURING THE STRUCTURAL BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJOCU ANA-MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the institutional framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance put great emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union, especially for countries belonging to the Eurozone, but also for the accession countries. Surveillance of budgetary policies and the excessive deficit procedure are directions, which have to be followed, to meet debt limit and public deficit of gross domestic product, so as to fulfil fiscal and financial stability and economic integration. The objectives of this paper are to analyze, using the method of estimating the structural budget deficit, the EU Member State’s ability to fulfill the requirements of fiscal and financial stability. The findings of the scientific research and the methodology used shows the potential of the 28 member states of the European Union to fulfil the requirements for fiscal and financial stability

  6. Department of the Navy, FY 1999 Amended Budget Estimates (BRAC 93). Base Closure and Realignment, III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The Navy budget to implement the closures and realignments resulting from these decisions was formulated based on experience gained from closures and realignments achieved thus far and comprehensive...

  7. Estimating the budget impact of orphan medicines in Europe: 2010 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanova Tsveta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orphan drugs are a growing issue of importance to European healthcare policy makers. The success of orphan drug legislation in Europe has resulted in an increasing number of licensed medicines for rare diseases, and many more yet unlicensed products have received orphan drug designation. Increasingly the concerns amongst policy makers relate to issues of patient access and affordability, yet few studies have sought to estimate the future budget impact of orphan drugs. The aim of this study was to predict the total cost of orphan medicines in Europe between 2010 and 2020 as a percentage of total European pharmaceutical expenditure. Methods A disease-based epidemiological model was created based upon trends in the designation and approval of new orphan medicines, prevalence estimates for orphan diseases, and historical price and sales data for orphan drugs in Europe (defined as Eurozone + UK. The analysis incorporated two stages: 1 Predicting the number of diseases for which new orphan drugs will be approved over the next decade, based on an analysis of trends from the EU registry of orphan medicines; 2 Estimating the average ex-factory drug cost across an orphan disease life cycle, from the year in which the first orphan medicine is launched to the point where the first medicine loses marketing exclusivity. The two sets of information were combined to quantify the annual cost of orphan drugs from 2010 through 2020. Results The results from the model predicted a steady increase in the cumulative number of diseases for which an orphan drug is approved, averaging just over 5 new diseases per year over the next 10 years. The annual per patient cost of existing orphan drugs was seen to vary between €1,251 and €407,631, with the median cost being €32,242 per year. The share of the total pharmaceutical market represented by orphan drugs is predicted to increase from 3.3% in 2010 to a peak of 4.6% in 2016 after which it is

  8. Estimating the budget impact of orphan medicines in Europe: 2010 - 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Carina; Milanova, Tsveta; Hutchings, Adam

    2011-09-27

    Orphan drugs are a growing issue of importance to European healthcare policy makers. The success of orphan drug legislation in Europe has resulted in an increasing number of licensed medicines for rare diseases, and many more yet unlicensed products have received orphan drug designation. Increasingly the concerns amongst policy makers relate to issues of patient access and affordability, yet few studies have sought to estimate the future budget impact of orphan drugs. The aim of this study was to predict the total cost of orphan medicines in Europe between 2010 and 2020 as a percentage of total European pharmaceutical expenditure. A disease-based epidemiological model was created based upon trends in the designation and approval of new orphan medicines, prevalence estimates for orphan diseases, and historical price and sales data for orphan drugs in Europe (defined as Eurozone + UK). The analysis incorporated two stages: 1) Predicting the number of diseases for which new orphan drugs will be approved over the next decade, based on an analysis of trends from the EU registry of orphan medicines; 2) Estimating the average ex-factory drug cost across an orphan disease life cycle, from the year in which the first orphan medicine is launched to the point where the first medicine loses marketing exclusivity. The two sets of information were combined to quantify the annual cost of orphan drugs from 2010 through 2020. The results from the model predicted a steady increase in the cumulative number of diseases for which an orphan drug is approved, averaging just over 5 new diseases per year over the next 10 years. The annual per patient cost of existing orphan drugs was seen to vary between €1,251 and €407,631, with the median cost being €32,242 per year. The share of the total pharmaceutical market represented by orphan drugs is predicted to increase from 3.3% in 2010 to a peak of 4.6% in 2016 after which it is expected to level off through 2020, as growth falls into

  9. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow using water budgets in Palo Verde Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Kimsey, Steven L.

    1987-01-01

    Palo Verde Valley, California, is an agricultural area in the flood plain of the Colorado River where irrigation water is diverted from the river and groundwater is discharged to a network of drainage ditches and (or) the river. Consumptive use by vegetation and groundwater return flow were calculated using water budgets. Consumptive use by vegetation was 484,000 acre-ft in 1981, 453,600 acre-ft in 1982, 364,400 acre-ft in 1983, and 374,300 acre-ft in 1984. The consumptive-use estimates are most sensitive to two measured components of the water budget, the diversion at Palo Verde Dam and the discharge from drainage ditches to the river. Groundwater return flow was 31,700 acre-ft in 1981, 24,000 acre-ft in 1982, 2,500 acre-ft in 1983, and 7 ,900 acre-ft in 1984. The return-flow estimates are most sensitive to discharge from drainage ditches; various irrigation requirements and crop areas, particularly alfalfa; the diversion at Palo Verde Dam; and the estimate of consumptive use. During increasing flows in the river, the estimate of groundwater return flow is sensitive also to change in groundwater storage. Change in groundwater storage was estimated to be -5,700 acre-ft in 1981, -12,600 acre-ft in 1982, 5,200 acre-ft in 1983, and 11 ,600 acre-ft in 1984. Changes in storage can be a significant component in the water budget used to estimate groundwater return flow but is negligible in the water budget used to estimate consumptive use. Change in storage was 1 to 3% of annual consumptive use. Change in storage for the area drained by the river ranged from 7 to 96% of annual groundwater return flow during the 4 years studied. Consumptive use calculated as diversions minus return flows was consistently lower than consumptive use calculated in a water budget. Water-budget estimates of consumptive use account for variations in precipitation, tributary inflow, river stage, and groundwater storage. The calculations for diversions minus return flows do not account for these

  10. The Impact of Fiscal Governance on Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    Does fiscal governance affect government borrowing costs? We operationalize fiscal governance as the ability of governments to pass a budget on time and, using a unique data set on budget enactment dates, analyze the effect of such late budgets on government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample...

  11. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  12. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  13. Estimated hydrologic budgets of kettle-hole ponds in coastal aquifers of southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Kettle-hole ponds in southeastern Massachusetts are in good hydraulic connection to an extensive coastal aquifer system that includes the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system on the mainland and aquifers underlying Cape Cod. The ponds receive water from, and contribute water to, the underlying glacial aquifer; ponds also receive water from precipitation and lose water to evaporation from the pond surface. Some ponds are connected to surface-water drainage systems and receive water from or contribute water to streams or adjacent wetlands. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection currently (2011) is developing Total Maximum Daily Loads of phosphorus for the freshwater ponds in the region to maintain the health of pond ecosystems; the amounts and sources of water fluxes into and out of the ponds are important factors in determining the amount of phosphorus that can be assimilated into a pond. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey used groundwater-flow models of the coastal aquifer system to estimate hydrologic budgets-including inflows and outflows from the aquifer system and adjacent streams and wetlands, and recharge from precipitation-for 425 ponds in southeastern Massachusetts.

  14. Budget impact analysis of orphan drugs in Belgium: estimates from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to calculate the impact of orphan drugs on the Belgian drug budget in 2008 and to forecast its impact over the following 5 years. The 2008 budget impact was calculated by triangulating information derived from multiple Belgian data sources. The 2008-2013 budget impact analysis was based on three scenarios reflecting different levels of growth in the number of registered orphan drugs in the European Union, the number of drugs reimbursed in Belgium, and the average annual cost per patient per drug in Belgium. The orphan drug budget impact amounted to €66.2 million (or 5% of the Belgian hospital drug budget) in 2008. The impact would increase to €130-204 million in 2013, depending on the scenario. This static analysis measured orphan drug costs only, assuming that other components of health expenditure do not change over time. The analysis showed that the budget impact of orphan drugs in Belgium is substantial and rising, thereby putting pressure on total drug expenditure. Policy options to address the rising budget impact include pricing linked to return on investment, risk-sharing arrangements and re-appraisal of orphan drug status if additional indications are approved.

  15. Impact of a financial risk-sharing scheme on budget-impact estimations: a game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavious, Arieh; Greenberg, Dan; Hammerman, Ariel; Segev, Ella

    2014-06-01

    As part of the process of updating the National List of Health Services in Israel, health plans (the 'payers') and manufacturers each provide estimates on the expected number of patients that will utilize a new drug. Currently, payers face major financial consequences when actual utilization is higher than the allocated budget. We suggest a risk-sharing model between the two stakeholders; if the actual number of patients exceeds the manufacturer's prediction, the manufacturer will reimburse the payers by a rebate rate of α from the deficit. In case of under-utilization, payers will refund the government at a rate of γ from the surplus budget. Our study objective was to identify the optimal early estimations of both 'players' prior to and after implementation of the risk-sharing scheme. Using a game-theoretic approach, in which both players' statements are considered simultaneously, we examined the impact of risk-sharing within a given range of rebate proportions, on players' early budget estimations. When increasing manufacturer's rebate α to be over 50 %, then manufacturers will announce a larger number, and health plans will announce a lower number of patients than they would without risk sharing, thus substantially decreasing the gap between their estimates. Increasing γ changes players' estimates only slightly. In reaction to applying a substantial risk-sharing rebate α on the manufacturer, both players are expected to adjust their budget estimates toward an optimal equilibrium. Increasing α is a better vehicle for reaching the desired equilibrium rather than increasing γ, as the manufacturer's rebate α substantially influences both players, whereas γ has little effect on the players behavior.

  16. Towards a sediment budget estimation of the Gepatschferner glacier (Tyrol, Austria) - Approaches and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Matthias; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment production, storage and transport in glacial systems are spatially and temporally variable. Due to the ongoing global warming an accelerated glacial retreat is expected, leading to an exposure of unconsolidated sediments. Additionally, a higher sediment production from destabilised rock walls caused by permafrost degradation and glacial debuttressing is expected. At least those paraglacial processes become more important in alpine catchments in the near future. But, there is still a knowledge gap on the quantification of sediment transporting processes in those regions. The research questions we are focussing on are part of the PROSA project ("High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing Proglacial Systems of the Alps") and are investigated at the Gepatschferner glacier. The Gepatschferner is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley. It is the second largest glacier in Austria (15.7 km², 2012). The Gepatschferner is drained by the Fagge River. In this presentation we will focus on two main components of the sediment budget of the Gepatschferner: the input to and the output from the glacier system. The sediment input from the surrounding rockwalls to the glacier is observed by comparing multi-temporal airborne LiDAR DEMs (2006, July 2012, September 2012) to determine sediment delivery by rockfall. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the Fagge River in front of the glacier outlet in oreder to determine the glacio-fluvial output of sediment from the glacier system. During the ablation periods from 2012 to 2014 the water level was recorded. At different stages the discharge was measured and a reliable stage-discharge relation could be established. That relation was used in combination with the recorded stage for the computation of the hydrograph in each season. Additionally, the solid sediment output was estimated using the discharge data as well as suspended sediment concentration from several

  17. Estimated Budget Impact of Increased Use of Mirabegron, A Novel Treatment for Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Sinem; Wielage, Ronald C; Campbell, Noll L; Klein, Timothy M; Perkins, Anthony; Posta, Linda M; Yuran, Thomas; Klein, Robert W; Ng, Daniel B

    2016-09-01

    Oral pharmacological treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) consists of antimuscarinics and the beta-3 adrenergic agonist mirabegron. Antimuscarinic adverse events (AEs) such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurry vision can result in frequent treatment discontinuation rates, leaving part of the OAB population untreated. Antimuscarinics also contribute to a patient's anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB), so the Beers Criteria recommends cautious use of antimuscarinics in elderly patients who take multiple anticholinergic medications or have cognitive impairment. Since mirabegron does not affect the cholinergic pathways, it is unlikely to contribute to a patient's ACB. To estimate the health care costs associated with the pharmacological treatment of OAB with mirabegron and antimuscarinics from U.S. commercial payer and Medicare Advantage perspectives, using a budget impact model. For this budget impact model, 2 analyses were performed. The primary analysis estimated the budgetary impact of increasing the use of mirabegron in a closed patient cohort treated with oral pharmacological treatments. The secondary analysis modeled the economic impact in an open cohort by allowing untreated patients to begin treatment with mirabegron after potential contraindication, intolerance, or lack of effectiveness of antimuscarinics. The analyses were performed over a 3-year time horizon. The economic impact of increased mirabegron use was quantified using direct medical costs, including prescription costs and health resource utilization (HRU) costs. Costs of comorbidities included pharmacy and medical costs of treating OAB-related urinary tract infections (UTI), skin rashes, and depression. An analysis of a large single-site integrated health network database was commissioned to quantify ACB-related HRU in terms of the increases in yearly outpatient and emergency department visits. Based on this analysis, the model associated each unit increase in ACB score with increased HRU and

  18. Sediment budget estimation in a small torrential catchment using DEM of difference approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezak, Nejc; Grigillo, Dejan; Rusjan, Simon; Šraj, Mojca; Urbančič, Tilen; Kozmus Trajkovski, Klemen; Petrovič, Dušan; Mikoš, Matjaž

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the sediment budget (net erosion change) in a small torrential catchment using the DEM of difference (DoD) approach. The Kuzlovec torrent (~ 0.7 km2; in the Gradaščica River catchment) is located approximately 20 km west of the City of Ljubljana and is part of the Sava River basin. The elevation ranges between 394 and 847 m.a.s.l, the mean catchment slope is 27.3°, the mean annual precipitation typically ranges between 1600 to 1800 mm, forest covers more than 85% of the area, and the predominant soil type is Rendzic Leptosol (according to the FAO classification). Using the Terestrical Laser Scanning (TLS) a digital terrain model (DTM) with a 5 cm grid cell was obtained. A smaller (about 25 m wide and 160 m long) specific study site with a mean slope of 37° was selected in order to ensure the high quality of data. A high resolution (several million points) surveys were performed in April 2013 and August 2014. In the night from 4th to 5th of August 2014 an extreme flash flood happened in the investigated area. Three tipping bucket rain gauges and one disdrometer, which are located in the Gradaščica River catchment, measured 110 to 185 mm of rainfall in less than 10 hours. Two rain gauges measured about 110 mm, one rain gauge (the closest to the Kuzloved torrent) recorded approximately 140 mm of rainfall, while the disdrometer measured 185 mm of rainfall. The estimated return period of this rainfall event (based on the rain gauge data) was between 100 and 250 years, however based on the disdrometer observations the return period was larger than 250 years. The Gumbel distribution was used in order to construct the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship and the data from 1976 to 2008 was used for this purpose. Furthermore, the maximum one minute rainfall intensity measured by the disdrometer was 288 mm/h. This high rainfall intensities triggered several shallow landslides and caused intense soil erosion processes

  19. Fiscal Flows, Fiscal Balance, and Fiscal Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. bird

    2003-01-01

    The search for “fiscal indicators” to provide a short-hand (and preferably quantitative) picture of the size, direction, and nature of intergovernmental finance – and, ideally, some guidance for policy designed to improve outcomes – appears to be neverending. “Fiscal balance” and “fiscal sustainability” are, for example, terms commonly heard in discussions of intergovernmental fiscal relations. These concepts sound like good things, and often policies are suggested that are intended to achiev...

  20. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  1. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model I: Philosophy and approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Freitas, Vânia; van der Veer, Henk W.; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijsman, Johannes W. M.; Pecquerie, Laure; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters are abstract quantities that are not directly observable. We here present a new approach of parameter estimation, the covariation method, that permits all parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to be estimated from standard empirical datasets. Parameter estimates are based on the simultaneous minimization of a weighted sum of squared deviations between a number of data sets and model predictions or the minimisation of the negative log likelihood function, both in a single-step procedure. The structure of DEB theory permits the unusual situation of using single data-points (such as the maximum reproduction rate), which we call "zero-variate" data, for estimating parameters. We also introduce the concept of "pseudo-data", exploiting the rules for the covariation of parameter values among species that are implied by the standard DEB model. This allows us to introduce the concept of a generalised animal, which has specified parameter values. We here outline the philosophy behind the approach and its technical implementation. In a companion paper, we assess the behaviour of the estimation procedure and present preliminary findings of emerging patterns in parameter values across diverse taxa.

  2. A model to estimate hydrological processes and water budget in an irrigation farm pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Joel O. Paz; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    With increased interest to conserve groundwater resources without reducing crop yield potential, more on-farm water storage ponds have been constructed in recent years in USA and around the world. However, the hydrological processes, water budget, and environmental benefits and consequences of these ponds have not yet been fully quantified. This study developed a...

  3. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  4. Department of Defense. U.S. Transportation Command. Information Technology/NSS Exhibit. Fiscal Year (FY) 2003 Budget Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... transportation services. Focused logistics, the key element to meeting all transportation requirements, will effectively link all logistics functions through advanced information systems to integrate real-time total asset...

  5. H.R. 3221: Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    H.R. 3221 would amend the Higher Education Act of 1965, which authorizes most federal postsecondary education programs. It would prohibit new federally guaranteed loans from being made under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program and would increase direct spending for the Federal Pell Grant Program and other programs. The elimination of…

  6. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation. Army Appropriation Fiscal Year 1984. Supporting Data Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress--February 1983. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    already-developed Itardware. III-42 ( P rn Element #61WA TitW. Div-dea Ai- Deoi Cmn d MW Cot"o 04HORM Ca Systm) DOD Mission Arma *3M4 - Taiedl Gem w-n...cmontat foe against nabvaly occuning endsevc iseme and( biologica watfare (SW agents. The preventon and treatment of imeses whIch slietulimy operations...Element #64714A Title: Tatcl Electric Power Souseow 000 Mission Arma #111 - Land Warfare fappet Budge Actvlty #4 - TAeiea Prgrame The $1278 thousand

  7. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  8. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  9. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  10. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  11. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  12. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua Liu; Denghua Yan; Hao Wang; Chuanzhe Li; Baisha Weng; Tianling Qin

    2016-01-01

    The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, t...

  13. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  14. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  15. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  16. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  17. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  18. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1992 fiscal year. Detailed budget proposals, projections, and summaries are...

  19. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  20. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  1. Use of GOES, SSM/I, TRMM Satellite Measurements Estimating Water Budget Variations in Gulf of Mexico - Caribbean Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-satellite/multi-sensor retrieval system designed to obtain the atmospheric water budget over the open ocean. A combination of 3ourly-sampled monthly datasets derived from the GOES-8 5-channel Imager, the TRMM TMI radiometer, and the DMSP 7-channel passive microwave radiometers (SSM/I) have been acquired for the combined Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea basin. Whereas the methodology has been tested over this basin, the retrieval system is designed for portability to any open-ocean region. Algorithm modules using the different datasets to retrieve individual geophysical parameters needed in the water budget equation are designed in a manner that takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GOES-8 measurements, as well as the physical relationships inherent to the TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave measurements in conjunction with water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rainfall. The methodology consists of retrieving the precipitation, surface evaporation, and vapor-cloud water storage terms in the atmospheric water balance equation from satellite techniques, with the water vapor advection term being obtained as the residue needed for balance. Thus, the intent is to develop a purely satellite-based method for obtaining the full set of terms in the atmospheric water budget equation without requiring in situ sounding information on the wind profile. The algorithm is validated by cross-checking all the algorithm components through multiple- algorithm retrieval intercomparisons. A further check on the validation is obtained by directly comparing water vapor transports into the targeted basin diagnosed from the satellite algorithms to those obtained observationally from a network of land-based upper air stations that nearly uniformly surround the basin, although it is fair to say that these checks are more effective m identifying problems in estimating vapor transports from a leaky operational radiosonde network than in verifying

  2. A Taylor Rule for Fiscal Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    In times of rapid macroeconomic change it would seem useful for both fiscal and monetary policy to be modified frequently. This is true for monetary policy with monthly meetings of the Open Market Committee. It is not true for fiscal policy which mostly varies with the annual Congressional budget

  3. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    ... branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes...

  4. Estimating the public economic consequences of introducing varenicline smoking cessation therapy in South Korea using a fiscal analytic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Baker, Christine L; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-02-13

    Smoking gives rise to many cross-sectorial public costs and benefits for government. Costs arise from increased healthcare spending and work-related social benefits, while smoking itself provides significant revenue for government from tobacco taxes. To better understand the public economic impact of smoking and smoking cessation therapies, this study developed a government perspective framework for assessing smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality and associated public costs. This framework includes changes in lifetime tax revenue and health costs, as well as changes in tobacco tax revenue, from fewer smokers. A modified generational accounting framework was developed to assess relationships between smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality and public economic consequences of smoking, including lifetime tax revenue gains/losses, government social transfers, and health spending. Based on the current prevalence of smoking in South Korean males, a cohort model was developed for smokers, former-smokers, and never-smokers. The model simulated the lifetime discounted fiscal transfers for different age cohorts in 5 year age bands, and the return on investment (ROI) from smoking cessation therapy. Former smokers are estimated to generate higher lifetime earnings and direct tax revenues and lower lifetime healthcare costs due to the reduction of smoking-attributable mortality and morbidity compared to smokers, even after accounting for reduced tobacco taxes paid. Based on the costs of public investments in varenicline, this study estimated a ROI from 1.4-1.7, depending on treatment age, with higher ROI in younger cohorts, with an average ROI of 1.6 for those aged less than 65. This analysis suggests that reductions in smoking can generate positive public economic benefits for government, even after accounting for lost tobacco tax revenues. The results described here are likely applicable to countries having similar underlying smoking prevalence, comparable taxation

  5. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakos eSouliotis; Manto ePapageorgiou; Anastasia ePoliti; Nikolaos eFrangos; Yiannis eTountas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the countr...

  6. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....

  7. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....

  8. Estimation of the ATLAS Inner Detector material budget by use of hadronic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersson, Nora Emilia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The dominant inefficiency in track reconstruction comes from particle interactions with the material in the detector. A good understanding of the material in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS detector is therefore a vital part of track and object reconstruction. In recent years a new technique has been developed, which by reconstructing nuclear interactions with the detector material allows one to quantify the material budget. The relatively low momentum interactions yields large opening angles between the outgoing particles. This makes it feasible to pinpoint the location of the interaction with excellent spatial resolutions, both perpendicular and parallel to the beam axis, permitting detailed comparisons of even minute detector elements. Utilising a second-pass tracking, specially designed to reconstruct secondary tracks with large impact parameters, the technique maps 0.3 $m^{3}$ of the ID volume. The collected results from the Run-1 and the Run-2 analyses will be presented.

  9. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  10. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  11. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  12. New Zealand's Fiscal Policy Framework: Experience and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John Janssen

    2001-01-01

    Fiscal policy in New Zealand has seen a consolidation of the Government’s position and continuing refinements to the institutional framework and Budget processes. The key institutional change has been the introduction of the Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994. The paper sets out the background to the fiscal policy framework, including fiscal history and various institutional changes in the public sector. This paper is a companion paper to Treasury Working Paper 01/24 by Angela Barnes and Steve Le...

  13. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    China's central–local relations have been marked by perpetual changes amidst economic restructuring. Fiscal decentralization on the expenditure side has been paralleled by centralization on the revenue side, accompanied by political centralization. Hence, our understanding of China's fiscal...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...... in the Western literature? Second, are there any problems with existing principles of fiscal federalism and, if so, how to refine them? Third, how are refined principles relevant to the Chinese case and what policies should the Chinese government pursue in the future? Based on an in-depth and critical review...

  14. Fiscal rules, fiscal space and procyclical fiscal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nerlich, Carolin; Reuter, Wolf Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the interaction of fiscal rules and fiscal space. We find strong evidence for fiscal rules being associated with higher fiscal space. Furthermore, the analysis shows that countries with more fiscal space tend to have higher discretionary expenditures, but that this effect is significantly reduced if fiscal rules are in place. A similar effect can be observed for the procyclicality of fiscal policy, which is significantly higher in an environment of ample fiscal space,...

  15. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhoglyadova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs on 22–31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and 25 April–2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry to estimate nitric oxide (NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  16. WAREHOUSE TRANSFERS AND FISCAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Dorica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraud and fiscal evasion phenomenon generate indisputable negative effects, which are felt directly on the level of fiscal receipts earnings, determining major distortions in the market’s functioning mechanism. If in the European Union, the contribution of the three large tax categories (direct tax, indirect and social contributions in forming revenue are relatively close, in Romania, fiscal and budget revenue are directly dependent on the indirect tax and duties, especially on VAT and various sales taxes. If there is reductions in the fiscal evasion as to what these taxes are concerned, the premises for creating budget resource needed to fund the economic growth are created. In judicial literature, tax evasion is considered as being the logic result of all defects and inadvertencies of an imperfect legislation, of broken application methods, as well as a lack of foreseeing and lack of skill on the law-maker’s side, with their excessive tax system is as guilty as those who contribute in creating it. Regardless of how this phenomenon is defined, fiscal evasion represents the lack of fulfillment by the taxpayer of his fiscal obligation. The field in which tax evasion acts is as widespread as the different taxes, manifesting especially in the direct and indirect taxes, influencing their efficiency.

  17. Shaping the Fiscal Policy Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper provides an overview of experiences with fiscal and structural reforms in Denmark and Sweden, focusing on areas of particular relevance to members of the euro area struggling with large budget imbalances. First, given the current priority to austerity plans in the euro area, we review...

  18. Jump robust two time scale covariance estimation and realized volatility budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, K.M.R.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the daily integrated variance and covariance of stock returns using high-frequency data in the presence of jumps, market microstructure noise and non-synchronous trading. For this we propose jump robust two time scale (co)variance estimators and verify their reduced bias and mean square

  19. Fiscal Deadline, Thorny Deficits Bedevil States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    A handful of recession-ravaged states have kicked off a new fiscal year without balanced budgets, leaving public school educators in limbo as they struggled to manage spending amid dwindling resources and political bickering over unprecedented budget gaps. The crisis remains most severe in California, which, as of last week, faced a $26.3 billion…

  20. Estimating the gross budget of applied nitrogen and phosphorus in tea plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase crop yield, high fertilizer application rates have generally been used. The residual fertilizers potentially become a source of diffused pollution, and degrade soil and water quality. Such nonpoint source pollution is a major threat to reservoir eutrophication. The best management practices (BMPs are usually used to prevent eutrophication; however, the environmental distribution of the applied fertilizers has not been understood properly. This could lead to a biased assessment of the rational quantity of nitrogen and phosphorous applied and the selection of BMPs. A field investigation of 32 plantations and 4 forests in the Feitsui Reservoir watershed, Taiwan, was conducted. Storm runoff water and soils were sampled, and a mass balance was used to demonstrate the gross nutrient budget. The results showed that when applying fertilizers of 2700 kg ha−1 in tea plantations only 18.3% of applied nitrogen and 5.5% of applied phosphorus were utilized by tea plants. Less than 5% of applied phosphorus was released in storm runoff, and more than 90% remained in the field. Approximately 30% of the nitrogen was lost through storm runoff, and 52% was stored in the soil mass. Therefore, reducing fertilizer application was recommended as the principal BMP, and collecting and treating storm runoff was suggested for controlling nitrogen pollution. The current management of soil erosion is an efficient measure for controlling phosphorus pollution.

  1. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances......—and in the reporting of public finances—is beginning to emerge....

  2. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  3. THE NATIONAL BUDGET BALANCING IN THE CONTEXT OF GOVERNMENTAL ANTIRECESSIONARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyshleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers international experience of balancing national budget under crisis conditions. Scientific approaches to achieving fiscal balance are examined. Some proposals are put forward to undertake anti-crisis activities as to fiscal policy in Ukraine.

  4. Estimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuxart, J.; Wrenger, B.; Martinez-Villagrasa, D.; Reuder, J.; Jonassen, M.O.; Jimenez, M.A.; Lothon, M.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dunnermann, J.; Conangla, L.; Garai, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of terrain heterogeneities in one-point
    measurements is a continuous subject of discussion. Here
    we focus on the order of magnitude of the advection term
    in the equation of the evolution of temperature as generated
    by documented terrain heterogeneities and we estimate

  5. How Fiscal Policy Affects Non-Oil Economic Performance in Azerbaijan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of fiscal policy in promoting economic growth has been subject to many studies since its suggestion by Keynes who stated expansionary/contractionary impact of public expenditures/taxes. In this context, effectiveness of fiscal policy use to develop non-oil sector in resource rich economies should be studied. This paper investigates short- and long-run effects of budget expenditures and tax related budget revenues (direct transfers from oil fund excluded over non-oil GDP while controlling for oil price volatility and oil production in case of Azerbaijan. Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing (ARDLBT Approach to cointegration is employed for data covering 2000Q1-2015Q2. Estimation results theoretically consistent and statistically significant long-run effects of both budget expenditures and tax-related budget revenues. However, in the short-run, the effects are contrary to the theoretical expectations. Findings are useful for Azerbaijan fiscal policy makers especially in the current complicated nature of economic processes in the economy due to oil related challenges.

  6. Fiscal Deficits and Stock Prices in India: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.

  7. An Empirical Riverine Carbon Budget for New Zealand: National scale estimate of organic and inorganic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. T.; Baisden, W. T.; Davies-Colley, R.; Trustrum, N.

    2002-12-01

    New Zealand rivers contribute a large amount of sediment to the ocean, partially attributable to tectonic uplift combined with softer rocks under inappropriate land-use and high-frequency rain events. Preliminary calculations suggest that in NZ between 3-11 Mt carbon is transported annually through erosion, compared with about 8.5 Mt per yr released from fossil fuel burning. Therefore, if a large proportion of this erosional carbon is oxidized before sequestration in sedimentary basins, soil erosion may represent a major greenhouse contribution. Our current study aims to refine a national estimate of both particulate and dissolved organic carbon leaving New Zealand through rivers. We are also attempting to understand both the biochemical processing of organic matter in transit to the ocean, as well as the resulting evasional flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Initial estimates of these fluxes based on measurements collected over a 12-month period from 50 rivers, as well as from a number of flood snapshots around the country, will be presented. Using surrogates such as spectrophotometric absorbance for DOC developed using this year's dataset, these measurements will be used to quantify the annual riverine flux of particulate and organic carbon from a 12-year record. Carbon fluxes from individual catchments will also be compared to landscape properties (soil parent material, slope, climate, and land-use patterns). The relationship between the solute flux from and landscape properties within a catchment is crucial to extending the estimates of carbon flux to ungauged catchments to estimate total carbon flux in river drainage from the NZ landmass.

  8. Multi-Satellite Estimates of Land-Surface Properties for Determination of Energy and Water Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Rabin, Robert M.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Gallo, Kevin; Diak, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Using the WETNET database, existing methods for the estimation of surface wetness from SSM/I data have been assessed and further developed. A physical-statistical method for optimal estimation of daily surface heat flux and Bowen ratio on the mesoscale has been developed and tested. This method is based on observations of daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth from operational ravansonde and daytime land-surface temperature amplitude from Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites. The mesoscale patterns of these heat fluxes have been compared with an AVHRR-based vegetation index and surface wetness (separately estimated from SSM/I and in situ observations). Cases of the 1988 Midwest drought and a surface/atmosphere moisture gradient (dry-line) in the southern Plains were studied. The analyses revealed significant variations in sensible heat flux (S(sub 0), and Bowen ratio, B(sub 0)) associated with vegetation cover and antecedent precipitation. Relationships for surface heat flux (and Bowen ratio) from antecedent precipitation and vegetation index have been developed and compared to other findings. Results from this project are reported in the following reviewed literature.

  9. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE FISCAL-BUDGETARY POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF TAXATION SYSTEM REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MOCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the budgetary impact determined by the Government’s proposition of modifying Law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code, respectively the diminution of the central levies and taxes (VAT, profit tax, income tax, microenterprises’ income tax, excises, etc., represents a mandatory condition provided by the legislation in the field, having as primary role the observance of the fiscal budgetary policy’s objectives on medium-term and long-term assumed by Romania through the Treaty regarding the stability, coordination and governance in the European Union. The tax sustainability on medium-term and long-term supposes that the Government promotes a cautious fiscal-budgetary policy and an efficient administration of the appeared risks that wouldn’t imply adjustments of the expenses, incomes or a budgetary deficit with adverse economic and social effects.This work intends to analyze the financial impact on Romania’s budget following the proposition of the Government to reduce the central levies and taxes, the opportunity of adopting a high fiscal relaxation while observing the medium-term and long-term budgetary objectives and the consolidation of the existing macroeconomic balances. The data used in the proposed scientific work takes into consideration the estimated VAT and GDP for 2015-2017 in Romania. The set of used data was available in the database of ANAF and the data provided in the Fiscal budgetary strategy 2015-2017.The results of the study highlight the importance of the correct dimensioning of the effects of the first round and those of the second round represented by the fiscal relaxation measures in the revision project of law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code in the context of using fiscal multipliers and the elasticity of the budgetary aggregates.

  10. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  11. Using cGPS to estimate the magma budget for Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen; Pascal, Karen

    2017-04-01

    For over 20 years, Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat has been in a state of volcanic unrest. Intermittent periods of dome building have been punctuated by explosive eruptions and dome collapse events, endangering the lives of the inhabitants of the island. The last episode of active magma extrusion was in February 2010, and the last explosive event (ash venting) in March 2012. Despite a lack of recent eruptive activity, the volcano continues to emit significant volumes of SO2 and shows an ongoing trend of island inflation as indicated by cGPS. Through the aid of three-dimensional numerical modelling, using a finite element method, we model the cGPS data to explore the potential sources of the ongoing island deformation. We consider both magmatic (dykes and chambers) and tectonic sources which result in entirely different interpretations: Whilst a magmatic source suggests the possibility for further eruption, a tectonic source may indicate cessation of volcanic activity. We investigate the effects that different sources (shapes, characters and depths) have on the surface displacement. We demonstrate that whilst a tectonic contribution cannot be completely discounted, the dominant source is magmatic. Consequently, we define a best-fit model which we use to assess the source volume change, and therefore, the potential current magma budget. Based on the similarity in the relative displacement between the cGPS stations at every episode of the eruption, we assume that the displacement for all Phases and Pauses can be explained by the same basic source. Therefore, we interpret the cGPS data with our source model for all the preceding Pauses and Phases to estimate the magma budget feeding the entire eruption. Subsequently, we derive important insights into the potential future eruptive behaviour of the volcano.

  12. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model II: Properties and preliminary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The covariation method for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model provides a single-step method of accessing all the core DEB parameters from commonly available empirical data. In this study, we assess the robustness of this parameter estimation procedure and analyse the role of pseudo-data using elasticity coefficients. In particular, we compare the performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) vs. Weighted Least Squares (WLS) approaches and find that the two approaches tend to converge in performance as the number of uni-variate data sets increases, but that WLS is more robust when data sets comprise single points (zero-variate data). The efficiency of the approach is shown to be high, and the prior parameter estimates (pseudo-data) have very little influence if the real data contain information about the parameter values. For instance, the effects of the pseudo-value for the allocation fraction κ is reduced when there is information for both growth and reproduction, that for the energy conductance is reduced when information on age at birth and puberty is given, and the effects of the pseudo-value for the maturity maintenance rate coefficient are insignificant. The estimation of some parameters (e.g., the zoom factor and the shape coefficient) requires little information, while that of others (e.g., maturity maintenance rate, puberty threshold and reproduction efficiency) require data at several food levels. The generality of the standard DEB model, in combination with the estimation of all of its parameters, allows comparison of species on the basis of parameter values. We discuss a number of preliminary patterns emerging from the present collection of parameter estimates across a wide variety of taxa. We make the observation that the estimated value of the fraction κ of mobilised reserve that is allocated to soma is far away from the value that maximises reproduction. We recognise this as the reason why two very different

  13. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  14. On the accuracy of the simple ocean data assimilation analysis for estimating heat Budgets of the Near-Surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    The accuracy of data from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) model for estimating the heat budget of the upper ocean is tested in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. SODA is able to reproduce the changes in heat content when...

  15. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in ealry life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Nordtug, T.; Tamis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for

  16. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  17. Estimation of packaged water consumption and associated plastic waste production from household budget surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Hill, Allan G.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Wright, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Packaged water consumption is growing in low- and middle-income countries, but the magnitude of this phenomenon and its environmental consequences remain unclear. This study aims to quantify both the volumes of packaged water consumed relative to household water requirements and associated plastic waste generated for three West African case study countries. Data from household expenditure surveys for Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia were used to estimate the volumes of packaged water consumed and thereby quantify plastic waste generated in households with and without solid waste disposal facilities. In Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively, 11.3 (95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4), 10.1 (7.5-12.5), and 0.38 (0.31-0.45) Ml day-1 of sachet water were consumed. This generated over 28 000 tonnes yr-1 of plastic waste, of which 20%, 63% and 57% was among households lacking formal waste disposal facilities in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. Reported packaged water consumption provided sufficient water to meet daily household drinking-water requirements for 8.4%, less than 1% and 1.6% of households in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. These findings quantify packaged water’s contribution to household water needs in our study countries, particularly Ghana, but indicate significant subsequent environmental repercussions.

  18. An automated performance budget estimator: a process for use in instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Philippe; Schnetler, Hermine; Rees, Phil

    2016-08-01

    Current day astronomy projects continue to increase in size and are increasingly becoming more complex, regardless of the wavelength domain, while risks in terms of safety, cost and operability have to be reduced to ensure an affordable total cost of ownership. All of these drivers have to be considered carefully during the development process of an astronomy project at the same time as there is a big drive to shorten the development life-cycle. From the systems engineering point of view, this evolution is a significant challenge. Big instruments imply management of interfaces within large consortia and dealing with tight design phase schedules which necessitate efficient and rapid interactions between all the stakeholders to firstly ensure that the system is defined correctly and secondly that the designs will meet all the requirements. It is essential that team members respond quickly such that the time available for the design team is maximised. In this context, performance prediction tools can be very helpful during the concept phase of a project to help selecting the best design solution. In the first section of this paper we present the development of such a prediction tool that can be used by the system engineer to determine the overall performance of the system and to evaluate the impact on the science based on the proposed design. This tool can also be used in "what-if" design analysis to assess the impact on the overall performance of the system based on the simulated numbers calculated by the automated system performance prediction tool. Having such a tool available from the beginning of a project can allow firstly for a faster turn-around between the design engineers and the systems engineer and secondly, between the systems engineer and the instrument scientist. Following the first section we described the process for constructing a performance estimator tool, followed by describing three projects in which such a tool has been utilised to illustrate

  19. Why Is the Self-Sufficiency of Urban Districts Budgets Not Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban districts occupy a special place in the system of municipalities due to their potential and role in the implementation of governmental economic policy. Possessing the most developed infrastructure, facilities and a good financial basis, large and medium-sized cities accumulate the major part of budget revenues. However, the predominant part of their revenues that amounts, according to various estimates, to 70–85% [1, 6, 15] goes to superior budgets. As a consequence of the reforms of intergovernmental fiscal relations and local government that were held in 2000–2009, cities were left without stable, legislated fiscal revenue sources that were sufficient to fulfill their obligations to the population. Currently, city government can fully dispose of single tax on imputed income, individual property tax and land tax. Significant imbalances in the distribution of budget revenues make cities dependent on the financial assistance of higher levels of public authority and lead to an accumulation of problems. The Federal Treasury data on the execution of urban districts budgets show the stagnation of own revenues in 2011–2014. According to the calculations made by ISEDT RAS, in 2014, the availability of own budget revenues per capita was below the average value in 60% of the capital cities of Russia’s constituent entities (regardless of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. This affected even major centers like Voronezh, Volgograd, Ufa, Chelyabinsk and Omsk. In the Vologda Oblast, the fiscal capacity of residents in urban districts that include the cities of Vologda and Cherepovets was 17% below the national average due to the reduction in the amount of receipts of own budget sources since 2012. In the conditions of acute shortage of financial resources to meet the growing obligations to support citizens, local authorities are forced to make borrowings; this fact limits the possibility of conducting a responsible fiscal policy and implementation of

  20. A CBO Study: The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  1. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  2. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  3. State and Local Governments: Fiscal Pressures Could Have Implications for Future Delivery of Intergovernmental Programs. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-899

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    State and local governments work in partnership with the federal government to implement numerous intergovernmental programs. Fiscal pressures for state and local governments may exist when spending is expected to outpace revenues for the long term. GAO (Government Accountability Office) was asked to examine (1) the long-term fiscal pressures…

  4. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  5. Planeamento fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Paulo Renato Lopes

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação apresenta como objeto de estudo o Planeamento Fiscal, como uma ferramenta de gestão e não como uma ferramenta de evasão fiscal. Durante a elaboração desta dissertação poder-se-á ver que o sistema fiscal português aceita e até compactua com determinadas práticas de Planeamento Fiscal, como se pode verificar nos casos das deduções à coleta, das isenções e dos benefícios fiscais que a lei atribui. De modo a perceber o tema e o seu enquadram...

  6. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  7. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Reserve Personnel, Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Program Growth : Strength: Fiscal Year 1985 is the second year in the Navy plan to increase the strength of the 16,598 Naval Reserve to wartime...8217 248H S 25’,4 S:YI’Al s 400 S 482 s 4-1) Inividual Clothinq and i’niform Allowances, En) iste,: .*ne-,- funds! ir, eis~ to provide prescrilfwd... Growth : FY [985 Is the second year of the Sea and Air Mariner (SAM) program. 7,195 SAMs are nonprior service personnel who are recruited to fill

  8. Resource Implications of the Navy's Fiscal Year 2008 Shipbuilding Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labs, Eric J

    2007-01-01

    .... That plan, which was consistent with the Navy's proposed budget for fiscal year 2007, reflected the department's view of its future naval requirements and the types of ships needed to meet those requirements...

  9. Implications of Fiscal Responsibility on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Florentina Gavriluţă (Vatamanu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Governmental decisions play an important role in the critical periods of the economy and usually in base of the strategy adopted, can make an effective contribution to the budget process while preserving fiscal discipline. This study tests the implications of fiscal responsibility on economic growth with the scope to analyze and find out the major issue of responsible public finances. In base of logistic regression results, the study leads to the conclusion that may be wise to re-evaluate plans to cut net government revenue in future budgets and instead take a more strategic approach to nurturing growth in the EU economy.

  10. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California; with a section on estimating evapotranspiration using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stannard, David I.

    1997-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the ground-water-flow system associated with Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. By using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique, measurements made between June 1983 and April 1984 to estimate evapotranspiration were found to range from 0.1 centimeter per day during winter months to about 0.3 centimeter per day during summer months; the annual average was 0.16 centimeter per day. These estimates were compared with evapotranspiration estimates calculated from six other methods.

  11. Tax Limitation and Fiscal Responsibility of School Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, William S.; Bernardo, Charles M.

    1966-01-01

    The results of a statistical analysis of 498 school districts are analyzed in terms of the fiscal responsibility of school boards. Since a method of budget approval is being examined, the criterion adopted (composite fiscal performance) is one that measures the performance of the school board in obtaining funds to operate the schools. Composite…

  12. Selected approaches to estimate water-budget components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Ryter, Derek W.; Falk, Sarah E.; Houston, Natalie A.; Peterson, Steven M.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, underlying almost 112 million acres in the central United States, is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation. It is the primary water supply for drinking water, irrigation, animal production, and industry in the region. Expansion of irrigated agriculture throughout the past 60 years has helped make the High Plains one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Nation. Extensive withdrawals of groundwater for irrigation have caused water-level declines in many parts of the aquifer and increased concerns about the long-term sustainability of the aquifer. Quantification of water-budget components is a prerequisite for effective water-resources management. Components analyzed as part of this study were precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge, surface runoff, groundwater discharge to streams, groundwater fluxes to and from adjacent geologic units, irrigation, and groundwater in storage. These components were assessed for 1940 through 1949 (representing conditions prior to substantial groundwater development and referred to as "pregroundwater development" throughout this report) and 2000 through 2009. Because no single method can perfectly quantify the magnitude of any part of a water budget at a regional scale, results from several methods and previously published work were compiled and compared for this study when feasible. Results varied among the several methods applied, as indicated by the range of average annual volumes given for each component listed in the following paragraphs. Precipitation was derived from three sources: the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model, data developed using Next Generation Weather Radar and measured precipitation from weather stations by the Office of Hydrologic Development at the National Weather Service for the Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting model, and precipitation measured at weather stations and spatially distributed using an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation

  13. Use of Data for Fiscal Management of State Part C Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Maureen; Kilpatrick, Jamie; McCullough, Katy; Reid, Kellen

    2015-01-01

    "Use of Data for Fiscal Management of State Part C Systems" is designed to increase the knowledge and skills of lead agency staff regarding the use of data for appropriate fiscal management of Part C. This document addresses budget development and management. This document has three sections: (1) Budget Development and Management; (2)…

  14. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data......, and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  15. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  16. Fiscal Consolidation As a Public Policy: Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Bakırtaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available                         AbstractFiscal consolidation is the implementation of policies to reduce government expenditures and the public debt ratio to GDP. These policies are used to ensure fiscal discipline and minimize the debt stock by either tax or expenditure side. In this respect, the importance of fiscal consolidation policy is to ensure fiscal discipline without making negative effects on economic growth and economic life. Besides the conceptual framework, periods and the success criteria of fiscal consolidation are important factors for evaluating the success or failure of fiscal consolidation. In this study, it has been identified that there is no consensus on these criteria in the literature.Keywords: Fiscal Consolidation, Budget Deficits,Government Spending, Public EconomyJEL Classification Codes: E62, H32, H62

  17. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    time integration and tasking of ISR and Strike aircraft for the first time in history and will greatly decrease the time required to prosecute targets...to institutional corruption, low literacy rates among recruits, and a history of low pay. The FY 2010 OCO request continues the sustainment and...prior to deployment. U.S. Navy Culinary Specialist 3rd Class Alejandro Chavez, and Cryptologic Technician 2nd Class Loren Ovieda run back to the

  18. FY 2004 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 summarizes the NITRD agencies coordinated research activities and FY 2004 plans, as required by...

  19. [FY 1994 Budget Requests & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1994 fiscal year. Included are a series of memorandums between USFWS and U.S....

  20. [FY 1991 Budget Summary & Revisions : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1991 fiscal year. The memorandum included on pages 1-2, authored by the refuge...

  1. [FY 1995 Budget Requests & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1995 fiscal year. The memorandums on pages 1-5 outline the request of approval...

  2. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1993 fiscal year. The document offers summaries for each Task as outlined in...

  3. ANCHORING FISCAL EXPECTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture, I argue that there are remarkable parallels between how monetary and fiscal policies operate on the macro economy and that these parallels are sufficient to lead us to think about transforming fiscal policy and fiscal institutions as many countries have transformed monetary policy and monetary institutions. Making fiscal transparency comparable to monetary transparency requires fiscal authorities to discuss future possible fiscal policies explicitly. Enhanced fiscal transpare...

  4. Use of Nitrogen Budgets and N2 Flux Measurements to Estimate the Role of Denitrification in Brownfield Stormwater Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M. M.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are constructed or restored in urban and agricultural areas to reduce inorganic nitrogen (N) contamination of surface water runoff. Few studies, however, have examined the performance of unrestored but highly impacted wetlands within an urban context. These wetlands tend to be the primary recipient of nitrate (NO3-)-enriched storm and rainwater due to their ubiquity in low-lying portions of the urban landscape. Wetland studies anticipate high rates of NO3- removal via the microbial process of denitrification when labile carbon (C) and NO3- are high and O2 is low. The ability to quantify and predict the role of denitrification within particular systems is limited, however, and denitrification estimates are compromised by our inability to accurately measure N2 flux. In this study, we calculated loading rates of inorganic N and used measurements of N2/Ar, O2/Ar, and NO3- flux in sediments to generate inorganic N budgets for brownfield stormwater wetland sites. Loading of inorganic N via rain and stormwater ranged from 4-533 mg N/m2/d, and large amounts of NH4+ were additionally created from mineralization of decomposing organic matter, leading to high fluxes of NH4+ out of sediment into water (2-117 mg N/m2/d). Hydrology was a strong driving force of N2 flux; lowering of the water table allowed surface sediments to oxidize, leading to production of NO3-, which fueled N2 production lower in the sediment profile. Overall, the wetlands are denitrifying NO3- at a rate of around 620-2,580 μg N/m2/day. Flux of NO3- out of sediments was higher in some cases (630-1,900 μg N/m2/day), likely due to plant uptake. These wetlands appeared to be serving as a sink for NO3-, but were net sources of NH4+; periodic drainage of the wetlands to promote oxidation of NH4+ may be a strategy for promoting higher inorganic nitrogen removal from these sites.

  5. Academic Administrator's Guide to Budgets and Financial Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margaret J.

    This guide is designed for administrators who need guidance in managing the fiscal resources of a department or unit. Using this book, administrators can understand the broad fiscal context of their institutions and master their own roles within the institution. The chapters are: (1) "Money, Money, Money"; (2) "Unraveling the Budget"; (3) "The…

  6. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model I: Philosophy and approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lika, K.; Kearney, M.R.; Freitas, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; van der Meer, J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Pecquerie, L.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters

  7. On reading the federal budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    Within the scientific community there seem to be at least two schools of thought as far as the federal budget is concerned. One holds that more money would be made available for research if only spokesmen for research could gain access to high government officials. The other view is that the research budget of the United States reflects well-considered policy and cannot be changed by friendly persuasion. Rashi Fein, professor of the economics of medicine at Harvard Medical School, believes the latter. He expressed his point of view recently in an address before the American Public Health Association. His remarks were directed to last year's budget but apply equally to the President's budget for fiscal 1975. Excerpts from his talk, "The new national health spending policy-who pays and who gets?" follow.

  8. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Ihori; Atsushi Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  9. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  10. Estimating rates of biologically driven coral reef framework production and erosion: a new census-based carbonate budget methodology and applications to the reefs of Bonaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Edinger, E. N.; Kench, P. S.; Murphy, G. N.; Smithers, S. G.; Steneck, R. S.; Mumby, P. J.

    2012-09-01

    Census-based approaches can provide important measures of the ecological processes controlling reef carbonate production states. Here, we describe a rapid, non-destructive approach to carbonate budget assessments, termed ReefBudget that is census-based and which focuses on quantifying the relative contributions made by different biological carbonate producer/eroder groups to net reef framework carbonate production. The methodology is presently designed only for Caribbean sites, but has potential to be adapted for use in other regions. Rates are calculated using data on organism cover and abundance, combined with annual extension or production rate measures. Set against this are estimates of the rates at which bioeroding species of fish, urchins and internal substrate borers erode reef framework. Resultant data provide a measure of net rates of biologically driven carbonate production (kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1). These data have potential to be integrated into ecological assessments of reef state, to aid monitoring of temporal (same-site) changes in rates of biological carbonate production and to provide insights into the key ecological drivers of reef growth or erosion as a function of environmental change. Individual aspects of the budget methodology can also be used alongside other census approaches if deemed appropriate for specific study aims. Furthermore, the methodology spreadsheets are user-changeable, allowing local or new process/rate data to be integrated into calculations. Application of the methodology is considered at sites around Bonaire. Highest net rates of carbonate production, +9.52 to +2.30 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1, were calculated at leeward sites, whilst lower rates, +0.98 to -0.98 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1, were calculated at windward sites. Data are within the ranges calculated in previous budget studies and provide confidence in the production estimates the methodology generates.

  11. Fiscal Policy Reforms and Dynamic Laffer Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fiscal policy reforms on the long-run government budget balance in a one-sector model of endogenous growth with factor income taxes, a tax on consumption, non-productive public goods expenditures, and a labour-leisure trade-off. In addition, we allow for different structures

  12. Conference OKs science budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  13. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  14. Pressures on DoD’s Budget Over the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E Example of Budgetary Pressure in Acquisition: The Navy’s Shipbuilding Program ■ CBO estimates that the 2016... shipbuilding plan will cost more than the Navy estimates ■ The Navy’s 2016 plan would fall short of meeting the service’s inventory goal for some types...2016 Plan Source: Congressional Budget Office, An Analysis of the Navy’s Fiscal Year 2016 Shipbuilding Plan (October 2015), www.cbo.gov/publication

  15. "Japanese Fiscal Reform: Fiscal Reconstruction and Fiscal Policy"

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates the recent movement of Japanese fiscal reform. We first summarize fiscal policy in 1990s. Then, we investigate several relevant topics of fiscal policy such as the macroeconomic impact of government debt and the ustainability problem. We then consider dynamic properties of fiscal reconstruction process by analyzing the dynamic game among various interest groups. This paper points out that the long-run structural reform is more important than the short-run Keynesian policy...

  16. Constraining the Methane Budget: The use of δ 13C-CH4 data as a constraint for methane source estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macclune, K. A.; Miller, J. B.; White, J. W.; Tans, P.; Dlugokencky, E.; Dreier, M.; Claymore, V.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is the second most potent greenhouse gas and is responsible for nearly 20% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. The most common means of estimating the source budget are through inverse modeling techniques using variations of the atmospheric concentration in space and time and by extrapolation of localized source flux measurements to a global scale. Yet, due to the wide array of methane sources and a relative paucity of measurements, its budget is not well constrained. Carbon-13 measurements offer a means to help clarify the methane budget because different groups of methane sources have distinct isotopic signatures. For example, the isotopic ratio of microbially produced methane is around -60 per mil, while that originating from biomass burning is around -25 per mil. Since 1998, in co-operation with NOAA/CMDL, δ 13C-CH4 has been measured at the University of Colorado's Stable Isotope Lab from samples drawn on a weekly basis from select sites of the NOAA/CMDL Cooperative Air Sampling Network. We use a box model to simulate the effect that different methane source estimates would have on atmospheric CH4 and δ 13C-CH4 values at our measurement sites. We then compare the modeled δ 13C-CH4 values with δ 13C-CH4 data to evaluate those source estimates. We focus our analysis on comparison of seasonal variations in methane concentration and δ 13C-CH4 to better understand seasonal source dynamics and how they might be changing over our study timeframe. In addition we compare model and observed latitudinal gradients from 1998 to the present to evaluate changes in source strength and distribution.

  17. 78 FR 28597 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... median income estimates, including the definition of income and the derivation of medians see http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/data_documentation/SubjectDefinitions/2011_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf under... that choose to base their income eligibility criteria on these state median income (SMI) estimates may...

  18. Responsabilidad fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características distintivas del sistema constitucional adoptado en 1991 es el desarrollo de mecanismos de control al ejercicio de la autoridad, uno de los cuales es el control fiscal, que bajo un tratamiento normativo diferente del vigente hasta entonces, se orienta a la preservación de los recursos públicos y a su aplicación a los fines esenciales del Estado. Dentro del nuevo esquema constitucional del control fiscal, su objeto de vigilancia lo constituye la gestión fiscal, cuyo ejercicio inadecuado, lesivo del erario, da lugar a la deducción de la consecuente responsabilidad patrimonial por parte de las contralorías. Ante la ausencia de desarrollo legal dada la precariedad de la regulación procesal contenida en la Ley 42 de 1993, la evolución conceptual al respecto fue asumida por las altas cortes hasta la expedición de la Ley 610 de 2000. Sin embargo, la demora en la expedición del estatuto legal que desarrollara integralmente el ejercicio de esta atribución de las contralorías, impide efectuar un juicio sobre las bondades o las fallas de la existencia y aplicación de esta institución jurídica de estirpe constitucional.

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  20. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  1. A comparison of estimates of basin-scale soil-moisture evapotranspiration and estimates of riparian groundwater evapotranspiration with implications for water budgets in the Verde Valley, Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Wiele, Stephen M.; Pool, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth in the Verde Valley in Arizona has led to efforts to better understand water availability in the watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a substantial component of the water budget and a critical factor in estimating groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, four estimates of ET are compared and discussed with applications to the Verde Valley. Higher potential ET (PET) rates from the soil-water balance (SWB) recharge model resulted in an average annual ET volume about 17% greater than for ET from the basin characteristics (BCM) recharge model. Annual BCM PET volume, however, was greater by about a factor of 2 or more than SWB actual ET (AET) estimates, which are used in the SWB model to estimate groundwater recharge. ET also was estimated using a method that combines MODIS-EVI remote sensing data and geospatial information and by the MODFLOW-EVT ET package as part of a regional groundwater-flow model that includes the study area. Annual ET volumes were about same for upper-bound MODIS-EVI ET for perennial streams as for the MODFLOW ET estimates, with the small differences between the two methods having minimal impact on annual or longer groundwater budgets for the study area.

  2. BEYOND BUDGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Edo Cvrkalj; Denis Smolar

    2015-01-01

    Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern bus...

  3. How to Reform the EU Budget? A Multidisciplinary Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueira, F.

    The European Commission is currently drafting a proposal for a review of the EU budget, which could lead to its most significant reform to date. This paper proposes a method for restructuring the EU budget, based on a multidisciplinary approach. The insights of public sector economics, fiscal

  4. Zero-Base Budgeting Impact on Air Force Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    planning follows essentially the same budget cycle calender under ZBB that was used previously, excluding the fiscal year change from July 1 to October 1...the same basic budget cycle calender has been used since PPBS and the minimal change in instructions from one year to another has combined to

  5. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Palikonda, R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Su, W.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  6. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  7. Inaccuracies in sediment budgets arising from estimations of tributary sediment inputs: an example from a monitoring network on the southern Colorado plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald; Topping, David

    2015-01-01

    Sediment budgets are an important tool for understanding how riverine ecosystems respond to perturbations. Changes in the quantity and grain-size distribution of sediment within river systems affect the channel morphology and related habitat resources. It is therefore important for resource managers to know if a channel reach is in a state of sediment accumulation, deficit or stasis. Many studies have estimated sediment loads from ungaged tributaries using regional sediment-yield equations or other similar techniques. While these approaches may be valid in regions where rainfall and geology are uniform over large areas, use of sediment-yield equations may lead to poor estimations of sediment loads in semi-arid climates, where rainfall events, contributing geology, and vegetation have large spatial variability.

  8. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1993 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1992 Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    of electronic materials. - (U) Couple a robotic manipulator with a QPA controlled PLD unit to coat complicated parts, such as a drill bit. - (U...microgravity effects in conjunction with NASA. (U) F 1993 Planned Program: - (U) Investigate echocardiography as a safe, non-invasive method to screen pilot...integration in avionics processors. (U) FY 1992 Planned Program: - (U) Demonstrate drive reinforcement learning applied to robotics and adaptive flight control

  9. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1982. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Depvitmeftt of Defense requirements. Primary « aphasia will be directed toward eliminating or minimizing operational employment deficiencies, the use of the...decontaminate, c?nd stabilize even the »aoderateiy injured or chemically intoxicated . W* in id to develop i complete and highly mobile aeromedical echelon

  10. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1990 and 1991 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1989: Operating Appropriations, Navy and Marine Corp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    40. O4H ~ 44t11U5 -4 4P41.9 44 F 4 )41 r4 041( 4) w f-4- to u 0 , 41 r-4 0) 4)941 w4J4 -O41 14)4)f (af414 *94a9 f >4 44 -A04 W4r- 4 R W9 -4 414)4 10 9...44OX 5 4A U0 w 44 FA4 r.Ui w Id FA wa04 k u, r4 00 td .% OW I am SC’ a) r0 9:4 rC M1~ IV 0 0 I 4 r *F4C 14 Ř) fd 0 - Ř 0ŘFA IV~4 to 004 00 0 W...34* k01 0 a𔃻 ~ 01 441 o 0 II4 r4) r-4J P4 0 0 r.) 0)UE 0 ’- 04 $4 w .$ td 10 10 41 414 C.4 00k U kd i-i 04 -H G. 0 0 w- 4)~ x4 r-4 4. >𔃾 . 0.4U r-4 41

  11. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1981, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1980, Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Cu o B ft U 41 P > J25 fc CO 41 fc 3 pq oi c cu P oi m x C 43 41 43 P.43 -H r-f OPCOPOEH BVH H 1-4 fc fc 09 o <M t...m ? a> 5 g M TO O O u «_i +J P> . . . C O BVH 4J 04-H & dj oj oj u 15 I-,-ft IB i-l C r-t 0 vV a> «0

  12. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data For Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress, January 31, 1983. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    U) Program to Completion: The ICNIA ADM will be developed, fabricated, tested, and evaluated. The ADN will be tested using IESS and will be flight...interface with the F-4G. A new inertial navigation system ( ARN -101) is to be installed by Air Force Logistics Command as a Class IV modification and

  13. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1988/89 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-09

    a co c o <e -H w CO eg CD O -* o £ Q a. co 01 < JCZ z tJ 01 -J 3 O 01 ►- c O Cu T3 go CO ■X X u a. o 3...munitions. Due to the danger that the inaavertent detonation of one munition could result in ’<."..€ sympathetic detonation of other munitions...other munitions and facilities. The restrictions are most stringent when associated with mass detonating munitions. Because of the danger

  14. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7. Central Supply and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    System - Real Time (SUADPS-RT), Intermediate Maintenance Management Subsystems (Retail Operations, Food Service, PASS/ SDSA , Administrative), NALCOMIS, and...and SNAP II follow-on subsystems (Retail Operations, Food Services, PASS/ SDSA , MLSF/SAC t.< 224). • •.’.’ 7 473 m 1 »si :v/<->::<<<j.:-*v>s

  15. Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Budget Estimates. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Defense-Wide. Volume 1 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    devices that form specific and controlled transducing functions at the molecular scale ; demonstrate design of maltose binding proteins and ion channels...sensors and/or regulatory pathways. The Bio-Magnetics Interfacing Concepts ( BioMagnetICs ) program will explore nano-scale magnetism as a novel...buoyancy compensator tanks, and electrostatic atmospheric ion propulsion. The program’s first phase will include system studies and development of a

  16. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1992/1993 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1991: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    jamming using digital signal memory circuits against pulse compression radars as basis for new Digital Frequency Radio Frequency Memories ( DRFMs ). - (U...Demonstrate infrared flare with radiation pattern tailored to resemble a combat aircraft. - (U) Demonstrate DRFM in chip configuration for

  17. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  18. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  19. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  20. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S.…

  1. Dynamic effects of fiscal policy and fiscal multipliers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Deskar-Škrbić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of discretionary measures of fiscal policy on the economic activity and to estimate the size of fiscal multipliers in Croatia. Econometric framework is based on the structural VAR model (SVAR, with Blanchard-Perotti identification method that uses information on institutional characteristics of fiscal system. The analysis is conducted on quarterly data for total expenditures and indirect taxes of central, central consolidated and general consolidated government and aggregate demand for the period from 2004-2012. The results show that our initial assumptions about the difference in the size of the multiplier of government expenditures and indirect tax revenues between three levels of government consolidation have been confirmed.

  2. Application of the environmentally sensitive forest growth and mortality submodel, ESGM, for estimating the historic and future forest carbon budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Hember, R.; Smiley, B. P.; Morken, S.; Kurz, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    Forest resource managers require knowledge of how natural disturbances, harvest, land-use change, and climate change affect carbon (C) budgets of complex landscapes. In this study, a retrospective (1911-2012) forest C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake watershed was developed based on forest inventories, disturbance, and stream monitoring data using the Canadian Forest Service's spatially-explicit Generic Carbon Budget Model (GCBM). This standard version of GCBM used species-specific volume-over-age curves and site indices to determine tree growth and thus does not explicitly account for environmental factors (climate, CO2, N deposition) that may affect trees and net ecosystem production (NEP). Therefore, a new submodel was developed for GCBM, ESGM, which uses empirical equations to account for influences of 8 environmental factors on tree growth and mortality, based on analysis of multi-decadal data from 19,777 field plots from western North America. Annual environmental variables were prepared (1910-2012) for input to GCBMesgm and temperature effects on decay rates were turned on in the GCBM soil submodel. In response to fires, harvesting, planting, and deforestation for drinking water reservoir expansions, the standard GCBM run showed over 100 years (1911, 1940, 1991, 2012) aboveground biomass C (262, 189, 148, 177 MgC/ha) and NEP (0.6, -1.3, 0.8, 2.3 Mg C/ha/yr) declined and then increased as harvest and deforestation ceased in 2002. From 1.5 -6.5% of terrestrial humified soil C losses (30,640 Mg C/100 yrs) were estimated to have been exported as dissolved organic carbon. Assuming no future disturbances, the standard GCBM run indicates NEP will peak at 2.64 MgC/ha/yr in 2024 and biomass C reach 1910 levels by 2075. Comparisons will be made between standard GCBM and GCBMesgmruns of the C budget for the historic period and for future climate scenarios (baseline, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) from the CanESM2 GCM, to explore the potential implications of environmental change

  3. Fiscal Multipliers and Public Debt Dynamics in Consolidations

    OpenAIRE

    Salto, Matteo; Boussard, Jocelyn; de Castro Fernández, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The success of a consolidation in reducing the debt ratio depends crucially on the value of the multiplier, which measures the impact of consolidation on growth, and on the reaction of sovereign yields to such a consolidation. We present a theoretical framework that formalizes the re spo nse of the public debt ratio to fiscal consolidations in relation to the value of fiscal multipliers, the starting debt level and the cyclical elasticity of the budget balance. We also assess the role of ...

  4. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  5. CDO budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  6. Status of GAO Recommendations to the Department of Defense (Fiscal Years 2001-2007)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pickup, Sharon L

    2008-01-01

    Section 402 of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2009 required us to report to the appropriate congressional committees by the end of the 110th Congress regarding the Department of Defense's (DOD...

  7. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  8. Perú: sostenibilidad, balance estructural y propuesta de una regla fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Jiménez Jaimes

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop the methodological elements of a counter cyclical fiscal rule interrelated to fiscal sustainability. The well-known methods of sustainability based on intertemporal budget restriction, are discussed and reformulated by taking into account the two public debt: foreign a domestic. The new model captures the effects of exchange rate and the differential of the rates of interest variations. Finally, the counter cyclical fiscal rule is built on the basi...

  9. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  10. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production) and industrial (net emissions from forest industry) forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1). The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100 years increases the strength of

  11. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Scott D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production and industrial (net emissions from forest industry forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1. The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100

  12. Fiscal determinants of government borrowing costs: do we have only ourselves to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Funda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and the problems in peripheral EU countries resulted in increased attention to fiscal developments and their impact on borrowing costs for both public and private sector. Existing theoretical literature suggests that worsening of current and expected budget balances as well as an increase of public debt lead to a rise in short and long term interest rates for sovereign debtors. However, empirical results are inconclusive, especially for emerging market countries. This paper analyzes the factors that determine the dynamics of government bond spreads, with special emphasis on fiscal indicators. The survey covered 17 European countries, of which 9 are developed and 8 are emerging market economies, all of them members of the EU except Croatia. The empirical part of the paper employs dynamic panel data method and uses the Arellano and Bond estimator to get consistent estimates of parameters of interest. The results show that in the period 2004-2011 fiscal balance and public debt projections had a significant impact on the differences in government bond yields for emerging market countries, with the effect being much stronger during the period after the onset of financial crises. On the other hand, it seems that sovereign spread dynamics in developed countries is driven mostly by the global market sentiment.

  13. Estimating regional distribution of surface heat fluxes by combining satellite data and a heat budget model over the Kherlen River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Dai

    2007-01-01

    SummaryThe regional distribution of surface heat fluxes and related parameters over a semi-arid region was estimated using a technique that incorporates the thermal-infrared brightness temperature from a satellite into a heat budget model of land surface including vegetation canopy. We studied the western part of the Kherlen River Basin in Mongolia, where typical steppe dominates, including forest-steppe in the northern part and dry-steppe in the southern part of the basin. Our goal was to estimate the temporal change of surface heat fluxes at a location in the typical steppe over a growing season, and to estimate the spatial distribution of surface heat fluxes over the study area. Seven parameters, including the bulk transfer coefficients, the evaporation efficiency, and the subsurface thermal inertia, which are relevant to the surface heat fluxes, were optimized employing the simplex method. To compensate for insufficient satellite data samples to reproduce the diurnal change of surface heat fluxes, the spatial distribution of the surface brightness temperature was used in the optimization rather than using diurnal change, which is referred to as spatial optimization. Diurnal changes in the surface heat fluxes estimated by spatial optimization were validated by observation. The surface heat fluxes were reasonably accurately reproduced on a daily basis, with the root-mean-squares error of the sensible and the latent heat within 15 W m -2 over the growing season. The evaporation efficiency of canopy and the subsurface thermal inertia optimized in this study correlated well with the volumetric soil water content in a shallow layer on a daily basis, which suggests that thermal inertia can be an indicator of water conditions in a shallow subsurface layer. Spatial distribution of estimated sensible and latent heat after rainfall on successive summer days is discussed.

  14. Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Patil, Sanjaykumar; Baxter, Eric J.; Bianchini, Federico; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Manzotti, Alessandro; Reichardt, Christian L.

    2017-08-01

    We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E- and B-mode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, we examine the cluster mass uncertainties from CMB-cluster lensing as a function of an experiment's beam size and noise level. We predict the cluster mass uncertainties will be 3 - 6% for SPT-3G, AdvACT, and Simons Array experiments with 10,000 clusters and less than 1% for the CMB-S4 experiment with a sample containing 100,000 clusters. The mass constraints from CMB polarization are very sensitive to the experimental beam size and map noise level: for a factor of three reduction in either the beam size or noise level, the lensing signal-to-noise improves by roughly a factor of two.

  15. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... the 1983 Danish fiscal reform. We use a structural VAR/event study methodology following Blanchard and Perotti (2002) that explicitly allows us to distinguish between normally marginal changes in fiscal policy and comprehensive fiscal reforms. We find that 'marginal changes' in fiscal policy (expenditure...... and tax changes) have the expected Keynesian effects on output and consumption. However, we find no evidence that the large fiscal consolidation in Denmark slowed the economy after controlling for a host of exogenous shocks and business cycle effects. Rather, we find some support for the hypothesis...

  16. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...... theoretically and empirically. First, modelling the SBC problem as a war of attrition between the applicant countries' governments and firms we find that outside conditionality can foster SBC hardening. Yet, toughening the EU stance or reducing the number of enlargement rounds may have ambiguous effects. Second......, estimating SBC hardening in a partial adjustment model by measuring the reaction of employment to output changes we find that EU conditionality did indeed help candidates to fight SBCs....

  17. Monetary Science, Fiscal Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper

    2010-01-01

    Monetary policy decisions tend to be based on systematic analysis of alternative policy choices and their associated macroeconomic impacts: this is science. Fiscal policy choices, in contrast, spring from unsystematic speculation, grounded more in politics than economics: this is alchemy. In normal times, fiscal alchemy poses no insurmountable problems for monetary policy because fiscal expectations can be extrapolated from past fiscal behavior. But normal times may be coming to an end: aging...

  18. Fiscal Deficits and Inflation in Nigeria | Ozurumba | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the causal relationship between inflation and fiscal deficits in Nigeria, covering the period 1970-2009. This was carried out by way of developing an estimation model of inflation and fiscal deficit, with a view to testing causes and effects as well as the relationship between them. The estimation technique ...

  19. Trimming the Fat, Stretching the Meat for 1990s School Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1989-01-01

    Given the need for school administrators to exercise fiscal restraint and pare down expenses before recommending tax increases, this article provides information concerning trends in class size, school building renovation, energy economies, teacher and administrator layoffs, and state budgets. (MLH)

  20. GETTING CLOSER TO EU STANDARDS - GEORGIA FISCAL GOVERNANCE ADJUSTMENT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David OBOLADZE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on fiscal governance from the perspective of developing the public finance management of Georgia. The paper investigates the fiscal governance framework in European Union countries and examines the impact of fiscal rules and budget procedures in EU countries. Well-designed fiscal frameworks are generally associated with better budgetary outcomes in terms of deficit and debt control. Following a thorough investigation of the current stance of fiscal governance in Georgia, the paper analyses the main medium and long term perspectives for Georgia to approximate with EU fiscal governance. The main objective of this paper is to provide policy guidelines needed for the appropriate and necessary reforms to ensure comprehensive, coherent and consistent fiscal governance framework for Georgia, which will improve the performance of public finance management and national economy of Georgia.

  1. (U) Estimating the Photonics Budget, Resolution, and Signal Requirements for a Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This document examines the performance of a generic flat-mirror multimonochromatic imager (MMI), with special emphasis on existing instruments at NIF and Omega. We begin by deriving the standard equation for the mean number of photons detected per resolution element. The pinhole energy bandwidth is a contributing factor; this is dominated by the finite size of the source and may be considerable. The most common method for estimating the spatial resolution of such a system (quadrature addition) is, technically, mathematically invalid for this case. However, under the proper circumstances it may produce good estimates compared to a rigorous calculation based on the convolution of point-spread functions. Diffraction is an important contribution to the spatial resolution. Common approximations based on Fraunhofer (farfield) diffraction may be inappropriate and misleading, as the instrument may reside in multiple regimes depending upon its configuration or the energy of interest. It is crucial to identify the correct diffraction regime; Fraunhofer and Fresnel (near-field) diffraction profiles are substantially different, the latter being considerably wider. Finally, we combine the photonics and resolution analyses to derive an expression for the minimum signal level such that the resulting images are not dominated by photon statistics. This analysis is consistent with observed performance of the NIF MMI.

  2. The Impact of Taxation of the Domestic Economic Transactions on the Vat Collection Through Electronic Fiscal Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collecting tax resources to the consolidated budget has determined and still determines difficulties which cannot be neglected in all the former socialist countries of the Central and Eastern Europe. From the Members States of the European Union, Romania is the country with the highest VAT Gap between EU Member States: 41%, compared to a European average of 15.2%. One solution tried to solve this problem was the regulation of mandatory use of electronic cash registers with fiscal memory. In this way, it was considered that a better highlight and also a tighter control of economic transactions will be achieved, from a fiscal point of view. In our study, we analyze, for the Romanian context in the postEU accession, whether the mandatory introduction of these devices in recording commercial transactions has had a significant impact on VAT collection. The study includes two stages of the analysis: in the first stage we estimated the influence of VAT rate variation on the degree of the VAT collection. Then we used the residual component to test the influence of EFDs’ mandatory introduction on VAT collection or on fiscal efficiency. The results indicate an improvement in the collection of VAT but also a decrease in the efficiency of fiscal collection.

  3. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  4. Global runoff anomalies over 1993–2009 estimated from coupled Land–Ocean–Atmosphere water budgets and its relation with climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Munier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether the global runoff (or freshwater discharge from land to the ocean is currently increasing and the global water cycle is intensifying is still a controversial issue. Here we compute land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere water budgets and derive two independent estimates of the global runoff over the period 1993–2009. Water storage variations in the land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs are estimated from different types of data sets: atmospheric reanalyses, land surface models, satellite altimetry and in situ ocean temperature data (the difference between altimetry based global mean sea level and ocean thermal expansion providing an estimate of the ocean mass component. These data sets are first validated using independent data, and then the global runoff is computed from the two methods. Results for the global runoff show a very good correlation between both estimates. More importantly, no significant trend is observed over the whole period. Besides, the global runoff appears to be clearly impacted by large-scale climate phenomena such as major ENSO events. To infer this, we compute the zonal runoff over four latitudinal bands and set up for each band a new index (combined runoff index obtained by optimization of linear combinations of various climate indices. Results show that, in particular, the intertropical and northern mid-latitude runoffs are mainly driven by ENSO and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO with opposite behavior. Indeed, the zonal runoff in the intertropical zone decreases during major El Niño events, whereas it increases in the northern mid-latitudes, suggesting that water masses over land are shifted northward/southward during El Niño/La Niña. In addition to this study, we propose an innovative method to estimate the global ocean thermal expansion. The method is based on the assumption that the difference between both runoff estimates is mainly due to the thermal expansion term not accounted for in

  5. Department of the Navy, FY 1999 Amended Budget Estimates (BRAC 95). Base Closure and Realignment, IV, Justification Data Submitted to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The Navy budget to implement the closures and realignments resulting from these decisions was formulated based on experience gained from closures and realignments achieved for prior BRAC Commission...

  6. Maintenance Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. McCree

    Three methods for the preparation of maintenance budgets are discussed--(1) a traditional method, inconclusive and obsolete, based on gross square footage, (2) the formula approach method based on building classification (wood-frame, masonry-wood, masonry-concrete) with maintenance cost factors for each type plus custodial service rates by type of…

  7. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  8. The importance of strategic planning of the budget in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia DRAGOMIR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The budgetary policy focuses on the acquirement, distribution and use of the most important public fund: the budgetary fund. The budgetary policy has a wider coverage than the fiscal policy, including, in addition to matters covered by the fiscal policy, the resource procurement options from ordinary revenues in other forms than the tax ones (non-tax revenues, options considering the budget balance, including the development of the budget process.

  9. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  10. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, D.; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  11. Decadal Arctic surface atmosphere/ocean heat budgets and mass transport estimates from several atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurin, gennaday; Carton, James

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic changes associated with the loss of seasonal and permanent ice pack. By exposing the surface ocean to the atmosphere these changes dramatically increase surface exchange processes. In contrast, increases in freshwater and heat input decreases turbulent exchanges within the ocean. In this study we present results from an examination of changing ocean heat flux, storage, and transport during the 36 year period 1980-2015. To identify changes in the surface atmosphere we examine three atmospheric reanalyses: MERRA2, ERA-I, and JRA55. Significant differences in fluxes from these reanalyses arise due to the representation of clouds and water vapor. These differences provide an indication of the uncertainties in the historical record. Next we turn to the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 3 (SODA3) global ocean/sea ice reanalysis system to allow us to infer the full ocean circulation from the limited set of historical record of ocean observations. SODA3 has 10 km horizontal resolution in the Arctic and assimilates the full suite of historical marine temperature and salinity observations. To account for the uncertainties in atmospheric forcing, we repeat our analysis with each of the three atmospheric reanalyses. In the first part of the talk we review the climatological seasonal surface fluxes resulting from our reanalysis system, modified for consistency with the ocean observations, and the limits of what we can learn from the historical record. Next we compare the seasonal hydrography, heat, and mass transports with direct estimates from moorings. Finally we examine the impact on the Arctic climate of the changes in sea ice cover and variability and trends of ocean/sea ice heat storage and transport and their contributions to changes in the seasonal stratification of the Arctic Ocean.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6153-2 - Fiscal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal years. 1.6153-2 Section 1.6153-2...) INCOME TAXES Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-2 Fiscal years. In the case of an individual on the fiscal year basis, the dates prescribed for payment of the estimated tax shall be the 15th day of the 4th...

  13. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    -per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... that centralizes decisions making. A centralization cascade is identi-fied, as the Ministry of Finance enhances more power and control the ministries more frequent and more in the depth, as a result of this parent ministries have to control their agencies more frequent and much more detailed than before, which...

  14. Evaluation of long-term trends in hydrologic and water-quality conditions, and estimation of water budgets through 2013, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2017-06-02

    An evaluation of trends in hydrologic and water quality conditions and estimation of water budgets through 2013 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority. Long-term hydrologic, meteorologic, and biologic data collected in Chester County, Pennsylvania, which included streamflow, groundwater levels, surface-water quality, biotic integrity, precipitation, and air temperature were analyzed to determine possible trends or changes in hydrologic conditions. Statistically significant trends were determined by applying the Kendall rank correlation test; the magnitudes of the trends were determined using the Sen slope estimator. Water budgets for eight selected watersheds were updated and a new water budget was developed for the Marsh Creek watershed. An average water budget for Chester County was developed using the eight selected watersheds and the new Marsh Creek water budget.Annual and monthly mean streamflow, base flow, and runoff were analyzed for trends at 10 streamgages. The periods of record at the 10 streamgages ranged from 1961‒2013 to 1988‒2013. The only statistically significant trend for annual mean streamflow was for West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, Pa. (01480300) where annual mean streamflow increased 1.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) per decade. The greatest increase in monthly mean streamflow was for Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford, Pa. (01481000) for December; the increase was 47 ft3/s per decade. No statistically significant trends in annual mean base flow or runoff were determined for the 10 streamgages. The greatest increase in monthly mean base flow was for Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford, Pa. (01481000) for December; the increase was 26 ft3/s per decade.The magnitude of peaks greater than a base streamflow was analyzed for trends for 12 streamgages. The period of record at the 12 stream gages ranged from 1912‒2012 to 2004–11. Fifty percent of the streamgages showed a

  15. The use of household budget surveys to estimate the availability of fruits and vegetables for consumption in Swiss households after deduction of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouclaous Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The consumption of 400-600 grams per day of fruits and vegetables has been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and lower incidence of cancers and chronic diseases. This study explores the alignment of household purchases of fruits and vegetables with nutritional recommendations in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Household Budget Surveys for 2006-2008 are analyzed to estimate the availability of fruits and vegetables at household level after accounting for food waste. A household is defined as meeting the recommendation when the monthly purchases by weight are equal or superior to the amount required to provide three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits per person per day. Results The descriptive statistics demonstrate that close to 90% of households recommendation, and 76% fail to meet the fruit recommendation when unavoidable waste is deducted. These percentages increase further when total waste (unavoidable, possibly avoidable, and avoidable waste is deducted from household purchases. Moreover, a significant association is observed between the structure of the households and the availability of fruits and vegetables. Families with children are less likely to meet the recommendations than other types of households. Conclusions This paper reveals a need to improve the availability and accessibility to fruits and vegetables, particularly in households with children. It also highlights the importance of limiting avoidable food waste at household level. Interventions such as introducing price subsidies on fruits and vegetables, and educating the public on the importance of limiting household food waste, are recommended.

  16. Public investment under fiscal constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi

    2009-01-01

    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  17. Enfranchisement and budget deficits: A theoretical note

    OpenAIRE

    Krogstrup, Signe; Wälti, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    If women make different economic decisions than men on average, then an increase in women's influence in the political and economic spheres of society might change economic outcomes. In this note, we focus on the impact of female enfranchisement on fiscal policy outcomes. We present a simple median voter model and show that if women have different economic preferences than men, then female enfranchisement leads to a change in government budget deficits..

  18. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  19. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budget over the period 1958-2009, we explore the planning and realization of fiscal policy in the Netherlands. Our key findings are the following. First, planned surpluses are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic during the first half of the

  20. Economic Growth, Redistribution Policy and Fiscal Policy in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to uncover which method of fi nancing an increase in social services expenditure would guarantee economic growth while assuring that government operates within a balanced budget constraint. The article will also assess whether fi scal policy (which aims at fiscal discipline) could improve the rate ...

  1. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic

  2. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2013-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic

  3. Fiscal Stress: Worldwide Trends in Higher Education Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2004-01-01

    While higher education is regarded of high priority in boosting economic development, public budgets to sustain expansion of higher education systems remain limited around the globe. In practice, this situation of fiscal stress creates an impetus for governments to develop various strategies to meet

  4. Zero base approach to fiscal management of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, D A; Majonos, J S

    1985-08-01

    Lab administrators who face the challenge of providing quality care while cutting costs need a way to periodically re-evaluate all lab functions and services. The guidelines presented here, based on the Zero Base Budget approach, formulate a management strategy for the lab that could lead to better fiscal planning.

  5. A process to estimate net infiltration using a site-scale water-budget approach, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, 2002–05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Moreo, Michael T.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2017-08-29

    This report documents a process used to estimate net infiltration from precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil data acquired at two sites on Rainier Mesa. Rainier Mesa is a groundwater recharge area within the Nevada National Security Site where recharged water flows through bedrock fractures to a deep (450 meters) water table. The U.S. Geological Survey operated two ET stations on Rainier Mesa from 2002 to 2005 at sites characterized by pinyon-juniper and scrub-brush vegetative cover. Precipitation and ET data were corrected to remove measurement biases and gap-filled to develop continuous datasets. Net infiltration (percolation below the root zone) and changes in root-zone water storage were estimated using a monthly water-balance model.Site-scale water-budget results indicate that the heavily-fractured welded-tuff bedrock underlying thin (<40 centimeters) topsoil is a critical water source for vegetation during dry periods. Annual precipitation during the study period ranged from fourth lowest (182 millimeters [mm]) to second highest (708 mm) on record (record = 55 years). Annual ET exceeded precipitation during dry years, indicating that the fractured-bedrock reservoir capacity is sufficient to meet atmospheric-evaporative demands and to sustain vegetation through extended dry periods. Net infiltration (82 mm) was simulated during the wet year after the reservoir was rapidly filled to capacity. These results support previous conclusions that preferential fracture flow was induced, resulting in an episodic recharge pulse that was detected in nearby monitoring wells. The occurrence of net infiltration only during the wet year is consistent with detections of water-level rises in nearby monitoring wells that occur only following wet years.

  6. The gains from early intervention in Europe: Fiscal surveillance and fiscal planning using cash data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hughes Hallett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time cash data allows us to make accurate intra-annual forecasts of an economy’s fiscal position, and to issue early warning signals for the need to correct fiscal imbalances. This paper shows how those signals can be used to design the necessary fiscal corrections, and discusses the gains that can be achieved from such interventions. Examples from Germany and Italy show that large corrections are often necessary early on to make adjustments later on acceptable and to keep debt ratios from escalating. There is a credibility issue here; we find the difference between front-loaded and back-loaded adjustment schemes is likely to be vital for the time consistency of fiscal policymaking. We also show that, without early interventions, the later deficit reductions typically double in size – meaning governments become subject to the excessive deficit procedure and significant improve-ment tests more often. Thus the budget savings from early intervention and the use of cash data are significant; in our examples they are similar in size to the operating budget of the department of housing and urban development in Germany. Similar results apply in other Eurozone countries.

  7. Report: Fiscal Year 2011 Federal Information Security Management Act Report Status of EPA’s Computer Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #12-P-0062, November 9, 2011. Attached is the Office of Inspector General’s (OIG’s) Fiscal Year 2011 Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) Reporting Template, as prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

  8. Fiscal transparency, political parties, and debt in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    Many believe and argue that fiscal, or budgetary, transparency has large, positive effects on fiscal performance. However, the evidence linking transparency and fiscal policy outcomes is less compelling. To analyze the effects of fiscal transparency on public debt accumulation, we present a career...... (at least for strategic reasons) tend to have higher deficits than left-wing governments, and that increasing political polarization increases debt accumulation. To test the predictions of the model, we construct a replicable index of fiscal transparency on 19-country OECD data. Simultaneous estimates...... of debt and transparency strongly confirm that a higher degree of fiscal transparency is associated with lower public debt and deficits, independent of controls for explanatory variables from other approaches...

  9. In Government We Trust : The Role of Fiscal Decentralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; van Oudheusden, P.

    2011-01-01

    We measure the contribution of fiscal decentralization to trust in government. Using repeated cross-country survey data of individuals on several measures of trust in govern- ment over the 1994-2007 period, we estimate an ordered response model of the government trust and fiscal decentralization

  10. What are their Words Worth? Political Plans and Economic Pains of Fiscal Consolidations in New EU Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zápal; Ondrej Schneider

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we track fiscal authority behaviour in the ten new EU member states (NSM) in the period which immediately preceded their EU accession. We first present basic stylized facts about public budgets of those countries. The paper then analyses reasons which led to periods of fiscal consolidation in the NMS. Secondly, we also present evidence from Pre-Accession Economic and Convergence programmes of NMSs concerning planned steps of the fiscal authorities and try to contrast them with ...

  11. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  12. Budget Deficit and Macroeconomics Fundamentals: The case of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahnim Farajova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emergence of rising budget deficit is the main reason forcing economists to investigate the reasons for changes in fiscal balances. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic fundamentals using data from Azerbaijan. The empirical analysis applies ARDL Cointegration methodology in conjunction with Granger causality tests to provide evidence for both the long and short run dynamics between the variables involved in the analysis. Using the Error Correction specification, there was found evidence of long-run causality running from current account, real interest rate, GDP, inflation and exchange rate to budget deficit. There was also found evidence of short-run Granger causal effects running from current account and real interest rate towards budget deficit and a rather weak causal effect from inflation to budget deficit. However, there is no short – run causality running from interest rate to budget deficit.

  13. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  15. Zero-Based Budgeting: Application to Chicano Studies at a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pete R.

    Enrollment trends and zero-based budgeting techniques are employed to justify continued support of Rio Hondo College's Mexican American Cultural Institute. After introductory material discussing the usefulness of zero-based budgeting in assuring fiscal accountability, the report identifies three Chicano Studies alternatives: an Associate of Arts…

  16. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1987 Submitted to Congress February 1986. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3: Intelligence & Communications Budget Activity 8: Training, Medical & OGPA Budget Activity 9: Administration & Assoc Acts. Budget Activity 10: Support to Other Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    networks, and paging networks. SUtility Oerations - Includes operating expenses for purchased lctricity, electricity generating plants, purchased steam...production recruiters and 116 support personnel was programed in FY 1986 to support increased workload in the face of a declining recruiting market and...accession decrease of 415 accessions in FY 1987, in the face of a declining recruiting market and an expanding national economy, requires an additional

  17. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3. Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8. Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9. Administration & Assoc. Acts. Budget Activity 10. Support to Other Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    C. Inflation (-21,131) D. Travel (-100) E. Appropriated Fund - MWR (-219) F. Classified Programs (-11,431) G. Civilian Pay (-4,204) O&M,N 3 -2 P4...and DOL wage determinations, over and above _ prescribed inflation rate, for contract operation and maintenance of selected CONUS and overseas sites...Oceanography Center. 2) Savings generated by lease to purchase -26 conversion of TESS equipment. 3) Savings generated by using smaller -48 weather ballons (less

  18. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have

  19. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    provides a framework for examining spending patterns of the federal government by category of activity, rather than by agency or type of financing ...the upcoming fiscal year. The appropriation committees then subdivide their allocated budget authority among the twelve appropriation subcommittees

  20. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically...... that EU conditionality did indeed help candidates to tackle SBCs. Udgivelsesdato: JUN...

  1. Incentive Funding Meets Incentive-Based Budgeting: Can They Coexist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Two major developments in the financial management of higher education have occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of government and incentive-based budgeting on the part of institutions. Both are based on fiscal incentives. Despite their several inherent and interconnected similarities, incentive…

  2. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  3. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Agüera

    Full Text Available Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O

  4. A carbon budget for the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Estimating net community production and export in a highly productive polar ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Yager

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polynyas, or recurring areas of seasonally open water surrounded by sea ice, are foci for energy and material transfer between the atmosphere and the polar ocean. They are also climate sensitive, with both sea ice extent and glacial melt influencing their productivity. The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP is the greenest polynya in the Southern Ocean, with summertime chlorophyll a concentrations exceeding 20 µg L−1. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE in austral summer 2010–11, we aimed to determine the fate of this high algal productivity. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll a, mesozooplankton, and microbial biomass to make a carbon budget for this ecosystem. We also measured primary and secondary production, community respiration rates, vertical particle flux and fecal pellet production and grazing. With observations arranged along a gradient of increasing integrated dissolved inorganic nitrogen drawdown (ΔDIN; 0.027–0.74 mol N m−2, changes in DIC in the upper water column (ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 mol C m−2 and gas exchange (0–1.7 mol C m−2 were combined to estimate early season net community production (sNCP; 0.2–5.9 mol C m−2 and then compared to organic matter inventories to estimate export. From a phytoplankton bloom dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, a high fraction (up to ∼60% of sNCP was exported to sub-euphotic depths. Microbial respiration remineralized much of this export in the mid waters. Comparisons to short-term (2–3 days drifting traps and a year-long moored sediment trap capturing the downward flux confirmed that a relatively high fraction (3–6% of the export from ∼100 m made it through the mid waters to depth. We discuss the climate-sensitive nature of these carbon fluxes, in light of the changing sea ice cover and melting ice sheets in the region.

  5. Tax evasion between fiscal and penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela Corîci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although in present times a big importance is given to combating and preventing tax evasion, as well as to all tax frauds, there are, however, people who are tax evaders from the point of view of the criminal body, who manage to ease of payment of tax liabilities to the state. By imposing more drastic or lighter penalties, it is attempted to determine the taxpayer in order not to escape the payment of taxes and to commit the crime.If for the financial controlling authority a fiscal crime has a direct impact on the budget of a certain area, the fiscal action is a criminal one for the criminal authority.

  6. Hydrogen program summary Fiscal Year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-03-01

    The annual program summary provides stakeholders within the hydrogen community with a snapshop of important advances that have occurred in the National Hydrogen Program over the fiscal year, including industry interactions and cooperation. The document will also be used to encourage additional potential industrial partners to join the Hydrogen Program Team. Fiscal Year 1994 marked a turning point for the Hydrogen Program, with a budget that grew significantly. The focus of the program was broadened to include development of hydrogen production technologies using municipal solid waste and biomass, in addition to an increased emphasis on industrial involvement and near-term demonstration projects. In order to maintain its near- and long-term balance, the Hydrogen Program will continue with basic, fundamental research that provides the long-term, high-risk, high-payoff investment in hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  7. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  8. ESTIMATES OF KRASNOYARSK REGION BUDGET LOSSES DUE TO THE TAX SHORTFALLS FROM BUSINESSES RELATED WITH A TEMPORARY DISABILITY OF SMOKING EMPLOYEES AND THE REDUCTION IN LABOR INTENSITY DUE TO THE SMOKING BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlovich Artuchov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate Krasnoyarsk region budget losses due to the shortfalls of taxes from businesses related with a temporary disability of smoking employees and the reduction of labor intensity due to the smoking breaks in 2011.In our work we used the method of economic losses estimation, developed by Conference Board of Canada.The following results were obtained. The estimation of tax shortfalls due to a temporary disability of smoking employees and decrease of labor intensity due to smoking breaks was carried out. It was obtained that Krasnoyarsk region budget losses as a result of the tax shortfalls are equal to 532.8 million rubles – due to increased sick absence risks among smokers and 3 414.3 million rubles – due to the lack of workers on the workplace during smoking breaks. Thus, it was found that the total budget losses of Krasnoyarsk region in 2011 reach 0.34% of the gross regional product.The obtained results can be used for the assessments of the economic losses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-22

  9. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984, Procurement, Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles. Part 4. Ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    3D526) 53 DAKA-PPC (3E443) 5 Cost & Audit (2) APA (9) MIPA (10) DANA-PP (3E374) 1 Plano /Systema (1) PWTCV (10) PAA (11) DAMA-RA (3E360) I Construction (1...transferred 10,000 10.000 Unobhigated balance available, COY 24 4002 For completion of prior year budget pie 390,633 300,163 347,127 𔃿.000l iunobligeted

  10. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1983 Submitted to Congress February 1982. Procurement, Book 1. Aircraft Procurement, Navy; Weapons Procurement, Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    erosion strip, fiberelass skin and nomex honeycomb core trailing edge. This construction concept is expected to provide the foilowing ,haracteristies... Satellite Access modification for which $1.4 million in FT 1981, is budgeted. FEWSG Series Modification The ability to accurately simulate the known...156 (UHF), ARC-±57 (HF) transceivers compatible with Satellite Commurication (SATCOM) (UHF) and Link 11 AF data links respectively, and one KY-75 (HF

  11. Balancing regional sea level budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Balancing the sea-level budget is critical to understanding recent and future climate change as well as balancing Earth's energy budget and water budget. During the last decade, advancements in the ocean observing system — satellite altimeters, hydrographic profiling floats, and space-based gravity missions — have allowed the global mean sea level budget to?be assessed with unprecedented accuracy from direct, rather than inferred, estimates. In particular, several recent studies have used the sea-level budget to bound the rate of deep ocean warming [e.g. Llovel et al. 2014]. On a monthly basis, the sum of the steric component estimated from Argo and the ocean mass (barostatic) component from GRACE agree total sea level from Jason within the estimated uncertainties with the residual difference having an r.m.s. of less than 2 mm [Leuliette 2014]. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2000 m depth during January 2005 and July 2015 explain about one-third of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Extending the understanding of the sea-level budget from global mean sea level to regional patterns of sea level change is crucial for identifying regional differences in recent sea level change. The local sea-level budget can be used to identify any systematic errors in the global ocean observing system. Using the residuals from closing the sea level budget, we demonstrate that systematic regional errors remain, in part due to Argo sampling. We also show the effect of applying revised geocentric pole-tide corrections for GRACE [Wahr et al. 2015] and altimetry [Desai et al., 2015].

  12. Essays on fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with selected topics in fiscal policy. The first part examines the relationship between fiscal decentralization and certain outcomes, one being the amount of trust citizens have in their government, the other being economic efficiency. The second part looks into the challenge of

  13. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  14. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  15. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing f...

  16. Department of the Air Force Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1992/1993 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1991: Operation and Maintenance, Air Force. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    00 4 - *.-..0 w..v*c 0 * cc.-40 Sw 1ad A U60 a. I. di 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 0 O 0 a 54 ; C; 0 5 00 0*n~j00 00 o 4O’ U 0 0af 4 O4H cr~ 010 .9 r41 44c V4 0 c 9...C C to 04 O a .5 04 > 000 0a I S C 0 .c > 50) U > .4 - 10 - C - - 46 tD " c>. OD-- Cv0>.9-~ ’ CL to, cn a, -C -a d -4 11 ; - ccu V0L a 4- a -- CDC O

  17. A Fiscal Rule that has Teeth: A Suggestion for a ‘Fiscal Sustainability Council’ underpinned by the Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Hedbávnı; Ondrej Schneider; Jan Zápal

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to examine an efficient fiscal-policy framework for a monetary union. We illustrate that fiscal policy’s bias toward budget deficit only temporarily ceased at the end of the 20th century as European countries endeavored to qualify for euro-zone membership, which compelled strict limits on budgetary deficits. We then explore which mechanisms might instill a sense of fiscal disciple in governments. We find that most mechanisms suffer from the incentive-incompatible set...

  18. APPLYING THE ARRANGEMENTS OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Drozd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of implementation of the areas of fiscal consolidation is particularly relevant in terms of the accumulation of public deficits and public debt in such amounts when the country is on the verge of insolvency. A clear policy to gradually reduce these deficits is necessary, since the budget deficit and quasi-fiscal deficits are rapidly increasing. This will help stabilizing public debt dynamics, and facilitating resolving the shortterm financial difficulties. The situation in Ukraine is complicated by the very low possibility to eliminate external shocks, since foreign exchange reserves and financial reserves are at their minimum, and continuing to show a downward trend. In addition, Ukraine’s economy is experiencing a phase of economic recession. Although the causes of these adverse events are complex and represent a number of external and internal factors, a path to immediate macroeconomic stabilization in Ukraine is possible. Reducing these macroeconomic imbalances should be the main task for the government in the near future, because otherwise there is no real opportunity to achieve sustainable economic growth. Further structural fiscal reforms in public spending are mandatory to maintain macroeconomic stability and economic development in the medium term. Fiscal consolidation will reduce external imbalances, help restoring fiscal space lost due to the crisis, and reduce the financial needs of the state budget and premium for sovereign risk. There are good reasons to conduct fiscal consolidation measures largely by public spending because their level relative to GDP is very high. Furthermore, it is the running costs should be subject to consolidation as capital expenditures have been already reduced to historically low levels. It is proven that there are very limited opportunities for consolidation on the basis of public revenues, because the concentration of GDP in the budget is already high and it would be difficult to raise

  19. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  20. The influence of fiscal rules on healthcare policy in the United States and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, H Christiaan; Jeurissen, Patrick; Glied, Sherry

    2017-10-01

    Governments use fiscal rules to put a framework and limits on how budgetary challenges are addressed, but the rules themselves are still an understudied area among health policy scholars. For a long time, healthcare held a somewhat separate status because of the reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. However, the combined forces of advocates for integral decision-making, central budget control and the increasing costs might shift healthcare towards budgetary frameworks that currently apply to other spending categories. In this paper, we study fiscal rules that the US and the Netherlands have adopted since 2010 and their impact on healthcare policy. Our analysis shows that fiscal rules can have an impact on the rationing of healthcare. In the studied timeframe, the rules seem to have more impact on budget outcomes than on the budget process itself. In addition, the convergence of fiscal and program policy objectives seems to be better accomplished in a budgetary system that applies enforceable budget ceilings. Budgeting for health entitlements requires a comprehensive and tailor-made approach and the composition of traditional rules might not fully answer to the complexities of healthcare policy. This paper aims to contribute to that debate and the way we think about healthcare budgeting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  2. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999......, the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  3. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  4. Zero Base Budgeting Method Applied at Education Expenditures of Cluj-Napoca Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul ZAI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is trying to propose alternative methods for budget elaboration, in order to be able to forcast the budget. For presenting the practical part of ZBB (Zero Base Budgeting, we have decided to apply ZBB method for forecasting Cluj-Napoca budget - Chapter Education. To estimate the values of the principal expenditures we will study the data from a budgetary centre, and a tertiary unit. The accuracy of our predictions is trying to underline the necessity of using modern methods for budget elaboration.

  5. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MANIFESTATION OF FISCAL FRAUD IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Serju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we shall try to present two mechanisms of fiscal fraud used by economical agents and also found in the control actions performed by the fiscal organs at different commercial societies from Romania. The presented mechanisms refer to the fiscal fraud resulted from fictitious acquisitions of goods and services done by Romanian firms which have as beneficiaries other commercial societies which are fiscally registered in Romania. Being empirically examined, the fiscal fraud will be presented through the use of some figures which will describe the detailed operations step by step.For the cases we have chosen to present we will describe the real circuit of goods and money according to the documents. We will also refer to the possibility of identifying the risk of fiscal fraud that results from the reports provided by the economic agents for different state institutions. We will also consider the information provide by the books of prime entry and bookkeeping, documents which have to be written by the commercial societies according to the Law accountancy nr. 82/199, with further modifications and completions. The mechanisms of fiscal fraud in use can be identical with the ones presented in this paper or they can be different as „new elements” can appear; these „new elements” depend on the type of activity performed, the modifications the legislative framework, the performers’ creativity or other external or internal factors which are not identified by the fiscal organs. By identifying the fiscal fraud mechanisms and the way in which they function, the fiscal organs will be given the opportunity to take the necessary measures so that the fiscal resources of the state consolidated budget should not be affected by such operations. It is will known that we can speak of fiscal fraud and shadow economy in any country but ,according to the reports and statistics published by different international institutions, Romania’s shadow

  6. A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ablain

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new error budget assessment of the global Mean Sea Level (MSL determined by TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 altimeter satellites between January 1993 and June 2008 is presented using last altimeter standards. We discuss all potential errors affecting the calculation of the global MSL rate. We also compare altimetry-based sea level with tide gauge measurements over the altimetric period. Applying a statistical approach, this allows us to provide a realistic error budget of the MSL rise measured by satellite altimetry. These new calculations highlight a reduction in the rate of sea level rise since 2005, by ~2 mm/yr. This represents a 60% reduction compared to the 3.3 mm/yr sea level rise (glacial isostatic adjustment correction applied measured between 1993 and 2005. Since November 2005, MSL is accurately measured by a single satellite, Jason-1. However the error analysis performed here indicates that the recent reduction in MSL rate is real.

  7. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget) și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB)

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR; Adrian Mihai INCEU

    2004-01-01

    A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system make...

  8. Taking climate, land use, and social economy into estimation of carbon budget in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jing; Zhou, Zixiang; Wang, Yanze; Yang, Xiaonan; Qin, Keyu; Liu, Jingya

    2017-04-01

    Carbon sequestration is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by soil and vegetation, so mapping and valuing the carbon budget by considering both ecological and social factors is an important trend in evaluating ecosystem services. In this work, we established multiple scenarios to evaluate the impacts of land use change, population growth, carbon emission per capita, and carbon markets on carbon budget. We quantified carbon sinks (aboveground and belowground) under different scenarios, using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model and an improved carbon cycle process model, and studied carbon sources caused by human activities by analyzing the spatial distribution of human population and carbon emission per capita. We also assessed the net present value (NPV) for carbon budgets under different carbon price and discount rate scenarios using NPV model. Our results indicate that the carbon budget of Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region is surplus: Carbon sinks range from 1.50 × 1010 to 1.54 × 1010 t, while carbon sources caused by human activities range from 2.76 × 105 to 7.60 × 105 t. And the NPV for carbon deficits range from 3.20 × 1011 RMB to 1.52 × 1012 RMB. From the perspective of ecological management, deforestation, urban sprawl, population growth, and excessive carbon consumption are considered as the main challenges in balancing carbon sources and sinks. Levying carbon tax would be a considerable option when decision maker develops carbon emission reduction policies. Our results provide a scientific and credible reference for harmonious and sustainable development in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

  9. Fiscal Multipliers in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Pritha Mitra; Tigran Poghosyan

    2015-01-01

    Amid renewed crisis, falling tax revenues, and rising debt, Ukraine faces serious fiscal consolidation needs. Durable fiscal adjustment can support economic confidence and rebuild buffers but what is its overall impact on growth? How effective are revenue versus spending instruments? Does current or capital spending have a larger impact? Applying a structural vector autoregressive model, this paper finds that Ukraine’s near-term revenue and spending multipliers are well below one. In the me...

  10. Uncertainty and Fiscal Cliffs

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Foerster; Troy Davig

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the US Fiscal Cliff in 2012, this paper considers the short- and longer- term impact of uncertainty generated by fiscal policy. Empirical evidence shows increases in economic policy uncertainty lower investment and employment. Investment that is longer-lived and subject to a longer planning horizon responds to policy uncertainty with a lag, while capital that depreciates more quickly and can be installed with few costs falls immediately. A DSGE model incorporating uncertainty ove...

  11. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL FISCAL RELATIONS IN A REGION: THEORY AND PRACTICE ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Y. Molchanova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to establishment of intergovernmental fiscal relations in Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation. Particular consideration is given to theoretical issues referred to: finance centralization criteria; principles of authority and resource allocation according to territorial levels; efficiency of budget adjustment policy and individual approach to territories. The author has made close analysis of intergovernmental fiscal relations in municipal entities of the Perm region; as a result, principal issues related to development of the given entities have been set forth. The ways to enhance intra-regional and inter-budget relations in the Russian Federation have been suggested

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF THE FISCAL CONVERGENCE CRITERIA IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN TERMS OF THE SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty led to the creation of the EMU and the euro area has resisted more than some of its critics believed, in the context of major macroeconomic imbalances, the issue of nominal convergence has been the subject of numerous research. This paper aims to analyze the capacity of fiscal criteria to reflect the ability of EU Member States to achieve economic development for the integration in the EMU and to comply strict fiscal policy that governing its operation. In the context of certain technical deficiencies of fiscal criteria, we analyzed the developments of budget deficit and gross public debt in the EU during 2000 and 2012. The results show that until 2007 the EU economies were able, overall, to meet the budget deficit criteria, but due to the financial crisis and the prolonged slowdown in economic growth, the fiscal balance had an unfavorable evolution since 2008, while the evolution of the gross public debt has worsened increasingly. Due to this pressure situation on the sustainability of public finances, examining the adoption, application and enforcement of the fiscal policy rules expressed by the evolution of the Fiscal Rule Index for the period 2000-2011, the importance of rules in the fiscal management of the Union and especially of the euro area appears increasingly obvious.

  14. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  15. Budget battle looms. Clinton uses fraud fines, user fees to pay for programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J

    1998-02-09

    President Clinton ignited a new money battle for providers last week as he proposed an activist healthcare agenda in his proposal to balance the federal budget in the next fiscal year. In his $1.733 trillion fiscal 1999 spending plan, Clinton proposed that providers and health plans pay $659.2 million in new user fees to fund expanded provider audits, certification surveys and a host of other HCFA activities.

  16. TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUDGET REVENUES UNDER THE IMPACT OF TAX POLICY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the need to ensure sustainable development has become a central point of debates and of the economic policies. Obviously, the influence of the level of financial resources mobilized at the state level is crucial, reason for it is necessary to promote a sustainable fiscal policy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of fiscal policy measures on budget revenues, in terms of volume and their structure in Romania. Empirical researchs realised, reflected a longitudinal study that targeted budget income trends between 2006-2015, both in terms of total volume and in terms of revenues for each category of taxation. The results of this study demonstrate the use of a pro-cyclical fiscal policy, with negative effects in terms of the impact on the budget deficit and a poor correlation with other components of macroeconomic policy.

  17. SALES BUDGET - MANAGEMENT TOOL IN BUSINESS BACKGROUND ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Otilia, ȚENOVICI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Budget as a management tool is used to size the activity of forecasting the financial and accounting terms and in terms of economic efficiency, the allocation and use of resources to an entity in a particular reporting period, that aims to achieve the necessary expenses and income achieved, establishing this and the powers and responsibilities relating to the efficient use of these resources. Sales budgeting should be given special attention given the correlation and the influence of these predictions with other budgets namely production budget; supplies budget; investment budget; budget overheads; treasury budget. There should be understood that estimates of other budgets are not related or that there are no dependencies between them.

  18. Budget impact of vildagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to evaluate the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of the recent introduction of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in combination treatment for NIDDM patients. Methods: NIDDM patients eligible to vildagliptin treatment were identified and quantified based on approved indications and prevalence data review; adequate alternative strategies were identified; direct medical costs associated with competing strategies were calculated according to national practice and prices (drug acquisition, therapeutic monitoring, cost for managing severe adverse events – severe hypoglycemia events, fractures, new heart failure cases and the NHS budgetary impact was estimated according to market penetration assumptions (base-case: 5% and 10% for the first and second year, respectively. Results: patients estimated eligible for vildagliptin in Italy are about 237,500: pts inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy (166,500, pts inadequately controlled with sulfonylurea monotherapy and intolerant/contraindicated to metformin (70,200, and those inadequately controlled with thiazolidinedione monotherapy (800. Costing and comparing of the vildagliptin-based and competing strategies revealed differences in both directions, depending on patient subgroup. Assuming uniform penetration among identified patient subgroups, vildagliptin introduction is expected to raise NHS costs by 2,750,000 Euro in the first and by 5,500,000 Euro in the second year, respectively representing 1,6% and 3,2% of the estimated total management cost of this patient population. Conclusions: the introduction of vildagliptin in the treatment of Italian NIDDM patients offers a new therapeutic option for three inadequately controlled NIDDM subpopulations; the financial impact on Italian NHS expenditures depends on patient selection and can be expected not to exceed 2-3% of the currently dedicated budget in the first two years.

  19. Regla Fiscal para Determinar el Monto del Subsidio Estatal a la Universidad de Guanajuato Regla Fiscal para Determinar el Monto del Subsidio Estatal a la Universidad de Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Cárdenas Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una contribución especial y una regla fiscal para que el gobierno estatal determine, ex ante, el monto de subsidio ordinario que ha de otorgar cada ejercicio fiscal a la Universidad de Guanajuato. La ventaja de este mecanismo es la eliminación de la negociación presupuestal que se realiza año con año entre la Universidad, el Gobierno Estatal y el Congreso Local.An additional tax and a fiscal rule is proposed, in this paper, so that the Local Government determines, ex ante, the ordinary public subsidy it should give each fiscal year to the Universidad de Guanajuato. The advantage of this mechanism is the elimination of the budget negotiation that takes place yearly between the Universidad, the Local Government and the State Congress.

  20. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  1. New fiscal crisis Nueva crisis fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal deficit in Latin America is currently caused by the external and internal debt, and the fact that economic authorities have lost the ability to manage an important part of macroeconomic policy as a result of the process of decentralization. Along with less macroeconomic control, destabilizing factors increase due to the greater mobility of international financial markets, where any changein signals provokes abrupt and massive movements of capital in favor of or against a country. This problem is aggravated by the dismantling of the principal regulations, especially those relating to exchange controls, foreign investment, and international trade. Fiscal policyends up defending the stability of the main economic variables, in anuncertain and unpredictable context determined by an autonomous finance capital. It defends the stability of three key prices: inflation, currency, and interest rateo An abrupt change in any of these may depreciate the real value of financial assets, with which financial wealth would disappear like foam.El déficit fiscal en América Latina se origina actualmente en las deuda externa e interna, y en que la autoridad económica ha perdido el manejo de una parte importante de la política macroeconómica como resultado del proceso de descentralización. A la par del menor control macroeconómico, los factores desestabilizadores aumentan por la mayor movilidad de mercados financieros internacionales, donde cualquier cambio en las señales suscita movimientos de capital abruptos y masivos en favor o en contra de un país. Este problema se agrava con el desmonte de las principales regulaciones, en especial a las referidas al control cambiario, la inversión extrnajera y el comercio internacional. La política fiscal termina defendiendo la estabilidad de las principales variables macroeconómicas, en un contexto incierto e impredecible determinado por un capital financiero autónomo. Defiende la estabilidad de tres

  2. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  3. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  4. Ajuste fiscal nos estados: uma análise do período 1998-2006 Fiscal adjustment in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wulff Gobetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a forma de enquadramento dos estados ao Programa de Ajuste Fiscal (PAF e à Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF, destacando seus impactos nas escolhas de alocação dos recursos públicos e na taxa de investimento. Os resultados obtidos após minucioso trabalho de depuração das bases de dados confirmam a melhoria da situação financeira de estados no período posterior à LRF, mas sugerem que existe um trade-off entre os indicadores fiscais, de um lado, e os investimentos e gastos em infraestrutura, de outro, exigindo uma reflexão sobre a qualidade e sustentabilidade do ajuste fiscal. Os dados orçamentários analisados também apontam evidências de contabilidade criativa.The objective of this article is to offer an analysis of the accommodation by Brazilian states with Fiscal Adjustment Program and with Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA, showing their impacts on the choices of public resources allocation and on the investment rate. The results obtained after detailed work of data depuration confirm the improvement of financial situation of the states in the period post FRA, but also suggest the existence of a trade-off between fiscal indicators and infrastructure investment, demanding a reflection about the quality and the sustainability of the fiscal adjustment. The budget data analyzed also indicate evidences of creative accountability.

  5. Aerial photography based census of Adélie Penguin and its application in CH4 and N2O budget estimation in Victoria Land, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    He, Hong; Cheng, Xiao; Li, Xianglan; Zhu, Renbin; Hui, Fengming; Wu, Wenhui; Zhao, Tiancheng; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-01-01

    Penguin guano provides favorable conditions for production and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Many studies have been conducted to determine the GHG fluxes from penguin colonies, however, at regional scale, there is still no accurate estimation of total GHG emissions. We used object-based image analysis (OBIA) method to estimate the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) population based on aerial photography data. A model was developed to estimate total GHG emission potential from Adélie p...

  6. United States Department of Energy Budget Highlights FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    The President`s Fiscal Year 1994 budget request for the Department of Energy reflects the Administration`s goal of redressing the balance between the Nation`s energy and economic requirements and protection of the environment. The Department plans to undertake a careful restructuring of its national defense responsibilities, in line with post Cold War exigencies; contribute to the Administration`s deficit reduction objectives; and fulfill the President`s commitment to invest in science and technology development and transfer.

  7. Fiscal rules as a challenge of the Republic of Kosovo towards the European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim Haliti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern and functional democracies there are different and numerous parameters for a stable and sustainable state; however we must also pay special attention to the way that a country breathes in a fiscal sense. Therefore the treatment of financial rules with special care and applied-theoretical skills indicates the possession of those financial rules that create a financial and fiscal stability in the country in order to maintain stable governance and to affect the development of all the other areas as well. Fiscal rules direct fiscal policies about the best options and procedures that must be pursued in order to develop finances as good as possibly toward the accomplishment of the revenue and budget expenditures. However, only the creation and the functionality of those rules is not enough, therefore they must also be monitored and communicated in front of the public since it is considered to be a very significant aspect in the life of modern democracies. Particularly, we must pay special attention to those fiscal rules that deal with public debt, budget deficit and budget expenditures.

  8. Passive behavior of the government. Budget problems are aggravating in the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of reforms, the current multi-level budgetary system does not fully correspond to the development strategy of the country and its regions. Still the Russian Government has not taken effective measures to address the main structural contradiction of the budgetary system, based on the non-adequate distribution of revenue and expenditure responsibilities, manifested in the sharp decline in the revenue base of territorial budgets during the 2009 global financial crisis. However, the crisis effects have not been analyzed and the conclusions have not been made. The Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation tried to solve the problem of territorial budgets imbalance not by enhancing existing mechanisms of revenue distribution at the regional level, but by granting large-scale loans to be repaid after 2012. Despite it, due to the sharp rise in the social burden, the deficit and the debt load enlarged and resulted in the budget crisis in the regions. The experts of the Higher School of Economics state that 20 RF subjects, having the level of public debt above 80%, had been actually in default by the end of 2014. Instead of finding ways out of the fiscal crisis, the Russian authorities gradually lose overall control over the processes of regional development. The mechanisms of federal target programs work poorly and the RF subjects have to finance program activities. In fact, the management of territorial development is reduced to the transfer of financial resources from the federal budget to the regions and the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation regulating interbudgetary relations has, in fact, become the only real institute of regional policy. But the interbudgetary policy of the Ministry of Finance does not gain visible economic returns: in 2006–2014 the amount of repayable financial assistance to the regional budgets increased from 0.6 to 1.5 trillion rubles, and the number of selfsufficient territories decreased from

  9. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  10. US fiscal regimes and optimal monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavromatis, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy in the US has been documented to have been the leading authority in the ‘60s and the ‘70s (active fiscal policy), while committing to make the necessary fiscal adjustments following Volcker’s appointment (passive fiscal policy). Moreover, while passive, US fiscal policy has at times

  11. 7 CFR 930.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.7 Section 930.7 Agriculture... Definitions § 930.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period... Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish: Provided, that the initial fiscal period shall...

  12. NIH Fiscal Policy for Grant Awards in FY 2013 Released | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice provides guidance about the NIH Fiscal Operations for the remainder of FY 2013 in light of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (P.L. 113-6), signed by President Obama on March 26, 2013, and the sequestration provisions of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended, 2 U.S.C. |

  13. Does Fiscal Austerity Affect Political Decision-Makers’ Use and Perception of Performance Information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Bækgaard, Martin; Houlberg, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    keeping up good performance in times of austerity, or decreases their use, because balancing the books is more vital in times of austerity, and therefore keeping within the budget gains political emphasis relative to sustaining good performance. The link between fiscal austerity and politicians’ use...... information is “the politics of good times.”...

  14. WHY IS THE FISCAL POLICY IMPOSED BY IMF PRO-CYCLIC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius-Corneliu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economies which appealed to the IMF loan faced difficulties related to financing the public and the private foreign debt. IMF imposed the promoting of a restrictive fiscal policy to the beneficiary countries, in order to decrease the budget deficit, e

  15. Threshold effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimani Salma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relation between fiscal policy and economic growth for a panel of 40 developing countries over the period of 1990 to 2012 using eight macroeconomic variables: real GDP, budget deficit, current government spending, national saving, inflation rate, total investment, public debt, and current account balance. The study documents a double threshold effect of the fiscal balance. The first one is at a level of the deficit around 4.8% of GDP; the second one is at the fiscal surplus level of 3.2% of GDP meaning that economic growth would be negatively affected when exceeding these two different levels. Result also show that the sign of the relation between budget deficit and economic growth is conditioned by the level of total investment i.e. only for total investment higher than 23%, there exists a positive relation. However, it becomes negative, when investment falls below this threshold.

  16. Role of fiscal policy for private investment in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has much controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on private investment. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze the effect of fiscal deficit and other variables on private investment of Pakistan. The data time span for this study is 1979-2012. After finding the integration order of all variables by Augmented Dicky Fuller Test, the impact of variables is analyzed by utilizing the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag approach of Cointegration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. Error Correction Model is applied for short run dynamics. The results reveal that fiscal deficit, rate of interest, inflation and external debt are affecting negatively the private investment in Pakistan while exchange rate and exports have a positive impact on private investment.

  17. An Analysis of Fiscal Years 2014 to 2016 Navy Fourth Quarter Spending: Trends and Characteristics of Q4 O and M Contractual Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    APPROPRIATION PROCESS ...........................9 B. CONTINUING RESOLUTION .............................................................11 C. PLANNING ...Guidebook Department of Defense Department of the Navy Financial Management Regulation Federal Procurement Data System Fiscal Year Future Years...of the Secretary of Defense Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), Program/ Budget Planning , Programming, Budgeting, and Execution Product

  18. IMPACT OF CYCLICAL EVOLUTION ON BUDGET BALANCE- ROMANIA’S CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Avram; Veronel Avram; Roxana Adriana Hetes-Gavra

    2014-01-01

    History has provided sufficient evidence that economic activity does not grow linearly and economic cycles can be easily distinguished, in which periods of growth are followed by periods of recession, stagnation, rising unemployment and widening budget deficits. Cyclical evolution impact on macroeconomic equilibrium requires us to move to a multiannual approach to budget balance and think about adjustments for the fiscal policy mix over the economic cycle, i.e. to pursue higher deficits in pe...

  19. "Integrating Time in Public Policy: Empirical Description of Gender-specific Outcomes and Budgeting"

    OpenAIRE

    Lekha Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating time in public policymaking is an elusive area of research. Despite the fact that gender budgeting is emerging as a significant tool to analyze the socioeconomic impacts of fiscal policies and thus identify their impacts on gender equity, the integration of time-use statistics in this process remains incomplete, or is even entirely absent, in most countries. If gender budgeting is predominantly based on the index-based empirical description of gender-specific outcomes, a reexami...

  20. Integrating time in public policy: Any evidence from gender diagnosis and budgeting.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Lekha

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating time in public policy making is an elusive area of research. Despite the fact that gender budgeting is emerging as a significant socio-economic tool to analyze the fiscal policies to identify its effect on gender equity, the integration of time use statistics into this process remain partial or even nil across countries. If gender budgeting is predominantly based on the indexbased gender diagnosis, a relook into the construction of the gender (inequality) index is relevant. This...

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide 12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170008485_hide">

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  3. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  4. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  5. WFIRST: Coronagraph Systems Engineering and Performance Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; cady, eric; Frerking, Margaret A.; Kern, Brian; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Martin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Hanying

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) will be the first in-space coronagraph using active wavefront control to directly image and characterize mature exoplanets and zodiacal disks in reflected starlight. For CGI systems engineering, including requirements development, CGI performance is predicted using a hierarchy of performance budgets to estimate various noise components — spatial and temporal flux variations — that obscure exoplanet signals in direct imaging and spectroscopy configurations. These performance budgets are validated through a robust integrated modeling and testbed model validation efforts.We present the performance budgeting framework used by WFIRST for the flow-down of coronagraph science requirements, mission constraints, and observatory interfaces to measurable instrument engineering parameters.

  6. Aerial photography based census of Adélie Penguin and its application in CH4 and N2O budget estimation in Victoria Land, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Cheng, Xiao; Li, Xianglan; Zhu, Renbin; Hui, Fengming; Wu, Wenhui; Zhao, Tiancheng; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-10-11

    Penguin guano provides favorable conditions for production and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Many studies have been conducted to determine the GHG fluxes from penguin colonies, however, at regional scale, there is still no accurate estimation of total GHG emissions. We used object-based image analysis (OBIA) method to estimate the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) population based on aerial photography data. A model was developed to estimate total GHG emission potential from Adélie penguin colonies during breeding seasons in 1983 and 2012, respectively. Results indicated that OBIA method was effective for extracting penguin information from aerial photographs. There were 17,120 and 21,183 Adélie penguin breeding pairs on Inexpressible Island in 1983 and 2012, respectively, with overall accuracy of the estimation of 76.8%. The main reasons for the increase in Adélie penguin populations were attributed to increase in temperature, sea ice and phytoplankton. The average estimated CH4 and N2O emissions tended to be increasing during the period from 1983 to 2012 and CH4 was the main GHG emitted from penguin colonies. Total global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions was 5303 kg CO2-eq in 1983 and 6561 kg CO2-eq in 2012, respectively.

  7. Politica "fiscale": viva o morta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. PEACOCK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the political and administrative limitations of implementing fiscal policy as a means of achieving economic stability. Present day attitudes towards fiscal intervention are characterised by a general feeling of agnosticism. Not only has confidence waned in the ability of fiscal measures to secure macroeconomic goals, it has been argued that where fiscal changes exert noticeable and significant impacts they may do so in a distinctly perverse and de-stabilising manner. The question now facing policy administrators is whether fiscal policy may usefully be included in the armoury of countercyclical weapons wielded in defence of short-term stabilisation goals. This changed status of fiscal policy has stemmed partly from developments in theoretical economics generally on the one hand, and also from a changed view of the government objective function upon the other. JEL: E62, E63

  8. TOWARDS A LAW OF SUSTAINABLE FISCAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims to raise the benchmarks intended, we believe, to print efficiency rules for public financial law which, by definition, governs the issue of budgetary resources. Knowing the mechanism of legal and tax and the use of this type of resource, given the current context, we introduce some approaches to the position of financial law located in the best connection with economics, and we consider key issues of this - crisis/ growth, sustainable development, strategies/ policies, state intervention tools etc. aiming to easier to put out various budgetary implications caused by certain processes/ phenomena in the real economy. Also, we bring some elements of analysis, comments and views coming to justify the importance of rights (set of rules and principles of major influence the financial and fiscal consolidation based in the extent possible, the development lasting nature. It is expected thus that such a law (fiscal consolidation based on sustainability can drive more speedily to create a stable tax system capable of generating sufficient budgetary resources in terms of efficiency and efficacy, ensuring cost reductions with unit budget and compliance taxpayers being, while flexible, simple, transparent and adaptable to national/ international changes.

  9. A Framework for Assessing Fiscal Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Petrie; Richard Hemming

    2000-01-01

    Fiscal vulnerability describes a situation where a government is exposed to the possibility of failure to meet its aggregate fiscal policy objectives. The suggested framework for assessing vulnerability highlights four macro-fiscal aspects of vulnerability: incorrect specification of the initial fiscal position; sensitivity of short-term fiscal outcomes to risk; threats to longer-term fiscal sustainability; and structural or institutional weaknesses affecting the design and implementation of ...

  10. Fiscal consequences of changes in morbidity and mortality attributed to rotavirus immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Hutubessy, Raymond C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in population health status are known to influence government fiscal transfers both in terms of lost tax revenue and increased expenditure for health and social services. To estimate the fiscal impact of changes in morbidity and mortality attributed to rotavirus immunisation, we developed a

  11. Using ‘snapshot’ measurements of CH4 fluxes from an ombrotrophic peatland to estimate annual budgets: interpolation versus modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Green

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flux-chamber measurements of greenhouse gas exchanges between the soil and the atmosphere represent a snapshot of the conditions on a particular site and need to be combined or used in some way to provide integrated fluxes for the longer time periods that are often of interest. In contrast to carbon dioxide (CO2, most studies that have estimated the time-integrated flux of CH4 on ombrotrophic peatlands have not used models. Typically, linear interpolation is used to estimate CH4 fluxes during the time periods between flux-chamber measurements. CH4 fluxes generally show a rise followed by a fall through the growing season that may be captured reasonably well by interpolation, provided there are sufficiently frequent measurements. However, day-to-day and week-to-week variability is also often evident in CH4 flux data, and will not necessarily be properly represented by interpolation. Using flux chamber data from a UK blanket peatland, we compared annualised CH4 fluxes estimated by interpolation with those estimated using linear models and found that the former tended to be higher than the latter. We consider the implications of these results for the calculation of the radiative forcing effect of ombrotrophic peatlands.

  12. Fiscal Equalization and School Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Discusses fiscal equalization in financing public education and provides examples of school districts (from varying income levels) that have successfully provided equal access to educational resources.

  13. Activity-specific metabolic rates for diving, transiting, and resting at sea can be estimated from time-activity budgets in free-ranging marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Trites, Andrew W; Arnould, John P Y; Speakman, John R; Guinet, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Time and energy are the two most important currencies in animal bioenergetics. How much time animals spend engaged in different activities with specific energetic costs ultimately defines their likelihood of surviving and successfully reproducing. However, it is extremely difficult to determine the energetic costs of independent activities for free-ranging animals. In this study, we developed a new method to calculate activity-specific metabolic rates, and applied it to female fur seals. We attached biologgers (that recorded GPS locations, depth profiles, and triaxial acceleration) to 12 northern (Callorhinus ursinus) and 13 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), and used a hierarchical decision tree algorithm to determine time allocation between diving, transiting, resting, and performing slow movements at the surface (grooming, etc.). We concomitantly measured the total energy expenditure using the doubly-labelled water method. We used a general least-square model to establish the relationship between time-activity budgets and the total energy spent by each individual during their foraging trip to predict activity-specific metabolic rates. Results show that both species allocated similar time to diving (~29%), transiting to and from their foraging grounds (~26-30%), and resting (~8-11%). However, Antarctic fur seals spent significantly more time grooming and moving slowly at the surface than northern fur seals (36% vs. 29%). Diving was the most expensive activity (~30 MJ/day if done non-stop for 24 hr), followed by transiting at the surface (~21 MJ/day). Interestingly, metabolic rates were similar between species while on land or while slowly moving at the surface (~13 MJ/day). Overall, the average field metabolic rate was ~20 MJ/day (for all activities combined). The method we developed to calculate activity-specific metabolic rates can be applied to terrestrial and marine species to determine the energetic costs of daily activities, as well as to

  14. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  15. Mechanisms of discretionary fiscal policy implementation at subfederal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsu Mahmutovna Galiakhmetova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify new approaches to implementation of effective discretionary fiscal policy to stimulate socioeconomic development at the subfederal level. Methods the study used comparative methods of economic analysis and logic synthesis. The basic methodological principles were used like dialectical approach to the cognition of socioeconomic phenomena in the area of discretionary fiscal policy at the subfederal level in the context of the comprehensive objective and subjective factors as well as the methodological principle ndash the unity of historical and logical systematic approach to economic phenomena and processes of mechanisms formation for the implementation of discretionary fiscal policy. Results the diagnostics is conducted of the current socioeconomic processes in the region implemented by the Tatarstan executive bodies of state power and administration of discretionary policy in the sphere of agriculture the economic levers are considered that determine the mechanisms of maneuvering of the regional budget expenses that affect the acceleration of socioeconomic development. Scientific novelty the paper presents new approaches to the formation of mechanisms for the effective implementation of discretionary policy at the subfederal level. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering the issues of the nature and trends of modern discretionary fiscal policy. nbsp

  16. 78 FR 23569 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Guidance for Industry, FDA Staff, and Foreign Governments: Fiscal Year 2012 Medical Device User Fee Small Business Qualification and Certification AGENCY: Food and...

  17. A Functional Analysis of the 1977-1978 New York City Board of Education Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Marshall; Guttenberg, Richard

    This report analyzes the New York City Board of Education's planned expenditures for the 1977-1978 fiscal year. The report is designed to give the public a brief yet understandable overview of the Board of Education's annual budget. Allocations for eight functional areas (direct instructional programs, indirect instructional programs, ancillary…

  18. 1979-80 Budget Process. Phase I: Educational Programs. Procedures Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Div. of Educational Planning and Development.

    As Proposition 13 necessitated more drastic curtailment of expenditures than had been anticipated when the modified zero-based operational plan for 1978-79 was devised, the budget development procedure was revised for 1979-80. The process is divided into three phases: educational programs, district fiscal plan, and the operational plan. This…

  19. How Do the Location, Size and Budget of Open Space Conservation Affect Land Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    JunJie Wu; Wenchao Xu; Ralph J. Alig

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a model to examine the optimal location, size, and budget of open space conservation and the resulting impact on land values and local fiscal conditions in an urban area. Results indicate that open space conservation can transform the defining features of an urban landscape. A well-designed open space conservation program can improve...

  20. The Economics of Measuring Fiscal Decentralisation Part 1: An Overview of Recent Insights into Fiscal Decentralisation

    OpenAIRE

    Duc Vo

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates economic aspects of the measurement of fiscal decentralisation to establish how a nation’s fiscal arrangements can be consistently measured, so they can be compared internationally. A new index of fiscal decentralisation is developed that reflects two key elements of the theory of fiscal decentralisation: the fiscal autonomy of subnational governments; and their fiscal importance. The role of fiscal inequality in subnational governments’ public finances is also consid...

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  2. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1983. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 1. Technology Base, Advanced Technology Development, Strategic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    radittion 2-, *f --.pio.!vea. cathode surface treatmsnt for high rate sLiver oils- leed batteries and low coat fabricatifis tothatqte lor Vasediu...2,204 2,752 Continuing Continuing 11068 Neximmem Performatca gJeetlem System 2,323 A90 0 0 0 4,902 111401 Selo Alrcrew Survivability fthancesmet...Medical Rs..earch Institute. Bethesda, MD ( leed ). Naval Coastal Systems Laboratory, Panswei Cliy FL; Devid . Tayflor NaVal ship Reasearch OA

  3. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1983. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 2. Tactical Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    of own ship’s noise G. (U) WORK PERFORMED BY: IN HOUSE: Novel Underwater Systems Center, New London, CT (lead laboratory). CONTRACTORS* EDO Corporation...evaluation of the validation tests and analyses, the Advanced Lightweight Tor;, edo configuration models (200A) will be fabricated and tested. Subsequently...low thte reception of high resolution polar orbiting and geosynchronous, livil sattlite data (in addition to the Defense lieteorologicst Sateltits

  4. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1982. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 3 of 3. Tactical Programs, Intelligence & Communications, Management & Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    24,291 in the Extremely High Frequency Satellite Coincations System fv.- Initial development of a space package. The Fleet Satelite Counications Progrm...data using t.e Synthetic Aperature Radar Data Processing System. Evaluate LANDSAT -D data as to ’*=1 4. (U) FY 1984 Planned Program: Project W05-3

  5. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2 of 3. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    packages, reverse engineering and intensified quality assurance efforts. Increased funds are required as efforts move towards those items which...for the E-6A aircraft. This includes contractor hands-on maintenance Integrated Logistcs Support (IL), site activation, interim organiza- tional and...requirements management, Full Screen Breakout Review, procurement oF technical data packages, reverse engineering support, development and execution of

  6. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1983. Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy. Book 3. Tactical Programs, Intelligence, & Communications Management & Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    letelligence (Advisery Gvrup atimatio.), (U) tragram to Coopletiom: Ibis io a ceatiming pregarm. (U roltA4-OI*1.4 Operatinal Mad Str!!tec Ama: ! VIh Iis...additics two saitsal pemtios will be filled ts emve that saw teehsmlegis ed sae concepts bag developed br veriess elftioe is the UnAm ges vietit and

  7. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1982. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 2 of 3. Tactical Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    ADN testing and commence design modifications to an A-6 aircraft. A. (U) FTY 1984 Planned Program. Continue coset fabrication and A-8 aitatme...14); International Business Machines, Manassas, VA (UYS-I); Collins Radio, Cedar Rapids, IA (ARC-159, ARN -l18 and ARC- 174); Sperry-Univac, St. Paul

  8. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Amended Fiscal Year 1988/89 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1988. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    cocoa —i —. _ _ rsi — —’ CM CM CM o c a a a J ,0 o *o o a a a a...Q. H V eg 4J • 01 (0 bug £ O t w >4-( h oO >4H 10 O O C V4 O C- 4J -M y 4J 01 «ah a. O eg B » •rf {Oil...s ca w 00 0 u a o m «n /^ ^N C9 M i» 41 4» /-N 0 4) 41 <M IM M \\* \\S -4 X 0 0 •3 TJ ^ 3 3 « Bug j- v4 «4 «M y M tl M

  9. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1982. Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy. Book 1 of 3. Technology Base, Advanced Technology Development, Strategic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    shortwave radio fading; mapping and imaging X-ray sources including supernova remnants, pulsars, and as yet unexplained bursts which affect systems...development of over-rust primer formulations Weapons Support Materials 3.9 Full-scale, Metal Matrix Composite, High Energy Laser mirror design analysis...abatement/cost-benefit model for shipboard noise problems 2.9 Complete a design feasibility demonstration of a new cartridge primer system 3. (U) FY 1983 and

  10. Estimating long-term evolution of fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir using a simplified method based on classification of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The Iffezheim reservoir is the last of a series of reservoirs on the Upper Rhine in Germany. Since its construction in 1977, approximately 115,000 m3 of fine sediments accumulate annually in the weir channel (WSA Freiburg, 2011). In order to obtain detailed information about the space-time development of the topography, the riverbed evolution was measured using echo sounding by the German Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration (WSV). 37 sets of sounding data, which have been obtained between July 2000 and February 2011, were used in this research. In a previous work, the morphodynamic processes in the Iffezheim reservoir were investigated using a high-resolution 3D model. The 3D computational fluid dynamic software SSIIM II (Olsen, 2014) was used for this purpose (Zhang et al., 2015). The model was calibrated using field measurements. A computational time of 14.5 hours, using 24 cores of a 2.4 GHz reference computer, was needed for simulating a period of three months on a grid of 238,013 cells. Thus, the long-term (e.g. 30 years) simulation of morphodynamics of the fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir with this model is not feasible. A low complexity approach of "classification of the boundary conditions of discharge and suspended sediment concentration" was applied in this research for a long-term numerical simulation. The basic idea of the approach is to replace instationary or quasi-steady simulations of deposition by a limited series of stationary ones. For these, daily volume changes were calculated considering representative discharge and concentration. Representative boundary conditions were determined by subdividing time series of discharge and concentration into classes and using central values per class. The amount of the deposition in the reservoir for a certain period can then be obtained by adding up the calculated daily depositions. This approach was applied to 10 short-term periods, between two successive echo sounding measurements

  11. Multimedia Budget Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jonathon T.; Rodabaugh, Karl

    This book provides an overview of the potential of multimedia budget proposals. The text reviews the fundamentals of multimedia, emphasizing how it improves communication by using multiple levels of input. A process for analyzing many of the budget decisions that must be made, as adapted from Robert Finney's five-step process of "Gap…

  12. Characterization of sediment sources, sediment budget estimations, consequences and implications for populations in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuignier, Jean-Marie; Penna, Ivanna; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Natural and human-induced erosive processes shape landscape by transferring masses from the mountain to downstream areas. They also impact population both located in the source areas of sediments as well as urban areas settle on the depositional area. Mountain areas in Bolivia present high surface dynamics and high rates of rural migrations, causing e.g. a significant increase of population in Cochabamba city in the last 20 years. This work aims to estimate the sediment production on the Jatún Mayu (Pankuruma) watershed in Cochabamba department taking into account the different origins of sediments. The population of this region is predominantly rural and quechua speaking. The region of study consists in a mountain area situated in the Andes with altitudes ranging from 2500 to 4600m. Field work on July 2014 and high resolution satellite image interpretation (2004 & 2009) allowed us to map and measure landslides and gullies. Almost a hundred of landslides are recorded mostly around the river channel in the middle and the lower part of the valley and provide a moving surface estimated at 3,15km2. Most of the gullies are situated in the upper part of the valley where the vegetation is less abundant on low-sloping agricultural lands. Photogrammetric reconstructions using camera and drone were the main method used to characterise some strategic points along the river in order to get dimensions of landslides, gullies, as well as the riverbed roughness, as the final goal was to model the flooding prone area at the mouth of the watershed, were migrants have been settling for the last years. A total of 9 points of interests along the river bed were surveyed and for each of them a square surface equal to 25m2 was analysed. Approximately 250 pictures by area were needed to estimate roughness along the channel. A flood model has been performed, by using the Riverflo-2D software, to produce a susceptibility map of the downstream region.

  13. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  14. The Financial and Fiscal Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Motohiro; Boudreau, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) occurred against the backdrop of a struggling economy and public finance system under stress, implying an exceptional fiscal cost and imposing a fiscal management challenge to the Government of Japan (GoJ). In response, the government committed to a full-scale national initiative that has evinced its ability to quickly mobilize short- term liquidity b...

  15. 77 FR 32178 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Fiscal Service Reinsuring Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Alterra Reinsurance USA, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is... Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway...

  16. 75 FR 22689 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Western Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is Supplement... Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway...

  17. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  18. The Trump Administrations March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    modernization and infrastructure investment . It represents a critical first step in investing in a larger, more ready, and more capable military force...the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-25), as amended; National Defense Budget Estimates for FY2017 ( Green Book); Office of Management and Budget...FY2017 ( Green Book); Office of Management and Budget, America First: A Budget Blueprint to Make America Great Again, March 16, 2017; and Senator John

  19. Fiscal Federalism in Monetary Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Net fiscal transfers are commonly seen as a possible means to ensure the wellfunctioning of a currency area. We show that U.S. net fiscal transfers, measured as the difference between gross federal revenues and federal expenditures per state, are enormous. Moreover, we run panel regressions...... that suggest their dependence on relative GDP and relative GDP growth during crisis periods, an evidence of net fiscal transfers from relatively rich to relatively poor states (redistributive effect) and to states with an underperforming economic development (stabilization effect). The Euro-zone (EZ) lacks...... a system of fiscal federalism which raises the question whether it should be established in the medium- and long-run. If so, which should be the magnitude of net fiscal transfers? We calculate these transfers hypothetically for 1999-2010, using a relative volume comparable to the one in the USA....

  20. 34 CFR 300.205 - Adjustment to local fiscal efforts in certain fiscal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjustment to local fiscal efforts in certain fiscal... Adjustment to local fiscal efforts in certain fiscal years. (a) Amounts in excess. Notwithstanding § 300.202....230(e)(2), for any fiscal year for which the allocation received by an LEA under § 300.705 exceeds the...

  1. Estimating the glacial melt water contribution to the fresh water budget from salinity and δ18O measurements in Godthåbsfjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Antje; van As, Dirk; Bendtsen, Jorgen; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fettweis, Xavier; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, Soren

    2013-04-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet increases due to changes in the surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge through numerous outlet glaciers at the margins. The melt has global and local consequences. Globally the sea level rises and locally the increased fresh water inflow affects fishery and transportation. In this study we focus on the fjord system near Nuuk in West Greenland, Godthåbsfjord. Godthåbsfjord is a unique fjord with its length of about 300 km and a shallow sill at the fjord entrance that protects the fjord system. There are several tidewater glaciers terminating into the fjord and two land-terminating glaciers along the fjord contributing to the fresh water content in the fjord. The largest tidewater glacier is Kangiata Nunåta Sermia. The freshwater originates primarily from three processes: surface melt, ice berg calving and basal melt. Observations and climate models can give estimates for calving and surface melt. Basal melt, however, cannot be observed directly. Even though mass loss by basal melting is neglected on the global scale, it plays an important role in the small regional environment like fjords and the glaciers itself. Warmer ocean temperatures increase basal melt, and resulting lubrication accelerates tidewater glaciers. Overall, the freshwater content in the fjord increases. Salinity measurements taken in the fjord between 2007 and 2011 show a seasonal variability originating from the variation in fresh water inflow. Based on salinity records only, it is not possible to distinguish between the different fresh water sources like precipitation and melt. Hence, δ18O measurements are used in addition to salinity records to determine the origin of the fresh water because of the different δ18O signatures of run-off and glacial melt water. The resulting fresh water inflow and the glacial melt contribution are compared to independent estimates and regional climate model output.

  2. Fiscal externalities of becoming a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Douglas A; Lee, Ronald D; Miller, Timothy; Donehower, Gretchen; Genest, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical results suggest that there are externalities to childbearing, but those results usually assume that these externalities accrue uniformly within a homogeneous population. We advance this argument by developing separate estimates of the fiscal externalities associated with parents—those who devote time or material resources to minor children—and nonparents. Our analysis uses data from the US Panel Study of income Dynamics on the age profiles of taxes paid and publicly funded benefits consumed by parents and nonparents, together with a previously developed intertemporal economic-demographic accounting model. The accounting framework takes into account the net fiscal impacts of future generations as well as the present population. Our findings indicate that, with a 3 percent discount rate, parents produce a substantial net fiscal externality, about $217,000 in 2009 dollars. This is equivalent to a lifetime annuity of nearly $8,100 per year beginning at age 18. The results are sensitive to both the discount rate used and the proportion of parents within the cohort.

  3. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  4. 7 CFR 948.103 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.103 Section 948.103 Agriculture... Rules and Regulations General § 948.103 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 948.10, the fiscal periods for each... following year, both dates inclusive. The 1986-87 fiscal period which began July 1, 1986, will be extended...

  5. 31 CFR 352.13 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 352.13 Section 352.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....13 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, referred to below, as fiscal agents of the...

  6. 7 CFR 923.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 923.7 Section 923.7 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of each year or such other...

  7. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5 Agriculture... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period...

  8. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means...

  9. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of...

  10. 7 CFR 929.106 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 929.106 Section 929.106 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.106 Fiscal period. The fiscal period... include the period of August 1, through August 31, 1968. Thereafter, the fiscal period will begin on...

  11. 7 CFR 917.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 917.9 Section 917.9 Agriculture... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on the last day of February of each year, or such other...

  12. 7 CFR 920.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 920.7 Section 920.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means a 12-month period...

  13. 31 CFR 332.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 332.12 Section 332.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of the...

  14. 7 CFR 925.12 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 925.12 Section 925.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.12 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and...

  15. 7 CFR 955.113 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 955.113 Section 955.113 Agriculture... and Regulations § 955.113 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 955.13, fiscal period shall mean the period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of each year, except that the fiscal period that began on...

  16. 7 CFR 929.6 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 929.6 Section 929.6 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.6 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period beginning...

  17. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, as fiscal agents of the United States...

  18. 7 CFR 922.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 922.7 Section 922.7 Agriculture... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of each year or such other...

  19. 7 CFR 945.111 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.111 Section 945.111 Agriculture... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 945.111 Fiscal period. The fiscal period that began June 1, 1981, shall end July 31, 1982. Each year thereafter fiscal...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.113 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1160.113 Section 1160.113 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.113 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the initial period of up to 30 months that this subpart is effective. Thereafter, the fiscal period shall be such annual period as the Board may determine...

  1. 31 CFR 316.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 316.12 Section 316.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of the...

  2. 7 CFR 953.122 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.122 Section 953.122 Agriculture... STATES Rules and Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period § 953.122 Fiscal period. The fiscal period, pursuant to § 953.9, which began on April 1, 1976, shall end...

  3. Let's Get Fiscal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    With the US economy continuing its weak recovery, it's tempting to think that IT budgets in higher education might begin to rebound especially in light of the increased focus on online learning. Nice thought, but no. Education costs are rising even faster than those for healthcare, and the public outcry over the cost of higher education…

  4. Does politics matter in the conduct of fiscal policy? Political determinants of the fiscal sustainability: Evidence from seven individual Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the fiscal sustainability and its political determinants in seven Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC, namely Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. First, using the recent sustainability approach of Bohn (1998 based on fiscal reaction function, econometric findings using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS reveal a positive response of the primary surplus to changes in debt in several countries. In other words, fiscal policy is sustainable in Baltic countries, Slovenia and Slovakia, but not in Poland and in the Czech Republic. Second, by introducing political dummy variables, we test the electoral budget cycle and the partisan cycle theories. We find the presence of electoral and partisan cycle in Poland but not in the rest of our countries.

  5. The National Income Between Monetary and Fiscal Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andersen and Jordan (1968 and Andersen (1971 argued that fiscal actions have a negligible effect on nominal income and can not sustain a stable and balanced economic growth. Also, they argued, along with other researchers who have embraced monetarism ideas from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, that the budget deficit presents negative effects in the economy that limit private investment. In this article, we analyzed the empirical relationship that is established between the tax actions and the long and short term national income in the U.S. economy and the economies of Eurozone.

  6. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  7. FISCAL PRESSURE IN ROMANIA IN THE CURRENT PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal fiscal pressure threshold is difficult to determine given the conditions under which the state must ensure a balance between the goals to be funded, on account of the tax levies, and need to be available to the economic operators and the general public a sufficient portion of the income to continue their work. Practice has shown that an excessive taxation results in reducing budget revenue due to tax fraud and abstinence of tax payers. They will find ingenious ways to evade the payment of tax liabilities by non-taxable matter or by establishing their domicile for tax purposes in a country with low taxation.

  8. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge for 2010 land cover estimated using a water-budget model for the Island of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engott, John A.; Johnson, Adam G.; Bassiouni, Maoya; Izuka, Scot K.; Rotzoll, Kolja

    2015-02-25

    Owing mainly to projected population growth, demand for freshwater on the Island of Oʻahu is expected to increase by about 26 percent between 2010 and 2030, according to the City and County of Honolulu. Estimates of groundwater recharge are needed to evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater. For this study, a water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Oʻahu for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Oʻahu is about 660 million gallons per day, or about 36 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 34 percent of total water inflow, which consists of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, water-main leakage, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Recharge is high along the crest of the Koʻolau Range, reaching as much as about 180 inches per year in the north-central part of the range. Recharge is much lower outside of the mountainous areas of the island, commonly less than 5 inches per year in unirrigated areas. The island-wide estimate of groundwater recharge for average climate conditions from this study is within 1 percent of the recharge estimate used in the 2008 State of Hawaiʻi Water Resource Protection Plan, which divides the Island of Oʻahu into 23 aquifer systems for groundwater management purposes. To facilitate direct comparisons with this study, these 23 aquifer systems were consolidated into 21 aquifer systems. Recharge estimates from this study are higher for 12 of the aquifer-system areas and lower for 9. Differences in mean rainfall distribution and the inclusion of irrigation in this study are the primary reasons for discrepancies in recharge estimates between this study and the 2008 Hawaiʻi Water Resources Protection Plan. For

  9. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  10. The Stabilising Role Of The Fiscal And Budgetary Policies Within The Simplified Keynesian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campeanu, Emilia Mioara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to investigate the fiscal and budgetary policies using the simplified Keynesian model. It focuses on the imbalance in the fiscal and budgetary policies trying to justify the rationality of the deficits: the political strategic aspect to leave a hardto- administrate legacy, and the inter-party conflict, which may influence the budgetary decisions of the government. The purpose of the presentation is to show the stabilizing role of the public budget in relation with the full employment goal.

  11. Fiscal policy in terms of global institutionalization: Ukraine and experience of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мар`яна Олександрівна Cухорукова

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the fiscal policy in the context of global processes of institutionalization. Solving the problem was carried out on the basis of modern scientific thoughts. Essence and main trends in fiscal sphere are highlighted regarding tax rates, implementation of the crisis tax for the purpose of accumulating additional funds in the state budget. Statistical data on the level of tax rates and tax burden in the world were analyzed. An experience of foreign countries and the possibility of considering and implementation it by national state were considered

  12. Are voters fiscal conservatives? Evidence from Brazilian municipal elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Arvate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some papers in literature show that voters are fiscal conservatives, while others find evidence of a preference for fiscal profligacy. We use a traditional Probit model to analyze the preference of Brazilian municipal voters in the 2000 election. The main result suggests that voters prefer greater expenditure. We present evidence that this result is a consequence of a fiscal federalism model where there is a soft budget constraint for municipalities (institutional context. Moreover, we obtained evidence that voters with different levels of schooling impose a different result on expenditure. The effect of expenditure is more marked in municipalities with a low level of literacy.Alguns artigos na literatura mostram que os eleitores são conservadores em assuntos fiscais enquanto outros encontram evidências de preferência por uma expansão fiscal. Nós usamos um modelo Probit tradicional para analisar a preferência dos eleitores municipais brasileiros na eleição de 2000. Nosso principal resultado sugere que os eleitores preferem mais gastos. Apresentamos algumas evidências de que esse resultado é uma consequência do modelo de federalismo fiscal existente no qual predomina uma restrição orçamentária fraca para os municípios (contexto institucional. Adicionalmente, obtivemos evidências de que os eleitores com diferentes níveis de escolaridade impõem diferente resultado nos gastos. O efeito do gasto é maior nos municípios onde o nível de alfabetização é menor.

  13. Regional budget for 2015–2017: doing away with deficit or doing away with development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional budget in the Vologda Oblast for 2015–2017 was formed under difficult socioeconomic conditions caused not only by a longstanding dependence of Russia’s economy and its budget system on the external economic environment, but also by a number of new factors associated with the aggravation of geopolitical tensions and the application of sectoral sanctions by Western countries. Despite an uncertainty in economic development trends, the new budget is announced to be deficitfree. It would seem that the balance of revenues and expenditures, a fundamental principle of the budget system, has been achieved. However, an analysis of the expenditure part of the budget shows that the balance is achieved at the expense of introducing the austerity regime followed by the restriction of all directions of funding. For 2015–2017 the share of the regional budget expenditures in GRP will decrease to 9.8% vs. 13.6% in 2014. If macroeconomic dynamics maintains its downward trend, such fiscal policy in the long term will suppress the economy even more significantly and will ultimately lead to the taxable capacity reduction. Under the conditions of economic activity slowdown, even if the budget is balanced, it will not be possible to neutralize the cyclical risks connected with the receipt of profit tax from the metallurgical and chemical industries that are integrated into the world economy and act as the major budget revenue generating industries in the region. Simple calculations prove that at the current high level of debt load it will be extremely difficult for the government to overcome the dependence on borrowed funds; therefore, it seems rather doubtful that the budget balance over the forecast period can be achieved. The author analyzes several laws on the regional budget*16 and comes to a conclusion that the fiscal policy pursued by the federal government is flawed because it focuses on fiscal functions rather than on stimulating and regulating

  14. The Effect of Fiscal Decentralization on Under-five Mortality in Iran: A Panel Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Ali Hussein; Keshtkaran, Ali; Kavosi, Zahra; Vahedi, Sajad

    2013-11-01

    Fiscal Decentralization (FD) in many cases is encouraged as a strong means of improving the efficiency and equity in the provision of public goods, such as healthcare services. This issue has urged the researchers to experimentally examine the relationship between fiscal decentralization indicators and health outcomes. In this study we examine the effect of Fiscal Decentralization in Medical Universities (FDMU) and Fiscal Decentralization in Provincial Revenues (FDPR) on Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5M) in provinces of Iran over the period between 2007 and 2010. We employed panel data methods in this article. The results of the Pesaran CD test demonstrated that most of the variables used in the analysis were cross-sectionally dependent. The Hausman test results suggested that fixed-effects were more appropriate to estimate our model. We estimated the fixed-effect model by using Driscoll-Kraay standard errors as a remedy for cross-sectional dependency. According to the findings of this research, fiscal decentralization in the health sector had a negative impact on U5M. On the other hand, fiscal decentralization in provincial revenues had a positive impact on U5M. In addition, U5M had a negative association with the density of physicians, hospital beds, and provincial GDP per capita, but a positive relationship with Gini coefficient and unemployment. The findings of our study indicated that fiscal decentralization should be emphasized in the health sector. The results suggest the need for caution in the implementation of fiscal decentralization in provincial revenues.

  15. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  16. Global fiscal adjustment and trade rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick McKibbin; Stoeckel, Andrew B.; YingYing Lu

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of substantial fiscal deficits and a large build up of government debt in major advanced economies will inevitably lead to a period of fiscal consolidation in coming years. In an earlier paper, McKibbin and Stoeckel (2010) explored the effects of this fiscal adjustment in advanced economies on the global economic outlook. This paper focuses on the differences between the impacts of fiscal policy in advanced versus emerging economies. In particular, the need for more fiscal spend...

  17. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  18. DOD TRAVEL IMPROPER PAYMENTS: Fiscal Year 2006 Reporting Was Incomplete and Planned Improvement Efforts Face Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WIlliams, McCoy

    2007-01-01

    In its fiscal year 2006 PAR, DOD reported an estimate of approximately $8 million in travel program improper payments, which DOD reported as reflecting about 1 percent of reported travel payments for the year...

  19. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : Intervention Model in fiscal year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report presents results from FMCSAs Roadside Intervention Model for fiscal year 2007. The model estimates the number of crashes avoided, as well as injuries avoided and lives saved, as a result of the Agencys roadside inspection program. T...

  20. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  1. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  2. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  3. EXPERIENŢA ŞI PRACTICA MONDIALĂ DE ORGANIZARE A ORGANELOR FISCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia DJUGOSTRAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rolul important al administrării fiscale se manifestă prin îmbunătăţirea impozitării cu ajutorul activităţilor administ­rative şi organizaţionale, a căror schemă raţională serveşte drept condiţie a implementării cu succes a politicii fiscale de stat. Administrarea impozitelor este un proces major, care unifică cadrul legal al impozitării, ca succes al ştiinţei finan­ciare şi practicii economice, pentru asigurarea funcţionării stabile a mecanismului fiscal funcţional în procesul de prog­nozare, gestionare şi control al crimelor fiscale în cadrul bugetului.GLOBAL PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING TAX AUTHORITIESThe important role of tax administration by improving tax manifests using administrative and organizational activities, which serves rational scheme as a condition for the successful implementation of state tax policy. The tax administration - is a major process that unifies the legal framework of taxation, the financial success of science and economic practice to ensure stable functioning of the fiscal mechanism in the fiscal forecasting, management and control of tax crimes within the budget.

  4. Fiscal performance of Six Selected Taluka Municipal Administration in Sindh Fy 2001 to Fy 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmad Khan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Devolution of government financial authority has been an important component of the fiscal reforms implemented by the Musharraf government on the advice of the IMF, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank since 2000. Devolution of fiscal authorityhas been integrated into the scheme for the establishment of local government in Sindh.The legal framework for this devolution of fiscal authority is provided by the Sindh Local Government Ordinance (SLGO of 2001. The fiscal responsibility of Taluka and Town Municipal Authorities (TMAs have been significantly enhanced by this legislative act.This paper prevents an analysis of the fiscal performance of six Sindh TMAs during Fy 2001 to Fy 2005. Section 1 describes the work done by successive Provincial Finance Commissions (PFC established under SLGO 2001. Section II describes the fiscal responsibility of the TMAs and associated procedures for discharge of theseresponsibilities. Section III analysis the budgeting performance of six Sindh TMAs during Fy 2002 – Fy 2005 (Mithi, Badin, Naushahro Feroze, Dadu, Sanghar and Khairpur. Conclusion are presented in section IV.

  5. Structural Breaks in Fiscal Performance; Did Fiscal Responsibility Laws Have Anything to Do with Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Medina; Carlos Caceres; Ana Corbacho

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many countries have adopted Fiscal Responsibility Laws to strengthen fiscal institutions and promote fiscal discipline in a credible, predictable and transparent manner. Still, results on the effectiveness of these laws remain tentative. In this paper, we test empirically whether fiscal performance, measured as the level of primary fiscal balances and their volatility, indeed improved after the implementation of Fiscal Responsibility Laws in a sample of Latin American and adv...

  6. Role of fiscal and budgetary sphere in the strengthening of the fiscal security of the state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Brytova

    2017-08-01

    The research made it possible to systematize the existing fiscal problems which contribute to the decrease of the fiscal security of Ukraine. It has been proved that strengthening of the state fiscal security is possible by conducting a balanced policy on creation of a favorable fiscal space and effective strategic management of fiscal security. It has been defined by the author that the implementation of new innovative projects, which would help to strengthen the state’s fiscal security, is prospective.

  7. Fiscal Liability of State Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fajardo-Peña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.

  8. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  9. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment...

  10. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... with the recovery from tortiously liable third persons for the cost of inpatient medical services...

  11. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... the cost of inpatient medical services furnished by military treatment facilities through the...

  12. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  13. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and nonloan...

  14. A note on India's water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some recent analyses of India 's water budget are based on information attributed to the Ministry of Water Resources.An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapotranspiration estimate that is significantly lower than what one may expect based on information from other sources.If such is the ...

  15. A note on India's water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some recent analyses of India's water budget are based on information attributed to the Ministry of Water Resources. An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapo- transpiration estimate that is significantly lower than what one may expect based on information from other sources. If such is the ...

  16. The Economic Effects of the President’s 2015 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    United States, changes in GNP are a better measure of changes in domestic residents’ income than are changes in GDP . CBO’s budget calculations for this...CBO’s Estimates of How the President’s Budget Would Affect GNP From 2020 to 2024 Under Various Models and Estimating Approaches 14Figure 1. CBO’s...Estimates of How the President’s Budget Would Affect Total and per Capita GNP and the Size of the U.S. Population 3CBO The Economic Effects of the

  17. Fiscal State-citizen Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    2016-01-01

    , this article maps out four episodes of sovereign fiscalism, namely, debt-taking in the Italian city-states, the making of the absolutist tax/fiscal state, the eighteenth/nineteenth century elaboration of the economic citizen, and the postwar era of managed capitalism. Finally, it applies this framework...... to the 2008 crisis and the larger post-1970s politico-economic constellation. The crisis can be perceived as a particular articulation of an age-old state-household dynamic—a dialectical alignment of the mode of fiscal state-crafting with the ethos of the state-citizen nexus—characterized by a heightened...... fiscal attentiveness to ordinary consumer-citizens. By uncovering the sociohistorical conditions governing the dominant precrisis regime, it not only nuances our understanding of the crisis but also of neoliberalism and suggests the implausibility of returning to “Golden Age” democratic capitalism....

  18. Spending Disclosure - Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...

  19. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  20. Hearing on Revenue Provision in President's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget. Testimony before the House Committee on Ways and Means. Statement of Rene Bouchard, District Superintendent, Steuben-Allegany Counties, and Chief Executive Officer, Steuben-Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Bath, New York on Behalf of National Rural Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Rene

    In an address to the House Ways and Means Committee on the Revenue Provision in the Year 2000 Budget, Rene Bouchard, CEO of Steuben-Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services, discusses the needs of rural schools and how the President's school modernization proposal would help them. Bouchard argues the need for federal assistance to school…

  1. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  2. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICIES ON PUBLIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Ciurlău

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy is the main component of financial policy. Being a component of economic policy, taxation must lead to economic objectives. Maintaining equilibria macroeconomic cannot be blamed solely in charge of monetary policy, fiscal policy and that the revenue must have a role in support and to bear the load efforts to stabilise. Large deficits are dangerous for current account, because they are associated with a greater risk of producing an adjustment steep in the exchange rate and high volatility of exchange rate has major implications on the stability and macroeconomic monetary, in general. This means that countries should his election budgets so as to cope with growing demand from the private sector and to take necessary safeguard measures against potential crises, whereas the extent fiscal deficit contributes directly to the magnitude current account deficit.

  3. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  4. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Procurement Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles, Ammunition and Other National Guard Equipment. Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Massachusetts Avenue ASA(RDI&A) (21672) 1 APA only Washington, DC 20314 ASA(M&RA) (21594) 1 DANA-WSN (3B455) 6 SALL (2C638) 24 MIPA only Comander 2 DACA ...BUL (3A652) 14 DAA-WSW (3D455) 7 US Army Material & Readiness DACA -BUF (33663) 10 PWTCV only Comand DACA -ZIA (23664) 1 DANA-CS (31432) 2 ATTN: DRCSM...1..... 3-5 jinwary 1983 A P.r.cuwsaant of WSTGVArmky 312O .5403 Programa and Financing (in thouand. o1F dallaral 11111 Fiscal prows Itudgt plan

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE ROMANIAN FISCAL LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Muntean

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy constitutes – within the state's economic policy – a system by means of which the taxes and duties owed to the country's consolidated budget are established and collected. Taking into account the role fiscal policy has been playing since Romania's admission in the European Union, one of the goals ceaselessly looked for is its adapting to the international community's acquis through the implementation of the European directives in our context. The EU directives make reference to direct taxes: dividend tax, interest income tax, assets transfer, shares exchange, income taxation for the non-residents, and so on, along with the indirect taxes: value-added tax, excise duties, etc. The paper approaches the main provisions within the contents of the European directives as well as the means of their implementation in the Romanian fiscal legislation regarding various types of taxes. The implementation of the European directives has been simultaneous with the establishing of measures concerning fiscal fraud prevention, frauds liable to have a negative impact on the state's consolidated budget.

  6. Structural and Stabilization Aspects of Fiscal and Financial Policy in the Dependent Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Buiter, Willem H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper considers the response of a small, open dependent economy to a variety of fiscal and financial shocks. It also examines the influence of alternative budget-balancing rules on the response of the economy to external shocks, such as a change in the world interest rate. The approach allows for both uncertain individual lifetimes and population growth, using a slightly generalized version of the Yaari-Blanchard model of consumer behaviour. Debt neutrality does not prevail unless the sum...

  7. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF POPULATION AGEING ON FISCAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cristina NUTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the impact that demographic changes have had during the 1995-2013 fiscal indicators such as the level of public expenditure, the total/social budget deficit or public debt in Romania. Population aging affects a number of categories of expenditures (social protection expenditure, the health care expenditure or long-term care, and government revenue, through many mechanisms.

  8. An Examination of the Department of the Army’s Portion of the Department of Defense Budget Request in Order to Determine If It Has Been in Line with the Specified Priorities of the Congress from Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 through FY 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    352 He expressed his concern for high priced programs, asking if the military was taking on too much, and if the right amount of oversight was being...and found it to be a stage setter for follow-on priority documents. Additional relationships were found between budget requests and certain changes...decline in housing prices as they began to dip and homeowners started to default on mortgage loans. This subsequently led to the 2007 mortgage crisis

  9. 42 CFR 412.352 - Budget neutrality adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for Capital-Related Costs... payments under this subpart for inpatient hospital capital costs each fiscal year will equal 90 percent of what CMS estimates would have been paid for capital-related costs on a reasonable cost basis under...

  10. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  11. Financial fragility and the fiscal multiplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; van der Kwaak, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of `Keynesian' fiscal stimuli when government deficits and debt rollovers are (possibly partially) financed by balance sheet constrained financial intermediaries. Because financial intermediaries operate under a leverage constraint, deficit financing of fiscal

  12. Implications of Fiscal Responsibility on Economic Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anca Florentina Gavriluţă (Vatamanu)

    2017-01-01

    ... preserving fiscal discipline. This study tests the implications of fiscal responsibility on economic growth with the scope to analyze and find out the major issue of responsible public finances...

  13. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  14. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  15. Budgeting and Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Call for a Budgetary Theory: The appeal of Valdimer Key for a budgetary theory marks the interest in public budgeting in modern history. He clearly referred to a normative theory, raising the question: ‘on what basis shall it be decided to allocate X dollars to activity A instead of

  16. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  17. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  18. Fiscal Cliff and other Topographical Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the broad theoretical framework of the Cognitive Theory of Metaphor, in this paper we explore the figurativeness of a number of expressions (fiscal cliff, fiscal gorge, fiscal slope, etc. pertaining to the most recent U.S. fiscal situation. We analyse the context-dependent use of the metaphorical linguistic expressions gathered via an Internet search and discuss to what extent they are motivated, that is, well-grounded.

  19. Fiscal Reaction Function: Evidences from CESEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Zdravković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve on the methodology set in previous attempts to estimate the impact of gross government debt to primary balances in a wide set of 21 CESEE countries. Since the result of the long-lasting crisis in those countries is rising imbalance of public finances it is necessary to analyze what factors are causing such effects. Running the fixed effect, pooled and GMM regression it was found that both lagged government debt and output gap are positively related to primary balance. Moreover there was found evidence of non-linear relationship between primary balance and lagged debt, with fiscal fatigue occurrence at 70% threshold. Estimation of the augmented model shows that countercyclical response of primary balance is more pronounced in economic downturn relative to boom in cycle.

  20. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the extent that zero base budgeting plans, executes and controls, it serves as a management tool. Nigeria's budgeting has been incremental, overly politicized and not carried out by experts, but merely based on benchmark price and quota of daily oil production. Factors militating against proper budgeting in Nigeria are ...

  1. The effect of a budget deficit on inflation: The case of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Solomon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tanzanian economy has remained one of the limited numbers of countries that has experienced a relatively high inflation rate, accompanied by high fiscal deficits for a prolonged period in the absence of any hyperinflation. This paper examines the deficit-inflation relationship in the Tanzanian economy and establishes the causal link that runs from the budget deficit to the inflation rate usingcointegration analysis over the period 1967-2001. Some dynamic simulations are done to gauge the effect of a change in the budget deficit and gross domestic product on inflation over time. Due to monetisation of the budget deficit, significant inflationary effects are found for increases in the budget deficit.

  2. 7 CFR 966.16 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 966.16 Section 966.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.16 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning August 1 and...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1206.7 Section 1206.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period...

  4. 12 CFR 545.101 - Fiscal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agency. 545.101 Section 545.101 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS § 545.101 Fiscal agency. A Federal savings association designated fiscal agent by the Secretary of...

  5. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120... Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.952 Fiscal agent. SBA shall appoint a Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production of...

  6. 7 CFR 1150.107 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1150.107 Section 1150.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Definitions § 1150.107 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the calendar year or such other annual...

  7. 7 CFR 1209.7 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 1209.7 Section 1209.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....7 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means the 12-month period from January 1 to December 31 each year, or...

  8. 31 CFR 342.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 342.9 Section 342.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.9 Fiscal...

  9. 7 CFR 925.112 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 925.112 Section 925.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 925.112 Fiscal period. Beginning January 1, 1988, fiscal period...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1220.111 Section 1220.111 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The term fiscal period means the calendar year or such other annual period as the Board may determine with the...

  11. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 330.9 Section 330.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal agents...

  12. 7 CFR 927.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 927.9 Section 927.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning...

  13. 7 CFR 959.16 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.16 Section 959.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.16 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the annual period beginning and...

  14. 7 CFR 947.114 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.114 Section 947.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.114 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin July 1 of each year and end June 30 of the...

  15. 7 CFR 906.15 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 906.15 Section 906.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.15 Fiscal period. Fiscal period...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.307 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1205.307 Section 1205.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.307 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is the 12-month budgetary...

  17. 7 CFR 956.113 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 956.113 Section 956.113 Agriculture... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.113 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 956.13, fiscal period shall mean the period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of...

  18. 7 CFR 1215.7 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 1215.7 Section 1215.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Fiscal year. Fiscal year means the 12-month period from January 1 through December 31 each year, or such...

  19. 7 CFR 905.11 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 905.11 Section 905.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.11 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means...

  20. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the Secretary...