WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget estimates fiscal

  1. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  2. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  3. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  5. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  6. Budget estimates: Fiscal years, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The budget estimates for the NRC for fiscal year 1990 provide for obligations of $475,000,000, to be funded in total by two new appropriations---one is NRC's Salaries and Expenses appropriation for $472,100,000 and the other is NRC's Office of the Inspector General appropriation of $2,900,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $23,195,000 shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund. The sum appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1990 from licensing fees, inspection services, other services and collections, and from the Nuclear Waste Fund, excluding those moneys received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1990 appropriation estimated at not more than $292,155,000

  7. Budget estimates fiscal year 1989: Appropriation, Salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The budget estimates for Salaries and Expenses for FY 1989 provide for obligations of $450,000,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation. The sum appropriated shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1989 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, excluding those monies received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1989 appropriation estimated at not more than $247,500,000

  8. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1984/85. Appropriation: salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justifications to Congress. The budget estimates for salaries and expenses for fiscal year 1984 to 1985 provide for obligations of $466,800,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation

  9. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  11. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  12. Fiscal year 1993 budget estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the NRC with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to ensure adequate protection for the public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment in the use of nuclear materials in the United States. The NRC's scope of responsibility incudes regulation of commercial nuclear power plants; research, test, and training reactors; fuel cycle facilities; medical, academic, and industrial uses of nuclear materials; and the transport, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and wastes. The NRC carries out its mission by setting standards and requirements that licensees must meet to design,construct, and operate safe facilities, in the form of rules, license conditions, and regulatory guidance; inspecting facilities and taking enforcement action, as necessary, to ensure that such standards are followed; and conducting research to support, confirm, or refine judgments used in regulatory decisions. The technologies involved in the use of nuclear energy are relatively new and complex. Regulatory decisions often require conservatism to account for technical uncertainty. Conservatisms should be modified appropriately as increased understanding of physical phenomena and interactions is achieved. Further, essential functions must be maintained through appropriate combinations of high component and system reliability, redundancy, and diversity to provide multiple barriers to the release of radiation (defense-in-depth)

  13. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  14. Local autonomy and interregional equality : fiscal equalization with balanced budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander W; Tungodden, Bertil

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on fiscal equalization in three ways. First, it shows how two important types of transfer schemes, the foundation grant and the power equalization grant, can be seen as two different interpretations of equal opportunity ethics. Second, it characterizes versions of these transfers schemes that ensure a balanced budget for the central government. Third, it clarifies the nature of various fiscal spillover effects within the framework of ...

  15. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run outp

  16. Budget Development, Budget Monitoring, Accounting and Financial Reporting: A Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A school district's governing board, superintendent, and business manager should work as an effective fiscal policy team with good communication. This self-assessment guide is designed to assist in the overall evaluation of fiscal policy team communication. Four sections (budget development, budget monitoring, financial reporting, and…

  17. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 2001-03. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Ronald L.

    This report contains information on the federal funding of research and development (R&D) components of agency programs as proposed for the fiscal year (FY) 2001-2003. Research and development data are classified into the same federal budget function categories as those used in "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001-2003." The…

  18. Budget estimates - fiscal years 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the NRC with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to ensure adequate protection for the public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment in the use of nuclear materials in the United States. The NRC's scope of responsibility includes regulation of commercial nuclear power plants; research, test, and training reactors; fuel cycle facilities; medical, academic, and industrial uses of nuclear materials; and the transport, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and wastes. The NRC carries out its mission by setting standards and requirements that licensees must meet to design, construct, and operate safe facilities, in the form of rules, license conditions, and regulatory guidance; inspecting facilities and taking enforcement action, as necessary, to ensure that such standards are followed; and conducting research to support, confirm, or refine judgments used in regulatory decisions. The technologies involved in the use of nuclear energy are relatively new and complex. Regulatory decisions often require conservatism to account for technical uncertainty. Conservatisms should be modified appropriately as increased understanding of physical phenomena and interactions is achieved. Further, essential functions must be maintained through appropriate combinations of high component and system reliability, redundancy, and diversity to provide multiple barriers to the release of radiation (defense-in-depth)

  19. Governors' FY 1998 Education Budgets Focus on Property Tax Cuts and Enrollment Changes. State Fiscal Brief, No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Schieder, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Donald J.

    This report summarizes the proposed budgets for U.S. public elementary and secondary education for fiscal year 1998 and describes the budgets and the major factors that influence those budgets. It is the second in a series of "State Fiscal Briefs" on education finance by the Center for the Study of the States. The report is primarily based on…

  20. Structural breaks and fiscal sustainability of the Indonesian government budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantia S. Mokoginta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify government policy regimes or structural breaks as indicated by significant changes in debt to GDP ratio and to identify fiscal sustainability in Indonesia from 2000 to 2013. Using Fiscal Reaction Functions framework and Smooth Transition Regression, the study found two structural breaks following the three regimes. Foreign debt repayment dominates the government policy during Regime I. Fiscal consolidations and discipline such as reducing energy subsidies in 2002 and 2005, managing debt portfolio and increasing government revenues were dominant during Regime II. In Regime III, the government increases domestic debt, particularly to finance stimulus package. This study also found that the Indonesian fiscal is unsustainable during the period of study. Overall, the findings seem to suggest that managing government debt through fiscal consolidations, foreign debt repayment and debt portfolio management is not sufficient to achieve long-term fiscal sustainability.

  1. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  2. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  3. FY 1997 Year End Budget Summary. State Fiscal Brief No. 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Schieder, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Donald J.

    This report summarizes the status of states' budgets at the end of fiscal year 1997. The year's strong national economy boosted tax revenues and helped to decrease welfare rolls. Unemployment at the end of 1997 was below 5 percent nationally and real GDP growth was 3.5 percent for the first 3 quarters of the year. These indicators translate into…

  4. Constraining Political Budget Cycles : Media Strength and Fiscal Institutions in the Enlarged EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademmer, Esther; Dreher, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits institutional constraints to political budget cycles (PBCs) in the enlarged European Union (EU). Based on a panel of 25 Member States, we show that governments frequently fiscally stimulate the economy prior to elections. We argue that the occurrence of PBCs in the enlarged EU

  5. Discretionary fiscal policy: review and estimates for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Beetsma; M. Giuliodori

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the theoretical and empirical consequences of discretionary fiscal policy changes, after which we provide our own estimates for the EU countries. A fiscal expansion raises output and consumption and reduces the trade balance. Moreover, the stimulating effect of higher government pu

  6. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  7. Interplay of aid and fiscal policy: Does budget support induce greater fiscal discipline?

    OpenAIRE

    Puonti, Päivi

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of foreign aid has been studied from various perspectives. The current aid system has come under a lot of criticism and the relevance of aid giving in eradicating extreme poverty has been widely questioned. Even though aid has been found to have a strong, positive impact on growth, there is a concern about other possible effects. Among them is the concern about its impact on aid receiving country government’s fiscal discipline. However the research done to date does not...

  8. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh G. Tali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  9. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  10. THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF FISCAL CONSTITUTION IN THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC BUDGETS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-01-01

    In the long run, public budgets in a great majority of developed economies suffer from recurring deficits and an increasing public debt. However, the condition of public finace deteriorated even in times of economic conjuncture, so the onset of the crisis in 2008 caught most of the developed world without financial reserves, or the so-called fiscal cushion. Thus most EU countries now fail to fulfill both the Maastricht Convergence Criteria and the Fiscal Compact Treaty, even if these are bind...

  11. FISCAL AND BUDGET POLICIES - MAJOR COMPONENTS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY MIX IN ROMANIA AT PRESENT AND IN FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Ionela; Codreanu, Diana; ALBICI Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the Government's economic policy is represented by ensuring coherent macroeconomic stability, by maintaining a conservatory fiscal position and by promoting prudent salary policies in order to support disinflation and limit foreign imbalances which shall facilitate sustainable economic growth and a real convergence. The fiscal and budget policies applied in Romania in the years before the crisis have led to domestic and foreign imbalances which must be changed during the next...

  12. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  13. Hanford Site Environmental Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-05-12

    The Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Budget-Risk Management Summary report is prepared to support the annual request to sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex by DOE, Headquarters. The request requires sites to provide supplementary crosscutting information related to ES&H activities and the ES&H resources that support these activities. The report includes the following: (1) A summary status of fiscal year (FY) 1999 ES&H performance and ES&H execution commitments; (2)Status and plans of Hanford Site Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup activities; (3) Safety and health (S&H) risk management issues and compliance vulnerabilities of FY 2001 Target Case and Below Target Case funding of EM cleanup activities; (4) S&H resource planning and crosscutting information for FY 1999 to 2001; and (5) Description of indirect-funded S&H activities.

  14. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  15. The global financial crisis and fiscal policy in Central and Eastern Europe: the 2009 Croatian budget odysey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Mihaljek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two main questions: first, what is the scope for domestic and external market-based financing of Croatia’s government budget deficit; and second, what is the scope for expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia. Both questions are addressed from a broader Central and Eastern European perspective, in the context of the economic and financial crisis unfolding in the region since October 2008. The paper analyses how the crisis had spread through financial markets in the region and how it affected the cost and availability of budget financing. It shows that the reliance on market-based financing increased significantly in successive revisions of the 2009 budget despite rising bond yields and interest rates; that government borrowing from domestic banks led to a severe crowding-out of the private sector; and that the sovereign eurobond placement in 2009 was costlier than earlier placements in similar circumstances and other sovereign debt issues in CEE in the first half of 2009. On this basis, the paper argues that expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia would not be effective and would undermine fiscal sustainability and financial stability.

  16. Externalities and bailouts : hard and soft budget constraints in intergovernmental fiscal relations

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Wildasin

    1997-01-01

    Subnational governments are assuming greater fiscal responsibility in many developing and transition countries. There is concern, however, that fiscal decentralization may weaken fiscal discipline -that local authorities may undertake commitments or incur debt obligations that subsequently result in massive central government support, in the form of extraordinary transfers, or bailouts. (Recent experience in major U.S. cities shows that these problems are not restricted to developing countrie...

  17. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  18. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  19. States' FY 1998 Education Budgets Increase 7.2%. State Fiscal Brief, No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Schieder, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Donald J.

    This report, third in a series on education finance, examines U.S. education budgets recently passed by state legislatures and contrasts them with proposed gubernatorial budgets. The generally strong economy allowed state legislatures to increase total state FY 1998 education spending by over $2 billion (1.5 percent) from governors' own proposed…

  20. The Art and Craft of Budgeting: Fiscal Policy in the Eurozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the past twenty-five years we have seen a growing body of literature on the determinants of fiscal policy as measured by analyzing cross-national data on budgetary deficits and public debts. The discussion is largely shaped by Jürgen von Hagen’s work on the impact of both political an

  1. Proposal for the implementation of a fiscal rule system for Romania. Estimate for the reaction of the fiscal rule system to the output’s shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides arguments for the need to improve the fiscal rule proposed by the European Commission within the Fiscal Compact, considering the implementation of an augmented growth-based balance rule optimum for Romania. The first part of the paper presents the proposal for the implementation of an integrated system of fiscal rules in Romania. In the second part of this paper, we can find simulations for the reaction of the fiscal rule system proposed for the shocks occurring in the economic growth, these estimates being made by the help of the specialists from the National Forecast Commission

  2. BUDGET ISSUES AND FISCAL POLICY IN ROMANIA AND IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on one of the priority themes of any governance, namely public administration reform, a particular importance being its financial component. In terms of austerity in which public authorities operate in Romania, balancing local budgets is a current topic and strongly debated. It is a clear difference between earning income communities and communities of sufficient own funds set up not doing any maintenance to cover the village. Communities who occupy the first places have economic, social, demographic benefits, that enable continuous development. Although there is always the tendency to criticize communities that do not have sufficient income,it must be seen that in Europe today the basic concept that builds on development theory is economic and social cohesion. It is believed that the uneven development of the territories actually reflect the economic weaknesses of the combination of which led to political and economic instability. An alternative to this situation is the solidarity of local communities, calculated to maintain a balance between both communities. It is believed that overall healthy economic development can be achieved by a balanced territorial development, and not by widening the existing gaps. In this paper we conducted an analysis of revenues and expenditures of local budgets in Romania, the time interval, 2013-2015, and each party's share of the local budget both in GDP and in the general consolidated budget. Analysis based on the data allows the expression of conclusions on the implementation of revenue and expenditures of local budgets.

  3. Managing Medium-Term Fiscal Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Mexico needs a comprehensive fiscal reform to alleviate the looming medium-term pressures on its budget. This policy note contributes to the debate on Mexico's looming fiscal challenges. The country's fiscal framework, centered on the 2006 budget and fiscal responsibility law, and prudent fiscal risk management has helped maintain short-term budget stability and a fairly stable public debt...

  4. The Impact of Fiscal Governance on Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    of 36 US states in the period 1988-1997, we estimate that a budget delay of 30 days has a long run impact on the yield spread between 2 and 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity in the form of large reserves face small or no costs from late budgets.......Does fiscal governance affect government borrowing costs? We operationalize fiscal governance as the ability of governments to pass a budget on time and, using a unique data set on budget enactment dates, analyze the effect of such late budgets on government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample...

  5. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  6. STEWB - Simplified Transient Estimation of the Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P. D.; Simmons, C. S.; Cady, R. E.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    A simplified model describing the transient water budget of a shallow unsaturated soil profile is presented. This model was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the time-varying net infiltration at sites containing residual levels of radioactive materials. Ease of use, computational efficiency, and use of standard parameters and available data were requirements of the model. The model's conceptualization imposes the following simplifications: a uniform soil profile, instantaneous redistribution of infiltrated water, drainage under a unit hydraulic gradient, and no drainage from the soil profile during infiltration. The model's formulation is a revision of that originally presented by Kim et al. [WRR, 32(12):3475-3484, 1996]. Daily meteorological data are required as input. Random durations for precipitation events are generated based on an estimate of the average number of exceedances per year for the specific daily rainfall depth observed. Snow accumulation and melt are described using empirical relationships. During precipitation or snowmelt, runoff is described using an infiltration equation for ponded conditions. When no water is being applied to the profile, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage occur. The ET rate equals the potential evapotranspiration rate, PET, above a critical value of saturation, SC. Below this critical value, ET = PET*(S/SC)**p, where S is saturation and p is an empirical parameter. Drainage flux from the profile equals the hydraulic conductivity as represented by the Brooks-Corey model. The model has been implemented with an easy-to-use graphical interface and is available at http://nrc-hydro-uncert.pnl.gov/code.htm. Comparison of the model results with lysimeter measurements will be shown, including a 50-year record from the ARS-Coshocton site in Ohio. The interpretation of parameters and the sensitivity of the model to parameter values will be discussed.

  7. Indeterminacy and utility-generating government spending under balanced-budget fiscal policies

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Hori; Noritaka Maebayashi

    2013-01-01

    We reexamine indeterminacy and utility-generating public spending under balanced- budget rules in a simple one-sector growth model. The introduction of consumption tax (subsidy) as well as subsidies for savings and labor modify indeterminacy con- ditions in the existing studies. We show that if consumption subsidies and income taxes exist, indeterminacy occurs even when private and public consumption are Edgeworth substitutes and public spending and leisure are separable in the utility functi...

  8. On the Budget Control of Fiscal Subsidy in China%论我国财政补贴的预算控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕清正

    2015-01-01

    财政补贴是财政支出的一种类型,预算控制是控制财政补贴支出的重要途径.在预算编制过程中,我国应继续强化财政部门的主导权,控制预算支出的具体名目.在预算审议的过程中,补贴支出采取分项审议和表决,科目和金额的调整必须由立法机关审批,禁止人大对补贴支出的增额修正权.在预算执行过程中,我国立法应当规定预算的变更均属于预算调整并加以规范,建立补贴备案.此外,还应完善财政信息公开和公民参与预算决策.%Fiscal subsidy is a type of financial expenditure, while budget control is an important approach controlling the expendi-ture of fiscal subsidy. In the process of budget planning, China should continuously enhance the dominance of financial depart-ments and control the details of budget expenditure. In the pro-cess of budget approval, the subsidy expenditures are reviewed and voted in accordance with different items, and the adjustment of items and amount of money should be examined and approved by legislative organs, and the supplementary amendment right of the People's Congress in subsidy expenditure is prohibited. In the process of budget enforcement, the law should regulate that the changes of budget all belong to budget adjustment and subsidy records should be established.

  9. Fiscal Year 1985 Congressional budget request. Volume 1. Atomic energy defense activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Contents include: summaries of estimates by appropriation, savings from management initiatives, staffing by subcommittee, staffing appropriation; appropriation language; amounts available for obligation; estimates by major category; program overview; weapons activities; verification and control technology; materials production; defense waste and by-products management; nuclear safeguards and security; security investigations; and naval reactors development.

  10. The Role of Budget Stabilization Fund: Fiscal Reserves or Budget Readjustment?%预算稳定调节基金:财政储备还是预算调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凌波

    2012-01-01

    Budget stabilization fund is generally considered to be an important tool for counter- cyclical fiscal policy. The establishment of budget stabilization fund in China is not only to control and make a good use of excessive budgetary revenues, but also to establish fiscal reserves for emergency. Various functions of budget stabilization fund also bring many contradictions and controversy to its own running. Since budget stabilization fund will be written into the budget law, identifying the nature and role of the fund has become an urgent practical problem. This paper analyzes the generation, operation and effects of budget stabilization fund in China. It is pointed out that budget stabilization fund is considered more as a method of budget readjustment than as fiscal reserves. The urgent task is to formulate a regulation of the fund management.%预算稳定基金一般被认为是逆周期财政政策的重要工具,而在中国,引入预算稳定调节基金,首先是为了解决财政超收的治理问题,同时也承担着财政应急储备的功能。政策效用的多重性,为预算稳定调节基金这一工具提供了坚实的基础和充分的空间,但也给其自身运行带来许多矛盾和争论。随着预算稳定调节基金写入预算法,究竟是财政储备还是预算调节,基金的性质和走向已然成为当前迫切需要明确的现实问题。本文从财政储备调节理论出发,结合我国的财政预算管理实践,对预算稳定调节机制的产生、运行及其效果进行了分析,提出我国的预算稳定调节基金应尽可能更多地发挥预算调节作用,同时具备一定的应急储备功能。当前,预算稳定调节基金应尽快制定完善管理办法、规范运行。

  11. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  12. Estimation of IT energy budget during the St. Patrick's Day storm 2015: observations, modeling and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Meng, X.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Tsurutani, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present estimates for the energy budget of the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm. Empirical models and coupling functions are used as proxies for energy input due to solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Fluxes of thermospheric nitric oxide and carbon dioxide cooling emissions are estimated in several latitude ranges. Solar wind data and the Weimer 2005 model for high-latitude electrodynamics are used to drive GITM modeling for the storm. Model estimations for energy partitioning, Joule heating, NO cooling are compared with observations and empirical proxies. We outline challenges in the estimation of the IT energy budget (Joule heating, Poynting flux, particle precipitation) during geomagnetic storms.

  13. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric eff

  14. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  15. A Review of Release Fiscal Budget and Final Account Information to the Public%财政预决算信息公开问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 邓可可

    2015-01-01

    本文从预决算信息公开的概念、重要性、评估、建议四个方面,对预决算信息公开问题进行综述。预决算信息公开在保障公众知情权,加强监督、防治腐败,加快政府转型、促进“服务型”、“责任型”政府建设,推动政治体制改革、提高政府治理能力,实现“中国梦”方面具有重要意义。预决算信息公开的评估主要是根据具体原则要求,设立相对应的评价指标体系进行评估。建立预算公开的顶层制度设计、完善预算公开的相关法律法规、提高预算信息公开的质量和获取的便利性、引入公民参与机制等措施能够提升预决算信息公开的程度。通过综述,得出,即重视和分析预算、决算两方面信息的重要性,并对其进行对比绩效分析来促进财政信息公开。%This article reviews release fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public from four aspects, Which are concepts , importance, estimates and suggestions. Release fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public do good to protect the right of the public, strengthen supervision and prevent corruption, accelerate the transformation of the gov-ernment to promote the“service and responsible”state-building, promote political reform and improve the capacity of adminis-trative governance , realize“China Dream”. Budget and final accounts information disclosure evaluation is mainly based on the requirements of specific principles set up corresponding evaluation index system for evaluation. Establish the top-level system design of budget openness, perfect relevant laws and regulations, improve the quality and the convenience of budget informa-tion's openness, and introduction the mechanisms of citizen participation, all these can enhance the degree of releasing fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public. By review, we can obtain the paper's innovations, that is paying

  16. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  17. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  18. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: a revision of global budget estimates

    OpenAIRE

    BOUILLON, S; Borges, A. V.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N. C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.; Marchand, C; Middelburg, J. J.; Rivera-Monroy, V.H.; Smith III, T.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of similar to 218 +/- 72 Tg C a(-1). When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, s...

  19. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  20. Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations In China

    OpenAIRE

    Roy W. Bahl; Wallich, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the"right"fiscal relationship between central, provincial, and local governments depends on how a government weighs the benefits of decentralized economic development policies against the costs of having less effective central fiscal management. Three strong forces justify more fiscal centralization in China's highly decentralized fiscal system. First, Bouts of inflation and recurrent fiscal deficits can be seen as calling for more central control over the budget. Second, Reform...

  1. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1987. Appropriation: salaries and expenses. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume presents the salaries and expenses of the following US NRC programs: nuclear reactor regulation, nuclear material safety and safeguards, inspection and enforcement, nuclear regulatory research, program technical support, and program direction and administration. Special supporting tables are included

  2. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    Watersheds in the northern California Coast Range have been designated as "impaired" with respect to water quality because of excessive sediment loads and/or high water temperature. Sediment budget techniques have typically been used by regulatory authorities to estimate current erosion rates and to develop targets for future desired erosion rates. This study examines erosion rates estimated by various methods for portions of the Gualala River watershed, designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d), located in northwest Sonoma County (~90 miles north of San Francisco). The watershed is underlain by Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation. The San Andreas Fault passes through the western edge of watershed, and other active faults are present. A substantial portion of the watershed is mantled by rock slides and earth flows, many of which are considered dormant. The Coast Range is geologically young, and rapid rates of uplift are believed to have contributed to high erosion rates. This study compares quantitative erosion rate estimates developed at different spatial and temporal scales. It is motivated by a proposed vineyard development project in the watershed, and the need to document conditions in the project area, assess project environmental impacts and meet regulatory requirements pertaining to water quality. Erosion rate estimates were previously developed using sediment budget techniques for relatively large drainage areas (~100 to 1,000 km2) by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and US EPA and by the California Geological Survey. In this study, similar sediment budget techniques were used for smaller watersheds (~3 to 8 km2), and were supplemented by a suspended sediment monitoring program utilizing Turbidity Threshold Sampling techniques (as described in a companion study in this session). The duration of the monitoring program to date

  3. Estimating Heat Fluxes by Merging Profile Formulae and the Energy Budget with a Variational Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述文; 邱崇践; 张卫东

    2004-01-01

    A variational technique (VT) is applied to estimate surface sensible and latent heat fluxes based on observations of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity, respectively, at three heights (1 m, 4 m, and 10m), and the surface energy and radiation budgets by the surface energy and radiation system (SERBS). The method fully uses all information provided by the measurements of air temperature, wind, and humidity profiles, the surface energy budget, and the similarity profile formulae as well. Data collected at Feixi experiment station installed by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) Program are used to test the method. Results show that the proposed technique can overcome the well-known unstablility problem that occurs when the Bowen method becomes singular; in comparison with the profile method, it reduces both the sensitivities of latent heat fluxes to observational errors in humidity and those of sensible heat fluxes to observational errors in temperature, while the estimated heat fluxes approximately satisfy the surface energy budget. Therefore, the variational technique is more reliable and stable than the two conventional methods in estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  4. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vogt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore these interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland, forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Direct agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, N2 fixation, organic and synthetic fertiliser accounted for most of the catchment N inputs, representing 82% in the grassland and 62% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment, contributing 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 exchange and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 13% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 61% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: Catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90%, with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011. This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  5. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vogt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore this interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland, forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, organic and synthetic fertiliser accounted for most of the catchment N inputs with 80% in the grassland and 57% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment with 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 emissions from denitrification and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 3% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 55% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90% with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011. This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  6. The Considerations of the Superintendent in the Development of the School Budget during Times of Fiscal Constraint: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    John Smith is the superintendent of Green Hill Public Schools. This case study follows John through the whole budget process from July 2011 to July 2012. An interpretative perspective was used to tell his story. Ten interviews were given from October 2011 to July 2012. Newspaper articles and the minutes from meetings were analyzed and used as…

  7. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... indicator can be given a normative interpretation, and this issue is extensively discussed. The paper ends by discussing the formulation of fiscal policy targets to ensure fiscal sustainability....... (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2...

  8. Estimation of the long-term nutrient budget and thresholds of regime shift for a large shallow lake in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Xiangshen; Dong, Lin; He, Wei; Wang, Qingmei; Mooij, Wolf M.; Xu, Fuliu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we apply an integrated empirical and mechanism approach to estimate a comprehensive long-term (1953–2012) total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loading budget for the eutrophic Lake Chaohu in China. This budget is subsequently validated, firstly, by comparing with the

  9. Estimation of the long-term nutrient budget and thresholds of regime shift for a large shallow lake in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; Dong, Lin; He, Wei; Wang, Qingmei; Mooij, W.M.; Xu, Fuliu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we apply an integrated empirical and mechanism approach to estimate a comprehensive long-term (1953-2012) total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loading budget for the eutrophic Lake Chaohu in China. This budget is subsequently validated, firstly, by comparing with the avail

  10. Event-based estimation of water budget components using the network of multi-sensor capacitance probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-scale-free approach was developed for estimation of water fluxes at boundaries of monitoring soil profile using water content time series. The approach uses the soil water budget to compute soil water budget components, i.e. surface-water excess (Sw), infiltration less evapotranspiration (I-E...

  11. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  12. Using "snapshot" measurements of CH4 fluxes from peatlands to estimate annual budgets: interpolation vs. modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sophie M.; Baird, Andy J.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in estimating annual budgets of peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchanges. Such budgeting is required for calculating peatland carbon balance and the radiative forcing impact of peatlands on climate. There have been multiple approaches used to estimate CO2 budgets; however, there is a limited literature regarding the modelling of annual CH4 budgets. Using data collected from flux chamber tests in an area of blanket peatland in North Wales, we compared annual estimates of peatland-atmosphere CH4 emissions using an interpolation approach and an additive and multiplicative modelling approach. Flux-chamber measurements represent a snapshot of the conditions on a particular site. In contrast to CO2, most studies that have estimated the time-integrated flux of CH4 have not used models. Typically, linear interpolation is used to estimate CH4 fluxes during the time periods between flux-chamber measurements. It is unclear how much error is involved with such a simple integration method. CH4 fluxes generally show a rise followed by a fall through the growing season that may be captured reasonably well by interpolation, provided there are sufficiently frequent measurements. However, day-to-day and week-to-week variability is also often evident in CH4 flux data, and will not necessarily be properly represented by interpolation. Our fits of the CH4 flux models yielded r2 > 0.5 in 38 of the 48 models constructed, with 55% of these having a weighted rw2 > 0.4. Comparison of annualised CH4 fluxes estimated by interpolation and modelling reveals no correlation between the two data sets; indeed, in some cases even the sign of the flux differs. The difference between the methods seems also to be related to the size of the flux - for modest annual fluxes there is a fairly even scatter of points around the 1:1 line, whereas when the modelled fluxes are high, the corresponding interpolated fluxes tend to be low. We consider the

  13. Long-term fiscal sustainability in advanced economies

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of the long-term fiscal sustainability of advanced economies, based on current estimates of these economies’ current-policy fiscal trajectories. As will be quite evident, for many countries short-term fiscal measures, such as the debt-GDP ratio and the current budget deficit as a share of GDP, bear little relationship to the sustainability of policy. Some countries appear to be on relatively sustainable paths despite challenging short-run statistics, while ...

  14. PURSUING EUROPEAN DEBT CRISIS: FISCAL DISCIPLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer SEZGIN

    2013-01-01

    Maastricht Treaty accepts some criteria for securing fiscal and monetary discipline. Fiscal discipline criteria consist of budget deficit and public borrowing criteria. On monitoring these criteria it is obvious that fiscal discipline is not provided in recent years. There is one monetary policy but lots of fiscal policies at EU. This effects efforts that aim re-constituting fiscal discipline negatively. So economic crisis increases. Monetary policy can not be effective without fiscal policy....

  15. Estimating the fiscal effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos eSouliotis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country’s economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, near half of the gains from the measure’s application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government’s revenue, i.e. losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers’ high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure’s inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy’s deprivation of useful resources.

  16. Chemical Data Assimilation Estimates of Continental US Ozone and Nitrogen Budgets during INTEX-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert B.; Schaack, Todd K.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Kittaka, Chieko; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Natarajan, Murali; Olson, Jennifer; Soja, Amber; Zapotocny, Tom; Lenzen, Allen; Stobie, James; Johnson, Donald; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Thompson, Anne; Cohen, Ron; Dibb, Jack E.; Crawford, James H.; Rault, Didier F.; Martin, Randall; Szykman, James J.; Fishman, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Global ozone analyses, based on assimilation of stratospheric profile and ozone column measurements, and NOy predictions from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) are used to estimate the ozone and NOy budget over the Continental US during the July-August 2004 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A). Comparison with aircraft, satellite, surface, and ozonesonde measurements collected during the INTEX-A show that RAQMS captures the main features of the global and Continental US distribution of tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy with reasonable fidelity. Assimilation of stratospheric profile and column ozone measurements is shown to have a positive impact on the RAQMS upper tropospheric/lower stratosphere ozone analyses, particularly during the period when SAGE III limb scattering measurements were available. Eulerian ozone and NOy budgets during INTEX-A show that the majority of the Continental US export occurs in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere poleward of the tropopause break, a consequence of convergence of tropospheric and stratospheric air in this region. Continental US photochemically produced ozone was found to be a minor component of the total ozone export, which was dominated by stratospheric ozone during INTEX-A. The unusually low photochemical ozone export is attributed to anomalously cold surface temperatures during the latter half of the INTEX-A mission, which resulted in net ozone loss during the first 2 weeks of August. Eulerian NOy budgets are shown to be very consistent with previously published estimates. The NOy export efficiency was estimated to be 24 percent, with NOx+PAN accounting for 54 percent of the total NOy export during INTEX-A.

  17. Budget, fiscal and monetary policy in Poland and demand for transport – forwarding – logistics industry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic policy of a country does not always have an effect on the demand for transport. The lack of a clear relation between the nature of macroeconomic policy and changes in demand for transport services is a consequence of the overall complexity of the economic system. It can also be a result of the lack of consistency between budget and monetary policy. Macroeconomic policy as a tool to control global demand only indirectly affects the changes in demand for transport. Transport activity is in fact determined by changes in the real economy, which directly influence the increase or decrease in demand for transport services.

  18. Reconciled climate response estimates from climate models and the energy budget of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Hawkins, Ed; Stolpe, Martin B.

    2016-10-01

    Climate risks increase with mean global temperature, so knowledge about the amount of future global warming should better inform risk assessments for policymakers. Expected near-term warming is encapsulated by the transient climate response (TCR), formally defined as the warming following 70 years of 1% per year increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, by which point atmospheric CO2 has doubled. Studies based on Earth's historical energy budget have typically estimated lower values of TCR than climate models, suggesting that some models could overestimate future warming. However, energy-budget estimates rely on historical temperature records that are geographically incomplete and blend air temperatures over land and sea ice with water temperatures over open oceans. We show that there is no evidence that climate models overestimate TCR when their output is processed in the same way as the HadCRUT4 observation-based temperature record. Models suggest that air-temperature warming is 24% greater than observed by HadCRUT4 over 1861-2009 because slower-warming regions are preferentially sampled and water warms less than air. Correcting for these biases and accounting for wider uncertainties in radiative forcing based on recent evidence, we infer an observation-based best estimate for TCR of 1.66 °C, with a 5-95% range of 1.0-3.3 °C, consistent with the climate models considered in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

  19. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  1. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Habib B.; Champollion, Nicolas; Cazenave, Anny; Wada, Yoshihide; Schrama, Ernst; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS(the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to+0.30 ± 0.18mmyr‑1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of ‑108 ± 64 km3 yr‑1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  2. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  3. Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Performance in the EU and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Fiscal rules specify quantitative targets for key budgetary aggregates. In this paper, we review the experience with such rules in Japan and in the EU. Comparing the performance of fiscal policy in the 1980s and 1990s until 2003, we find that the fiscal rule of the 1980s exerted some but not much disciplinary influence on Japanese fiscal policy. The fiscal rule of the Maastricht Treaty had a significant impact on political budget cycles in the EU, but did little to constrain fiscal policy in ...

  4. A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Yver

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and European surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H2 surface flux, then deposition velocity and surface emissions and finally, deposition velocity, biomass burning, anthropogenic and N2 fixation-related emissions were simultaneously inverted in several scenarios. These scenarios have focused on the sensibility of the soil uptake value to different spatio-temporal distributions. The range of variations of these diverse inversion sets generate an estimate of the uncertainty for each term of the H2 budget. The net H2 flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere varies between −8 and +8 Tg yr−1. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on bottom-up and top-down estimations. Our estimate of global H2 soil uptake is −59±9 Tg yr−1. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H2 emissions estimated using a H2/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions within the range of their respective uncertainties. Additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements would be needed to infer a more robust partition of H2 sources and sinks.

  5. Estimating US fiscal and monetary interactions: from Volcker chairmanship to the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, Eddie; Hauzenberger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    Locating the appropriate degree of interaction between fiscal and monetary policy plays a crucial role in ensuring economic stability. Their joint impact is, however, still unclear. We observe significant differences in the transmission of shocks, in particular between the Great Recession and the Great Moderation, and find a high degree of interactions between monetary and fiscal policy. Further, government revenues largely influence decisions on spending, while spending does not influence ta...

  6. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  7. Investigating the Cyclical Behavior of Fiscal Policy in the Republic of Macedonia during the Period of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Angelovska Bezovska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to investigate the cyclical behavior of fiscal policy with respect to output gap fluctuations in the Republic of Macedonia during the period 1991-2009. We use two different fiscal policy measures: 1 the cyclically unadjusted primary budget balance and 2 the cyclically adjusted primary budget balance as a proxy indicator of the fiscal policy stance. This analysis also aims to explore whether there was a substantial change in the fiscal policy behavior prior to 1996 due to the turbulent initial period of transition and the switch in monetary policy strategy. We additionally control for other factors that also seem to have had a significant impact over the fiscal policy behavior, such as the armed conflict in 2001 and the impact of public debt as a proxy indicator of budget financing constraints. The estimated results with respect to both measures, the cyclically unadjusted and cyclically adjusted budget balance, indicate differences in the fiscal policy behavior prior to and after 1996. More precisely, the results imply that the fiscal policy behavior prior to 1996 was procyclical, whereas afterwards the fiscal policy became countercyclical. These results are robust to different measures of the output gap and different frequency of the data sets.

  8. A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yver

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H2 surface flux, soil uptake distinct from surface emissions and finally, soil uptake, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions and N2 fixation-related emissions separately were inverted in several scenarios. The various inversions generate an estimate for each term of the H2 budget. The net H2 flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere varies between −8 and 8 Tg yr−1. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on soil uptake measurements. Our estimate of global H2 soil uptake is −59 ± 4.0 Tg yr−1. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H2 emissions estimated using a H2/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions considering their respective uncertainties. To constrain a more robust partition of H2 sources and sinks would need additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements.

  9. Satellite observations make it possible to estimate Poyang Lake’s water budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery with hydrologic and meteorological data, we developed a box model to estimate the water exchange between Poyang Lake (the largest freshwater lake of China) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) River from 2000 to 2009. Significant intra- and inter-annual variability of the water budget was found, with an annual mean outflow of Poyang Lake of 120.2 ± 31.2 billion m3 during 2000–2009 and a declining trend of 5.7 billion m3 yr−1 (p = 0.09). The impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Changjiang River in June 2003 led to a rapid lake–river outflow of 760.6 million m3 day−1, resulting in a loss of 7864.5 million m3 of water from the lake in a short period. Shortly thereafter, a statistically significant decrease in the drainage basin’s runoff coefficient was discovered. These findings provide large-scale evidence on how local precipitation and the TGD control the lake’s water budget, where continuous monitoring using the established approach and satellite data may provide critical information to help make water management decisions.

  10. Accurate satellite-derived estimates of the tropospheric ozone impact on the global radiation budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenically-produced tropospheric O3 are derived primarily from models. Here, we use tropospheric ozone and cloud data from several instruments in the A-train constellation of satellites as well as information from the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System to accurately estimate the radiative effect of tropospheric O3 for January and July 2005. Since we cannot distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources with the satellite data, our derived radiative effect reflects the unadjusted (instantaneous effect of the total tropospheric O3 rather than the anthropogenic component. We improve upon previous estimates of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios from a residual approach using the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS by incorporating cloud pressure information from OMI. We focus specifically on the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud effect on both the short- and long-wave radiative budget. The estimates presented here can be used to evaluate the various aspects of model-generated radiative forcing. For example, our derived cloud impact is to reduce the radiative effect of tropospheric ozone by ~16%. This is centered within the published range of model-produced cloud effect on unadjusted ozone radiative forcing.

  11. Identifying Fiscal Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    De Graeve, Ferre; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Fiscal theorists warn about the risk of future inflation as a consequence of current fiscal imbalances in the US. Because actual inflation remains historically low and data on inflation expectations do not corroborate such risks, warnings for fiscal inflation are often ignored in policy and academic circles. This paper shows that a canonical NK- DSGE model enables identifying an anticipated component of inflation expectations that is closely related to fiscal policy. Estimation results sugges...

  12. Fiscal Transparency, Measurement and Determinants: Evidence from 27 Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tehou TEKENG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal transparency has been consistently identified as a key feature of efficient fiscal policy and a prerequisite for good public governance. However, measuring fiscal transparency remains an empirical challenge, and extant literature on developing countries is still sparse. To that end, this paper examines the determinants of fiscal transparency in developing countries. We add to the existing literature by proposing a new replicable index of fiscal transparency that is consistent with the definition provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank. Additional determinants of fiscal transparency, which are exclusively relevant in the study of developing countries, are also examined. In particular, we introduce such factors as natural resources, openness of the economy, the literacy rate of the population, and the quality of institutions. Because of possible endogeneity arising from interdependence among some variables, two-stage least squares (2SLS is used to ensure that the estimators are consistent. As a robustness check, the same estimation procedure was replicated by replacing our index of fiscal transparency with respectively the index of Andreula et al. (2009 and the Open Budget Index, both of which use a significant similar number of developing countries of our selected sample. The results provide additional credence to our suggested procedure. The paper found that the level of natural resources and the openness of the capital account negatively affect fiscal transparency. However, the quality of institutions and literacy were found to positively affect fiscal transparency. The findings of this paper provide an explanation of why, after a decade of fiscal transparency programs, many developing countries are still lagging behind, thereby losing the potential benefits mentioned in the literature. These findings could help guide policies directed at improving fiscal transparency in the case of developing countries.

  13. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Ballantyne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of C in the atmosphere, ocean, and land; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate error and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2 σ error of the atmospheric growth rate has decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr−1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr−1 in the 2000s, leading to a ~20% reduction in the over-all uncertainty of net global C uptake by the biosphere. While fossil fuel emissions have increased by a factor of 4 over the last 5 decades, 2 σ errors in fossil fuel emissions due to national reporting errors and differences in energy reporting practices have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr−1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr−1 during the 2000s. At the same time land use emissions have declined slightly over the last 5 decades, but their relative errors remain high. Notably, errors associated with fossil fuel emissions have come to dominate uncertainty in the global C budget and are now comparable to the total emissions from land use, thus efforts to reduce errors in fossil fuel emissions are necessary. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that C uptake has increased and 97% confident that C uptake by the terrestrial biosphere has increased over the last 5 decades. Although the persistence of future C sinks remains unknown and some ecosystem services may be compromised by this continued C uptake (e.g. ocean acidification, it is clear that arguably the greatest ecosystem service currently provided

  14. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  15. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  16. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  17. Compendium of Data for the Hanford Site (Fiscal Years 2004 to 2008) Applicable to Estimation of Recharge Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, William E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-09-24

    This report is a compendium of recharge data collected in Fiscal Years 2004 through 2008 at various soil and surface covers found and planned in the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The addition of these new data to previously published recharge data will support improved estimates of recharge with respect to location and soil cover helpful to evaluations and risk assessments of radioactive and chemical wastes at this site. Also presented are evaluations of the associated uncertainties, limitations, and data gaps in the existing knowledge base for recharge at the Hanford Site.

  18. INSTITUTIONS AND FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    As budgetary commitments outpace current revenues and long-term liabilities balloon, the fiscal sustainability of state and local governments is a matter of mounting concern. Over the years, these governments have experimented with a wide variety of political and fiscal institutions, ranging from direct democracy to balanced budget rules, with the goal of slowing the growth of government and increasing financial responsibility. This article synthesizes the related empirical literature, summar...

  19. An approach to improve precipitation estimation to model the water budget in Alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, E.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Egarter Vigl, L.; Tappeiner, U.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate quantification of precipitation is still one of the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying the water budget of Alpine catchments. In fact, besides increasing data availability, usually most of the stations are located in the bottom of the valleys, while, at high elevations, rain gauge accuracy is limited by snow and wind, with strong underestimation of the total precipitation. Similar problems exist for snow measurement devices. In this contribution we present a novel empirical approach to improve precipitation estimation using rain gauge data, snow height and standard meteorological observations, and we evaluate the improvements in estimating the water budget of the Mazia Valley (100 km2 - Central Alps - South Tyrol, Italy). In fact, due to the screening effect of the surrounding mountains (mostly glaciated, maximum elevation: 3750 m a.s.l.) this valley has a relatively dry cold continental climate with strong precipitation gradients. In the framework of the projects "Klimawandel" and "HydroAlp", 17 monitoring stations were installed to measure standard micrometeorological variables, vegetation properties and soil moisture. For a correct climate analysis, a distinction between snow and rainfall is necessary. Due to energy limitations in remote alpine areas no heated rain gauges were installed. However, four stations are equipped with snow height sensors, from which snow data can be retrieved. For other stations the calculation of the snow water equivalent was more complicated because of the lack of snow height sensors. In the empirical approach, for every registered precipitation data record snow height change was reviewed and compared to air temperature and relative humidity, as well as to the calculated wet bulb temperature, in order to distinguish between rainfall and snowfall events. Also the global solar radiation was controlled to identify melt water production coming from accumulated snow on the top of the unheated rain gauges. With a formula

  20. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  1. Estimating the Impact of State Budget Cuts and Redirection of Prevention Resources on the HIV Epidemic in 59 California Local Health Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Lin; Arielle Lasry; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Richard J Wolitski

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the wake of a national economic downturn, the state of California, in 2009-2010, implemented budget cuts that eliminated state funding of HIV prevention and testing. To mitigate the effect of these cuts remaining federal funds were redirected. This analysis estimates the impact of these budget cuts and reallocation of resources on HIV transmission and associated HIV treatment costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the effect of the budget cuts and reallocation for California...

  2. Fiscal institutions, fiscal policy and sovereign risk premia

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerberg, Mark; Wolff , Guntram B.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of fiscal institutions such as the strength of the finance minister in the budget process and deficits on interest spreads contained in bond yields of the countries now belonging to the Eurozone. Deficits significantly increase risk premia measured by relative swap spreads. The effect of deficits is significantly lower under EMU. This effect partly results from neglecting the role of fiscal institutions. After controlling for institutional changes, fiscal policy rema...

  3. Fiscal institutions, fiscal policy and sovereign risk premia in EMU

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerberg, Mark; Wolff , Guntram B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect of fiscal institutions such as the strength of the finance minister in the budget process and deficits on interest rate spreads of Eurozone countries. Deficits significantly increase risk premia measured by relative swap spreads. The effect of deficits is significantly lower under EMU. This effect partly results from neglecting the role of fiscal institutions. After controlling for institutional changes, fiscal policy remains a significant determinant of risk premia ...

  4. Shaping the Fiscal Policy Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    the international experiences with large-scale fiscal consolidations, including evidence on the expansionary fiscal contraction hypothesis with particular focus on the Danish experience in the early 1980s. Second, given the widespread perception that supranational fiscal rules have failed in Europe, we study......This paper provides an overview of experiences with fiscal and structural reforms in Denmark and Sweden, focusing on areas of particular relevance to members of the euro area struggling with large budget imbalances. First, given the current priority to austerity plans in the euro area, we review...... the record of national fiscal rules, fiscal councils and gradual improvement of public finances, as implemented by Sweden for more than a decade. Third, given the challenges raised by ageing populations and budget pressures in several euro area countries, we assess the experiences with occupational pension...

  5. Observational estimation of heat budgets on drifting ice and open water over the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN; Lingen; (卞林根); GAO; Zhiqiu; (高志球); LU; Longhua; (陆龙骅); ZHANG; Yabin; (张雅宾); C.; Roger; X.; D.; Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of the surface heat budget over drifting ice and open water in the Arctic Ocean are made using eddy correlation and flux-profile methods using data obtained from drifting ice and from the R/V Xuelong in the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition during August 19-24,1999. The results show that the net radiation received by the ice surface is mainly lost through the sensible heat flux and the heat flux due to melting ice, and the latent heat flux making small contribution to the heat balance. However, the heat balance of the open water surface was dominated by the radiative flux whereas the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the oceanic heat flux were greater than those on the sea-ice surface. These results emphasize that thermodynamic processes are quite different between air/open water and air/sea-ice over the Arctic Ocean which is important when considering the effect of sea-air-ice interaction on climate change process during the summer period.

  6. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...

  7. Off-Budget Operations: Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Jul

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the planning, implementation, programming, budgeting and evaluation of extra budgetary and tax expenditures for Brazil, Chile, Ecuador and Mexico. The off-budget operations of these countries were analyzed against the best practices guidelines defined by the OECD on Off-budget and Tax Expenditures, Budget Transparency, and Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises, as well as the recommendations included in the IMF's fiscal ROSCs. This report was presented at Public ...

  8. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Miller, P. A.; Persson, A.; Olefeldt, D.; Pilesjo, P.; Heliasz, M.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Yang, Z.; Smith, B.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of organic carbon is stored in high-latitude soils. A substantial proportion of this carbon stock is vulnerable and may decompose rapidly due to temperature increases that are already greater than the global average. It is therefore crucial to quantify and understand carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic/arctic ecosystems. In this paper, we combine an Arctic-enabled version of the process-based dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS (version LPJG-WHyMe-TFM) with comprehensive observations of terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes to simulate long-term carbon exchange in a subarctic catchment at 50 m resolution. Integrating the observed carbon fluxes from aquatic systems with the modeled terrestrial carbon fluxes across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modeled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this study also highlights some limitations in modeling subarctic ecosystem responses to climate change, such as aquatic system flux dynamics, nutrient limitation, herbivory and other disturbances, and peatland expansion, our study provides one process-based approach to resolve the complexity of carbon cycling in subarctic ecosystems while simultaneously pointing out the key model developments for capturing

  9. Radiation budget estimates over Africa and surrounding oceans: inter-annual comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Desbois

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Three independent datasets of Radiation Budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA spanning two decades are compared: the Scanner Narrow Field of View data (from ERBE, ScaRaB, and CERES instruments, 1985–2005, the ERBS Nonscanner Wide Field of View data (1985–1998 and the simulated broadband fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD, 1983–2004. The analysis concerns the shortwave (SW reflected flux, the longwave (LW emitted flux and the net flux at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA over Africa and the surrounding oceans (45° S–45° N/60° W–60° E, a region particularly impacted by climate variability. For each month, local anomalies are computed with reference to the average over this large region, and their differences between the 2002–2005 and 1985–1989 periods are analysed. These anomalies are, for a large part, independent on the general observed trends (about 2.5 W m−2 per decade, which may be affected by possible calibration drifts. Although the regional flux anomalies can be related to calibration through the scene identification and the choice of the anisotropy correction, this effect is limited if the calibration drifts remains reasonable. Large inter-annual variations are observed locally. Over a part of the South East Atlantic (35°–10° S/10° W–10° E, including the marine low cloud area off Angola, there is a decrease of the yearly means of net flux estimated to 2.2, 3 and 6 W m−2 respectively for the Scanner, Nonscanner and ISCPP-FD data. Over a narrow strip of the Sahel Zone, the net flux increases by about 5 W m−2. We believe that these observations are real. They could be due to the impact of calibration drift but only if the drifts were significant (>4% and correlated between the datasets, which is highly improbable.

  10. Radiation budget estimates over Africa and surrounding oceans: inter-annual comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ben Rehouma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three independent datasets of Radiation Budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA spanning two decades are compared: the Scanner Narrow Field of View data (from ERBE, ScaRaB, and CERES instruments, 1985–2005, the ERBS Nonscanner Wide Field of View data (1985–1998 and the simulated broadband fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD, 1983–2004. The analysis concerns the shortwave (SW reflected flux, the longwave (LW emitted flux and the net flux at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA over Africa and the surrounding oceans (45° S–45° N/60° W–60° E, a region particularly impacted by climate variability. For each month, local anomalies are computed with reference to the average over this large region, and their differences between the 2002–2005 and 1985–1989 periods are analysed. These anomalies are relative values and are mostly independent on the absolute observed trends (about 2.5 Wm−2 per decade which may be affected by possible calibration drifts. Large inter-annual variations are observed locally. Over a part of the South East Atlantic (35°–10° S/10° W–10° E, including the marine low cloud area off Angola, there is a decrease of the yearly means of net flux estimated to 2.2, 3 and 6 Wm−2 respectively for the Scanner, Nonscanner and ISCPP-FD data. Over a narrow strip of the Sahel Zone, the net flux increases by about 5 Wm−2.

  11. Towards a sediment budget estimation of the Gepatschferner glacier (Tyrol, Austria) - Approaches and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Matthias; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment production, storage and transport in glacial systems are spatially and temporally variable. Due to the ongoing global warming an accelerated glacial retreat is expected, leading to an exposure of unconsolidated sediments. Additionally, a higher sediment production from destabilised rock walls caused by permafrost degradation and glacial debuttressing is expected. At least those paraglacial processes become more important in alpine catchments in the near future. But, there is still a knowledge gap on the quantification of sediment transporting processes in those regions. The research questions we are focussing on are part of the PROSA project ("High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing Proglacial Systems of the Alps") and are investigated at the Gepatschferner glacier. The Gepatschferner is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley. It is the second largest glacier in Austria (15.7 km², 2012). The Gepatschferner is drained by the Fagge River. In this presentation we will focus on two main components of the sediment budget of the Gepatschferner: the input to and the output from the glacier system. The sediment input from the surrounding rockwalls to the glacier is observed by comparing multi-temporal airborne LiDAR DEMs (2006, July 2012, September 2012) to determine sediment delivery by rockfall. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the Fagge River in front of the glacier outlet in oreder to determine the glacio-fluvial output of sediment from the glacier system. During the ablation periods from 2012 to 2014 the water level was recorded. At different stages the discharge was measured and a reliable stage-discharge relation could be established. That relation was used in combination with the recorded stage for the computation of the hydrograph in each season. Additionally, the solid sediment output was estimated using the discharge data as well as suspended sediment concentration from several

  12. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  13. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  14. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innova...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.......We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  15. Stability consequences of fiscal policy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Railavo, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Using an optimisation-based model with endogenous labour supply and a proportional tax rate, we compare the stabilising properties of different fiscal policy rules. The economy is affected by shocks from both government spending and technology. The fiscal policy rule can be based on government liabilities or the government budget deficit. As both are given as measures of fiscal policy performance in the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), we also use a fiscal policy rule based on the combination...

  16. 1985 nuclear budget requests up 12 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimates of government agencies for the fiscal 1985 nuclear-related budget were presented to the Ministry of Finance, which amount to 343.76 billion yen (up 12.1 %). The budgetary requests by the Science and Technology Agency are 179.24 billion yen in the general account and 90.21 billion yen in the special account for power resource development, and the budgetary requests by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are 1.03 billion yen and 70.08 billion yen, respectively. The budget demands by the STA, which supervises Power Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc. are for the continuation of current projects, including the beginning of the construction of the prototype FBR Monju and the neutral beam injector for the fusion device JT-60. The budget demands by MITI are similarly for the safety measures and verification tests for nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  17. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: a revision of global budget estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V.H.; Smith III, T.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove pri

  18. Estimation of future carbon budget with climate change and reforestation scenario in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Damin; Lim, Chul-Hee; Song, Cholho; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Piao, Dongfan; Heo, Seongbong; Jeon, Seongwoo

    2016-09-01

    In terms of climate change, quantifying carbon budget in forest is critical for managing a role of forest as carbon sink. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace and caused to worsen the carbon budget. Under the circumstance, this study aimed to assess the impact of climate change and reforestation on the carbon budget in 2020s and 2050s, using the VISIT (Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases) model. In order to analyze the impact of reforestation, future land cover maps for the 2020s and 2050s were prepared. Among the deforested areas (2.5 × 106 ha) identified by comparing land cover maps for different periods, the potential reforestation areas were selected by a reforestation scenario considering slope, accessibility from residence, and deforestation types. The extracted potential reforestation areas were 1.7 × 106 ha and the increased forest area was spatially distributed to each district. The percentage change in carbon budget caused by climate change from the 2000s to 2020s is 67.60% and that from the 2020s to 2050s is 45.98% on average. Based on the future land cover, NEP (net ecosystem production) with reforestation will increase by 18.18% than that without reforestation in the 2050s, which shows the contribution to carbon balance. In connection with this long term projection, it is revealed that the gross fluxes such as photosynthesis and respiration may be impacted more obviously by the climate change, especially global warming, than the net carbon flux because of the offset between the changes in the gross fluxes. It is analyzed that changes in carbon budget are very sensitive to climate changes, while the impact of reforestation is relatively less sensitive. Although it is impossible to significantly improve carbon sequestration by establishing forest in a short-term, reforestation is imperative in a long-term view as it clearly has a potential mechanism to offset emitted carbon.

  19. The Indonesia’s State Budget Sustainability and Its Implication for Financial System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo KUNCORO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the sustainability of the central budget and its relation to the financial stability in the case of Indonesia. The standard model of fiscal sustainability is modified to cover some financial variables. The empirical estimates are done by employing several aspects of the time series econometric literature including unit roots, co-integration, and VAR (vector auto regression. Based on the fiscal reaction function estimates of quarterly data over the period of 1999-2009, the analysis present that the government's budget is unsustainable. This finding is supported by solvency test. The impulse response test indicates that financial variables innovation has large impact both on the debt and primary balance surplus dynamics and vise versa. Eventually, the debt and primary balance have a substantial impact on financial system. Thus, the fiscal sustainability (and, of course, solvency is the key to achieve financial system stability.

  20. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  1. H.R. 3221: Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    H.R. 3221 would amend the Higher Education Act of 1965, which authorizes most federal postsecondary education programs. It would prohibit new federally guaranteed loans from being made under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program and would increase direct spending for the Federal Pell Grant Program and other programs. The elimination of…

  2. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  3. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaohua; Yan, Denghua; Wang, Hao; Li, Chuanzhe; Weng, Baisha; Qin, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, t...

  4. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  5. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... of the cohesion countries - have a significant role in driving the process of budgetary reform....

  6. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  7. An Analysis of the New Budget Law of Mongolia of 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lkhagvadorj, Ariunaa

    2012-01-01

    The government of Mongolia developed and passed a new Budget Law on 23 December 2011 in order to improve the legal framework for budgeting, budget relations and fiscal management by integrating the Budget Law of 2002 and Public Sector Management and Finance Law. The purpose of new Budget Law is to ensure fiscal stability, enhance the efficiency and predictability of resource allocation, and to increase citizens’ participation in the budgeting process. The new Budget Law in its 11 chapters...

  8. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hunt, Linda A.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Emery, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs) on 22-31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23) and 25 April-2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24) to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions) and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) to estimate nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  9. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  10. Balancing local budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYÖRGY

    2014-01-01

    Local budgets in Romania are balanced with revenues transferred from state budget according to the criterions laid down in the Local Public Finance Act. These criterions are focusing on the financial capacity, population and surface, each local budget getting balancing amounts inversely with the administrative unit’s wellness and directly to size. The repartition algorithm is used for more than a decade, but periodically it was revised in order to be better folded to fiscal policy and economi...

  11. Fiscal Transfers and Fiscal Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether US and German state governments pursue sustainable fiscal policies taking into account fiscal transfers. Using panel data techniques we investigate whether the debt-to-GDP ratio had a positive influence on the primary surplus (Bohn-model). We show that including/excluding fiscal transfers changes the results. If fiscal transfers are not included in the primary surplus, the test results do not indicate that the US and German state governments pursued sustainable fiscal polic...

  12. Estimation of the ATLAS Inner Detector material budget by use of hadronic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersson, Nora Emilia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The dominant inefficiency in track reconstruction comes from particle interactions with the material in the detector. A good understanding of the material in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS detector is therefore a vital part of track and object reconstruction. In recent years a new technique has been developed, which by reconstructing nuclear interactions with the detector material allows one to quantify the material budget. The relatively low momentum interactions yields large opening angles between the outgoing particles. This makes it feasible to pinpoint the location of the interaction with excellent spatial resolutions, both perpendicular and parallel to the beam axis, permitting detailed comparisons of even minute detector elements. Utilising a second-pass tracking, specially designed to reconstruct secondary tracks with large impact parameters, the technique maps 0.3 $m^{3}$ of the ID volume. The collected results from the Run-1 and the Run-2 analyses will be presented.

  13. Fiscal year 1990 estimated national average monthly payments for extended care services under Part A of Title XVIII of the Social Security Act--HRSA Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    This notice announces the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 estimated national average monthly payments for Medicare extended care services under part A of title XVIII of the Social Security Act. This information is provided for the purpose of determining the limitation on total payments to States under title XXIV of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, section 2401(a), part A--Formula Grants to States for Home and Community Based Health Services, with respect to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). PMID:10106393

  14. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  15. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  16. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  17. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  18. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  19. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Photometric Redshifts and SED Parameters: Improved Techniques and a Realistic Error Budget

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties on the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the mu...

  1. Cooperative research with the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology. Estimation and investigation of estimation method on property change accompanied with excavation. Intermediate report in 1994 and 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PRNFDC) and the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology (IRET) of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology conducted a cooperative research on a testing study based on in-door fundamental examination on Acoustic emission (AE) original position measuring tester to catch property change due to micro elastic wave formed with generation and propagation of rock deformation and fracture and AE measurement and specific resistance tomography under 3 years plan from 1989 fiscal year. In 1994 fiscal year, survey on the specific resistance tomography for pre-research on tunnel excavation effect test and experiment on the specific resistance measurement at in-door scale for fundamental study of estimation method were conducted. And, in 1995 fiscal year, by laying a main point of the experiment at in-door scale, the estimation and investigation on the excavation effect estimation method on a base of the past study results on the fundamental experiment results were conducted. In this paper, these experiment results conducted at IRET and PRNFDC in 1994 and 1995 fiscal years were reported. (G.K.)

  2. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhoglyadova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs on 22–31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and 25 April–2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry to estimate nitric oxide (NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  3. Fiscal consolidation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cogan, John F.; John B. Taylor; Wieland, Volker; Wolters, Maik H

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis and great recession, many countries face substantial deficits and growing debts. In the United States, federal government outlays as a ratio to GDP rose substantially from about 19.5 percent before the crisis to over 24 percent after the crisis. In this paper we consider a fiscal consolidation strategy that brings the budget to balance by gradually reducing this spending ratio over time to the level that prevailed prior to the crisis. A crucial ...

  4. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian;

    2013-01-01

    China's central–local relations have been marked by perpetual changes amidst economic restructuring. Fiscal decentralization on the expenditure side has been paralleled by centralization on the revenue side, accompanied by political centralization. Hence, our understanding of China's fiscal...

  5. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  6. A Data-constrained Estimate of the Global Ocean Iron Cycle: Budgets, Timescales, and Iron Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frants, M.; Holzer, M. B.; DeVries, T. J.; Matear, R.

    2014-12-01

    The oceanic iron cycle is estimated by optimizing a simple steady-state model based on a data-assimilated global circulation, with a prescribed optimized phosphorus cycle and a prescribed aeolian source pattern. Key biogeochemical parameters are determined by minimizing a suitably weighted quadratic misfit between the model's dissolved iron concentration and a global data set of sparse measurements. The global dissolved iron inventory is estimated to be (7.1±0.1)×1011 mol Fe, of which (6.9±0.1)×1011 mol Fe is bound to organic ligands and hence bioavailable, while the remainder is "free" iron. The aeolian iron input rate is estimated at (3.3±0.5)×109 mol Fe/year, corresponding to a bulk residence time for bioavailable iron of 215±40 years, comparable to the bulk biological cycling timescale estimated at 246±24 years. Iron limitation is quantified in terms of the difference [Fe∗] between the actual iron concentration and that needed to utilize the available phosphate. The optimized model captures the observed high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions of the ocean as iron-limited regions with [Fe∗]iron age, ΓFe, as the mean time since iron at a given point was last injected from the atmosphere and compute ΓFe using an equivalent linear formulation of the model. In the euphotic zone, ΓFe ranges from a few decades or less in regions of high aeolian input to ˜1800 years in the Southern Ocean. The patterns of ΓFe show that iron is supplied to the Southern Ocean euphotic zone primarily from depth rather than being advected within the thermocline following deposition from continental dust plumes. Because [Fe∗] is negative in the deep southern oceans, upwelling waters maintain Southern Ocean iron limitation.

  7. Multi-Satellite Estimates of Land-Surface Properties for Determination of Energy and Water Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Rabin, Robert M.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Gallo, Kevin; Diak, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Using the WETNET database, existing methods for the estimation of surface wetness from SSM/I data have been assessed and further developed. A physical-statistical method for optimal estimation of daily surface heat flux and Bowen ratio on the mesoscale has been developed and tested. This method is based on observations of daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth from operational ravansonde and daytime land-surface temperature amplitude from Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites. The mesoscale patterns of these heat fluxes have been compared with an AVHRR-based vegetation index and surface wetness (separately estimated from SSM/I and in situ observations). Cases of the 1988 Midwest drought and a surface/atmosphere moisture gradient (dry-line) in the southern Plains were studied. The analyses revealed significant variations in sensible heat flux (S(sub 0), and Bowen ratio, B(sub 0)) associated with vegetation cover and antecedent precipitation. Relationships for surface heat flux (and Bowen ratio) from antecedent precipitation and vegetation index have been developed and compared to other findings. Results from this project are reported in the following reviewed literature.

  8. New Zealand's Fiscal Policy Framework: Experience and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John Janssen

    2001-01-01

    Fiscal policy in New Zealand has seen a consolidation of the Government’s position and continuing refinements to the institutional framework and Budget processes. The key institutional change has been the introduction of the Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994. The paper sets out the background to the fiscal policy framework, including fiscal history and various institutional changes in the public sector. This paper is a companion paper to Treasury Working Paper 01/24 by Angela Barnes and Steve Le...

  9. Is There a Role for Discretionary Fiscal Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Auerbach

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of discretionary fiscal policy. Among its findings are: (1) In recent years, U.S. discretionary fiscal policy appears to have become more active in response to both cyclical conditions and a simple measure of budget balance. (2) Considerable uncertainty remains about how large an impact discretionary fiscal policy has on output. (3) There is little evidence that discretionary fiscal policy has played an important stabilization role during recent decades. (4) Budge...

  10. A Research on Annual Budget Report at the Beginning of Fiscal Year in the Commonwealth of Australia and Its Implication for China%澳大利亚年初预算报告研究及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美多; 金笑驰

    2013-01-01

      澳大利亚联邦政府具有较为完善的预算报告体系。其年初预算报告包括:预算陈词、预算一览、预算概述、预算战略和展望、预算措施、政府间财政关系、机构资源和拨款议案八个重要组成部分。这些预算文件具有全面性、结果导向、中期规划和亲和性的鲜明特征,为我国完善中央年初预算报告提供了有益的借鉴。此外,分阶段完成年初预算报告的具体性、全面性、全局性和规划性四个步骤的改革,将有助于提高我国的预算信息公开程度,从而“创造条件让人民监督、批评政府”。%  The Commonwealth of Australia has a consummate budget reporting system. One of the most important is the annual budget report at the beginning of the fiscal year including eight parts:budget speech, budget at glance, budget overview, budget strategy and outlook, budget measures, Australia’s federal relations, agency resourcing, and appropriation bills. These budget papers are comprehensive, result-oriented, medium term planning, and reader-friendly. They provide helpful experiences for China and we could promote open and transparent budget information by improving our annual budget report with four stages, which will create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government.

  11. WAREHOUSE TRANSFERS AND FISCAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Dorica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraud and fiscal evasion phenomenon generate indisputable negative effects, which are felt directly on the level of fiscal receipts earnings, determining major distortions in the market’s functioning mechanism. If in the European Union, the contribution of the three large tax categories (direct tax, indirect and social contributions in forming revenue are relatively close, in Romania, fiscal and budget revenue are directly dependent on the indirect tax and duties, especially on VAT and various sales taxes. If there is reductions in the fiscal evasion as to what these taxes are concerned, the premises for creating budget resource needed to fund the economic growth are created. In judicial literature, tax evasion is considered as being the logic result of all defects and inadvertencies of an imperfect legislation, of broken application methods, as well as a lack of foreseeing and lack of skill on the law-maker’s side, with their excessive tax system is as guilty as those who contribute in creating it. Regardless of how this phenomenon is defined, fiscal evasion represents the lack of fulfillment by the taxpayer of his fiscal obligation. The field in which tax evasion acts is as widespread as the different taxes, manifesting especially in the direct and indirect taxes, influencing their efficiency.

  12. Assimilating Earth observation data across the UK for estimating greenhouse gas budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Martin; Disney, Mathias; Lewis, Philip; Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Successful monitoring of biogenic greenhouse gas emissions at regional scale requires a research framework that brings together knowledge about the spatiotemporal variability of gas fluxes under current and anticipated environmental and anthropogenic conditions. In this framework, knowledge about emissions derived from finer spatiotemporal scales is aggregated to calibrate and validate models operating at coarser scales, while top-down estimates of surface biophysical conditions are used to constrain models operating at finer scales. A key challenge in forming this framework is finding a solid basis to link process-based knowledge of individual research sites with Earth Observation (EO) data covering the landscape at approximately a 500m to 1km resolution. Approaches to provide for this link have often considered data from individual satellites or overflights, posing important limitations on the number of observations available through space and time, especially for regions frequently covered in clouds. A novel approach considers a data assimilation scheme through which a vast set of data from a constellation of satellites can be used to inform upon the biophysical state of the land surface. The simultaneous use of these data in a data assimilation scheme requires normalization with respect to the various instrument specifications, including bandpass and sun-sensor-target geometry at times of overpass. In this study we demonstrate a linear mapping of spectral reflectances across an array of satellites, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MERIS), Sentinel 2 (S2), and Vegetation (VGT). The implications of this linear mapping scheme on data availability for the estimation of biophysical characteristics and associated uncertainties are discussed.

  13. Tying hands is not commitment: can fiscal rules and institutions really enhance fiscal discipline?

    OpenAIRE

    Debrun, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of fiscal institutions, including budget rules and non-partisan agencies, in enhancing fiscal discipline. A stylized model of fiscal policy illustrates that optimal institutions lack credibility unless the costs to bypass them are sufficiently high. To the extent that the deficit bias is related to electoral uncertainty, complete budgetary transparency and strong democratic accountability suffice to establish credibility. Under incomplete budgetary transparency, ...

  14. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  15. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  16. Budget priorities of the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, V D

    1992-12-11

    Changes in the federal budget over the last several decades have raised current consumption at the expense of the investment needed for stronger economic growth. These changes have occurred in the budget's fiscal policy, which has reduced national saving and private investment; in its expenditure policy, which has emphasized short-term benefits rather than public investments; and in its transfer policy, which has not adequately addressed the increasing child poverty that threatens the productivity of our future labor force. PMID:17831654

  17. Carbon budgets for three autotrophic Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of the coastal air-water CO2 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-03-01

    Estuaries are `hot spots' in the global carbon cycle, yet data on carbon dynamics, in particular air-sea CO2 fluxes, from autotrophic systems are rare. Estuarine carbon budgets were constructed for three geomorphically distinct warm temperate Australian estuaries over an annual cycle. All three estuaries were net autotrophic, with annual net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) ranging from 8 ± 13.4 molC m-2 yr-1 to 10 ± 14 molC m-2 yr-1. There was a net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the estuaries of between 0.4 ± 0.6 molC m-2 yr-1 and 2 ± 0.9 molC m-2 yr-1. Loading of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the estuaries varied markedly within and between the estuaries, and was directly related to freshwater inflow. While NEM was similar in all three estuaries, the ratio of benthic versus pelagic contributions to NEM differed, with NEM dominated by pelagic production in the river dominated system, benthic production dominating in the intermediate estuary, and equal contributions of benthic and pelagic production in the marine dominated lagoon. All three estuaries exported more organic carbon than was imported, fueled by additional organic carbon supplied by NEM. The estuaries essentially acted as bioreactors, transforming DIC to organic carbon. Burial of organic carbon ranged from 1.2 ± 0.3 molC m-2 yr-1 to 4.4 ± 1.2 molC m-2 yr-1 and represented up to half of NEM. The annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in these systems, along with previous estimates of the global estuarine CO2flux being based predominantly on heterotrophic, large river dominated estuarine systems, indicates that the global estimate of the estuarine air-water CO2flux may be over-estimated due to the lack of studies from autotrophic marine dominated estuaries.

  18. Streambed Temperatures and Heat Budget Estimates in Groundwater-fed Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, M.; Allen, D. M.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    A streambed temperature monitoring network was installed in a groundwater-fed stream in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. A network of fifteen temperature loggers was installed in a short reach (components. Over the five summer low flow periods, the network of dataloggers recorded a mean streambed temperature of 13.8oC, with a range of 10.2oC to 20.0oC across the streambed. In order to assess controls on streambed temperature at individual datalogger locations, the incoming heat from sources acting across the entire reach had to be removed from the observed temperature signals. The incoming heat was calculated for the air-water interface to estimate the energy flux into the reach using a heat balance. Incoming solar radiation dominates the heat balance, and evaporative heat fluxes were noticeable as small amplitude variations at a daily scale. Precipitation occurrence, or absence, was not an important component of the heat balance during the summer low flow period. Since incoming solar radiation dominates both air and water temperatures, air temperature (Ta) can be used as a proxy for streambed temperature (Ts). The actual lag time between the air and streambed temperature for this site was 30 hours; however, for the calculation of stream temperature at a daily time step, a lag of 24 hours was used. The relationship between daily streambed temperature and daily air temperature, at a lag of one day, was determined empirically for the site as Ts(t) = 5.59 + 0.48 *Ta(t-1day), where T is in degrees C. Almost 90 percent of the variance in streambed temperature can be explained by this lagged air temperature signal. Since this reach is physically uniform, the observed variability in streambed temperatures that are not explained by water temperature can be attributed to variations in groundwater flux.

  19. The Federal Budget Process: Necessary Knowledge for Social Policy Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current and future projections for the federal budget and the two processes affecting fiscal policy: authorization/appropriation measures and budget resolution/reconciliation. Knowledge of the federal budget process shows social-work students how fiscal constraints have been used as weapons against social-welfare programs, and allows…

  20. Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) to Estimate Ground Heat Flux and Reduce Surface Energy Budget Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Francesco; Sharma, Varun; Lunati, Ivan; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Ground heat flux plays a crucial role in surface energy budget: an incorrect estimation of energy storage and heat fluxes in soils occur when probes such as heat flux plates are adopted, and these mistakes can account for up to 90% of the residual variance (Higgins, GRL, 2012). A promising alternative to heat flux plates is represented by Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP). They have proven to be accurate in thermal properties and heat fluxes estimation (e.g. Cobos, VZJ, 2003) and can be used to monitor and quantify subsurface evaporation in field experiments (Xiao et al., VZJ, 2011). We perform a laboratory experiment with controlled temperature in a small Plexiglas column (20cm diameter and 40cm height). The column is packed with homogeneously saturated sandy soil and equipped with three MFHPPs in the upper 4cm and thermocouples and dielectric soil moisture probes deeper. This configuration allows for accurate and simultaneous ground heat flux, soil moisture and subsurface evaporation measurements. Total evaporation is monitored using a precision scale, while an infrared gun and a long wave radiometer measure the soil skin temperature and the outgoing long-short wave radiation, respectively. A fan and a heat lamp placed above the column allow to mimick on a smaller and more controlled scale the field conditions induced by the diurnal cycle. At a reference height above the column relative humidity, wind speed and air temperature are collected. Results are interpreted by means of numerical simulations performed with an ad-hoc-developed numerical model that simulates coupled heat and moisture transfer in soils and is used to match and interpolate the temperature and soil moisture values got at finite depths within the column. Ground heat fluxes are then estimated by integrating over almost continuous, numerically simulated temperature profiles, which avoids errors due to use of discrete data (Lunati et al., WRR, 2012) and leads to a more reliable estimate of

  1. Guatemala; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: Fiscal Transparency Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of fiscal transparency practices in Guatemala in light of the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency. The assessment reveals that Guatemala has progressed in certain important aspects of fiscal transparency. A variety of measures have made it possible to modernize budget, treasury, and accounting procedures, improve management and control of public funds, and prepare timely budget execution reports. The annual budget and the mi...

  2. Estimates of direct biological transport of radioactive waste in the deep sea with special reference to organic carbon budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations can be made for the maximum theoretical transport of pollutants such as radionuclides by movement of organisms out of a deep-sea benthic boundary layer dump site based on a presumption of a steady state organic carbon budget and estimated biological concentration factors. A calculated flux rate depends on the difference between a limiting input of organic matter and that carbon used by the biota or accumulating in the sediment. On average, the potential biological mass transport is low compared to physical transport. Exceptions to this generalization are possible in the far field after spatial gradients are obliterated or if natural mass migrations or periodic spawning concentrations occur in the near field. Biologically mediated fluxes of contaminants due to mixing of sediments by bioturbation or vertical flux due to scavenging by sinking particles are significant for movements of pollutants to and from sediments. These pathways contribute to the direct input of contaminants into food webs which may contain harvestable species. These fluxes are unimportant for mass transfers in the ocean but they determine the exposure of critical groups to contaminants

  3. THE NATIONAL BUDGET BALANCING IN THE CONTEXT OF GOVERNMENTAL ANTIRECESSIONARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyshleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers international experience of balancing national budget under crisis conditions. Scientific approaches to achieving fiscal balance are examined. Some proposals are put forward to undertake anti-crisis activities as to fiscal policy in Ukraine.

  4. Ensuring Fiscal Sustainability in G-7 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Leigh; David Hauner; Michael Skaarup

    2007-01-01

    Rising longevity, falling fertility rates, and the retirement of the baby boom generation will substantially raise age-related government spending in most advanced and many emerging market countries. This paper assesses the evolution of fiscal sustainability for each of the G-7 countries using two standard primary gap indicators. The estimated fiscal adjustment required to ensure long-run fiscal sustainability is substantial for all G-7 countries. In particular, ensuring fiscal sustainability...

  5. Fiscal Deficits and Stock Prices in India: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.

  6. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  7. Research on China’s Procyclical Fiscal Policy-Based on the Balance Budget Rules%中国财政政策的顺周期性问题--基于预算平衡准则的实证考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蔡琛; 孙利媛

    2015-01-01

    财政政策的顺周期性容易加剧经济运行的不稳定,是当前全面深化财税改革过程中的一个重要议题。本文对中国财政政策的周期性进行实证研究,得出中国财政政策也具有顺周期特性的结论。通过借鉴其他国家化解财政政策顺周期性的经验,提出以下政策建议:实施结构性预算平衡准则,促进经济繁荣期的财政盈余积累;建立权责发生制政府财务报告,提升政府债务的安全预警水平;逐步提升直接税比重,减缓经济运行的波动性。%As the procyclical fiscal policy exacerbates the volatility of economic operation easily,it becomes an issue in the process of deepening the reform of the fiscal and taxation.By conducting an empirical research of cyclical fiscal policy in China,this paper concludes that China suffers a pattern of procyclical fiscal policy.Studying other countries’ resolving procyclical fiscal policy,the paper summarizes the following suggestions:(1 )to implement structural budget balance rules to promote the accumulation of fiscal surplus during economic booming;(2)to establish accrual government financial report to improve the safety warning level of government debt;(3)to raise the proportion of direct taxes gradually to reduce the volatility of economic operation.

  8. Fiscal Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Michael McLure

    2003-01-01

    This discussion paper overviews the intellectual foundations of 20th Century fiscal sociology and summarises recent development in the field. It is a draft of the “Fiscal Sociology” entry for the forthcoming International Encyclopedia of Public Policy (Routledge), which is currently being prepared by an editorial board under the direction of Phillip O’Hara.

  9. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  10. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE FISCAL-BUDGETARY POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF TAXATION SYSTEM REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MOCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the budgetary impact determined by the Government’s proposition of modifying Law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code, respectively the diminution of the central levies and taxes (VAT, profit tax, income tax, microenterprises’ income tax, excises, etc., represents a mandatory condition provided by the legislation in the field, having as primary role the observance of the fiscal budgetary policy’s objectives on medium-term and long-term assumed by Romania through the Treaty regarding the stability, coordination and governance in the European Union. The tax sustainability on medium-term and long-term supposes that the Government promotes a cautious fiscal-budgetary policy and an efficient administration of the appeared risks that wouldn’t imply adjustments of the expenses, incomes or a budgetary deficit with adverse economic and social effects.This work intends to analyze the financial impact on Romania’s budget following the proposition of the Government to reduce the central levies and taxes, the opportunity of adopting a high fiscal relaxation while observing the medium-term and long-term budgetary objectives and the consolidation of the existing macroeconomic balances. The data used in the proposed scientific work takes into consideration the estimated VAT and GDP for 2015-2017 in Romania. The set of used data was available in the database of ANAF and the data provided in the Fiscal budgetary strategy 2015-2017.The results of the study highlight the importance of the correct dimensioning of the effects of the first round and those of the second round represented by the fiscal relaxation measures in the revision project of law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code in the context of using fiscal multipliers and the elasticity of the budgetary aggregates.

  11. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  12. Selected approaches to estimate water-budget components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Ryter, Derek W.; Falk, Sarah E.; Houston, Natalie A.; Peterson, Steven M.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, underlying almost 112 million acres in the central United States, is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation. It is the primary water supply for drinking water, irrigation, animal production, and industry in the region. Expansion of irrigated agriculture throughout the past 60 years has helped make the High Plains one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Nation. Extensive withdrawals of groundwater for irrigation have caused water-level declines in many parts of the aquifer and increased concerns about the long-term sustainability of the aquifer. Quantification of water-budget components is a prerequisite for effective water-resources management. Components analyzed as part of this study were precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge, surface runoff, groundwater discharge to streams, groundwater fluxes to and from adjacent geologic units, irrigation, and groundwater in storage. These components were assessed for 1940 through 1949 (representing conditions prior to substantial groundwater development and referred to as "pregroundwater development" throughout this report) and 2000 through 2009. Because no single method can perfectly quantify the magnitude of any part of a water budget at a regional scale, results from several methods and previously published work were compiled and compared for this study when feasible. Results varied among the several methods applied, as indicated by the range of average annual volumes given for each component listed in the following paragraphs. Precipitation was derived from three sources: the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model, data developed using Next Generation Weather Radar and measured precipitation from weather stations by the Office of Hydrologic Development at the National Weather Service for the Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting model, and precipitation measured at weather stations and spatially distributed using an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation

  13. State and Local Governments: Fiscal Pressures Could Have Implications for Future Delivery of Intergovernmental Programs. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-899

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    State and local governments work in partnership with the federal government to implement numerous intergovernmental programs. Fiscal pressures for state and local governments may exist when spending is expected to outpace revenues for the long term. GAO (Government Accountability Office) was asked to examine (1) the long-term fiscal pressures…

  14. 7 CFR 3560.303 - Housing project budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incentive or annual bonuses; (I) Direct costs of travel to off-site locations by on-site staff for property... Agency for approval a proposed annual housing project budget prior to the start of the housing project's fiscal year. The capital budget section of the annual project budget must include...

  15. Quantitative vs. Qualitative in the Romanian Fiscal Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As it encountered a fiscal event (budget liquidity crisis in 2009, Romania should have proceeded to one of the most ambitious fiscal correction in the last 30 years in EU. Nevertheless, the absence of vision regarding the increase in quality of the fiscal adjustment is obvious. The fiscal correction made until now has rather been a quantitative one, falling within certain strictly numerical targets. In this paper, we present a series of signals arguing for the necessity to increase the fiscal quality. Moreover, we propose a few immunization mechanisms of the Romanian economy against the contagion of the current uncertainty in the Euro area or against the future crises.

  16. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  17. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing......The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  18. Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Andrew Chalk; Richard Hemming

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of approaches to assessing fiscal sustainability. It summarizes the general analytical background, focusing on the present value budget constraint, which is the benchmark against which solvency is determined, tests of sustainability (including sustainability indicators), and sustainability and uncertainty. The paper then looks at the way in which fiscal sustainability has been assessed in different types of IMF work. Finally the link be...

  19. Do Municipal Mergers Improve Fiscal Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Improved fiscal management is a frequent justification for promoting boundary consolidations. However, whether or not this is actually the case is rarely placed under rigorous empirical scrutiny. Hence, this article investigates if fiscal outcomes are improved when municipalities are merged....... The basic argument is that the conceptualisation of fiscal management in political science is often too narrow as it focuses on the budget and pays hardly any attention to balances in the final accounts and debts – elements of management which are central to policy making. On this background, the causal...... relationship between municipal mergers and fiscal outcomes is analysed. Measured on the balance between revenues and expenses, liquid assets and debts, municipal mergers improve the fiscal outcomes of the municipalities in a five-year perspective, although the pre-reform effects tend to be negative...

  20. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model I: Philosophy and approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lika, K.; Kearney, M.R.; Freitas, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; van der Meer, J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Pecquerie, L.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters a

  1. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  2. Budget Balance: Fiscal Policy Target or Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Savu Nicoleta Andreea

    2014-01-01

    International economic and financial crisis triggered in 2008 showed, on the one hand that for policy makers, the system of current statistics (national accounts) suffers from some fundamental structural weaknesses due to lack of relevant information and quality of existing data and, on the other hand emphasized the need to identify and bring in operational state a set of models that allow the improvement of macroeconomic forecasting methods that can issue warnings, not beeing easy to transpo...

  3. The new Spanish Autonomous Communities fiscal stability framework

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, M. Jose; Manzano, Agustin

    2004-01-01

    From to beginning of year 2002, the Spanish Autonomous Communities (CC. AA.) fiscal performance is conditioned by a new legal framework compounded from the financial agreement and the legislation on budget stability. This new framework implies a change in the CC. AA. fiscal behaviour. Are the CC. AA. ready to provide its citizens the public services they demand and fulfil its fiscal stability commitments? Are all the CC. AA. in the same position? Using political economic models and data on pa...

  4. Romanian Fiscal Policy in Perspective of Admittance in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mitrica

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analizes the convergence between Romanian and European fiscal policy in terms of three issues: the fiscal revenues percentage of GDP, the structure of public revenues and the public budget deficit (under the constrait of 3% of GDP. The analysis reveals small differences for the first and second issues and an important opportunity cost for the ceiling of deficit.

  5. 76 FR 21750 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... median income (SMI) estimates may adopt these estimates (up to 60 percent) on the estimates' date of... income eligibility criteria so that such criteria are in accord with the FFY 2012 SMI. This listing of 60 percent of SMI provides one of the maximum income criteria that LIHEAP grantees may use in determining...

  6. Fiscal transparency, political parties, and debt in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    Many believe and argue that fiscal, or budgetary, transparency has large, positive effects on fiscal performance. However, the evidence linking transparency and fiscal policy outcomes is less compelling. To analyze the effects of fiscal transparency on public debt accumulation, we present a caree...... of debt and transparency strongly confirm that a higher degree of fiscal transparency is associated with lower public debt and deficits, independent of controls for explanatory variables from other approaches......Many believe and argue that fiscal, or budgetary, transparency has large, positive effects on fiscal performance. However, the evidence linking transparency and fiscal policy outcomes is less compelling. To analyze the effects of fiscal transparency on public debt accumulation, we present a career...... (at least for strategic reasons) tend to have higher deficits than left-wing governments, and that increasing political polarization increases debt accumulation. To test the predictions of the model, we construct a replicable index of fiscal transparency on 19-country OECD data. Simultaneous estimates...

  7. FY 2004 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 summarizes the NITRD agencies coordinated research activities and FY 2004 plans, as required...

  8. Decentralization in regional fiscal systems in Russia - trends and links to economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Freinkman, Lev; Yossifov, Plamen

    1999-01-01

    To shed light on decentralization in Russia, the authors examine intergovernmental fiscal relations within regions. To analyze trends, they review channels of fiscal allocation within regions - tax sharing and local transfer schemes. To evaluate the potential impact of various fiscal decentralization patterns on regional economic performance (including growth and the budget deficit), the authors study data on the structure of 89 Russian consolidated regional budgets for 1992-96. They find tha...

  9. Fiscal Consolidation As a Public Policy: Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Bakırtaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available                         AbstractFiscal consolidation is the implementation of policies to reduce government expenditures and the public debt ratio to GDP. These policies are used to ensure fiscal discipline and minimize the debt stock by either tax or expenditure side. In this respect, the importance of fiscal consolidation policy is to ensure fiscal discipline without making negative effects on economic growth and economic life. Besides the conceptual framework, periods and the success criteria of fiscal consolidation are important factors for evaluating the success or failure of fiscal consolidation. In this study, it has been identified that there is no consensus on these criteria in the literature.Keywords: Fiscal Consolidation, Budget Deficits,Government Spending, Public EconomyJEL Classification Codes: E62, H32, H62

  10. ANCHORING FISCAL EXPECTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture, I argue that there are remarkable parallels between how monetary and fiscal policies operate on the macro economy and that these parallels are sufficient to lead us to think about transforming fiscal policy and fiscal institutions as many countries have transformed monetary policy and monetary institutions. Making fiscal transparency comparable to monetary transparency requires fiscal authorities to discuss future possible fiscal policies explicitly. Enhanced fiscal transpare...

  11. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    O. Cheberyako; O. Ryabokon

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on t...

  12. 1996 Budget picture still clouded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Four months and three work stoppages into fiscal 1996, whole departments and agencies of the United States federal government remain in budgetary limbo. Five annual spending bills still await approval, and parts of nine federal departments and several agencies face the possibility of yet another shutdown, as the current continuing resolution for temporary funding expires on March 15.In the wake of the recent three-week shutdown of the federal government, congressional leaders worked in January to ease future political pain by funding a list of “essential services” for the remainder of the fiscal year. Deemed essential were government programs with the most immediate and conspicuous public impact, such as the National Parks Service and the Passport Services Office. Included on that list of essential services was the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which not only received full funding for the entire fiscal year but also got a 5.7% increase over its 1995 budget.

  13. 77 FR 15376 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... income eligibility criteria on these State Median Income (SMI) estimates may adopt these estimates (up to... the FFY 2013 SMI. The 60 percent of SMI criterion provides one of the maximum income criteria that... appropriations for FFY 2009 through April 15, 2011 raised this criterion from 60 percent of SMI to 75 percent...

  14. 75 FR 26780 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... the median income for each State and the District of Columbia (State median income, or SMI), as... authorization expired on September 30, 2007, and reauthorization remains pending. The SMI estimates that HHS... two percent on average. HHS plans to use the Census Bureau's ACS-derived SMI three-year estimates...

  15. 78 FR 28597 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... adopt these estimates (up to 60 percent) on their date of publication in the Federal Register or on a later date as discussed in the ``Dates'' section. This enables grantees to implement this notice during.... DATES: Effective Date: These estimates become effective at any time between the date of this...

  16. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  17. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Ihori; Atsushi Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  18. A tidal creek water budget: Estimation of groundwater discharge and overland flow using hydrologic modeling in the Southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, Béatrice; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Twilley, Robert R.

    2011-07-01

    Taylor Slough is one of the natural freshwater contributors to Florida Bay through a network of microtidal creeks crossing the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER). The EMER ecological function is critical since it mediates freshwater and nutrient inputs and controls the water quality in Eastern Florida Bay. Furthermore, this region is vulnerable to changing hydrodynamics and nutrient loadings as a result of upstream freshwater management practices proposed by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP), currently the largest wetland restoration project in the USA. Despite the hydrological importance of Taylor Slough in the water budget of Florida Bay, there are no fine scale (˜1 km 2) hydrodynamic models of this system that can be utilized as a tool to evaluate potential changes in water flow, salinity, and water quality. Taylor River is one of the major creeks draining Taylor Slough freshwater into Florida Bay. We performed a water budget analysis for the Taylor River area, based on long-term hydrologic data (1999-2007) and supplemented by hydrodynamic modeling using a MIKE FLOOD (DHI, http://dhigroup.com/) model to evaluate groundwater and overland water discharges. The seasonal hydrologic characteristics are very distinctive (average Taylor River wet vs. dry season outflow was 6 to 1 during 1999-2006) with a pronounced interannual variability of flow. The water budget shows a net dominance of through flow in the tidal mixing zone, while local precipitation and evapotranspiration play only a secondary role, at least in the wet season. During the dry season, the tidal flood reaches the upstream boundary of the study area during approximately 80 days per year on average. The groundwater field measurements indicate a mostly upwards-oriented leakage, which possibly equals the evapotranspiration term. The model results suggest a high importance of groundwater contribution to the water salinity in the EMER. The model performance is satisfactory

  19. Government presents 1979 nuclear budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal items of the nuclear budget for the fiscal year 1979 are 165,700 Million for the Science and Technology Agency for the promotion of nuclear energy development, and for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 3,360 Million from the general account for nuclear items, 57,500 Million from the special account for power source development and 99,900 Million for fiscal investments and loans. In the Science and Technology Agency, compared with the last fiscal year, the appropriations have been especially increased for the research and development of nuclear fusion in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the Ministry of ITI, the distinctive budgetary features are those for streamlining the safety regulation administration, uranium extraction from sea water, and thermal effluent management. The 1979 government nuclear budget is described as follows: in the STA, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, and National Institute of Radiological Sciences; in the MITI, general account, special account, and fiscal investments and loans; the items in other ministries. (J.P.N.)

  20. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  1. Deficit sustainability and inflation in EMU: An analysis from the fiscal theory of the price level

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Bajo-Rubio; Carmen Díaz-Roldán; Vicente Esteve

    2007-01-01

    Price determination theory typically focuses on monetary plicy, while the role of fiscal policy is ussually neglected. From a different point of view, the Fiscal Theory of Price Level takes into account monetary and fiscal policy interactions and assumes that fiscal policy may determine the price level, even if monetary authorities pursue an inflation targeting strategy. In this paper we try to test empirically whether the time path of the government budget in EMU countries would have affecte...

  2. Fiscal Policy Reforms and Dynamic Laffer Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fiscal policy reforms on the long-run government budget balance in a one-sector model of endogenous growth with factor income taxes, a tax on consumption, non-productive public goods expenditures, and a labour-leisure trade-off. In addition, we allow for different structures

  3. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  4. Analysis of fiscal competitiveness in Lithuania’s municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bajorūnienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays municipal revenue management and administrative issues are more important and problematic. It is noted that in Lithuania’s separate municipalities collected budget revenues, formed budget expenditure, set borrowing limits, allocated from the state budget financial resources (grants are significantly different. In order to determine reasons for these differences, it is appropriate to analyze the municipal fiscal competitiveness and identify fiscal competitiveness factors of individual Lithuanian municipalities. Understanding municipal fiscal competitiveness factors helps to explain why some municipalities more successfully than others increase tax revenue level and financial - social opportunities of their populations. This scientific article is funded by the Research Council of Lithuania according to the project „The evaluation of municipalities’ fiscal competitiveness in the context of economic growth” (2015-2018, registration No. MIP-013/2015.

  5. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  6. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  7. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  8. Responsabilidad fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características distintivas del sistema constitucional adoptado en 1991 es el desarrollo de mecanismos de control al ejercicio de la autoridad, uno de los cuales es el control fiscal, que bajo un tratamiento normativo diferente del vigente hasta entonces, se orienta a la preservación de los recursos públicos y a su aplicación a los fines esenciales del Estado. Dentro del nuevo esquema constitucional del control fiscal, su objeto de vigilancia lo constituye la gestión fiscal, cuyo ejercicio inadecuado, lesivo del erario, da lugar a la deducción de la consecuente responsabilidad patrimonial por parte de las contralorías. Ante la ausencia de desarrollo legal dada la precariedad de la regulación procesal contenida en la Ley 42 de 1993, la evolución conceptual al respecto fue asumida por las altas cortes hasta la expedición de la Ley 610 de 2000. Sin embargo, la demora en la expedición del estatuto legal que desarrollara integralmente el ejercicio de esta atribución de las contralorías, impide efectuar un juicio sobre las bondades o las fallas de la existencia y aplicación de esta institución jurídica de estirpe constitucional.

  9. Participatory Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Innovation for Development and South-South Cooperation, IDEASS

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...

  10. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  11. FISCAL COUNCILS AS AN ELEMENT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF FISCAL POLICY – THE CASE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Maria CIAK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal institutions, along with fiscal rules and budgetary procedures, are elements of the institutional environment of fiscal policy. Well pursued fiscal policy is reflected in the fiscal situation of a given country. The activities of many EU member countries and of Poland, done up till now, have been insufficient to keep the discipline in public finance. The effect of the lack of the discipline is a long-term budget deficit and public debt. According to the studies by the European Commission, the level of budgetary deficit in the countries with an independent fiscal institution was considerably lower than that in the countries without such an institution. Independent fiscal institutions in the European Union member countries and in the world differ according to their tasks, rights and responsibilities. It results predominantly from the political conditions, existing institutional arrangements and from the challenges facing fiscal policy in particular countries. The aim of the article is to indicate the possibility to create in Poland an independent institution which would support the maintaining discipline of public finance and increase the transparency of the fiscal policy pursued by the public authorities. The following hypothesis is stated in the article: in Poland there is a real opportunity for functioning of an independent fiscal council, which would act as a guardian of the condition of public finance and as an advisor, and would watch the pursuing of a correct fiscal policy.  

  12. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  13. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  14. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  16. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-10-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  17. Open Budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Government initiatives to publicize budgetary information allow for greater public supervision In an unprecedented move,four ministries under the Central Government recently posted their 2010 budgets on their official websites.

  18. Bottom-up Budgeting FY 2015 Assessment: Camarines Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Maramot, Joyce Anne; Yasay, Donald B.; de Guzman, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is an adaptation of the participatory budgeting model in identifying and providing solutions to poverty at the municipal/city level. Leaders of civil society organizations engage with LGU officials in formulating a poverty alleviation plan to be considered in preparing the budget of national agencies the following fiscal year. This paper reports on how the guideline was implemented in three municipalities in Camarines Sur. The study then presents suggestions and reco...

  19. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  20. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; Molen, van der M.K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T.C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inven

  1. An organic carbon budget for coastal Southern California determined by estimates of vertical nutrient flux, net community production and export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, William Z.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Berelson, William M.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Fleming, John C.; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2016-10-01

    Organic carbon export and burial in coastal upwelling regions is an important mechanism for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. In order to understand how these complex systems will respond to future climate forcing, further studies of nutrient input, biological production and export are needed. Using a 7Be-based approach, we produced an 18-month record of upwelling velocity estimates at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), Southern California Bight. These upwelling rates and vertical nutrient distributions have been combined to make estimates of potential new production (PNP), which are compared to estimates of net community oxygen production (NOP) made using a one-dimensional, two-box non-steady state model of euphotic zone biological oxygen supersaturation. NOP agrees within uncertainty with PNP, suggesting that upwelling is the dominant mechanism for supplying the ecosystem with new nutrients in the spring season, but negligible in the fall and winter. Combining this data set with estimates of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from water column 234Th:238U disequilibrium and sediment trap deployments, and an estimate of the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC):POC consumption rates, we construct a simple box model of organic carbon in the upper 200 m of our study site. This box model (with uncertainties of ±50%) suggests that in spring, 28% of net production leaves the euphotic zone as DOC, of this, 12% as horizontal export and 16% via downward mixing. The remaining 72% of net organic carbon export exits as sinking POC, with only 10% of euphotic zone export reaching 200 m. We find the metabolic requirement for the local heterotrophic community below the euphotic zone, but above 200 m, is 105±50 mmol C m-2 d-1, or 80% of net euphotic zone production in spring.

  2. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Scott D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production and industrial (net emissions from forest industry forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1. The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100

  3. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  4. On Revision of China’ s Budget Law on the Background of Deepening Fiscal and Taxation System Reform---An Analysis of Revision Background, Content and Effect of China’ s Budget Law%全面深化财税体制改革视野下中国《预算法》的修订研究--中国《预算法》修订的背景、内容与效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海涛; 肖鹏

    2014-01-01

    Abts ract:The Budget Law was revised on the tenth meeting of the twelve session of the NPC Standing Committee on August 31st in 2014 .Compared with the Budget Law in1994 , there are eight breakthroughs in 2014 Budget Law:First , Emphasizing the principle of completion , secondly, emphasizing the principle of transparency , thirdly, emphasizing the principle of ruling by law , fourthly, expanding the principle of yearly budget , fifthly, emphasizing the principle of budget performance , sixthly, strengthe-ning the administration of local government debt , seventhly , strengthening the administration of Extra budgetary revenue , eighth-ly, strengthening the function of redistribution .The promulgation and Implementation of Budget law will help to promote the na-tional governance ability , and will help to construct modern fiscal system .%2014年8月31日,十二届全国人大常委会第十次会议通过颁布了修订后的《预算法》。《预算法》修订工作作为党的十八届三中全会《关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》和《全面深化财税体制改革方案》的突破口,凸显八个方面的重大突破:突出预算的全面完整性原则,实现四本预算的全覆盖;突出预算的公开透明原则,循序渐进地推进预算信息公开;突出预算的法治性原则,构建预算对政府施政的硬约束机制;拓展预算的年度性原则,建立跨年度预算平衡机制;强化预算的绩效性原则,倡导“用钱必问效、无效必问责”的理念;加强地方政府债务管理,明确地方政府债务管理的职责权限划分;加强预算超收收入管理,设立预算稳定调节基金;强化预算的再分配功能,推进基本公共服务均等化。《预算法》的颁布实施也将对提升国家治理能力、建立现代财政制度、规范政府施政行为、制约和监督政府权力运行、提升纳税人权利意识、提升人大审查监督政府

  5. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  6. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S. Department of…

  7. Dynamic effects of fiscal policy and fiscal multipliers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Deskar-Škrbić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of discretionary measures of fiscal policy on the economic activity and to estimate the size of fiscal multipliers in Croatia. Econometric framework is based on the structural VAR model (SVAR, with Blanchard-Perotti identification method that uses information on institutional characteristics of fiscal system. The analysis is conducted on quarterly data for total expenditures and indirect taxes of central, central consolidated and general consolidated government and aggregate demand for the period from 2004-2012. The results show that our initial assumptions about the difference in the size of the multiplier of government expenditures and indirect tax revenues between three levels of government consolidation have been confirmed.

  8. Fiscal decentralization and Pollution: Institutions Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Mennel, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of fiscal decentralization on different indicators of pollution for more than 80 countries from 1970 to 2000. Our cross country estimates show that fiscal decentralization increases pollution. However, higher quality of institutions can limit the destructive environmental effects of decentralization. The empirical results confirm a strand of the literature on decentralization that predicts a “race to the bottom” under federalism. The mitigating effect of good governance...

  9. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  10. Fiscal 2000 Tax Revenue Growth: Strongest of the Last Decade. State Fiscal Brief No. 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Nicholas W.; Davis, Elizabeth I.

    This report estimates that state tax revenue grew 8.7 percent from fiscal year 1999 to fiscal year 2000. If adjusted for the effects of legislated tax changes, state revenue growth would have been an even stronger 9.4 percent. This is by far the highest adjusted or unadjusted annual growth ever recorded by the Rockefeller Institute. When inflation…

  11. (U) Estimating the Photonics Budget, Resolution, and Signal Requirements for a Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This document examines the performance of a generic flat-mirror multimonochromatic imager (MMI), with special emphasis on existing instruments at NIF and Omega. We begin by deriving the standard equation for the mean number of photons detected per resolution element. The pinhole energy bandwidth is a contributing factor; this is dominated by the finite size of the source and may be considerable. The most common method for estimating the spatial resolution of such a system (quadrature addition) is, technically, mathematically invalid for this case. However, under the proper circumstances it may produce good estimates compared to a rigorous calculation based on the convolution of point-spread functions. Diffraction is an important contribution to the spatial resolution. Common approximations based on Fraunhofer (farfield) diffraction may be inappropriate and misleading, as the instrument may reside in multiple regimes depending upon its configuration or the energy of interest. It is crucial to identify the correct diffraction regime; Fraunhofer and Fresnel (near-field) diffraction profiles are substantially different, the latter being considerably wider. Finally, we combine the photonics and resolution analyses to derive an expression for the minimum signal level such that the resulting images are not dominated by photon statistics. This analysis is consistent with observed performance of the NIF MMI.

  12. Estimating the Budgets of Nutrients for Phytoplankton Bloom in the Central Yellow Sea Using a Modified Lower Tropic Ecosystem Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chengyi; WANG Yuheng; WEI Hao

    2014-01-01

    A modified lower trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO) is coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for an application in the central Yellow Sea. The model is used to simulate the horizontal distributions and annual cycles of chlorophyll-a and nutrients with results consistent with historical observations. Generally, during the winter background and spring bloom periods, the exchange with neighboring waters constitutes the primary sources of nutrients. Howerver, during the winter background period, the input of silicate from the layer deeper than 50 m is the most important source that contributes up to 60%to the total sources. Dur-ing the spring bloom period, the transport across the thermocline makes significant contribution to the input of phosphate and silicate. During the post spring bloom period, the relative contribution of relevant processes varies for different nutrients. For ammonium, atmospheric deposition, excretion of zooplankton and decomposition of particulate and dissolved nitrogen make similar contributions. For phosphate and silicate, the dominant input is the transport across the thermocline, accounting for 62% and 68% of the total sources, respectively. The N/P ratio averaged annually and over the whole southern Yellow Sea is up to 51.8, indicating the potential of P limitation in this region. The important influence of large scale sea water circulation is revealed by both the estimated fluxes and the corresponding N/P ratio of nutrients across a section linking the northeastern bank of the Changjiang River and Cheju Island. During the winter background period, the input of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate by the Yellow Sea Warm Current is estimated to be 4.6×1010, 2.3×1010, 2.0×109 and 1.2×1010 mol, respectively.

  13. “BOT+EPC”模式下公路工程概算编制问题分析%Analysis for Problems in Budget Estimate Making of Highway Project in “BOT+EPC” Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运涛; 敬世红

    2013-01-01

    As a new mode in the field of expressway construction, " BOT + EPC " proposes higher requirement for depth and accuracy of budget estimate making in design. In combination with construction practices on new 1000km expressway in Chongqing, this paper points out discordance between conventional two-stage design budget estimate with new construction mode. From the perspective of management for expressway construction, the paper indicates that changes of highway construction modes expedite adjustment of design budget estimate making and emphasizes several problems that should be particularly noticed in budget estimate making in new mode.%“BOT+EPC”作为高速公路建设领域的一种新模式,对设计概算编制深度和精度提出更高要求.结合重庆新千公里高速公路建设实践,指出传统意义上两阶段初步设计概算与新型建设模式不协调的一面.从高速公路建设管理的角度,指出公路建设模式变化催生设计概算编制随之调整,强调新模式下概算编制中应着重注意的若干问题.

  14. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition.

  15. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  16. Open Budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ In an unprecedented move,four ministries under the Central Government recently posted their 2010 budgets on their official websites.This move has been greeted with mixed reactions,with some netizens complaining about a lack of details and explanations of different items.

  17. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  18. Fiscal determinants of government borrowing costs: do we have only ourselves to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Funda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and the problems in peripheral EU countries resulted in increased attention to fiscal developments and their impact on borrowing costs for both public and private sector. Existing theoretical literature suggests that worsening of current and expected budget balances as well as an increase of public debt lead to a rise in short and long term interest rates for sovereign debtors. However, empirical results are inconclusive, especially for emerging market countries. This paper analyzes the factors that determine the dynamics of government bond spreads, with special emphasis on fiscal indicators. The survey covered 17 European countries, of which 9 are developed and 8 are emerging market economies, all of them members of the EU except Croatia. The empirical part of the paper employs dynamic panel data method and uses the Arellano and Bond estimator to get consistent estimates of parameters of interest. The results show that in the period 2004-2011 fiscal balance and public debt projections had a significant impact on the differences in government bond yields for emerging market countries, with the effect being much stronger during the period after the onset of financial crises. On the other hand, it seems that sovereign spread dynamics in developed countries is driven mostly by the global market sentiment.

  19. Fiscal consolidation strategy : [Version 21 September 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cogan, John F.; John B. Taylor; Wieland, Volker; Wolters, Maik Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis and great recession, many countries face substantial deficits and growing debts. In the United States, federal government outlays as a ratio to GDP rose substantially from about 19.5 percent before the crisis to over 24 percent after the crisis. In this paper we consider a fiscal consolidation strategy that brings the budget to balance by gradually reducing this spending ratio over time to the level that prevailed prior to the crisis. A crucial ...

  20. Experimental estimates of the energy budget of hydrothermal eruptions; application to 2012 Upper Te Maari eruption, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Cronin, Shane J.; Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-10-01

    . Further, we tested dry samples at the same pressure and temperature conditions. Results showed that host rock lithology and state of the interstitial fluid was a major influence on the fragmentation and ejection processes, as well as the energy partitioning. Clasts were ejected with velocities of up to 160 m/s as recorded by high-speed camera. In addition to rare large clasts (analogous to ballistics), a large amount of fine and very fine (<63 μm) ash was produced in all experiments. The efficiency of transformation of the total explosive energy into fragmentation energy was estimated between 10 to 15%, depending on the host rock lithology, while less than 0.1% of this was converted into kinetic energy. Our results suggest that liquid-to-vapor (flashing) expansion provides an order of magnitude higher energy release than steam expansion, which best explains the dynamics of the westward (and most energetic) directed blast at Te Maari. Considering the steam flashing as the primary energy source, the experiments suggested that a minimum explosive energy of 7 ×1010 to 2 ×1012 J was involved in the Te Maari blast. Experimental studies under controlled conditions, compared closely to a field example are thus highly useful in providing new insights into the energy release and hazards associated with eruptions in hydrothermal areas.

  1. The Fiscal Impact of Population Aging in the US: Assessing the Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ronald; Edwards, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Population aging, accelerating as the baby boom generations age, will have important fiscal consequences because expenditures on Social Security, Medicare, and institutional Medicaid make up more than a third of the Federal budget. However, the projected fiscal pressures are far in the future, and long-term projections are very unreliable. Our analysis here has two goals: to examine the fiscal impact of population aging, and to do this in a probabilistic setting. We find that the old age depe...

  2. Essays on monetary and fiscal policy interaction: Applications to EMU and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Aarle, B. van

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of monetary and fiscal policies encompasses much research material and covers a respectable area in theoretical macroeconomics. In this broad research field, three different focuses are discernible. A first line of research studies the dynamic interdependence of monetary and fiscal policy due to the dynamic government budget constraint. The second approach concentrates on the interaction of fiscal and monetary policy regarding the stabilisation of output fluctuations. Finally,...

  3. Debt and Deficit Ceilings, and Sustainability of Fiscal Policies: An Intertemporal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Uctum, Merih; Michael R. Wickens

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the likely consequences for the sustainability of fiscal policy of pursuing goals that rely on restrictive ceilings on deficits and debt. We provide a formal theoretical framework for analyzing the sustainability of fiscal policy based on the government intertemporal budget constraint and derive conditions that determine whether a given fiscal stance is sustainable. This framework generalizes the existing literature in several important respects. We allow for time-va...

  4. Islamic Republic of Iran; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This report assesses the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency for the Islamic Republic of Iran. Since the enactment of the five-year Development Plan covering 2000–04, the authorities have taken a number of steps to enhance fiscal transparency, especially with respect to the budget process. Important recent actions include eliminating implicit exchange rate subsidies, budgetizing other implicit subsidies including those associated with price controls, and adopting contem...

  5. A fiscal rule that has teeth : a suggestion for a "fiscal sustainability council" underpinned by the financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hedbávný, Petr; Schneider, Ondřej; Zápal, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to examine an efficient fiscal-policy framework for a monetary union. We illustrate that fiscal policy’s bias toward budget deficit only temporarily ceased at the end of the 20th century as European countries endeavored to qualify for euro-zone membership, which compelled strict limits on budgetary deficits. We then explore which mechanisms might instill a sense of fiscal disciple in governments. We find that most mechanisms suffer from the incentive-incompatible set...

  6. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    and tax changes) have the expected Keynesian effects on output and consumption. However, we find no evidence that the large fiscal consolidation in Denmark slowed the economy after controlling for a host of exogenous shocks and business cycle effects. Rather, we find some support for the hypothesis......The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... the 1983 Danish fiscal reform. We use a structural VAR/event study methodology following Blanchard and Perotti (2002) that explicitly allows us to distinguish between normally marginal changes in fiscal policy and comprehensive fiscal reforms. We find that 'marginal changes' in fiscal policy (expenditure...

  7. Effect of Fiscal Policy Shocks in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ackon, Kwabena Meneabe

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a comprehensive assessment of the effect of a fiscal policy shock in Brazil. I found that gross domestic product does not rise in the short run in response to the fiscal policy shock albeit it rises in the long run. In addition, I found that unlike an advanced economy like the USA, the response of both fiscal and monetary variables estimated in the VAR are very volatile with the stock price index which represents Brazil’s financial sector in the VAR model responding negativ...

  8. Monetary Science, Fiscal Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper

    2010-01-01

    Monetary policy decisions tend to be based on systematic analysis of alternative policy choices and their associated macroeconomic impacts: this is science. Fiscal policy choices, in contrast, spring from unsystematic speculation, grounded more in politics than economics: this is alchemy. In normal times, fiscal alchemy poses no insurmountable problems for monetary policy because fiscal expectations can be extrapolated from past fiscal behavior. But normal times may be coming to an end: aging...

  9. 美国联邦政府2017财年研发预算分析与启示%Research on R & D Budget of the U.S. Federal Government for Fiscal Year 2017

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明磊; 陈宝明

    2016-01-01

    According to the president’s R&D budget for ifscal year 2017 which president Obama submitted in Feb. 2016, the paper analyzes the investment structure of the America’s ifscal year 2017 R&D budget, as well as the main department distribution and R&D plans. Based on summarized the major characteristics and the main ifelds of R&D investment in ifscal year 2017, it put forward some focus points and enlightenment.%本文根据奥巴马2016年2月提交的2017财年联邦政府预算案,分析美国2017财年研发经费预算的投入结构、主要部门经费分布与研发计划,总结2017财年研发投入的主要特点和重点以及研发投入领域,提出一些需要关注的研发投入方向以及启示。

  10. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  11. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition. PMID:26242904

  12. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  13. An Empirical Study on Fiscal Sustainability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal sustainability has become a prominent issue in developing countries, and fiscal sustainability assessments have become an increasingly demanded component of macroeconomic analysis. Unfortunately, there is no single basic source of information on fiscal sustainability. Country economists who are new to fiscal sustainability analysis could rely on sample work by other economists and could delve into scattered journal articles for the theoretical background. This paper focuses on a particular country: Malaysia. The main purpose of this paper is to monitor fiscal sustainability in Malaysia using empirical analysis, and see whether the fiscal sustainability indicators are consistent with the co-integration framework. We employ VAR analysis as it is simple to compute and easily automated. We show how it is possible to analyze a change of policy within a VAR framework. We also use a Multivariate Co-integration Test methodology to conduct inference about the co-integrating relationship between fiscal sustainability indicators and output (GDP. Empirical validation from the time series analysis finds that fiscal sustainability indicators and Gross domestic Product (GDP are co-integrated, which provides some support for the position that Malaysia’s fiscal sustainability is sustainable in the long run in sampling period. This finding suggests that the Government should improve the presentation of sustainability of fiscal policy and develop the analysis, review the sustainability indicators, and strengthen the role of the long term estimates in the design of short term fiscal policy.

  14. Estimation of Carbon Budgets for Croplands by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model and Validation Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Dejoux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands occupy large areas of Earth's land surface playing a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence, it is essential to quantify and analyze the carbon fluxes from those agro-ecosystems, since they contribute to climate change and are impacted by the environmental conditions. In this study we propose a regional modeling approach that combines high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data with a crop model and a large set of in-situ measurements for model calibration and validation. The study area is located in southwest France and the model that we evaluate, called SAFY-CO2, is a semi-empirical one based on the Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and adapted for simulating the components of the net ecosystem CO2 fluxes (NEE) and of the annual net ecosystem carbon budgets (NECB) at a daily time step. The approach is based on the assimilation of satellite-derived green area index (GAI) maps for calibrating a number of the SAFY-CO2 parameters linked to crop phenology. HSTR data from the Formosat-2 and SPOT satellites were used to produce the GAI maps. The experimental data set includes eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 fluxes from two experimental sites and partitioned into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). It also includes measurements of GAI, biomass and yield between 2005 and 2011, focusing on the winter wheat crop. The results showed that the SAFY-CO2 model correctly reproduced the biomass production, its dynamic and the yield (relative errors about 24%) in contrasted climatic, environmental and management conditions. The net CO2 flux components estimated with the model were overall in agreement with the ground data, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.93 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.86 for NEE). The evaluation of the modelled NECB for the different site-years highlighted the importance of having accurate estimates of each component of the NECB. Future works aim at considering

  15. Lack of fiscal discipline: Challenges and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of fiscal discipline is one of the most pressing issues in the framework of various economic systems today. The consequences of the global economic crisis have shown all the weaknesses of measures and mechanisms in terms of decision-making in fiscal policy. This problem can be seen now in almost every country. The problem of inadequate implementation of fiscal policy and the maintenance of fiscal discipline is reflected in the fact that their consequences are not visible right away, but tend to show their negative effects much later. Today, we have a situation where a certain current government suffers badly implemented prior fiscal discipline of a previous government. The paper identified causes of fiscal indiscipline, which is most easily seen in the budget process. In addition to determining the causes of fiscal indiscipline, the author puts forward a set of different possible solutions that could positively affect the stabilization of the growing public debt and eliminate the cause of fiscal indiscipline. Possible solutions are analyzed, as well as the positive and negative aspects of their use, and possible implementation problems of specific solutions.

  16. Our Changing Planet: The FY 1993 US Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, a supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Reasearch Program (USGCRP) was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY-1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  17. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency: Evidence in the Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Zuccolotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The transparency of governments to their citizens is seen as a necessary factor in democratic accountability and, consequently, in the consolidation of democracy. Although the importance of transparency in government is often highlighted, its causes are still unknown, especially in the Brazilian context. Following the trend of international empirical research, this exploratory study investigates the relationships between three sets of variables (current and past fiscal variables, socioeconomic variables and political variables and fiscal transparency in the Brazilian subnational context. To identify the relationship between fiscal, socioeconomic and political variables and fiscal transparency, the multiple linear regression technique was used. Prior to conducting the regression using the method of ordinary least squares, factor analysis was used, aiming to group the fiscal and socioeconomic variables into factors not only to reduce their quantity but also to eliminate their multicollinearity problems. Political variables, due to their qualitative nature, remained in their original form. The factor analysis sorted the variables into two groups: fiscal and socioeconomic factors. Because multiple regression allows only for the evaluation of the relationship between the parties included in the sample and the reference party, an F test was used to assess differences in the level of transparency among political parties. The results indicated that fiscal and socioeconomic variables explain the transparency levels of the Brazilian States. However, the political variables were not significant, indicating that the disclosure of fiscal information in Brazil seems not to be influenced by political ideologies. Furthermore, it is evident that the lack of a regulatory model of transparency in the budget process leads States to disclose a great deal of information about budget execution. Finally, the findings indicate that as an instrument for democratic

  18. The Growth and Stabilization Properties of Fiscal Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrab Rafiq

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the size of the fiscal multiplier values generated in Malaysia. The results show that a government spending shock leads to broad positive economic effects. Although, the effectiveness of fiscal policy alters across macroeconomic states. The estimates show that since the Asian financial crisis the medium- and long-run effect of fiscal policy spending has declined. Some of this is down to greater credit availability and less investment spending.

  19. Fiscal Budget Constraint and The Determination of Price Level:A Critique on FTPL%财政约束与价格水平决定:FTPL的一个批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利平

    2005-01-01

    本文在一个内生增长一般均衡货币模型中,通过引入名义债券、实际债券、货币和物质资本,讨论了政府财政约束与价格水平决定的关系.我们发现,在平衡增长路径上均衡通货膨胀率完全由货币增长率决定,政府跨时预算约束方程只是个恒等式.如果价格水平财政理论(Fiscal Theory of Price Level,FTPL)成立,则小得可以忽略的财政扰动可以导致物价水平的巨大波动,这是无法让人接受的;进一步的研究发现,问题出现的原因是FTPL将名义债券市场和其他资产市场割裂开来,孤立地讨论了名义债券市场出清的条件,由此认为跨时预算约束方程是一个均衡定价方程;当将诸市场统一起来考虑时,公众可以在货币、债券和物质资本之间进行选择,财政当局不再是一个价格决定者,其债券发行量成为一个内生变量,必须服从跨时预算约束方程,后者成为一个恒等式,从而价格水平主要由货币当局的货币发行决定.

  20. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Agüera

    Full Text Available Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O

  1. The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Emerging Markets Sovereign Spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Country risk or sovereign spreads affect directly the investment of companies and sovereigns, being an important figure to domestic interest rates and to economic growth. This paper analyzes the impact of fiscal policy on the determinants of the sovereign risk of 23 emerging market countries between 1995-2008. The results associate lower spreads to fiscal austerity, i.e. an accumulation of primary budget surplus that keeps the debt to GDP ratio constant over time. An increase of 1% on primary budget surplus decreases the spreads around 50 basis point. It evidences that fiscal policy sustainability plays a relevant role in determining the sovereign spreads besides contributing as a policy that mitigates external shocks.

  2. Kosova budgetary sustainability and fiscal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Myrvete Pantina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting is the process of governmental resource allocation in order to achieve specificsocial and economic goals. Since the governmental resources are scarce in most transitional countries, as isthe case in Kosova, they need to be allocated based on priority needs, in order to ensure greater efficiency.In post-war Kosova the primary objectives of drafting policies were concentrated around establishingbudgeting systems, collecting revenues by means of the tax system and development of a comprehensivereconstruction programme, it could be said that these goals were achieved within a short period of time.When we take into account the fact that the Central Banking Authority of Kosova (CBAK is still unableto completely manage the monetary policy, and does this only to a certain extent, and the fact that Kosovauntil now did not have access to additional foreign financing, these elements make it all the more necessaryto be more careful in preserving fiscal sustainability, since the fiscal policy, until now, was the sole meansof macroeconomic policies at the hands of the government.The objective of this paper is to present the proceedings of the Kosova fiscal policy and budgeting during2000-2007, as well as provide several recommendations which could result in an increased efficiency infiscal policy by generating budgetary revenues

  3. Estimating Evapotranspiration Over Agricultural Landscapes with Thermal Infrared Data: Towards the Comparison of Two Approaches Using Simple Energy Budget and Svat Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeard, G.; Coudert, B.; Jarlan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring presents wide range of applications from agriculture and water resources management to meteorology. Several approaches have been developed to retrieve ET based on a joint use of remote sensing data and land surface modeling, in particular with a SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfers) model or a SEB (Surface Energy Budget) model. The objective of our work is to estimate spatialized ET fluxes from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) imagery. We will focus on simulating fluxes at low resolution with 2 methodologies: 1- Simulating with a SEB model directly at low resolution (landscape scale: 4km) with TIR forcing. 2- Aggregating high resolution (agricultural field scale) estimates from a SVAT model constrained by TIR data and forced by a spatialized database (landcover, LAI, vegetation height and meteorological forcing). By doing a sensitivity analysis and comparing both approaches we will point out mechanisms that govern scale switching, and how high resolution "informations" and aggregation scenarios impact low resolution estimates. Within this preliminary study, we compare in-situ potentialities of a SEB model (TSEB) versus a SVAT model (SEtHyS). TSEB (Two Sources Equation Balance) is a model of turbulent exchange (Norman & al. 1995) partitioning the available energy between soil and vegetation and driven directly via remote sensing TIR sensors. SEtHyS (French acronym for soil moisture monitoring) is a SVAT model (described by Coudert & al. 2006) which is physically based and has more inputs and parameters requirements. Besides fluxes, it outputs brightness temperatures which can be compared and constrained with TIR data. Models fluxes simulations are compared to in-situ Eddy-Correlation (EC) fluxes measurement stations. Models are then compared performing a sensitivity analysis on their inputs and parameters so as to characterize their capabilities and behaviors, and quantify error ranges that will be induced by spatialization over

  4. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... the cost of inpatient medical services furnished by military treatment facilities through...

  5. Accurately Model of Project Estimated Budget Based on SVM-PCA and Chaos Post Processing%基于混沌后处理的SVM-PCA精确工程预算估计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建永

    2014-01-01

    In traditional estimating method, the linear method was used and the budget estimating result was poor. An accu-rately model of project estimated budget based on SVM-PCA and chaos post processing was proposed, In the SVM model, the PCA method was used for clear and filter the number of redundant information, to ensure the contribution of the input information data, the data was output to the post-processing model, and with the chaos mixed characteristics of the data smoothing, the accuracy model of systems engineering estimated budget was achieved. Finally a team of 5 projects with 10 elements were taken as target to do experiment, the result shows that with the accurately model of project estimated budget based on SVM-PCA and chaos post processing, each engineering accurate estimates of consumption estimated core out, it has good application value.%传统的估计模型采用线性方法,预算估计结果差。提出一种基于混沌后处理的SVM-PCA精确工程预算估计模型。在SVM模型的基础上,采用PCA方法,对输入系统的一些冗余信息进行清除过滤,保证输入信息数据的贡献率,数据输出后,采用混沌后处理的方法对数据参差特性进行平滑处理,保证系统工程预算估计模型的精确性。最后采用一组10大类元素的5个工程进行预算估计实验,结果显示,采用基于混沌后处理的SVM-PCA精确工程预算估计模型后,每个工程中的核心消耗均被精确的估计出来,具有很好的工程应用价值。

  6. Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Discusses fiscal decentralization and economic development in developed and developing countries. Explores historical trends in fiscal centralization and puts them in context of the developing countries.

  7. MACROTHEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Liutyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the unexplored category of "fiscal consolidation". The study shows a different interpretation of the content of fiscal consolidation. It was emphasized that in today's fiscal policy in the EU aims mainly at implementing fiscal consolidation programs that provide sustainable public finances by implementing measures to limit the fiscal imbalances (especially deficit of governance and public debt. The paper analyses the fiscal consolidation program aimed at stabilizing of public finances and improve their sustainability. The research proved that fiscal rules and norms contribute to the process of fiscal consolidation.

  8. 24 CFR 990.315 - Submission and approval of operating budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Financial Management Systems...: (1) Prior to the beginning of its fiscal year, a PHA shall prepare an operating budget in a manner prescribed by HUD. The PHA's Board of Commissioners shall review and approve the budget by resolution....

  9. Truth or Consequences: The State Budget for 2004-2005 and Its Impact on Texans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Patrick; Castro, Eva De Luna; Dunkelberg, Anne; Hagert, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the Texas state budget for 2004-05, discusses the impact of the fiscal and policy decisions that were made, and serves as a roadmap to the service restorations that must be considered as the economy and state revenues rebound. In addition to the analysis of budget and policy changes in the body of the report, useful…

  10. Proposed State Budget Improves Outlook for Kids, but Leaves Much Work to Be Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the Administration's proposed state budget does not project a deficit. Painful budget cutting in recent years combined with voters passing Proposition 30 in November to generate revenues finally have put California on more stable fiscal ground. However, it is critical to recognize that kids have borne a…

  11. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have pur

  12. 7 CFR 1221.112 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... budget shall include: (1) A statement of objectives and strategy for each program, plan, or project; (2) A summary of anticipated revenue, with comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for... only for startup costs and capital outlays and are limited to the first fiscal period of operation...

  13. State Budgets Are Likely to Squeeze 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges in nearly half of the states will probably face midyear reductions in their appropriations, according to a survey of members of the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges. The study paints a bleak picture of a widening fiscal crisis among state governments, which started in the most recent budget year and is…

  14. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically...

  15. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...

  16. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    -per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... that centralizes decisions making. A centralization cascade is identi-fied, as the Ministry of Finance enhances more power and control the ministries more frequent and more in the depth, as a result of this parent ministries have to control their agencies more frequent and much more detailed than before, which...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  17. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  18. Análisis del proceso de descentralización fiscal en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Vega Castro

    2008-01-01

    Peru is experiencing a deep political and fiscal decentralization process, especially since 2002. The newly created regional governments now share power and resources with the existing municipal governments as well as with the national or central government. The national government has transferred important responsibilities and fiscal resources to regional governments and also has reinforced local governments’ budgets. Both levels of subnacional governments have doubled their budget revenue...

  19. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  20. Commitment vs. discretion in the UK: An empirical investigation of the monetary and fiscal policy regime

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kirsanova; Stephanus le Roux

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the conduct of monetary and fiscal policy in the post-ERM period in the United Kingdom. Using a simple DSGE New Keynesian model of non-cooperative monetary and fiscal policy interactions under fiscal intraperiod leadership, we demonstrate that the past policy in the United Kingdom is better explained by optimal policy under discretion than under commitment. We estimate policy objectives of both policymakers. We demonstrate that fiscal policy plays an important role in ...

  1. Hydrogen program summary Fiscal Year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-03-01

    The annual program summary provides stakeholders within the hydrogen community with a snapshop of important advances that have occurred in the National Hydrogen Program over the fiscal year, including industry interactions and cooperation. The document will also be used to encourage additional potential industrial partners to join the Hydrogen Program Team. Fiscal Year 1994 marked a turning point for the Hydrogen Program, with a budget that grew significantly. The focus of the program was broadened to include development of hydrogen production technologies using municipal solid waste and biomass, in addition to an increased emphasis on industrial involvement and near-term demonstration projects. In order to maintain its near- and long-term balance, the Hydrogen Program will continue with basic, fundamental research that provides the long-term, high-risk, high-payoff investment in hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  2. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  3. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Kendrick; H.M. Amman

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional practi

  4. Fiscale instrumenten in verkeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feimann PFL; Drissen E; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report gives a review of Dutch literature on the effects of fiscal instruments for traffic. A review is given on four policy measures, e.g. travel-cost allowances for commuters, conveyance tax, compensation for moving expenses and fiscal addition for car expenses. Possible effects of these fis

  5. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  6. Evaluating the performance of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN on water and energy flux estimation with a single- and a multi- layer energy budget scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiying; Ryder, James; Bastrikov, Vladislav; McGrath, Matthew J.; NAUDTS Kim; Otto, Juliane; Ottlé, Catherine; Peylin, Philippe; Polcher, Jan; VALADE Aude; Black, Andrew; Elbers, Jan A.; Moors, Eddy; Foken, Thomas; Gorsel, Eva van

    2016-01-01

    Canopy structure is one of the most important vegetation characteristics for land-atmosphere interactions, as it determines the energy and scalar exchanges between the land surface and the overlying air mass. In this study we evaluated the performance of a newly developed multi-layer energy budget in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems – CANopy), which simulates canopy structure and can be coupled to an atmospheric model using an im...

  7. FY 1989 nuclear budget requests up 5.3%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiscal 1989 budget requests were presented by administrative organizations to the Ministry of Finance by the end of August. On September 9, the Atomic Energy Commission presented a report on 'nuclear energy related draft budget approximations', a systematic summary of the budget requests made by eight ministries and agencies relating to the utilization of nuclear energy. According to the report, the eight ministries and agencies, including the Science and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, requested a fiscal 1989 nuclear energy related budget of yen178,626 mil. in the general account (down 1.4% from 1988), and yen207,979 mil. in the special account for power resources development (up 11.8%), for a total of yen386,605 mil., an increase of 5.3%. Government guarantees for the coming years, making forward contracts possible for projects extending over two fiscal years or more, amount to yen55,285 mil. in the general account and 36,225 mil. in the special account, for a total of yen91,510 mil. Details of the budget approximation sought by the Science and Technology Agency (including the Japan atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are described. (N.K.)

  8. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  9. El carácter prociclico de la política fiscal: notas sobre la ley de prudcencia y transparencia fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jiménez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to describe the basic limitations of the current fiscal responsibility lawto deal with the economic recession due to its pro cyclical character. Section 2 contains atheoretical model, which relates the aggregate demand to the pro cyclical fiscal rule. Two casesof static comparative analysis are developed in section 3: external shock and monetary policyshock; and the possibility of a fiscal and monetary policy mix to reactivate the economy is alsoanalyzed. In section 4 contains the empirical evidence of the fiscal policy character in the lastdecade. Finally, a brief review on the application of the fiscal rules experiences is developed inthe last section, and some changes on the law are suggested in order to make it more credible andefficient for public budget management.

  10. APPLYING THE ARRANGEMENTS OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Drozd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of implementation of the areas of fiscal consolidation is particularly relevant in terms of the accumulation of public deficits and public debt in such amounts when the country is on the verge of insolvency. A clear policy to gradually reduce these deficits is necessary, since the budget deficit and quasi-fiscal deficits are rapidly increasing. This will help stabilizing public debt dynamics, and facilitating resolving the shortterm financial difficulties. The situation in Ukraine is complicated by the very low possibility to eliminate external shocks, since foreign exchange reserves and financial reserves are at their minimum, and continuing to show a downward trend. In addition, Ukraine’s economy is experiencing a phase of economic recession. Although the causes of these adverse events are complex and represent a number of external and internal factors, a path to immediate macroeconomic stabilization in Ukraine is possible. Reducing these macroeconomic imbalances should be the main task for the government in the near future, because otherwise there is no real opportunity to achieve sustainable economic growth. Further structural fiscal reforms in public spending are mandatory to maintain macroeconomic stability and economic development in the medium term. Fiscal consolidation will reduce external imbalances, help restoring fiscal space lost due to the crisis, and reduce the financial needs of the state budget and premium for sovereign risk. There are good reasons to conduct fiscal consolidation measures largely by public spending because their level relative to GDP is very high. Furthermore, it is the running costs should be subject to consolidation as capital expenditures have been already reduced to historically low levels. It is proven that there are very limited opportunities for consolidation on the basis of public revenues, because the concentration of GDP in the budget is already high and it would be difficult to raise

  11. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  12. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  13. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  14. A política fiscal e as taxas de juros nos países emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajax Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa o papel da política fiscal sobre as taxas de juros de 18 países emergentes no o período 1996-2008. A questão se justifica, na medida em que, estes países são heterogêneos em muitos aspectos tais como sistema de metas inflação, taxa de poupança, nível de reservas, regime cambial e político; diferenças que podem também afetar a relação entre política fiscal e os juros. O resultado mostra que, mesmo considerando a heterogeneidade diversa dos países emergentes incluídos na amostra, não é possível rejeitar a hipótese de que uma política baseada na austeridade fiscal diminui a taxa de juros doméstica. Um aumento de 1% no superávit primário reduz entre 550 a 100 pontos base os juros, valor três vezes superior ao estimado em Aisen & Hauner (2008 para economias emergentes. Este resultado ilustra a importância da política fiscal na determinação das taxas de juros nos países emergentes, e, portanto, as limitações que o Banco Central se submete no exercício da política monetária.This paper analyzes the role of fiscal policy sustainability on the determinants of domestic interest rate of 18 emerging market countries, in the period 1996-2008. This issue deserves attention since countries in the sample present a great level of heterogeneity relating to inflation target and exchange rate regime, political system, foreign reserves and saving rates; and such differences may also affect interest rate. Despite the heterogeneity between countries, the result shows that is not possible to reject the hypothesis that fiscal policy sustainability decreases domestic interest rate in emerging markets. An increase of 1% at primary budget decreases interest rate between 50 to 100 basis point; a figure tree times higher than the one estimated by Aisen & Hauner (2008 for emerging economies. This fact illustrates the importance of fiscal policy in determining interest rate in emerging economies and therefore the limitation

  15. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  16. EXPECTATIONS AND FISCAL STIMULUS

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2009-01-01

    Increases in government spending trigger substitution effects—both inter- and intra-temporal—and a wealth effect. The ultimate impacts on the econ- omy hinge on current and expected monetary and fiscal policy behavior. Studies that impose active monetary policy and passive fiscal policy typically find that government consumption crowds out private consumption: higher future taxes cre- ate a strong negative wealth effect, while the active monetary response increases the real interest rate. Thi...

  17. Fiscal determinants of empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Raich, Uri

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment of local governments and citizens is a primary object of decentralization. Using the analytic lens of empowerment, the author explores the nature of decentralized governance and how this type of structure is likely to be more or less empowering. His primary concern is fiscal decentralization, specifically the association between fiscal determinants and the degree of empowerment of both citizens and local governments. The author's main argument is that both the revenue and expendit...

  18. Analysis of the Activity of Fiscal Control Carried out by the General Directorate of Public Financem Maramures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cucosel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, Fiscal control activities are carried out by the bodies of fiscal control within the Ministry of Public Finance and its territorial units called fiscal control bodies, and by the specialized services of the local administrative authorities in order to handle local duties and taxes. The fiscal control includes a set of activities whose purpose is to verify the authenticity, legitimacy and sincerity of the tax statements, to verify that the taxpayers comply with their budget obligations and activities of investigation and finding tax evasion. The taxpayers – physical persons or legal entities, foreign and domestic, and associations with no legal entity status are subject to fiscal control if they have budget obligations.

  19. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MANIFESTATION OF FISCAL FRAUD IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Serju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we shall try to present two mechanisms of fiscal fraud used by economical agents and also found in the control actions performed by the fiscal organs at different commercial societies from Romania. The presented mechanisms refer to the fiscal fraud resulted from fictitious acquisitions of goods and services done by Romanian firms which have as beneficiaries other commercial societies which are fiscally registered in Romania. Being empirically examined, the fiscal fraud will be presented through the use of some figures which will describe the detailed operations step by step.For the cases we have chosen to present we will describe the real circuit of goods and money according to the documents. We will also refer to the possibility of identifying the risk of fiscal fraud that results from the reports provided by the economic agents for different state institutions. We will also consider the information provide by the books of prime entry and bookkeeping, documents which have to be written by the commercial societies according to the Law accountancy nr. 82/199, with further modifications and completions. The mechanisms of fiscal fraud in use can be identical with the ones presented in this paper or they can be different as „new elements” can appear; these „new elements” depend on the type of activity performed, the modifications the legislative framework, the performers’ creativity or other external or internal factors which are not identified by the fiscal organs. By identifying the fiscal fraud mechanisms and the way in which they function, the fiscal organs will be given the opportunity to take the necessary measures so that the fiscal resources of the state consolidated budget should not be affected by such operations. It is will known that we can speak of fiscal fraud and shadow economy in any country but ,according to the reports and statistics published by different international institutions, Romania’s shadow

  20. Atomic energy policy in fiscal year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international demand and supply of petroleum advance in relaxed condition at present, but tend to get stringent in long term. Nuclear power is the most promising substitute energy for petroleum, and in Japan, 28 nuclear power plants with 20.56 million kW output are in operation, generating 20.4% of the total generated power in 1983. According to the perspective of long term power supply, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants will reach 62 million kW and 27% of the total installed capacity by 2000. It is important to positively deal with the industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the upgrading of nuclear power generation, the development of the reactors of new types and so on, preparing for the age that nuclear power generation will become the center of power supply. The atomic energy policy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in fiscal year 1985 is reflected to the budget, financial investment and funding and other measures based on the above viewpoint. The outline of the budget and financial investment and funding for fiscal year 1985 is explained. The points are the promotion of industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the promotion of nuclear power generation and the promotion of understanding and cooperation of nation on the location of electric power sources. (Kako, I.)

  1. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  2. Prudence and Opportunity: A Shadow Federal Budget for 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Laurin; William Robson

    2013-01-01

    Canadians can be proud of their country’s relatively strong recovery from the 2009 slump, but should not be complacent. Canada’s fiscal situation is strong only by comparison with the dire situations in other major advanced countries. Our national saving rate is too low to support needed investments. And economic and fiscal risks abroad cloud the outlook. The C.D. Howe Institute’s 2013 Shadow Budget protects Canada in the near term by accelerating the federal government’s planned return to bu...

  3. The Fiscal Framework in the Easter Caribbean Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallet, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper reviews the state of economic policy management in the Euro Area. As the European sovereign debt crisis sadly demonstrates, there is an urgent need for an agreed fiscal framework in replacement of the failed Stability and Growth Pact. We suggest a framework that aims at a better co-ord...... within which a debt targeting regime should operate. This is especially important at the smaller country level where small scale, economic dependence and the inability to diversify, inevitably make budgets and budget revenues more volatile....... therefore argue that the restraints on fiscal policy should focus on structural imbalances – principally the level of public debt – and not on the size of the public sector or the composition of expenditures and revenues. We then review the reasons, theoretical as well as practical, why debt targets...

  4. Local debt: from budget responsibility to fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Dafflon, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In the past thirty years, local governments in most European countries have been granted at least limited access to borrowing. The rules in force include limitations on the amount of borrowing and/or debt service, restrictions on the purpose of debt and on borrowing from foreign institutions and/or from the central bank. The description of these rules and sanctions constitute the thrust of several academic studies on local borrowing and debt. What are the ingredients that make it work efficie...

  5. Fiscal Responsibility and Australian Commonwealth , State and Territory Government Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Wines

    2006-01-01

    The government sector in Australia has seen the introduction of accrual accounting principles in recent years. However, this process has been complicated by the presence of two alternative financial reporting frameworks in the form of a) the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) uniform framework and b) the accrual accounting rules specified in Australian professional accounting standards, principally AAS 31. While a variety of cash and accrual based measurements are available pursuant to these...

  6. Simulation of Territorial Development Based on Fiscal Policy Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brumnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to the development of a national economy are often characterized with an imbalanced inflation of some economic branches leading to a disproportional socioeconomic territories development (SETD. Such disproportions, together with other similar factors, frequently result in a lack of economic integrity, various regional crises, and a low rate of the economic and territorial growth. Those disproportions may also conduce to an inadequate degree of the interregional collaboration. This paper proposes the ways of regulating imbalances in the territorial development based upon the fiscal policy tools. The latter can immediately reduce the amplitude of economic cycle fluctuations and provide for a stable development of the economic state system. The same approach is applied to control the processes of transformation of the tax legislation and tax relations, as well as the levying and redistribution of the recollected taxes among the territories’ budgets (this approach is also known as a tax policy. To resume, this paper describes comprehensive models of financial regulation of the socioeconomic territorial development that can help in estimating and choosing the right financial policy parameters. These provide the stable rates of the growth of national economies along with a simultaneous decrease in interregional socioeconomic disproportions.

  7. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  8. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  9. 2017 Budget Outlays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  10. 2017 Budget Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  11. Incentives to provide local public goods: fiscal federalism, Russian style

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

    2000-01-01

    Based on a unique data set on Russian city budgets, this paper shows that revenue sharing between regional and local governments provides local governments with no incentive to increase tax base or provide public goods. Any change in local government’s own revenues is almost entirely offset by changes in shared revenues. This leads to governmental over-regulation of private businesses. It is shown that fiscal incentives are a determinant of the formation of private business and the efficiency...

  12. The National Income Between Monetary and Fiscal Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-01-01

    Andersen and Jordan (1968) and Andersen (1971) argued that fiscal actions have a negligible effect on nominal income and can not sustain a stable and balanced economic growth. Also, they argued, along with other researchers who have embraced monetarism ideas from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, that the budget deficit presents negativeeffects in the economy that limit private investment. In this article, we analyzed the empirical relationship that is established between the tax actions...

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF THE FISCAL CONVERGENCE CRITERIA IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN TERMS OF THE SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty led to the creation of the EMU and the euro area has resisted more than some of its critics believed, in the context of major macroeconomic imbalances, the issue of nominal convergence has been the subject of numerous research. This paper aims to analyze the capacity of fiscal criteria to reflect the ability of EU Member States to achieve economic development for the integration in the EMU and to comply strict fiscal policy that governing its operation. In the context of certain technical deficiencies of fiscal criteria, we analyzed the developments of budget deficit and gross public debt in the EU during 2000 and 2012. The results show that until 2007 the EU economies were able, overall, to meet the budget deficit criteria, but due to the financial crisis and the prolonged slowdown in economic growth, the fiscal balance had an unfavorable evolution since 2008, while the evolution of the gross public debt has worsened increasingly. Due to this pressure situation on the sustainability of public finances, examining the adoption, application and enforcement of the fiscal policy rules expressed by the evolution of the Fiscal Rule Index for the period 2000-2011, the importance of rules in the fiscal management of the Union and especially of the euro area appears increasingly obvious.

  14. LA RELACIÓN ENTRE EL GASTO PÚBLICO Y LOS MULTIPLICADORES DE LA POLÍTICA FISCAL BAJO COMPETENCIA MONOPOLÍSTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Angeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Usabiaga Ibáñez

    2001-01-01

    In this work we analyse the effects on fiscal policy effectiveness of different hypotheses on the perception of public expenditure by consumers in a double monopolistic competition framework. More precisely we study how the different specifications considered affect the values of fiscal policy multipliers –and especially the balanced budget multiplier-, the level of aggregate demand and the relation between the degree of monopoly power and fiscal policy effectiveness. In general we conclude t...

  15. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  16. La política fiscal en economías exportadoras de materias primas. Evidencia para Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Luis N. Lanteri

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of external price shocks on fiscal policy in Argentina during the last two decades. The paper evaluates, through VAR models with long-term restrictions, the effects of the terms of trade, and the output gap, in revenues, expenditures and the primary fiscal deficit, for the period 1993-2015. The estimation results show that the fiscal policy would have been pro cyclical, since the expenditures and the primary fiscal deficit of the national government increased du...

  17. US Monetary and Fiscal Policies - conflict or cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshan Che; Eric M. Leepe; Campbell Leith

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature estimating DSGE models for monetary policy analysis ignores fiscal policy and assumes that monetary policy follows a simple rule. In this paper we allow both fiscal and monetary policy to be described by rules and/or optimal policy which are subject to switches over time. We find that US monetary and fiscal policy have often been in conáict, and that it is relatively rare that we observe the benign policy combination of an conservative monetary policy paired with a debt...

  18. THE ESSENCE OF FISCAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Comaniciu

    2008-01-01

    The existence of fiscal management determine the identification of the essential coordinates of it: the main objective; the sphere of action; essential characteristics; fundamental values; the main function; principles and legities. The essence of fiscal management represent its functions and on the basis of conceiving and exercising management from fiscality field resides an aggregate of principles. In this paper we will try to define the fiscal management, to identify the fundamental and sp...

  19. Evaluating fiscal equalization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Bert; Kadjatmiko; Kaiser, Kai; Suharnoko Sjahrir, Bambang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate fiscal decentralization focusing on the potential mis-targeting of intergovernmental fiscal equalization transfers. The approach builds on an explicit comparison and the summary measurement of different (horizontal) allocation distributions across states or localities. Whereas formula-based fiscal transfers have the merit of being transparent and promoting revenue predictability in fiscal decentralization, in practice, two challenges emerge: (1) W...

  20. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  1. Inter Local Government Capital Budget Execution Comparism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Olurankinse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Unrealistic capital budgeting has long been the bane of social economic development in Nigeria and of course, at the local government level. Local governments are established with specific functions to assist the state and federal government to bring about effective rural development and good governance at the grassroots level. Approach: Both fiscal and physical evaluation of the performances of this tier of government in ondo state reveals a low level of performance both in terms of physical development and provision of social welfare services require to enhance the quality of life at the grassroots level. Those responsible for the management of funds at this level ascribed their poor performances to underfunding. This study therefore aims at finding out if truly this claim of underfunding is actually the cause of their poor performance. The study will look at the total capital budget allocation to some selected local governments visa is their actual spending. A sample of nine local governments was selected using random sampling technique based on their settlement pattern. Results: A comparative analysis was done to determine which local government has the largest rate of capital budget execution. The result shows that the local government with the least capital allocation has the largest rate of capital budget execution. Conclusion: The study concludes that the performance of any local government is not a function of availability of huge capital funds but ability to utilize the scarce resources to achieve optimum result.

  2. New fiscal crisis Nueva crisis fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal deficit in Latin America is currently caused by the external and internal debt, and the fact that economic authorities have lost the ability to manage an important part of macroeconomic policy as a result of the process of decentralization. Along with less macroeconomic control, destabilizing factors increase due to the greater mobility of international financial markets, where any changein signals provokes abrupt and massive movements of capital in favor of or against a country. This problem is aggravated by the dismantling of the principal regulations, especially those relating to exchange controls, foreign investment, and international trade. Fiscal policyends up defending the stability of the main economic variables, in anuncertain and unpredictable context determined by an autonomous finance capital. It defends the stability of three key prices: inflation, currency, and interest rateo An abrupt change in any of these may depreciate the real value of financial assets, with which financial wealth would disappear like foam.El déficit fiscal en América Latina se origina actualmente en las deuda externa e interna, y en que la autoridad económica ha perdido el manejo de una parte importante de la política macroeconómica como resultado del proceso de descentralización. A la par del menor control macroeconómico, los factores desestabilizadores aumentan por la mayor movilidad de mercados financieros internacionales, donde cualquier cambio en las señales suscita movimientos de capital abruptos y masivos en favor o en contra de un país. Este problema se agrava con el desmonte de las principales regulaciones, en especial a las referidas al control cambiario, la inversión extrnajera y el comercio internacional. La política fiscal termina defendiendo la estabilidad de las principales variables macroeconómicas, en un contexto incierto e impredecible determinado por un capital financiero autónomo. Defiende la estabilidad de tres

  3. Consequences of the Adoption of European Fiscal Pact in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ispas Roxana,

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the implications that the signing of the European Fiscal Pact will have on Romania. At the same time are also taken into account the estimates of the European commission concerning GDP and the negotiation of the structural deficit level. The advantages and the disadvantages that influence Romania’s economy and some measures for increasing the incomes are also shown from the economical point of view. The fiscal governance pact of the European Union may have a posit...

  4. EFECTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FISCAL GOVERNANCE PACT ON ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Ispas

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the implications that the signing of the European Fiscal Pact will have on Romania. At the same time are also taken into account the estimates of the European commission concerning GDP and the negotiation of the structural deficit level. The advantages and the disadvantages that influence Romania’s economy and some measures for increasing the incomes are also shown from the economical point of view. The fiscal governance pact of the European Union may have a posit...

  5. Fiscal impacts model documentation. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fiscal Impacts (FI) Model, Version 1.0 was developed under Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program to aid in development of the MRS Reference Site Environmental Document (PNL 5476). It computes estimates of 182 fiscal items for state and local government jurisdictions, using input data from the US Census Bureau's 1981 Survey of Governments and local population forecasts. The model can be adapted for any county or group of counties in the United States

  6. Fiscal Forecasting in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carabotta, Laura

    2015-01-01

    [eng] The thesis “Fiscal forecasting in Italy” is comprised of three main chapters in which is analyzed, from an empirical point of view, several issues related to public finance forecasts, with an application to Italy. Chapter II, “Accuracy of fiscal forecasts in Italy” is focused on one of the most important aspects of the new Treaty: it requires that the decisions and recommendations taken by the European Commission are no longer be based on outcomes but on forecasts. In this chapter, I e...

  7. Global Fiscal Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    McKibbin, Warwick J.; Andrew B Stoeckel

    2011-01-01

    The build up in government debt in response to the ‘great recession’ has raised a number of policy dilemmas for individual countries as well as the world as a whole. Where the government fiscal stimulus was seen as necessary to restore confidence to markets and stimulate deteriorating economies in the aftermath of the ‘great recession’ by 2010 the massive fiscal stimulus programs and associated run-up in debt had, for many economies, become a confidence sapping exercise. This need for a chang...

  8. Sustaining Fiscal Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The current round of China’s economic development is expected to clear up in 2010, the final year of the country’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-10) that will pave the way for the next wave of economic growth. This year’s fiscal policies should follow several guidelines to lay a solid foundation for the stable and sustainable growth of the economy, writes Jia Kang, Director of the Research Institute for Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance, in a recent Guangming Daily article. Edited excerpts follow

  9. Sustaining Fiscal Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The current round of China's economic development is expected to clear up in 2010,the final year of the country's 11th Five-Year Plan(2006-10)that will pave the way for the next wave of economic growth.This year's fiscal policies should follow several guidelines to lay a solid foundation for the stable and sustainable growth of the economy,writes Jia Kang,Director of the Research Institute for Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance,in a recent Guangming Daily article.Edited excerpts follow:

  10. Regarding the Improvement of Quality of Budget Estimate Establishment and Solution of Cost Control%浅谈提高概预算编制质量和费用控制的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区广京

    2012-01-01

    文章主要探讨如何提高工程概预算编制质量,灵活做好对工程造价的动态管理,促进和完善工程投资的有效控制,以最终达到降低整个工程项目的投资风险,获得利润最大化为目标。%This paper discussed how to improve the quality of budget estimate establishment, achieved a flexible dynamic management for project cost, encouraged and matured the effective control of project investment, finally achieved to reduce the investment risk of whole project and gain the maximum profit.

  11. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  12. Medicaid Expenditures and State Budgets: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Marton, James; Wildasin, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid spending growth has made Medicaid a major element in state budgets; financial support from Federal matching grants is now a main component of state government revenues and of intergovernmental fiscal relations. We discuss recent, ongoing, and prospective reforms of intergovernmental finances and regulations, including the 1996 welfare reform, the introduction of Medicare Part D, Section 1115 waivers, SCHIP reauthorization, and a shift to block grants. Each would affect the assignment of...

  13. FISCAL MANAGEMENT OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to analyze the taxation influence upon the company’s activity. Fiscal management is integrated into the company management and must therefore be defined in terms of general policy objectives of the company. The efficiency of fiscal policy is an essential element of fiscal management. This can be achieved directly (through the tax law that includes measures of fiscal incitement or indirectly (when the tax system offers a number of tax deductions for expenses, the possibility to cover losses from previous financial periods, the limitation of deductible expenses according to earnings before taxes etc.. The two forms of efficiency of fiscal policy are placed in the calculation of relations between fiscal management, strategic planning, tax risk and accounting. Fiscal policy should aim at the company’s research and to achieve optimal cost of taxation. This paper analyses the methods that the companies dispose of in order to reduce this cost.

  14. Rescuing the concept of vertical fiscal imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Chanchal Kumar

    2007-01-01

    This article restores the concept of vertical fiscal imbalance (VFI) to its original meaning. The literature shows that there is neither a universally accepted definition of VFI nor a commonly accepted approach to measuring it. Estimates of VFI are derived, much like accounting or deficit measurements, by comparing the revenues and expenditures of two levels of government. VFI is, however, too nuanced an issue to be described by this kind of national accounting procedure. We argue that ease ...

  15. Ajuste fiscal nos estados: uma análise do período 1998-2006 Fiscal adjustment in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wulff Gobetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a forma de enquadramento dos estados ao Programa de Ajuste Fiscal (PAF e à Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF, destacando seus impactos nas escolhas de alocação dos recursos públicos e na taxa de investimento. Os resultados obtidos após minucioso trabalho de depuração das bases de dados confirmam a melhoria da situação financeira de estados no período posterior à LRF, mas sugerem que existe um trade-off entre os indicadores fiscais, de um lado, e os investimentos e gastos em infraestrutura, de outro, exigindo uma reflexão sobre a qualidade e sustentabilidade do ajuste fiscal. Os dados orçamentários analisados também apontam evidências de contabilidade criativa.The objective of this article is to offer an analysis of the accommodation by Brazilian states with Fiscal Adjustment Program and with Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA, showing their impacts on the choices of public resources allocation and on the investment rate. The results obtained after detailed work of data depuration confirm the improvement of financial situation of the states in the period post FRA, but also suggest the existence of a trade-off between fiscal indicators and infrastructure investment, demanding a reflection about the quality and the sustainability of the fiscal adjustment. The budget data analyzed also indicate evidences of creative accountability.

  16. Fiscal consolidation and unemployment: does EPL matter? A look at EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    Turrini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of fiscal consolidation on unemployment and job market flows across EU countries using a recent database of consolidation episodes built on the basis of a 'narrative' approach (Devries et al., 2011). Results show that the impact of fiscal consolidation on cyclical unemployment is temporary and significant mostly for expenditure measures. As expected, the impact of fiscal policy shocks on job separation rates is much stronger in low-EPL countries, while for high...

  17. Fiscal and Monetary Policy Interactions: Empirical Evidence and Optimal Policy Using a Structural New Keynesian Model

    OpenAIRE

    Muscatelli, Anton; Tirelli, Patrizio; Trecroci, Carmine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of monetary and fiscal policies using an estimated New Keynesian dynamic general equilibrium model for the US. In contrast to earlier work using VAR models, we show that the strategic complementarity or substitutability of fiscal and monetary policy depends crucially on the types of shocks hitting the economy, and on the assumptions made about the underlying structural model. We also demonstrate that countercyclical fiscal policy can be welfare-reducing if ...

  18. Global carbon budget 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  19. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  20. Budget Management Performance Based On The Department Of Education Regional Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Harmin Ramba; Suratman Nur; Alwi; Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the bureaucratic accountability that includes answerability and enforcement in the management of the Regional Budget in education Konawe southeast Sulawesi province. this study used a qualitative research approach with an instrumental case study strategy. Case in this study is the planning and implementation of Revenue and Expenditure Budget of fiscal year 2011. The unit of analysis of this research is an organization with a shot in the Departm...

  1. The Economic Effects of Constitutions: Do Budget Institutions Make Forms of Government More Alike?

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanaz, Martin; Scartascini, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential theoretical argument, presidential systems tend to present smaller governments because the separation between those who decide the size of the fiscal purse and those who allocate it creates incentives for lower public expenditures. In practice, forms of government vary greatly, and budget institutions -the rules according to which budgets are drafted, approved, and implemented- are one (of many) drivers of such variation. This paper argues that under more hierarchi...

  2. Overview of Governor Schwarzenegger's Proposed 2008-09 State Budget. Commission Report 08-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. State revenues for the 18 months covering the last half of 2007-08 and 2008-09 are projected to be nearly $16 billion below planned expenditures. The budget seeks to close this shortfall by cutting 2008-09 funding for most programs by 10%…

  3. US fiscal regimes and optimal monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Mavromatis

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy in the US has been documented to have been the leading authority in the ‘60s and the ‘70s (active fiscal policy), while committing to make the necessary fiscal adjustments following Volcker’s appointment (passive fiscal policy). Moreover, while passive, US fiscal policy has at times fl

  4. "THE FISCAL FACTS: Public and Private Debts and the Future of the American Economy"

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Galbraith

    2006-01-01

    Today's federal budget deficits are a preoccupation of many American citizens and more than a few political leaders. Is the American government going bankrupt? Does our fiscal condition warrant radical surgery, as some now prescribe? Or, are we in such deep trouble that there is no plausible route of escape?

  5. A Strategy for Renormalizing Fiscal and Monetary Policies in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Cottarelli; José Vinãls

    2009-01-01

    In response to the worst economic crisis since the 1930s, government budgets and central banks have provided substantial support for aggregate demand and for the financial sector. In the process, fiscal balances have deteriorated, government liabilities and central bank balance sheets have been expanded, and risks of future losses for the public sector have increased.

  6. WHY IS THE FISCAL POLICY IMPOSED BY IMF PRO-CYCLIC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius-Corneliu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economies which appealed to the IMF loan faced difficulties related to financing the public and the private foreign debt. IMF imposed the promoting of a restrictive fiscal policy to the beneficiary countries, in order to decrease the budget deficit, e

  7. The Fiscal Compact and the European constitutions: ‘Europe speaking German’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.; Reestman, Jan Herman

    2012-01-01

    This brief contribution outlines some of the puzzling constitutional aspects of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, concluded in March 2012, also known as the 'Fiscal Compact'. It requires member states to entrench the 'balanced budget rule' into

  8. 75 FR 61216 - Report on the Selection of Eligible Countries for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ...; transition into a new income category (e.g., from LIC to LMIC); numerical declines in score that are within the statistical margin of error; slight declines in policy performance; revisions or corrections of... World Economic Outlook Database. Fiscal Policy: The overall budget balance divided by GDP, averaged...

  9. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  10. Impact of Fiscal Autonomy on Poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahir Faridi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an underdeveloped state with strong central government. At present there are three levels of government functioning in Pakistan i.e. the federal, provincial and the local. Due to the competence and distributional aspects, the resource allocation method always remained under discussion. Therefore, the present study focused on the role of fiscal autonomy in reducing poverty in Pakistan. Both expenditure and revenue indicators of fiscal policy are considered in this study. For the purpose of analysis, time series annual data from FY1972 to FY2010 is used. Ordinary least square technique is applied to estimate the effect of fiscal autonomy on poverty. The study concludes that the central government should transfer fiscal powers to lower tiers of government in order to reduce poverty in Pakistan.

  11. Land-use change alters New Zealand's terrestrial carbon budget: uncertainties associated with estimates of soil carbon change between 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In New Zealand, afforestation and reforestation of grazing land give rise to large (relative to national CO2 emissions) vegetation carbon (C) sinks. These land-use changes may, however, lead to losses of mineral soil C. Full C accounting may, therefore, require including mineral soil C losses if credits are awarded for vegetation C. To monitor soil C stocks and changes, we developed an IPCC-based soil Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) in which New Zealand is stratified by soil type, climate, land-use and an erosivity index (slope precipitation). Geo referenced soil C data were used to assign steady-state soil C stocks to various combinations of these factors (cells). We then used a General Linear Model to compare soil C between cells, and derived land-use effects (LUEs) from this analysis that quantify soil C changes that accompany land-use change. These LUEs were used to predict soil C changes resulting from land-use change between 1990-2000. We tested the CMS by comparing predicted soil C stocks, and changes in these stocks, against more detailed soil C data. Overall, soil C estimates obtained from the CMS are consistent with detailed, stratified soil C measurements at specific sites and over larger regions. However, for grazing-land to exotic-forest conversions, estimates of soil C changes are higher and more variable than those based on paired-site studies. Nationally, soil C losses of 0.9 ± 0.4 Tg C/yr for all land-use changes over the period 1990-2000 appear likely, with uncertainties arising mainly from estimates of changes in the areas involved, and LUE values for cells with limited soil C data. Changes in soil C in reforested land are likely to be small, but precise area changes, soil C data and detailed paired-site studies are lacking for this key land-use change. By contrast, biomass C accumulation in new exotic plantation forests (afforestation) and native reforestation are 6-9 Tg C/yr, with C accumulation by afforestation being well quantified. Detailed

  12. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  13. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  14. La sociologie fiscale.

    OpenAIRE

    LEROY Marc

    2009-01-01

    La sociologie fiscale questionne les relations fondamentales entre l’impôt, l’Etat et la société. Cet article présente une revue de la littérature et des problématiques envisagées dans leur aspect sociopolitique. Plusieurs représentations sociales sont considérées : l’impôt-contribution, l’impôt-échange, et l’impôt-obligation/contrainte/tribut, mais l’élaboration d’une typologie de l’Etat fiscal met l’accent sur l’impôt-contribution payé par le citoyen qui est capable d’altruisme pour finance...

  15. TOWARDS A LAW OF SUSTAINABLE FISCAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims to raise the benchmarks intended, we believe, to print efficiency rules for public financial law which, by definition, governs the issue of budgetary resources. Knowing the mechanism of legal and tax and the use of this type of resource, given the current context, we introduce some approaches to the position of financial law located in the best connection with economics, and we consider key issues of this - crisis/ growth, sustainable development, strategies/ policies, state intervention tools etc. aiming to easier to put out various budgetary implications caused by certain processes/ phenomena in the real economy. Also, we bring some elements of analysis, comments and views coming to justify the importance of rights (set of rules and principles of major influence the financial and fiscal consolidation based in the extent possible, the development lasting nature. It is expected thus that such a law (fiscal consolidation based on sustainability can drive more speedily to create a stable tax system capable of generating sufficient budgetary resources in terms of efficiency and efficacy, ensuring cost reductions with unit budget and compliance taxpayers being, while flexible, simple, transparent and adaptable to national/ international changes.

  16. Fiscal decentralization and the challenges of public ecological services delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Kotenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and propose the directions to solve the recent problems of financing public ecological services in the conditions of fiscal decentralization. The results of the analysis. This paper analyzes the decentralization reform impact on the possibilities of local authorities to finance the public ecological services in Ukraine. Advantages and threats of decentralizing reform are defined on the basis of theoretical vision of fiscal federalism in different state structures. The authors assessed basic central government documents in which the strategy and tactic of development. The lack of particular measures that are directed to the sustainable nature use on state level is defined. In practice, this means transference of financing powers from central to local government. Such process needs to be conducted with respective changes of financial flows directions and establishing effective forming and distributive tools. Traditionally, one of such tools, which are most appropriate to accumulate public environmental funds, is ecological tax. The study revealed that the enhancement of general fund of local budget revenues by local tax make the Local Environmental foundations' work impossible. Another initiative of central government is to transfer more than half revenues from the tax to the regional level. Such decision will be practicable only if impartial, formula based mechanism of subsequent allocation of funds between basic local authorities is developed. Scale projects now are funded by regional authorities. Authors proved that the better way to finance public ecological services on complementary basis is the local authorities’ cooperation. One of the advantages of such cooperation is the considering of the opportunities of self-taxation. This voluntary fiscal tool in Ukrainian European future must be stable source for financing of public ecological services. Decentralization reform also

  17. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  18. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  19. Reading Institutional Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Prepares two tables to illustrate how it is helpful to place worries about much smaller sums in the context of Miami University's overall academic budget; One table summarizes the academic budgets for every department during the 1997-98 academic year and a second contains the income-expense ratios for all Oxford departments over a five-year…

  20. Fiscal Policy and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuya Takii

    2004-01-01

    This paper reexamines the effect of expansionary fiscal policy on real GDP in the presence of entrepreneurship, which is defined as firms' activities to predict and adapt to changes in consumers' tastes. As government expenditure cannot reflect changes in consumers' tastes, it weakens the social role of the firms' ability to process local information for predicting the changes. Hence, government expenditure cannot perfectly substitute for private consumption. It is shown that expansionary fis...

  1. Reinventing fiscal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Sawyer, Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in macroeconomic policy, in terms of both theory and practice, have elevated monetary policy while downgrading fiscal policy. Monetary policy has focused on the setting of interest rates as the key policy instrument, along with the adoption of inflation targets and the use of monetary policy to target inflation. Elsewhere, we have critically examined the significance of this shift, which led us to question the effectiveness of monetary policy. We have also explored the rol...

  2. Mexico's Fiscal Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 21, no.6, 1987. Refereed Journal Article Mexico's current crisis has its origins in a number of structural conditions that developed in the 1970s. This paper examines one of these structural impediments, the country's fiscal disequilibrium. An empirical analysis of the country's tax structure indicates that there is ample scope for major tax reforms geared to introducing more responsiveness into the country's tax collection system. Given t...

  3. The Performance of Public Investments During Fiscal Consolidation in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Zilja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Investments are generally accepted as one of the main factors which contribute in the economic growth of a country, despite that several studies bring evidences that these variables are not always strongly correlated to each other. However, the sensitivity of economic growth to Public Investments (PI and the high level of budget funds spent from governments for capital expenditures have made the issue on PI in general and moreover the factors that influence on PI very important to researchers and public as well.This paper gives a broad insight of public investments performance in developed or developing countries over time, underlining several factors that have assessed this performance, focusing especially on the impact of fiscal consolidation. It brings the views of many authors over the fact whether the governments during fiscal consolidation, in order to control debt stock and the budget balance prefer to cut current expenditures or capital expenditures. Furthermore, it analyses how Albania has reacted during its periods of fiscal consolidation and which has been the behavior of different governments toward PI.

  4. Budget brief, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The FY DOE budge totals $12.6 billion in budget authority and $11.1 billion in budget outlays. The budget authority being requested consists of $10.3 billion in new authority and a $2.3 billion reappropriation of expiring funds for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Areas covered in the Energy budget are: energy conservation; research, development, and applications; regulation and information; direct energy production; strategic energy production; and energy security reserve. Other areas include: general science, defense activities; departmental administration; and legislative proposal - spent fuel. Budget totals are compared for 1980 and 1981. A detailed discussion of the FY 1981 activities to be undertaken to carry out these activities is provided. (MCW)

  5. FISCAL RULES AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Perée, Eric; Välilä, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the link between fiscal rules and public investment both normatively and empirically. We first review the arguments for and against including public investment spending in a fiscal deficit rule. We then seek to assess the determinants of public investment, with a special focus on the role of the fiscal rules embodied in EMU. We conclude that there are practical difficulties precluding the introduction of a 'golden rule' and that there is virtually no evidence that EMU woul...

  6. Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B

    2011-01-01

    Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...

  7. Fiscal equalization under political pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Esteller-Moré; Umberto Galmarini; Leonzio Rizzo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the design of fiscal equalization transfers aimed at inter-regional redistribution in a setting in which special interest groups distort the fiscal policies of local governments. Equity always calls for tax-base equalization while efficiency calls for tax-base equalization of fiscal capacities backed by strong lobby groups and for tax-revenue equalization of those backed by weak lobby groups. Hence, it is optimal to rely only on tax-base equalization if the special interest groups ...

  8. Intergovernmental fiscal relations, 'Argentine Style'

    OpenAIRE

    Gordin, Jorge P.

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the explanatory power of two competing views about intergovernmental fiscal transfers; one emphasizing the traditional neoclassical approach to federal-subnational fiscal relations and the other suggesting that transfers are contingent on the political fortunes and current political vulnerability of each level of government. These models are tested using data from Argentina, a federation exhibiting one of the most decentralised fiscal systems in the world and severe imbala...

  9. Budget 2011: A budget lacking in ambition

    OpenAIRE

    Dolphin, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Growth is key to the government’s plans for the recovery. Tony Dolphin, Senior Economist at the Institute for Public Policy Research looks at this year’s budget and finds that while it may promote growth now, a broader strategy may be needed in the long term.

  10. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the US NRC's accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement

  11. On the potential of ICOS atmospheric CO2 measurement network for the estimation of the biogenic CO2 budget of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kadygrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance assessment of the European Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS atmospheric network for constraining European biogenic CO2 fluxes (hereafter Net Ecosystem Exchange, NEE. The performance of the network is assessed in terms of uncertainty in the fluxes using a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric inversion system assimilating hourly averages of atmospheric data to solve for NEE at 6 h and 0.5° resolution. The performance of the ICOS atmospheric network is also assessed in terms of uncertainty reduction compared to typical uncertainties in the flux estimates from ecosystem models that are used as prior information by the inversion. The uncertainty in inverted fluxes is computed for two typical periods representative of summer and winter conditions in July and in December 2007, respectively. These computations are based on a robust Observing System Simulation Experiments framework. We analyze the uncertainty in two-week mean NEE as a function of the spatial scale, with a focus on the model native grid scale (0.5°, the country scale and the European scale (including western Russia and Turkey. Several network configurations, going from 23 to 66 sites, and different configurations of the prior uncertainties and atmospheric model transport errors are tested in order to assess and compare the improvements that can be expected in the future from (1 the extension of the network, (2 improved prior information or (3 improved transport models. Assimilating data from 23 sites (a network comparable to present day capability with the estimate of errors from the present prior information and transport models, the uncertainty reduction on two-week mean NEE should range between 20 and 50% for 0.5° resolution grid cells in the best sampled area encompassing eastern France and western Germany. At the European scale, the prior uncertainty in two-week mean NEE is reduced by 50% (66%, down to ∼ 43 Tg C month-1 (resp. 26 Tg C month-1

  12. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  13. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  14. Higher Education Budget Cuts: How Are They Affecting Students? Report 09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    The public higher education systems have received significant budget cuts in the 2009-10 fiscal year, with the University of California (UC) receiving $813 million less than in 2007-08, California State University (CSU) receiving $625 million less, and the community college system receiving $812 million less. It is important to understand the…

  15. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement to the President's Budget for FY 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the annual report prepared by the Interagency Working Group on Information Technology Research and Development of the National Science and Technology Council. This report is a Supplement to the President's fiscal year (FY) 2002 Budget that describes the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD)…

  16. Commission Position on the State Budget Ballot Measure Proposed for June 2011. Report 11-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes actions proposed by Governor Brown to close the projected $25 billion budget deficit for the 2011-12 fiscal year. The report includes a resolution adopted by the Commission supporting the Governor's proposed ballot initiative to extend temporary tax rate increases adopted in 2009 that are set to expire at the end of the…

  17. Obama Budget Proposal Would Increase Science Agency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    Although the Obama administration’s $3.8 trillion U.S. federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 2011, announced on 1 February, would push the federal deficit to $1.6 trillion and include a 3-year budget freeze for a number of nondefense programs, science and technology “are doing very well,” according to John Holdren, assistant to the president for science and technology. While President Barack Obama announced in his State of the Union speech his intention to hold down costs, it “did not mean he was imposing a mindless across-the-board freeze,” Holdren said at a 2 February briefing. “In making the tough decisions embodied in the 2011 budget, he managed to preserve and expand what most needed to be preserved and expanded in the government's investments in research and development, and in science, technology, engineering, and math education.”

  18. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  19. Medicaid Expansion and Sales Tax Reform Dominate Arizona’s Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, David

    2015-01-01

    While Arizona’s Fiscal Year 2014 budget itself offered modest changes from 2012-2013, two budget policy areas became the battleground.  With the re-election of President Barack Obama in 2012, the biggest lingering question in the Republican-dominated state government was what would happen with Medicaid expansion.  Governor Jan Brewer chose the pragmatic path of seeking Medicaid expansion and eventually had to rely on Democrats for the votes to add it to the budget over leadership objections i...

  20. Proposed NASA Budget Includes Asteroid Capture but Cuts Planetary Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed 17.7 billion budget for NASA for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides 105 million for several asteroid-related initiatives, including preliminary studies for a potential mission that would capture an asteroid and drag it into orbit around the Moon. The agency's total proposed budget is down slightly compared to FY 2012 (see Table ; comparisons are to FY 2012 because government agencies had been operating on a continuing resolution for 2013 and final spending levels for 2013 were not available at the time the president released his proposed 2014 budget).

  1. Fiscal Content of Financial Programs Supported by Stand-by Arrangements in the Upper Credit Tranches, 1969-78 (Objectifs de finances publiques des programmes financiers soutenus par des accords de confirmation portant sur les tranches de crédit supérieures, 1969-78) (Componentes fiscales de los programas financieros respaldados por acuerdos de derecho de giro en los tramos superiores de crédito, 1969-78)

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Beveridge; Margaret R. Kelly

    1980-01-01

    The paper catalogs and analyzes the fiscal policy content of financial programs under the 105 stand-by arrangements in the upper credit tranches approved by the Fund's Executive Board in the ten years to 1978. A growing tendency toward use of a fiscal performance clause was observed, with the most usual clauses being the use of bank credit by the government or the size of the overall budget balance. Evidence is presented indicating a close association between observance of the fiscal performa...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey activities, fiscal year 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Activities report for fiscal year 1981 presents a summary of the work performed between October 1, 1980 and September 30, 1981. The main sections of this report are: (1) The Year in Review; a brief overview of the significant events of the Geological Survey during fiscal year 1980; (2) Perspectives; essays focusing on specific events (rather than scientific topics) and programs involving multi-Division participation; (3) Missions, Organization, and Budget; a description of the Geological Survey 's major duties and assignments and of the organizational structure that supports its missions; and (4) Division Chapters; a description of the significant accomplishments (rather than a comprehensive program by program discussion) of each of the eight operating Divisions and Offices. Also included are supplementary information regarding key personnel, cooperators, and selected summary budgetary tables. (USGS)

  3. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  4. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF FISCAL RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Cojan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the fiscal risk analysis, with emphasis on environmental and organizational factors, which should be taking into account in the risk management process. A special attention was given to the role of the fiscal policy and voluntary compliance related issues.

  6. Fiscal Federalism in Monetary Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Net fiscal transfers are commonly seen as a possible means to ensure the wellfunctioning of a currency area. We show that U.S. net fiscal transfers, measured as the difference between gross federal revenues and federal expenditures per state, are enormous. Moreover, we run panel regressions...

  7. 75 FR 22689 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Western Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is Supplement No. 12 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2009 Revision, published July 1, 2009, at 74 FR...

  8. 77 FR 32178 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Fiscal Service Reinsuring Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Alterra Reinsurance USA, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is Supplement No. 20 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76...

  9. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  10. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2011-01-01

    Organizers of China's upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys-low budget films-to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small-and Medium-Budget Film Prize of the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,which will kick off on October 19.

  11. Gender budget pilot project

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Ursula; Pillinger, Jane; Quinn, Sheila; Cashman, Aileen

    2004-01-01

    This Report presents the findings of the first Irish research project on gender budgeting. It explores recent international and Irish experiences of strategies towards greater gender equality and develops a template for applying a gender budget approach in selected local development organisations. The research was funded by the Gender Equality Unit of the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform who have responsibility for promoting and monitoring gender mainstreaming in the Irish Natio...

  12. Economic and Political Factors that Lead to the Budget Deficit in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chun Wai

    2006-01-01

    Despite the adverse impact of the budget deficit in Hong Kong has been alleviated since the economic recovery from 2003,the fiscal deficit may return when there is another downturn in the economy if the problem is not handled fundamentally. Based on the economic and political situation from 1998 to 2003, the factors that lead to the budget deficit in Hong Kong are analyzed in four perspectives, including (a) increase in public expenditure; (b) decrease in public revenues; (c) poor management of public money and (d) weak administration. With a better understanding on these factors,possible solutions to the fiscal problem faced by the government may be developed.

  13. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  14. Reconsidering to Fiscal Rules in European Union: Six-Pack and Evaluation of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Gok

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the EU has financial rules stipulated in the Maastricht Criteria, the 2008 global financial crisis had a negative impact on the financial performance of EU countries with reference to fiscal rules. Some EU member countries have slacked their fiscal policies, had budget deficit and postponed their fiscal rule policies to cope with global financial crisis. The fiscal rule is revived to establish fiscal discipline in EU member countries aftermath of financial crisis in Greece. Furthermore, the enormous levels of budget deficits in Portugal, Spain and Italian economies contributed the revival of discussions on harmonization to Maastricht Criteria. The EU Commission proposed a Six-Pack Application to effective co-ordination and monitoring of economic policies, on September 29th, 2010. The European Council approved the Six-Pack on October 4th, 2011, aiming to co-ordinate the economic policies of EU countries with reference to European Semester application. This paper aims to discuss the functionality and effectiveness of the Six-Pack Application and evaluate Turkey’s financial indicators with reference to the Six-Pack Application.

  15. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  16. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  17. Reference data about petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  18. FISCAL PRESSURE IN ROMANIA IN THE CURRENT PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal fiscal pressure threshold is difficult to determine given the conditions under which the state must ensure a balance between the goals to be funded, on account of the tax levies, and need to be available to the economic operators and the general public a sufficient portion of the income to continue their work. Practice has shown that an excessive taxation results in reducing budget revenue due to tax fraud and abstinence of tax payers. They will find ingenious ways to evade the payment of tax liabilities by non-taxable matter or by establishing their domicile for tax purposes in a country with low taxation.

  19. The National Income Between Monetary and Fiscal Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andersen and Jordan (1968 and Andersen (1971 argued that fiscal actions have a negligible effect on nominal income and can not sustain a stable and balanced economic growth. Also, they argued, along with other researchers who have embraced monetarism ideas from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, that the budget deficit presents negative effects in the economy that limit private investment. In this article, we analyzed the empirical relationship that is established between the tax actions and the long and short term national income in the U.S. economy and the economies of Eurozone.

  20. the fiscality, tool of an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies how the fiscality can be an adapted tool for the implementing of the french energy policy. The term fiscality designates here the fiscality of the energy production, consumption and use in the industrial fabrication processes. An evaluation of the french fiscality and the analysis of this accounting are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  1. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... the government's fiscal policy-making process.'' For the United States, reviews of the fiscal... Fiscal Transparency Report AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of State hereby presents the findings from the 2012 Fiscal Transparency review process in its first annual...

  2. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  3. Bank rescues and fiscal policy in the European Union during the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of the economic and financial crisis in 2008, the socalled Great Recession, has made that many European Union countries have made massive interventions in their banking and financial systems. These interventions have had a considerable impact in the public finances of these countries. The aim of the paper is to analyze the impact on the national public budgets of the measures of public support to problem financial institutions carried out between the years 2008 and 2013, and to study how this budgetary impact has affected to the fiscal imbalances and to the strategies of fiscal impulse and consolidation implemented along these years.

  4. Tax-Credit Scholarships in Nebraska: Forecasting the Fiscal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to inform the debate over a proposal in Nebraska to give tax credits for contributions to organizations that provide scholarships to K-12 private schools. The study constructs a model to determine the fiscal impact of tax-credit scholarships on the state and on local school districts. The author estimates the impact that…

  5. In Search of the Motives behind US Fiscal Macroeconomic Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Swank (Otto); J. Swank (Job)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper optimal control techniques are applied to estimate the motives behind US fiscal macroeconomic policy. Starting from a range of possible objectives and given the perception of policy makers about the environment in which they operate, the priorities of policy makers are esti

  6. Does fiscal cooperation increase local tax rates ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Charlot; Sonia Paty; Virginie Piguet

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of fiscal cooperation on local taxation in a decentralized country, using the French experience. We estimate a model of tax setting for local business tax using spatial and dynamic econometric techniques, for the period 1993-2003. We find first that reducing the number of municipalities is likely to limit tax competition and increase local business tax rates as a consequence. Second, we find that tax rates are higher when groups of local...

  7. Global Fiscal Adjustment and Trade Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick McKibbin; Andrew B Stoeckel; YingYing Lu

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of substantial fiscal deficits and a large build up of government debt in major advanced economies will inevitably lead to a period of fiscal consolidation in coming years. In an earlier paper, McKibbin and Stoeckel (2010) explored the effects of this fiscal adjustment in advanced economies on the global economic outlook. This paper focuses on the differences between the impacts of fiscal policy in advanced versus emerging economies. In particular, the need for more fiscal spend...

  8. The Carbon Budget of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  9. FY 1992 Budget committed to R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    President's Bush's Fiscal Year 1992 budget for research and development is clear proof of his commitment to R&D as a long-term investment for the next American century, according to D. Allan Bromley, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy. The FY 92 budget proposes to allocate $75.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $8.4billion, or 13% over the amount appropriated for FY 91. Calling it a “good budget,” Bromley revealed the specifics of research and development in the President's budget on February 4.Bromley believes that as a nation we are underinvesting in research and development,but sees the 1992 budget increases as concrete steps to address this problem. The newly organized and revitalized Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET)—an interagency forum of Cabinet secretaries, deputy secretaries, and the heads of independent agencies that reviews, coordinates, and helps implement federal science and technology policy-named three high-priority cross—cutting areas of R&D and organized special interagency programs in these areas. The areas are high-performance computing and communications, global change, and mathematics and science education.

  10. The Impact of Legislature and Citizens on the Budgeting Process in Switzerland: Lessons for Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Tóth

    2005-01-01

    Scholars evaluating national and local budget procedures in Central and Eastern Europe generally advocate a greater role for legislative bodies and citizens. Mature federations and decentralised countries in Western Europe are often cited as prime examples of participatory budgeting which is supposed to lead to greater fiscal discipline, a better allocation of public resources and higher administrative efficiency. This paper investigates the strengths and weaknesses of legislative activism in...

  11. Monetary-fiscal policy interactions and fiscal stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2009-01-01

    Increases in government spending trigger substitution effects—both inter- and intra-temporal—and a wealth effect. The ultimate impacts on the econ- omy hinge on current and expected monetary and fiscal policy behavior. Studies that impose active monetary policy and passive fiscal policy typically find that government consumption crowds out private consumption: higher future taxes cre- ate a strong negative wealth effect, while the active monetary response increases the real interest rate. Thi...

  12. Can fiscal sovereignty be reconciled with fiscal discipline?

    OpenAIRE

    George Kopits

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, international bond markets have become the chief disciplinarian of fiscal policy, displacing the International Monetary Fund and the European Union in this role. This trend culminated in the wake of the global financial crisis, as countries that had indulged in moral hazard and fiscal profligacy during the Great Moderation were vulnerable to a sharp rise in sovereign risk premium and in some cases to loss of market access. The article compares the response of new go...

  13. Strategic Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Fragetta; Tatiana Kirsanova

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies leadership regimes in monetary-fiscal policy interactions in three countries, the UK, the US and Sweden. We specify a small-scale, structural general equilibrium model of an open economy and estimate it using Bayesian methods. We assume that the authorities can act strategically in a non-cooperative policy game, and compare different leadership regimes. We find that the model of fiscal leadership gives the best fit for the UK and Sweden, while in the US the Nash or non-s...

  14. Does Inflation Targeting Improve Fiscal Discipline? An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapsoba, René

    2011-01-01

    Based on panel data of 58 countries, of which 22 Inflation Targeters and 36 non Inflation Targeters, over the period 1980-2003, this paper highlights the effect of Inflation Targeting – IT- on Fiscal Discipline –FD-. We make four contributions to the literature. Firstly, by applying the 2SLS on the data, we estimate the effect of IT on central government FD as measured by Structural Primary Fiscal Balances. Secondly, we found that the effect of IT on FD takes place only on the Developing Coun...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FISCAL BURDEN ON UKRAINE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aleksandrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article was reviewed reproductive aspect of the relationship between fiscal burden and a penchant for economic development under certain assumptions about the relationship of these variables. The analysis was based on a fairly simple dynamic model in which the share of income that goes to the development of production, relying constant. Computed optimal fiscal burden for the economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. The estimation and comparison of the calculations of the tax burden followed its dynamics, by comparative assessment with those of developed countries. The prospects of the proposed approach for predicting the development of national economy were analyzed.

  16. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military...

  17. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... furnished by military treatment facilities through the Department of Defense (DoD). The rates have...

  18. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  19. Chicago, Keynes and Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez Caldentey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera mitad de la década de los años treinta los padres fundadores de la escuela de economía de Chicago y John Maynard Keynes en Inglaterra propusieron la puesta en marcha de trabajos públicos para combatir el desempleo y sobreponerse a la Gran Depresión. Frente a la rigidez de los precios de mercado y la impotencia de la política monetaria, la política fiscal contra cíclica pasó a ser vista como una estrategia viable y capaz de atenuar las fases del ciclo económico. A finales de la década tanto los economistas de Chicago como Keynes renunciaron al uso de este tipo de incentivos fiscales. Los economistas de Chicago centraron su rechazo en el potencial inflacionario de la política fiscal expansiva y enfocaron sus preocupaciones hacia los aspectos monetarios de la política fiscal. Por su parte Keynes mantuvo su apoyo a la política fiscal contra cíclica absteniéndose de recomendar los instrumentos que había propuesto anteriormente para combatir las fluctuaciones económicas. Utilizando el marco teórico que desarrolló en la Teoría General (1936, Keynes distinguió entre el presupuesto corriente y el de capital. El presupuesto corriente debía mostrar un equilibrio o un superávit con el fin de financiar el gasto en capital que actuaría como estabilizador del ciclo económico. Keynes distinguió así entre dos conceptos de política fiscal (la política fiscal compensatoria y la política fiscal basada en la programación de los gastos de capital. El segundo tipo de política fiscal, válido bajo la suposición de escasez del factor capital, suponía el rechazo de los instrumentos de estabilización fiscal de corto plazo (trabajos públicos y el uso de los impuestos para alterar los patrones de consumo. Más allá del punto de saturación del capital, la política fiscal podría cambiar su enfásis hacia el consumo y su rol compensatorio.

  20. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  1. Fiscal Policy, Profits, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Schiantarelli, Fabio; Perotti, Roberto; Ardagna, Silvia; Alesina, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of fiscal policy on investment using a panel of OECD countries. In particular, we investigate how different types of fiscal policy affect profits and , as a result, investment. We find a sizable negative effect of public spending -- and in particular of its public wage component -- on business investment. This result is consistent with models in which government employment creates wage pressure for the private sector. Various types of taxes also have negative ...

  2. Fiscal Aspects of Bank Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    James Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Governments frequently assist troubled banks. This paper examines the fiscal aspects of such assistance: rationale, design criteria, methods, and macroeconomic implications. It concludes that (1) banks should be assisted only when there is a clear systemic risk; (2) assistance should be tied to a comprehensive restructuring program, minimize fiscal cost, be equitable and transparent, prevent recurrence, and facilitate a sound macroeconomic environment; (3) debt-based assistance will worsen pu...

  3. Legislative Organization of Fiscal Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Crain, W Mark; Muris, Timothy J

    1995-01-01

    In the voluminous literature on fiscal policy, there is little evidence about the impact of legislative organization on shaping fiscal decisions. By comparing different organizations of committee structure to control tax and spending policies, this article presents such evidence. Regarding spending, we test whether the dispersion of spending authority among multiple committees creates a problem similar to that of the "common pool." Using American state data, we find that when only one committ...

  4. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be...

  5. NOTES ON AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENTERPRISE BUDGETS IN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents brief notes on the format and use of budgets in both financial and economic analysis. The main emphasis in on enterprise budgets, with some mention of capital budgets. Alternative measures of profitability are defined and compared. Methods of estimating opportunity costs are briefly discussed.

  6. AGF program budget 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  7. AGF program budget 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present program budget of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) describes its research and development objectives and the progress of work in the major research establishments involved and states the medium-term annual financial and personnel effort. (orig.)

  8. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  9. Marbling on a Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on the art technique called marbling. Includes floating paints on water and transferring the patterns formed in the water to paper. Discusses how teachers can teach this technique with materials that fit their budgets. Describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  10. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  11. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  12. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  13. Uncertainty and fiscal policy : The case of omitted variable bias

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that by omitting uncertainty when estimating the effects of a government spending shock on GDP could lead to biased estimates. The fiscal multiplier is how much an increase in government spending increases gross domestic product (GDP). There are two main theoretical views of looking at the economy: the neoclassical and the new Keynesian view. Neoclassical models predict multipliers that can be positive and negative depending on, among other things, the taxation system, becaus...

  14. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  15. Considerations Regarding the Mix of Anticrisis Fiscal Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TALPOŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last centuries, it has been noticed that the economic activity does not unfold linearly, that the expansion periods are followed by a contraction of the economic activity, that the peak moments cannot be maintained endlessly and that, after recession, a relaunch of the economic activity may occur. The political and economical cycles, emphasized by the last decades, made people talk more about the countercyclical policies and about the behaviour of the politicians seen in strong connection with the behaviour of the voting population. To reduce the effects of the current crisis, the state uses fiscal incentives, this representing a combination of public expenses and a reduction of the taxes for the companies and the households which aims at the revival of the economic life, the increase of employment and the recovery of the business environment. The countercyclical policies are known and applied all over the world, each responsible government choosing those instruments of budget and fiscal policy which best match the concrete possibilities of economy and correspond with its political doctrines. Thus seen the mix of fiscal policies is firstly a political choice, but with a strong impact on the economy of a country.

  16. Fiscal policy: ex ante and ex post

    OpenAIRE

    Croushore, Dean; van Norden, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The surge in fiscal deficits since 2008 has put a renewed focus on the authors’ understanding of fiscal policy. The interaction of fiscal and monetary policy during this period has also been the subject of much discussion and analysis. This paper gives new insight into past fiscal policy and its influence on monetary policy by examining the U.S. Federal Reserve Board staff’s Greenbook forecasts of fiscal policy. The authors create a real-time database of the Greenbook forecasts of fiscal poli...

  17. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICIES ON PUBLIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Ciurlău

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy is the main component of financial policy. Being a component of economic policy, taxation must lead to economic objectives. Maintaining equilibria macroeconomic cannot be blamed solely in charge of monetary policy, fiscal policy and that the revenue must have a role in support and to bear the load efforts to stabilise. Large deficits are dangerous for current account, because they are associated with a greater risk of producing an adjustment steep in the exchange rate and high volatility of exchange rate has major implications on the stability and macroeconomic monetary, in general. This means that countries should his election budgets so as to cope with growing demand from the private sector and to take necessary safeguard measures against potential crises, whereas the extent fiscal deficit contributes directly to the magnitude current account deficit.

  18. Per capita versus adult-equivalent estimates of calorie availability in household budget surveys Estimativa domiciliar da disponibilidade calórica per capita versus adulto-equivalente em pesquisa de orçamento familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate an adult-equivalent scale for calorie requirements and to determine the differences between adult-equivalent and per capita measurements of calorie availability in the Brazilian population. The study used data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The calorie requirement for a reference adult individual was based on the mean requirements for adult males and females (2,550kcal/day. The conversion factors were defined as the ratios between the calorie requirements for each age group and gender and that of the reference adult. The adult-equivalent calorie availability levels were higher than the per capita levels, with the largest differences in rural and low-income households. Differences in household calorie availability varied from 22kcal/day (households with adults and an adolescent to 428kcal/day (households with elderly individuals, thus showing that per capital measurements can underestimate the real calorie availability, since they overlook differences in household composition.Objetivou-se estimar uma escala adulto-equivalente de necessidade energética e determinar as diferenças entre medidas adulto-equivalente e per capita para disponibilidade energética da população brasileira. Utilizaram-se dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2002/2003. A necessidade energética de um indivíduo adulto de referência baseou-se na média das necessidades de homens e mulheres adultos (2.550kcal/dia. Os fatores de conversão foram definidos como a razão entre a necessidade energética de cada grupo de idade e sexo e aquela do adulto de referência. Os valores de disponibilidade de energia adulto-equivalente foram superiores aos per capita, sendo as maiores diferenças nos domicílios da área rural e de menor renda. As diferenças na disponibilidade energética domiciliar variavam entre 22kcal/dia (domicílio contendo adultos e adolescente e 428kcal/dia (domicílio onde residem idosos

  19. The Effectiveness of a Fiscal Transfer Mechanism in a Monetary Union : A DSGE Model for the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Loes; Meijdam, Lex

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a transfer mechanism into a DSGE model with a rich fiscal sector to assess the effectiveness of fiscal transfers for a monetary union, in particular for the Economic and Monetary Union. Using a heterogeneous setup, the model is estimated for the North and the South of E

  20. Annual report of National Institute of Radiological Sciences of the fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the period from April 1, 1978, to March 31, 1979, and provides with the information on the researches conducted by the NIRS during this period. The total budget for the 1978 fiscal year was a little more than 3.35 billion yen including personnel cost. Besides basic researches, three projects have been carried on. One of these projects, ''Estimate of dose due to exposure to environmental radiation'', that had been conducted since April, 1973, was accomplished with fruitful results at the end of March, 1977. Instead, a new project, ''Research on the exposure to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities, etc.'', has been started from April, 1978. The other two projects, ''Risk assessment of radiation late effect'' and ''Medical use of cyclotrons'', have been developed satisfactorily. This report is the collection of the abstracts of papers, but it will assist in the understanding of the research activities at the NIRS as well as that of the recent advances of radiological sciences. The contents are as follows. Concerning physical sciences, 12 physics papers and 7 chemistry papers. Concerning biological studies, 16 biochemistry and biophysics papers, 5 cytology and morphology papers, 14 physiology papers and 11 genetics papers. Concerning medical studies, 13 papers. Concerning environmental studies, 13 papers. Appendix on publication, organization and staff is attached. (Kako, I.)

  1. U.S. science and technology under budget stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A set of hearings was held a few weeks ago by the House Science and Technology Committee, Don Fuqua, chairman, during which White House science advisor George A. Keyworth II ‘reiterated the Reagan Administration's wisdom of the marketplace philosophy’ (Chemical and Engineering News, Dec. 14, 1981). National Academy of Sciences President Frank Press responded to Keyworth's continuing statements on the ‘hard choices’ ahead with a proposed ‘compact’ among the public, private and academic research sectors. Representatives of the science R & D community are hanging on every word released from the White House, hoping to find some solace from the picture of disastrous budget cuts that appears to be emerging in all sectors. The budget cuts, cumulative for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, do not, in notable examples, leave room for hard choices; dismantling of entire programs appears to be expected. Two examples are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary scientific program and the programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). When NASA's program was recently described as ‘planetary science in extremis,’ the meaning intended was ‘near death,’ not ‘in the extreme’ (Science, Dec. 18, 1981). In the same light, Douglas M. Castle, former EPA director, defined ‘EPA under siege:’ ‘It's hard to find a rational explanation for [the 1983 fiscal year budget proposed by OMB] except that [the current EPA administrators] are, in fact, a wrecking crew’ (Environmental Science and Technology, December 1981). Meanwhile, the so-called ‘research universities’ in the United States are turning to more practical and applied avenues to secure funds for their R & D budgets. According to science policy analyst, Wil Lepkowski, ‘The practical goals of technology are fast swallowing academic science, and nothing seems likely to be the same again.’ (Chem. Eng. News, Nov. 23, 1981).

  2. Theoretical Considerations On Local Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Eduard Ionescu; Cristian Constantin Oprea

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of local budgets, or otherwise highlights the importance of these tools - local budgets, in the financial autonomy mechanism. Local communities know better than central authorities, their possibilities of obtaining financial resources and needs on expenses for providing local partner services. All these resources and needs are identified in local budgets.

  3. Towards a formalization of budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; S. Nolst Trenité; M.B. van der Zwaag

    2008-01-01

    We go into the need for, and the requirements on, a formal theory of budgets. We present a simple algebraic theory of rational budgets, i.e., budgets in which amounts of money are specified by functions on the rational numbers. This theory is based on the tuplix calculus. We go into the importance o

  4. Mexico; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This report assesses the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency Module for Mexico. In recent years, Mexico has made considerable progress in improving transparency in public finances. Major initiatives include reform of the budget process; preparation of an integrated financial management information system; phase-in of a system of human resource management; overhaul of public procurement; streamlining of government regulations; strengthening of internal control and external...

  5. The Directions of Productivity Improvement of Fiscal Policy under Present-day Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Seymur Orujov

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the directions of productivityimprovement of fiscal policy under present-day conditions. It is shown that for the correct and timely solution ofthe problems standing before the policy of the budget expenses, it is required an exact and deep approach to theessence, purpose and implementation method of the financial policy and its consisting elements. It is obviouslythat study of practices of the other foreign countries w...

  6. The political geography of fiscal transfers: empirical evidence using data on Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    JENNES, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Summary I analyse the relationship between the geographic distribution of the government budget on the one hand and the geographic distribution of political power and government popularity on the other hand in Belgium. In a 1st chapter I find evidence that a Belgian federal electoral district receives more social spending and/or pays less income taxes with every federal minister having been elected in that district. In a 2nd chapter I present a method for calculating net fiscal transfers b...

  7. Fiscal policy effects in a heterogeneous-agent OLG economy with an aging population

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This paper incorporates the aging population projected by the U.S. Social Security Administration to a heterogeneous-agent OLG model with idiosyncratic wage shocks and analyzes its effects on individual households, the government budget, and the overall economy. The fiscal gap caused by the demographic change is 2.92% of GDP under the SSA's intermediate projection. The effect of the aging population is large by itself and depends significantly on how the government finances the cost of the de...

  8. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  9. Fiscal Reaction Function: Evidences from CESEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Zdravković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve on the methodology set in previous attempts to estimate the impact of gross government debt to primary balances in a wide set of 21 CESEE countries. Since the result of the long-lasting crisis in those countries is rising imbalance of public finances it is necessary to analyze what factors are causing such effects. Running the fixed effect, pooled and GMM regression it was found that both lagged government debt and output gap are positively related to primary balance. Moreover there was found evidence of non-linear relationship between primary balance and lagged debt, with fiscal fatigue occurrence at 70% threshold. Estimation of the augmented model shows that countercyclical response of primary balance is more pronounced in economic downturn relative to boom in cycle.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE ROMANIAN FISCAL LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Muntean

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy constitutes – within the state's economic policy – a system by means of which the taxes and duties owed to the country's consolidated budget are established and collected. Taking into account the role fiscal policy has been playing since Romania's admission in the European Union, one of the goals ceaselessly looked for is its adapting to the international community's acquis through the implementation of the European directives in our context. The EU directives make reference to direct taxes: dividend tax, interest income tax, assets transfer, shares exchange, income taxation for the non-residents, and so on, along with the indirect taxes: value-added tax, excise duties, etc. The paper approaches the main provisions within the contents of the European directives as well as the means of their implementation in the Romanian fiscal legislation regarding various types of taxes. The implementation of the European directives has been simultaneous with the establishing of measures concerning fiscal fraud prevention, frauds liable to have a negative impact on the state's consolidated budget.

  11. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  12. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  13. Budget update: Future is looking gloomier for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the wheels of the new Republican-controlled Congress have been turning, it looks like belts are indeed going to be tighter around U.S. research and development budgets. In mid-March, the House Budget Committee voted to cut $100 billion over the next five years from federal agency budgets and published guidelines for how this could be done. NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Geological Survey were again mentioned as potential targets and so was the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. If the reduction bill goes the legislative mile, the appropriations committees in each house of Congress will have to figure out where the cuts will fall. Republican and Democratic members of the House Science Committee quickly jumped into the traditional fray with their respective “Views and Estimates” on how science dollars should be doled out for fiscal year 1996. President Clinton has also jumped in the budget-cutting game with the release last week of a plan to cut $13 billion from four federal agencies over the next 5 years. In the meantime, a rescission bill for FY 1995 has been on the fast track through Congress. Here are some of the latest highlights:

  14. Budget Deficits and Interest Rates: An Empirical Analysis for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfur BAYAT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze causality between budget deficits and its ratio to gross domestic product and interest rate in the Turkish economy during years between 2006 and 2011. By doing so, we investigate the validity of crowding out view against the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. To this end, we employee the conventional Toda-Yamamoto (1995 linear Granger type causality test and Hacker and Hatemi-J (2005, 2006 bootstrap process-based Toda-Yamamoto linear Granger type causality test. In this regard, we use Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (1992, KPSS and Elliot, Rothenberg, Stock (1996, DF-GLS unit root tests. Analysis results show that there is no causal relation between budget deficits, budget deficit ratio to gross domestic product and nominal interest rate. Results reveal the existence of Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. Rational household predict that there is no difference between payment time of taxes and they know that expansionary fiscal policies financed by loan do not affect aggregate demand and capital allocation in a full-employment economy via nominal interest rate channel. Results of empirical analysis support Ricardian equivalence hypothesis and imply that there is no effect of financing type of budget deficit on nominal interest rate.

  15. The forgotten R and D budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  16. Budgeting tool for Restaurant X

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve profitability and advance a company’s commitment to organ-ize growth, details plans which are called budgets are required. A budgeting tool is a beneficial asset for a company because it helps the budgeting preparation process become easier and faster. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to create a budgeting tool for Restaurant X. This thesis is product-orientated. There are three tasks conducted in this thesis. First one is to cover all relevant theories about a budget. T...

  17. Fiscal Sustainability; The Case of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Ayumu Yamauchi

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines fiscal sustainability issues for the case of Eritrea but has wider implications for addressing fiscal and debt sustainability. It begins with a formal definition and explanation of analytical sustainability indicators, followed by an assessment of the causes of fiscal deficits and their impact on the usual indicators of fiscal and external debt sustainability. The paper then goes beyond the usual analytical indicators by attempting to identify how and through which channels...

  18. Fiscal Policy during the current Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    BUNEA-BONTAS Cristina Aurora; Petre, Mihaela Cosmina

    2009-01-01

    Fiscal policy is an important government tool for managing the economy, having the ability to affect the total amount of output produced - GDP. Changes in the level and composition of government spending, taxation or other instruments of fiscal policy have impact on aggregate demand, the pattern of resource allocation, and the distribution of income. The article shows the mechanisms through which fiscal policy stabilizes the business cycle, and the specific requirements for fiscal policy duri...

  19. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  20. Fiscal Policy for Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmbhatt, Milan; Canuto, Otaviano

    2012-01-01

    The global economic crisis that broke out in 2008 has reawakened interest in fiscal policy. In the early stages of the crisis, there was a widespread turn to countercyclical fiscal stimulus. Furthermore, the recent euro area crisis has underlined the importance of long-term fiscal sustainability for macroeconomic stability. More subtly, the global crisis has also refocused interest in fisc...

  1. 45 CFR 402.21 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal control. 402.21 Section 402.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... Administration of Grants § 402.21 Fiscal control. (a) Fiscal control and accounting procedures must be...

  2. 34 CFR 303.125 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal control. 303.125 Section 303.125 Education... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.125 Fiscal control. The statement must provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that such fiscal control and fund accounting...

  3. Transatlantic Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Garretsen, J.H.; Huart, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the design, effects and interactions of monetary and fiscal policies in the euro-area and between the euro-area and the non euro-area. To do so, a stylized three-country model of monetary and fiscal policy rules is constructed. It is analyzed how monetary and fiscal rules affect t

  4. Contingent Liabilities : A Threat to Fiscal Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Polackova, Hana

    1998-01-01

    The economic policy note discusses the issue of serious fiscal instability faced by many governments as a result of their contingent liabilities, which are associated with major hidden fiscal risks. Direct liabilities are predictable obligations that will arise in any event, and are the main subject of conventional fiscal analysis. Conversely, contingent liabilities are obligations trigger...

  5. Fiscal State-Citizen Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    2016-01-01

    to the 2008 crisis and the larger post-1970s politico-economic constellation. The crisis can be perceived as a particular articulation of an age-old state-household dynamic—a dialectical alignment of the mode of fiscal state-crafting with the ethos of the state-citizen nexus—characterized by a heightened......The 2008 crisis ended the growth bubble of the 2000s, which Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) governments facilitated through the normative/political-regulatory promotion of household indebtedness. Historically contextualizing this state-citizen relationship......, this article maps out four episodes of sovereign fiscalism, namely, debt-taking in the Italian city-states, the making of the absolutist tax/fiscal state, the eighteenth/nineteenth century elaboration of the economic citizen, and the postwar era of managed capitalism. Finally, it applies this framework...

  6. FISCAL POLICY AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim GASHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to analyze the fiscal policy and to suggest fiscal policy measures as very crucial instrument to market economy during the global financial crisis. Decision makers of monetary and financial policy in Kosovo currently are not under taking significant measures to promote growth and development. Public spending is excessive; the public debt is constantly growing, current account deficit also. In addition unemployment is high, capital investments in public and private sectors are insufficient, as well as investments in science and education. Market infrastructure in Kosovo is not functional and market laws are not enforced. The central government in Kosovo is facing trade of between market liberalization and challenges with public spending. Therefore fiscal policy measures are insufficient and cannot stimulate economic growth.

  7. Sources Evolution of Budget Deficit’s Financing in Poland Subject to Push-out Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kocurek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author analyses sources of budget deficits financing in the transformation period in Poland. Firstly, different instruments that can balance expenses of states budget over its income are presented. Then an analysis of the structure of deficits financing and its consequences for the economy is made. The author pays attention to efficiency of the fiscal expansion in the short and long term and describes the direct and indirect push out effect. In result performed analysis it is claimed that the choice of sources of deficits financing has the fundamental significance for the economic policy

  8. Sources Evolution of Budget Deficit’s Financing in Poland Subject to Push-out Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Kocurek

    2008-01-01

    In the article, the author analyses sources of budget deficit’s financing in the transformation period in Poland. Firstly, different instruments that can balance expenses of state’s budget over its income are presented. Then an analysis of the structure of deficit’s financing and its consequences for the economy is made. The author pays attention to efficiency of the fiscal expansion in the short and long term and describes the direct and indirect push out effect. In result performed analysis...

  9. Fiscal Decentralization and Disparity of Access to Primary Education in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Shinta Doriza; Deniey Adi Purwanto; Ernita Maulida

    2013-01-01

    In education, one crusial issue of development is the disparity of primary education access. Using 440 regions database from 2005-2009, this study is aim to analize the impact of fiscal decentralization in reducing the enrolement of primary education in Indonesia. Three factors were included, i.e fiscal decentralization, socioeconomic factors and regional characteristics. The result of panel data estimation using fixed-effect approach on this study is that DAK for Education, DAK Non Education...

  10. El tratamiento fiscal del crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Muñoz, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo aborda el estudio del crowdfunding y su tratamiento fiscal en el sistema español. El notable protagonismo adquirido por este modo de financiación alternativa para proyectos innovadores exige la creación de un marco jurídico adecuado y el establecimiento de un sistema de incentivos fiscales que impulsen su desarrollo. En este sentido, la Ley de fomento de la financiación empresarial establece el régimen jurídico del crowdfunding financiero, dando cobertura legal a esta nueva forma...

  11. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  12. Effects of Immigration on Labour Markets and Government Budgets - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Leibfritz, Willi; O'Brien, Paul; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides an overview on recent trends of immigration in OECD countries and on the possible effects of immigration on labour markets and government budgets. It also discusses migration policies from an economic point of view. By bringing together a bulk of international literature on labour market and fiscal effects of migration in a systematic way it provides a framework for assessing the economic effects of migration and improving the knowledge base for migration policies.

  13. Budget Analysis of Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) Civilian Mariner (CIVMAR) Hotel Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Fopma, David; Gonzalez, Melissa; Totten, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    EMBA Project Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The goal of this project was to conduct research on the current method MSFSC uses to budget for its CIVMAR Support Unit (CSU) hotel contracts, how they are receipted throughout the course of the fiscal year, and finally how they are closed out at the end of the contract period. The client suspected that there were flaws in the current process and was interested in hearing any recommendations to improve the procedures in place to help alleviate the ...

  14. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS ON THE BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEFAULT ON ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL STEFAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the audit/control missions, there were registered inaccurate situations which concern the correct registration of financial and exceptional operation revenues and expenditures, based on documents attesting their way and content. Thus, in the relation between the local budget of the administrative-territorial unit and two trading companies of local interest, with regard to the granting of subventions to the two companies, there were identified certain value discrepancies between the amounts approved by the local budget, in less and those provided in the budgets of the entities under discussion. The discrepancies of the budgets mentioned above had direct consequences on the reality of financial statements of the respective partners, on their budgets and on the fiscal regimes of the local subordination entities.

  15. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  16. Revisions in the gas business related tax system, and fiscal investments and loans in fiscal 1997; 1997 nendo gas jigyo kankei zeisei kaisei oyobi zaisei toyushi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagoya, Y.; Kajiwara, K. [Japan Gas Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-10

    This paper summarizes revisions in the gas business related tax system, and fiscal investments and loans in Japan in fiscal 1997. In the national tax, extension was given on the application period to the special measures on taxes imposed on tests and researches, small business entities, and mining and industrial associations. The current simple co-imposition system was adopted for the petroleum related taxes and consumption tax. Special measures will be taken on the land price tax related to natural gas filling stations. In the local tax system, extension of the period for special rules on the acquisition tax or tax-exempt measures were taken for natural gas fueled vehicles, their filling facilities and lands for the facilities. Tax-exempt measures were also taken on fixed asset taxes for barriers and structures used for preventing public hazards, and on special possession tax for lands used for that purpose. Periods for spherical gas holder opening inspections were extended. The SI system shall be used as the measurement unit in articles of the tax system measures. The fiscal investments and loans were revised as follows: the budget for the `improvement in the stable gas supply infrastructures` was reduced to 25 billion yen, a decrease of 7.4% from that for the previous year; and the loan ratio on lands in the budget for the `acceleration of industrial LNG introduction` and the loan ratio on underground multi-purpose ducts were reduced. 3 tabs.

  17. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) archival and April 1985 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, B.; Harrison, E.; Smith, G.; Kibler, J.; Green, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data products being made available to the community. The Science Team used ten validation criteria to judge the acceptability of the data for archival. These criteria are listed, and uncertainty estimates based on them for four typical data products are presented. A brief description of the radiation budget for April 1985 from the combined data of ERBE and NOAA-9 concludes this paper.

  19. Civil Engineer Corps accessions: forecasting interview requirements and travel budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Sisson, Max

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA Project is to provide insight into interview requirements and travel budgets for the Civil Engineer Corps accessions team through the use of forecasting. The goal of this project is to provide a forecasting model that can predict interview requirements and form the basis for constructing travel budgets and estimates. The primary tool utilized is spreadsheet modeling to include extensive linear regression analysis. Additional insight is pr...

  20. Activity-based costing and Marine Corps Formal Schools budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, George E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the current practice for budget estimation and resource allocation in Marine Corps Formal Schools for potential improvement. The methodology used devises a budgeting system that reflects variation in activity level, or output requirements, and how costs change when student throughput changes. While the evaluation is relevant to Marine Corps Formal Schools in general, the research focused on an approach taken by the Marine Corps Engineer School for the...

  1. Fiscal policy in Central and Eastern Europe with real time data: Cyclicality, inertia and the role of EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    John Lewis

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the cyclicality, inertia and effect of EU accession on fiscal policy in Central and Eastern Europe using a real time dataset. Budget balances are found to react in a stabilising way to economic activity, and they are less inert than is typically found in Western Europe. There is clear evidence of a fiscal loosening in the run-up to EU accession. This began in 1999 in larger central European countries, often identified as “front-runners. The other seven began loosening i...

  2. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; J. Lustenhouwer; K. Mavromatis

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in t

  3. The FCC in Fiscal 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Fiscal 1971 saw major actions by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in all areas of its jurisdiction. In broadcasting, the FCC proposed new renewal rules and policies and issued a number of significant rulings on Fairness Doctrine matters. A policy statement outlining FCC cable television plans was submitted to the Congress. In the common…

  4. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    to analyse the association between political consensus and public expenditure growth. The results show that political consensus is positively associated with both budgeted and actual expenditure growth, but also negatively associated with budget overruns. This indicates that political consensus comes...... at a cost, while at the same time politicians may be better at sticking to budgets if political consensus exists. The analysis is based on a pooled regression analysis of the local governments in Denmark in the years 2008 and 2009 using a data set combining survey data with administrative data on the local...

  5. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  6. International spillovers from U.S. fiscal policy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Nicar, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    I estimate the effect of U.S. government spending and tax shocks on Canada, Japan, and the U.K. for the period 1974 through 2007. Spending and tax shocks are identified using sign restrictions on the impulse responses from a vector autoregression (VAR). I find that while spillover effects of expansionary fiscal shocks are not uniform in direction or magnitude across countries, for Canada and Japan they result in economically significant GDP increases over some portion of the response horizon....

  7. A Narrative Approach to a Fiscal DSGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Drautzburg

    2014-01-01

    DSGE models are used for analyzing policy and the sources of business cycles. A competing approach uses VARs that are partially identified using, for example, narrative shock measures and are often viewed as imposing fewer restrictions on the data. Narrative shocks are identified non-structurally through information external to particular models. This uses non-structural narrative shock measures to inform the structural estimation of DSGE models. Since fiscal policy has received much recent a...

  8. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  9. A Budget for the People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Redistributing income to improve people’s livelihoods becomes a priority of the central budget The government’s budget this year will top an unprecedented 10 trillion yuan ($1.52 trillion), an increase of 11.9 percent over that of 2010, according to the government’s annual budget report delivered to the Fourth Session of the 11th National People’s Congress on March 5.

  10. A note on budget procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Pisauro Giuseppe; Visco Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    In Italy the debate on procedures related to the State budget is recurrent and tends to focus on the legislation stage. There is a widespread dissatisfaction on the way the budget is discussed and approved by Parliament. We argue that the entire procedure, including the stages of preparation, legislation and execution, should be reconsidered. The budget process in Italy suffers mainly from excessive fragmentation at the preparation stage, where a bottom-up approach is followed. Conversely, th...

  11. The governance of domestic fiscal stability in the Eurozone prior to the financial crises (2000-2007): What lessons for implementation of the TSCG?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, N.S.; Donnelly, S.

    2012-01-01

    After its first thorough revision in 2005, the Stability & Growth Pact (SGP) has recently been transformed into a Fiscal Stability Treaty, which in all likelihood will become operational as from January 1, 2013. Part of this treaty is the incorporation of balanced budget rules into domestic constitu

  12. United Republic of Tanzania Public Expenditure Review FY03 : Managing Public Expenditures for Poverty Reduction - Report on Fiscal Developments and Public Expenditure Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    In line with the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) context, this external evaluation looks at budgetary developments, primarily through the lens of the PRS, thus with important implications for the Public Expenditure Review (PER) process, which has evolved into the principal analytic instrument to support the translation of PRS objectives and strategies, into budgets. Overall fiscal policy ...

  13. Fiscal Capacity and Poverty Alleviation: A Panel Data Analysis for Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Sriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the role of fiscal capacity in poverty alleviation in Yogyakarta for the period of 2006-2013. For this purpose, this study uses panel data approach to estimate the empirical model involving four regencies and a city. This research f ound that fixed effects model is the best model to explain the role of fiscal capacity to the poverty rate. Overall, the results present that all independent variables are good predictors for poverty rate model. Based on the complete fixed effects model, the research shows that public spending and fiscal transfer are significant predictors for poverty rate. In contrast, government own revenue has negative impact to poverty rate. These results indicate fiscal capacity in among regencies and city in Yogyakarta has well managed to improve social welfare. This study also reveals that local governments need to improve their public spending as well as to strengthen their frameworks on public services policies.

  14. How to budget for a nuclear retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities with operating nuclear plants have had to make modifications and improvements in recent years as a result of the Three Mile Island accident and, to a lesser extent, of operating experience. This had had an unfavorable impact on utilities' capital costs and on their operations and maintenance budgets. That means that effective budget allocations and cost-control programs should hold top priority for investor-owned electric utilities. A good cost-control program must set realistic targets based on a three-step engineering process which analyzes alternatives, then develops conceptual and detailed designs. A checklist for estimating the cost of nuclear retrofits covers material handling, work and radiation permits, worker support and protection, supervision, nonproductive support, cleanup, and closeout activities. 1 figure, 2 tables

  15. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  17. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  18. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Transmission in the Euro-area: evidence from a structural VAR analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Garretsen, H.; Gobbin, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the transmission of monetary and fiscal policy in the Euro-area. To do so, structural VAR models are estimated. First, the EMU countries are considered as an aggregate entity and the estimation results are compared with those for the US and Japan. Attention is also paid to interac

  19. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fiscal Year 2001 Accountability Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent Agency established to plan and manage the future of the Nation's civil aeronautics and space program. This Accountability Report covers Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 (October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001), with discussion of some subsequent events. The Report contains an overview addressing the Agency's critical programs and financial performance and includes highlights of performance organized by goals and objectives of the Enterprises and Crosscutting Processes. The Report also summarizes NASA's stewardship over budget and financial resources, including audited financial statements and footnotes. The financial statements reflect an overall position of offices and activities, including assets and liabilities, as well as results of operations, pursuant to requirements of Federal law (31 U.S.C. 3515(b)). The auditor's opinions on NASA's financial statements, reports on internal controls, and compliance with laws and regulations are included in this report.