WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget estimates fiscal

  1. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  2. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  3. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  5. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  6. Budget estimates: Fiscal years, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The budget estimates for the NRC for fiscal year 1990 provide for obligations of $475,000,000, to be funded in total by two new appropriations---one is NRC's Salaries and Expenses appropriation for $472,100,000 and the other is NRC's Office of the Inspector General appropriation of $2,900,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $23,195,000 shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund. The sum appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1990 from licensing fees, inspection services, other services and collections, and from the Nuclear Waste Fund, excluding those moneys received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1990 appropriation estimated at not more than $292,155,000

  7. Budget estimates fiscal year 1989: Appropriation, Salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The budget estimates for Salaries and Expenses for FY 1989 provide for obligations of $450,000,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation. The sum appropriated shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during fiscal year 1989 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, excluding those monies received for the cooperative nuclear safety research program, services rendered to foreign governments and international organizations, and the material and information access authorization programs, so as to result in a final fiscal year 1989 appropriation estimated at not more than $247,500,000

  8. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1984/85. Appropriation: salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justifications to Congress. The budget estimates for salaries and expenses for fiscal year 1984 to 1985 provide for obligations of $466,800,000 to be funded in total by a new appropriation

  9. Budgeting for fiscal space

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Schick

    2009-01-01

    Fiscal space refers to the financial resources available to a government for policy initiatives through the budget and related decisions. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the shrinkage of fiscal space, considers methods for protecting or enlarging it, and reflects on how budgeting may be recast into a process for explicitly allocating scarce fiscal space.

  10. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  12. Rough estimate demand of atomic energy-related budget for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rough estimate demand of the budget for fiscal year 1996 of eight atomic energy-related ministries and agencies was determined at about 494,879 million yen, which is 2.4% growth as compared with that for the previous year. Concretely, the general account is 204,594 million yen, 2.2% growth, and the special account is 290,285 million yen, 2.6% growth. The budget is 357,060 million yen and 3.7% growth for Science and Technology Agency, 130, 787 million yen and 2% decrease for Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and 7,032 million yen and 29.2% increase for other six ministries and agencies. Emphasis is placed on the research of upgrading LWRs including the disassembling of reactors, the performance test for fuel, the improvement of reactor technology and the verifying test of practical reactor decommissioning facilities, and the research and development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. Also the technical development of waste treatment and disposal including high level radioactive waste is carried out with 40.3 billion yen. Atomic Energy Commission exerts efforts for the development of atomic energy policy for the peaceful utilization, the establishment of coordinative LWR power generation system, the development of nuclear fuel recycling and the strengthening of the basic research on atomic energy. (K.I.)

  13. Accrual Budgeting and Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2009-01-01

    Can an accrual budgeting system-a system in which budgetary spending authorizations to line ministries are formulated in accrual terms-serve the needs of good fiscal policy? If so, how must such a system be designed? What are the practical challenges which may arise in implementing sound fiscal policy under a budgeting system which is significantly more complex than traditional cash budgeting? These are the primary questions addressed in this paper. Because any budgeting system must support t...

  14. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission budget estimates Fiscal Year 1978. Appropriations: salaries and expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budget estimates are presented for: nuclear reactor regulation (NRR); Standards development (SD); Inspection and enforcement (IandE); Nuclear material safety and safeguards (NMSS); Nuclear regulatory research (RES); Program technical support (PTS); and Program direction and administration (PDA); Special supporting tables are included

  15. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  16. Budgeting and Fiscal Management in Transitional Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Jameson Boex

    2000-01-01

    The past ten years have been witness to one of the largest experiments in economic history, namely the transition of centrally planned economies to market-based economies. While policy reform in transitional countries has encompassed virtually every sector of the economy, modernization of public sector budgeting practices and fiscal management techniques have been widely recognized as critical to the success of the economic transition experiment. However, the breadth and pace of fiscal manage...

  17. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  18. Fiscal year 1993 budget estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the NRC with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to ensure adequate protection for the public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment in the use of nuclear materials in the United States. The NRC's scope of responsibility incudes regulation of commercial nuclear power plants; research, test, and training reactors; fuel cycle facilities; medical, academic, and industrial uses of nuclear materials; and the transport, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and wastes. The NRC carries out its mission by setting standards and requirements that licensees must meet to design,construct, and operate safe facilities, in the form of rules, license conditions, and regulatory guidance; inspecting facilities and taking enforcement action, as necessary, to ensure that such standards are followed; and conducting research to support, confirm, or refine judgments used in regulatory decisions. The technologies involved in the use of nuclear energy are relatively new and complex. Regulatory decisions often require conservatism to account for technical uncertainty. Conservatisms should be modified appropriately as increased understanding of physical phenomena and interactions is achieved. Further, essential functions must be maintained through appropriate combinations of high component and system reliability, redundancy, and diversity to provide multiple barriers to the release of radiation (defense-in-depth)

  19. Fiscal decentralisation and gender responsive budgeting in Mexico: Some observations.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Lekha S

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the scope and limitations of gender responsive budgeting in Mexico within the overall framework of fiscal decentralisation. However, decentralised gender responsive budgeting can be meaningful only when the local governments have significant assignment of functions and finance. Therefore, although the focus of the paper is gender responsiveness in decentralised budgetary policies, the initiatives to incorporate gender concerns in federal budgets are also analysed to captur...

  20. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  1. Local autonomy and interregional equality : fiscal equalization with balanced budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander W; Tungodden, Bertil

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on fiscal equalization in three ways. First, it shows how two important types of transfer schemes, the foundation grant and the power equalization grant, can be seen as two different interpretations of equal opportunity ethics. Second, it characterizes versions of these transfers schemes that ensure a balanced budget for the central government. Third, it clarifies the nature of various fiscal spillover effects within the framework of ...

  2. A Faster Track to Fiscal Balance: The 2011 Shadow Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Laurin; William B.P. Robson

    2011-01-01

    The Commentary released today its 2011 federal Shadow Budget with a five-step plan to end the flow of red ink in Ottawa ahead of the government’s five-year timeline. In this paper, the authors show how Ottawa can return to budget surpluses in four years through more ambitious spending restraint and accelerate growth-friendly fiscal reforms. This faster track to budget surplus, say the authors, will position the federal government to launch new tax and spending initiatives around mid-decade, w...

  3. Fiscal Supervision and the Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Christofzik, Désirée I.; Kessing, Sebastian G.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of local borrowing regulations in maintaining fiscal sustainability and the effect of supervision over municipal budgeting on local debt using a panel on municipalities in Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia from 2003 to 2011. The identification strategy relies on a differences-in-differences approach and exploits the fact that a reform making it temporarily more likely to prevent financial supervision was implemented gradually across municipalit...

  4. Budget Development, Budget Monitoring, Accounting and Financial Reporting: A Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A school district's governing board, superintendent, and business manager should work as an effective fiscal policy team with good communication. This self-assessment guide is designed to assist in the overall evaluation of fiscal policy team communication. Four sections (budget development, budget monitoring, financial reporting, and…

  5. Formula budgeting: The economics and analytics of fiscal policy under rules

    OpenAIRE

    Eric A. Hanushek

    1986-01-01

    The dramatic change in aggregate fiscal policy in recent years has contributed to a shift from process rules to allocation rules in federal budgeting. Although the allocation rules inherent in formula budgeting seem to offer fairness in times of fiscal constraint, they actually impose arbitrary program-level budgets that reflect the peculiarities of baselines, accounting conventions, and time horizons. Formula budgeting also changes the analytical environment, forcing policy analysts to pay g...

  6. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 2001-03. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Ronald L.

    This report contains information on the federal funding of research and development (R&D) components of agency programs as proposed for the fiscal year (FY) 2001-2003. Research and development data are classified into the same federal budget function categories as those used in "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2001-2003." The…

  7. Budget estimates - fiscal years 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the NRC with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to ensure adequate protection for the public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment in the use of nuclear materials in the United States. The NRC's scope of responsibility includes regulation of commercial nuclear power plants; research, test, and training reactors; fuel cycle facilities; medical, academic, and industrial uses of nuclear materials; and the transport, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and wastes. The NRC carries out its mission by setting standards and requirements that licensees must meet to design, construct, and operate safe facilities, in the form of rules, license conditions, and regulatory guidance; inspecting facilities and taking enforcement action, as necessary, to ensure that such standards are followed; and conducting research to support, confirm, or refine judgments used in regulatory decisions. The technologies involved in the use of nuclear energy are relatively new and complex. Regulatory decisions often require conservatism to account for technical uncertainty. Conservatisms should be modified appropriately as increased understanding of physical phenomena and interactions is achieved. Further, essential functions must be maintained through appropriate combinations of high component and system reliability, redundancy, and diversity to provide multiple barriers to the release of radiation (defense-in-depth)

  8. Gender responsive budgeting, as fiscal innovation: Evidence from India on "Processes".

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Lekha S

    2014-01-01

    Gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) is a fiscal innovation. Innovation, for the purposes of this paper, is defined as a way of transforming a new concept into tangible processes, resources, and institutional mechanisms in which a benefit meets identified problems. GRB is a fiscal innovation in that it translates gender commitments into fiscal commitments by applying a "gender lens" to the identified processes, resources, and institutional mechanisms, and arrives at a desirable benefit incidence...

  9. Budgeting versus implementing fiscal policy in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Beetsma, Roel; Giuliodori, Massimo; Wierts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Using real-time data from Europe's Stability and Convergence Programs, we explore how fiscal plans and their implementation in the EU are determined. We find that (1) implemented budgetary adjustment falls systematically short of planned adjustment and this shortfall increases with the projection horizon, (2) variability in the eventual fiscal outcomes is dominated by the implementation errors, (3) there is a limited role for "traditional" political variables, (4) stock-flow adjustments are m...

  10. Fiscal Decentralisation and Local Level Gender Responsive Budgeting in Morocco: Some Observations

    OpenAIRE

    M.Govinda Rao; Chakraborty, Lekha S

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a significant attempt to change the status of women in Morocco. Considerable efforts have been made to incorporate mainstream gender in socio-economic policies, including gender budgeting initiatives. The paper analyses the scope and limitations of gender budgeting initiatives in the context of the fiscal decentralisation process in Morocco. Specifically, the paper analyses the evolution of decentralisation in Morocco, and deals with the budgetary refo...

  11. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  12. Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan P.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Riahi, Keywan; Allen, Myles; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust number -- the carbon budget for CO2-induced warming only -- is also the least relevant for real-world policy. Including all greenhouse gases and using methods based on scenarios that avoid instead of exceed a given temperature limit results in lower carbon budgets. For a >66% chance of limiting warming below the internationally agreed temperature limit of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels, the most appropriate carbon budget estimate is 590-1,240 GtCO2 from 2015 onwards. Variations within this range depend on the probability of staying below 2 °C and on end-of-century non-CO2 warming. Current CO2 emissions are about 40 GtCO2 yr-1, and global CO2 emissions thus have to be reduced urgently to keep within a 2 °C-compatible budget.

  13. Constraining Political Budget Cycles : Media Strength and Fiscal Institutions in the Enlarged EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademmer, Esther; Dreher, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits institutional constraints to political budget cycles (PBCs) in the enlarged European Union (EU). Based on a panel of 25 Member States, we show that governments frequently fiscally stimulate the economy prior to elections. We argue that the occurrence of PBCs in the enlarged EU

  14. States' Fiscal Woes Raise Anxiety Level on School Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    A long-projected revenue chill is beginning to bite in a number of states, putting pressure on education policymakers to defend existing programs--and, in some cases, forcing them to prepare for the worst if budget cuts become a reality. The causes vary, from slack property-tax receipts in Florida to a chronically sluggish economy in Michigan. But…

  15. Interplay of aid and fiscal policy: Does budget support induce greater fiscal discipline?

    OpenAIRE

    Puonti, Päivi

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of foreign aid has been studied from various perspectives. The current aid system has come under a lot of criticism and the relevance of aid giving in eradicating extreme poverty has been widely questioned. Even though aid has been found to have a strong, positive impact on growth, there is a concern about other possible effects. Among them is the concern about its impact on aid receiving country government’s fiscal discipline. However the research done to date does not...

  16. Estimating the Components of a Wetland Water Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Fomchenko, Nicole M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The design of wetlands to replace those lost to development requires quantitative understanding of the wetland water budget in order to estimate the amount of water available to the wetland over time. Many methods exist to estimate each component of the wetland water budget. In this study, monthly values of the water budget components namely, precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater seepage were calculated using a water budget model and compared to on-site field measuremen...

  17. Tax Smoothing Discretion Versus Balanced Budget Rules in the Presence of Politically Motivated Fiscal Deficits: The Design of Optimal Fiscal Rules for Europe after 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, Giancarlo; Roubini, Nouriel

    1992-01-01

    We analyse the arguments in favour and against binding fiscal rules such as those recently agreed by European countries as preconditions for participation in the third phase of the European Monetary Union. The evidence in the paper suggests that a number of EC countries are following unsustainable fiscal policies and that this `deficits bias' may be partly due to political distortions. Binding balanced budget rules would eliminate the deficits bias that appears in the presence of such distort...

  18. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh G. Tali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  19. Estimative of energy budget in Brazilian Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux using the eddy covariance method in a Cerrado "Campo Sujo" area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 2m height. The geographical position of the Cerrado, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Cerrado presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 25% and the latent heat flux (LE) 54%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 42% and the latent heat flux (LE) 30% of the energy budget.

  20. The Art and Craft of Budgeting: Fiscal Policy in the Eurozone

    OpenAIRE

    Nispen tot Pannerden, Frans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the past twenty-five years we have seen a growing body of literature on the determinants of fiscal policy as measured by analyzing cross-national data on budgetary deficits and public debts. The discussion is largely shaped by Jürgen von Hagen’s work on the impact of both political and economic institutions. In this paper we will take a slightly different angle, looking at cultural variables. Taking Aaron Wildavsky’s cultural theory of budgeting as point of departure, we assume...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  2. FISCAL AND BUDGET POLICIES - MAJOR COMPONENTS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY MIX IN ROMANIA AT PRESENT AND IN FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Ionela; Codreanu, Diana; ALBICI Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the Government's economic policy is represented by ensuring coherent macroeconomic stability, by maintaining a conservatory fiscal position and by promoting prudent salary policies in order to support disinflation and limit foreign imbalances which shall facilitate sustainable economic growth and a real convergence. The fiscal and budget policies applied in Romania in the years before the crisis have led to domestic and foreign imbalances which must be changed during the next...

  3. THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF FISCAL CONSTITUTION IN THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC BUDGETS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-01-01

    In the long run, public budgets in a great majority of developed economies suffer from recurring deficits and an increasing public debt. However, the condition of public finace deteriorated even in times of economic conjuncture, so the onset of the crisis in 2008 caught most of the developed world without financial reserves, or the so-called fiscal cushion. Thus most EU countries now fail to fulfill both the Maastricht Convergence Criteria and the Fiscal Compact Treaty, even if these are bind...

  4. Annual budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that all businesses, including individuals, should have a budget - that is, an estimation of income and expense over an annual cycle. For companies, the budget is generally prepared and approved about one quarter before the start of the company's fiscal year and is updated and revised each quarter during the year. Although budgeting is a task dreaded by most exploration managers, it is usually the vehicle by which drilling prospects, the heart of any exploration program, are sold to the final decision makers. The budgeting process should be viewed as an opportunity rather than as a chore to be completed as quickly as possible

  5. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk management summary; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health (ES and H) Budget-Risk Management Summary report is prepared to support the annual request to sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex by DOE, Headquarters. The request requires sites to provide supplementary crosscutting information related to ES and H activities and the ES and H resources that support these activities. The report includes the following: (1) A summary status of fiscal year (FY) 1999 ES and H performance and ES and H execution commitments; (2)Status and plans of Hanford Site Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup activities; (3) Safety and health (S and H) risk management issues and compliance vulnerabilities of FY 2001 Target Case and Below Target Case funding of EM cleanup activities; (4) S and H resource planning and crosscutting information for FY 1999 to 2001; and (5) Description of indirect-funded S and H activities

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-05-12

    The Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Budget-Risk Management Summary report is prepared to support the annual request to sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex by DOE, Headquarters. The request requires sites to provide supplementary crosscutting information related to ES&H activities and the ES&H resources that support these activities. The report includes the following: (1) A summary status of fiscal year (FY) 1999 ES&H performance and ES&H execution commitments; (2)Status and plans of Hanford Site Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup activities; (3) Safety and health (S&H) risk management issues and compliance vulnerabilities of FY 2001 Target Case and Below Target Case funding of EM cleanup activities; (4) S&H resource planning and crosscutting information for FY 1999 to 2001; and (5) Description of indirect-funded S&H activities.

  8. U.S. States’ fiscal constraints and effects on budget policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannella Mario

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at fiscal constraints adopted by the U.S. States. It questions the ability of those rules to determine sound budgetary policies. To assess this point it analyses, in the general part, the major kind of constraints so far adopted. Of each major category the focus is upon institutional weaknesses that create the room for the adoption of circumventing practices. The following section focuses instead on three case studies, to show examples of the way in which the constraints influenced policy-making without mining the ability of government to adopt unbalanced budgetary policies. The weaknesses are combined with the adoption of a deferential approach by the Courts that generally legitimized the accounting devices adopted by the States. The outcome is a system in which budget policies are influenced by several factors that go beyond the institutional framework. On the other side, legal boundaries create distortions and unwanted effects in policies implemented by the States.

  9. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  10. Distribution-Free Structural Estimation with Nonlinear Budget Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Che-yuan

    2014-01-01

    I develop a structural method for evaluating labor supply in nonlinear budget sets that does not require any distributional assumptions. The model only requires that preferences are convex on the budget frontier. It can be extended to account for features such as fixed costs of work and the stigma cost of welfare participation. It can also be adapted for estimation of earnings, hours of work, and functions that depend on the labor supply distribution, including tax revenue and cumulative dist...

  11. Budgeting for Green Growth in the Republic of Korea : Using Public Financial Management Systems to Implement Major Initiatives while Maintaining Fiscal Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Young Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Korea's bold initiative, the Green Growth Plan (GGP), spanning 2009 to 2013 with fiscal outlay of US$84 billion, posed a significant challenge to sustainable public finance management in Korea. This paper reviews how Korea accommodated the huge cross-cutting expenditure plan in its annual and medium term budgets. Notably Korea s medium term expenditure framework, the National Fiscal Manage...

  12. The global financial crisis and fiscal policy in Central and Eastern Europe: the 2009 Croatian budget odysey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Mihaljek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two main questions: first, what is the scope for domestic and external market-based financing of Croatia’s government budget deficit; and second, what is the scope for expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia. Both questions are addressed from a broader Central and Eastern European perspective, in the context of the economic and financial crisis unfolding in the region since October 2008. The paper analyses how the crisis had spread through financial markets in the region and how it affected the cost and availability of budget financing. It shows that the reliance on market-based financing increased significantly in successive revisions of the 2009 budget despite rising bond yields and interest rates; that government borrowing from domestic banks led to a severe crowding-out of the private sector; and that the sovereign eurobond placement in 2009 was costlier than earlier placements in similar circumstances and other sovereign debt issues in CEE in the first half of 2009. On this basis, the paper argues that expansionary fiscal policy in Croatia would not be effective and would undermine fiscal sustainability and financial stability.

  13. Selected budgeting issues in Chile: Performance budgeting, medium-term budgeting, budget flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hawkesworth; Oscar Huerta Melchor; Marc Robinson

    2012-01-01

    The Chilean government is exploring several important areas of public sector reform. This article discusses performance budgeting (including spending reviews, efficiency reviews, and the Chilean performance management system), mediumterm budgeting (especially the use of forward estimates and fiscal rules), and flexibility and efficiency in budget execution. Chile’s situation as of May 2012 was analysed in the light of OECD country best practices at the annual meeting of the OECD network on pe...

  14. Externalities and bailouts : hard and soft budget constraints in intergovernmental fiscal relations

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Wildasin

    1997-01-01

    Subnational governments are assuming greater fiscal responsibility in many developing and transition countries. There is concern, however, that fiscal decentralization may weaken fiscal discipline -that local authorities may undertake commitments or incur debt obligations that subsequently result in massive central government support, in the form of extraordinary transfers, or bailouts. (Recent experience in major U.S. cities shows that these problems are not restricted to developing countrie...

  15. Vietnam Fiscal Transparency Review : Analysis and Stakeholder Feedback on State Budget Information in the Public Domain

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has come far in improving fiscal transparency. Building on these gains could help strengthen macroeconomic management, improve market perceptions of risk, and increase accountability for service delivery. Fiscal transparency is an important element of the Government's policy dialogue with development partners, particularly in the context of ongoing budgetary support. External revie...

  16. Fiscal planning and implementation: euro area analysis based on real time data

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study explores discretionary fiscal policies in the euro area during the time of monetary union (EMU). Ex ante budget plans and policy changes during budget implementation are investigated using real time data from the OECD Economic Outlook publications. The particular focus of the study is on fiscal adjustment to the recent financial crisis and the subsequent global recession. Estimated fiscal policy reaction functions indicate that in the EMU period ex ante fiscal plans in the euro are...

  17. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  18. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  19. Budgeting for fiscal space and government performance beyond the great recession

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Marcel

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the prolonged economic crisis that started in 2008, fiscal space has become a scarce commodity in OECD countries. This has not only broadened the appeal of a concept originally raised by emerging countries in the early 2000s, but has also extended its meaning to recognise its intertemporal nature and to highlight its endogenous features. Current projections indicate that fiscal consolidation needs and the effect of demographic change on social security may shrink non-pension ...

  20. Estimating simple fiscal policy reaction functions for the euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    Plödt, Martin; Reicher, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a simple fiscal policy reaction function for the euro area and individual euro area countries. Our reaction function allows for primary surpluses to feature three components: an anti-cyclical response of primary surpluses to the output gap, a response to the debt-GDP ratio, and an exogenous fiscal policy shifter. In line with the cyclical adjustment literature and in contrast with much of the previous time-series literature, we find a consistently strong anti-cyclica...

  1. The Impact of Fiscal Governance on Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    Does fiscal governance affect government borrowing costs? We operationalize fiscal governance as the ability of governments to pass a budget on time and, using a unique data set on budget enactment dates, analyze the effect of such late budgets on government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample of...... 36 US states in the period 1988-1997, we estimate that a budget delay of 30 days has a long run impact on the yield spread between 2 and 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity in the form of large reserves face small or no costs from late budgets....

  2. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how a key component of fiscal governance, the ability of governments to pass a budget on time, affects government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample of 36 US states from 1988 to 1997, and using an original data set on budget enactment dates, we estimate that a 30. day budget delay has...

  3. Fiscal Year 1998 Budget Reconciliation. A Report on Student Loan Cuts and Tax Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes provisions of the budget reconciliation bills moving through Congress relating to postsecondary education including student loans and tax proposals. The House and Senate postsecondary education and tax authorizing committees reported reconciliation bills in June, 1997. These bills carried out the terms of the 5-year balanced…

  4. Indeterminacy and utility-generating government spending under balanced-budget fiscal policies

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Hori; Noritaka Maebayashi

    2013-01-01

    We reexamine indeterminacy and utility-generating public spending under balanced- budget rules in a simple one-sector growth model. The introduction of consumption tax (subsidy) as well as subsidies for savings and labor modify indeterminacy con- ditions in the existing studies. We show that if consumption subsidies and income taxes exist, indeterminacy occurs even when private and public consumption are Edgeworth substitutes and public spending and leisure are separable in the utility functi...

  5. The Structural Budget Balance The IMF’s Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Hagemann

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used by the IMF staff to calculate the structural budget balance, estimates of which are published regularly in the IMF’s World Economic Outlook. The structural budget balance is the government’s actual fiscal position purged of the estimated budgetary consequences of the business cycle, and is designed in part to provide an indication of the medium-term orientation of fiscal policy. Interpretation of the structural budget balance requires caution in sever...

  6. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting in a...... presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  7. On the Budget Control of Fiscal Subsidy in China%论我国财政补贴的预算控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕清正

    2015-01-01

    财政补贴是财政支出的一种类型,预算控制是控制财政补贴支出的重要途径.在预算编制过程中,我国应继续强化财政部门的主导权,控制预算支出的具体名目.在预算审议的过程中,补贴支出采取分项审议和表决,科目和金额的调整必须由立法机关审批,禁止人大对补贴支出的增额修正权.在预算执行过程中,我国立法应当规定预算的变更均属于预算调整并加以规范,建立补贴备案.此外,还应完善财政信息公开和公民参与预算决策.%Fiscal subsidy is a type of financial expenditure, while budget control is an important approach controlling the expendi-ture of fiscal subsidy. In the process of budget planning, China should continuously enhance the dominance of financial depart-ments and control the details of budget expenditure. In the pro-cess of budget approval, the subsidy expenditures are reviewed and voted in accordance with different items, and the adjustment of items and amount of money should be examined and approved by legislative organs, and the supplementary amendment right of the People's Congress in subsidy expenditure is prohibited. In the process of budget enforcement, the law should regulate that the changes of budget all belong to budget adjustment and subsidy records should be established.

  8. The Costs of Children: Budget Standards Estimates and the Child Support Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, the Department of Social Security released a report on the development of indicative budget standards for Australia, by a group of researchers at the Social Policy Research Centre. This paper explains the methodology used in the research, including a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the budget standards approach, and illustrates these by presenting estimates of the costs of children. A budget standard identifies the goods and services required to attain a given standard...

  9. Fiscal Year 1985 Congressional budget request. Volume 1. Atomic energy defense activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Contents include: summaries of estimates by appropriation, savings from management initiatives, staffing by subcommittee, staffing appropriation; appropriation language; amounts available for obligation; estimates by major category; program overview; weapons activities; verification and control technology; materials production; defense waste and by-products management; nuclear safeguards and security; security investigations; and naval reactors development.

  10. On Creating Global Gridded Terrestrial Water Budget Estimates from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing availability and reliability of satellite remote sensing products [e.g., precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), and the total water storage change (TWSC)] make it feasible to estimate the global terrestrial water budget at fine spatial resolution. In this study, we start from a reference water budget dataset that combines all available data sources, including satellite remote sensing, land surface model (LSM) and reanalysis, and investigate the roles of different non-satellite remote sensing products in closing the terrestrial water budget through a sensitivity analysis by removing/replacing one or more categories of products during the budget estimation. We also study the differences made by various satellite products for the same budget variable. We find that the gradual removal of non-satellite data sources will generally worsen the closure errors in the budget estimates, and remote sensing retrievals of P, ET, and TWSC together with runoff (R) from LSM give the worst closure errors. The gauge-corrected satellite precipitation helps to improve the budget closure (4.2-9 % non-closure errors of annual mean precipitation) against using the non-gauge-corrected precipitation (7.6-10.4 % non-closure errors). At last, a data assimilation technique, the constrained Kalman filter, is applied to enforce the water balance, and it is found that the satellite remote sensing products, though with worst closure, yield comparable budget estimates in the constrained system to the reference data. Overall, this study provides a first comparison between the water budget closure using the satellite remote sensing products and a full combination of remote sensing, LSM, and reanalysis products on a quasi-global basis. This study showcases the capability and potential of the satellite remote sensing in closing the terrestrial water budget at fine spatial resolution if properly constrained.

  11. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z; Kooten, van, T.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for predicting fire frequency and burned area is developed in this paper to investigate the potential feasibility to predict fire behavior and fire-fighting expenses for the upcoming fire season using clim...

  12. Budgeting in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jón R. Blöndal; Sang-In Kim

    2005-01-01

    Thailand has a sophisticated budget formulation process which has delivered solid fiscal results over time. This article discusses aspects of the budget process, including strategic performance budgeting, central development planning, the steps in the budget preparation timetable, and the roles of the spending ministries, the Bureau of the Budget and the Central Fund.

  13. A Review of Release Fiscal Budget and Final Account Information to the Public%财政预决算信息公开问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 邓可可

    2015-01-01

    本文从预决算信息公开的概念、重要性、评估、建议四个方面,对预决算信息公开问题进行综述。预决算信息公开在保障公众知情权,加强监督、防治腐败,加快政府转型、促进“服务型”、“责任型”政府建设,推动政治体制改革、提高政府治理能力,实现“中国梦”方面具有重要意义。预决算信息公开的评估主要是根据具体原则要求,设立相对应的评价指标体系进行评估。建立预算公开的顶层制度设计、完善预算公开的相关法律法规、提高预算信息公开的质量和获取的便利性、引入公民参与机制等措施能够提升预决算信息公开的程度。通过综述,得出,即重视和分析预算、决算两方面信息的重要性,并对其进行对比绩效分析来促进财政信息公开。%This article reviews release fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public from four aspects, Which are concepts , importance, estimates and suggestions. Release fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public do good to protect the right of the public, strengthen supervision and prevent corruption, accelerate the transformation of the gov-ernment to promote the“service and responsible”state-building, promote political reform and improve the capacity of adminis-trative governance , realize“China Dream”. Budget and final accounts information disclosure evaluation is mainly based on the requirements of specific principles set up corresponding evaluation index system for evaluation. Establish the top-level system design of budget openness, perfect relevant laws and regulations, improve the quality and the convenience of budget informa-tion's openness, and introduction the mechanisms of citizen participation, all these can enhance the degree of releasing fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public. By review, we can obtain the paper's innovations, that is paying

  14. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric eff

  15. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  16. Comparing Cotton Evapotranspirations Estimated by Micrometeorological and Water Budget Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa ÜNLÜ; KANBER, Rıza; DİKER, Kenan

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing actual water consumption of cotton obtained by the water balance method under full and limited irrigation conditions, with that estimated by a micrometeorological method (energy balance), which is being widely used nowadays. Results indicated that in the first year the total irrigation water applied was 438 mm, whereas in the second year it was 199 mm. Deep percolation losses were were 6 and 0 mm, respectively, in the first and second year of the experiment. The ...

  17. 77 FR 15376 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ..., 1988, at 53 FR 6824 and amended on October 15, 1999, at 64 FR 55858. Dated: March 7, 2012. Jeannie L... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2013 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under the...

  18. Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations In China

    OpenAIRE

    Roy W. Bahl; Wallich, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the"right"fiscal relationship between central, provincial, and local governments depends on how a government weighs the benefits of decentralized economic development policies against the costs of having less effective central fiscal management. Three strong forces justify more fiscal centralization in China's highly decentralized fiscal system. First, Bouts of inflation and recurrent fiscal deficits can be seen as calling for more central control over the budget. Second, Reform...

  19. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: a revision of global budget estimates

    OpenAIRE

    BOUILLON, S; Borges, A. V.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N. C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.; Marchand, C; Middelburg, J. J.; Rivera-Monroy, V.H.; Smith III, T.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of similar to 218 +/- 72 Tg C a(-1). When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, s...

  20. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2...

  1. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1987. Appropriation: salaries and expenses. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume presents the salaries and expenses of the following US NRC programs: nuclear reactor regulation, nuclear material safety and safeguards, inspection and enforcement, nuclear regulatory research, program technical support, and program direction and administration. Special supporting tables are included

  2. Local Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    This publication, Local Budgeting, provides a comprehensive guide for local administrators who are involved in designing and implementing budgetary institutions and who wish to improve efficiency and equity in service delivery and to strengthen internal and external accountability. It details principles and practices to improve fiscal management. It reviews techniques available in developi...

  3. Comparison of Erosion Rates Estimated by Sediment Budget Techniques and Suspended Sediment Monitoring and Regulatory Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; Eads, R.

    2007-12-01

    Watersheds in the northern California Coast Range have been designated as "impaired" with respect to water quality because of excessive sediment loads and/or high water temperature. Sediment budget techniques have typically been used by regulatory authorities to estimate current erosion rates and to develop targets for future desired erosion rates. This study examines erosion rates estimated by various methods for portions of the Gualala River watershed, designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d), located in northwest Sonoma County (~90 miles north of San Francisco). The watershed is underlain by Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation. The San Andreas Fault passes through the western edge of watershed, and other active faults are present. A substantial portion of the watershed is mantled by rock slides and earth flows, many of which are considered dormant. The Coast Range is geologically young, and rapid rates of uplift are believed to have contributed to high erosion rates. This study compares quantitative erosion rate estimates developed at different spatial and temporal scales. It is motivated by a proposed vineyard development project in the watershed, and the need to document conditions in the project area, assess project environmental impacts and meet regulatory requirements pertaining to water quality. Erosion rate estimates were previously developed using sediment budget techniques for relatively large drainage areas (~100 to 1,000 km2) by the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board and US EPA and by the California Geological Survey. In this study, similar sediment budget techniques were used for smaller watersheds (~3 to 8 km2), and were supplemented by a suspended sediment monitoring program utilizing Turbidity Threshold Sampling techniques (as described in a companion study in this session). The duration of the monitoring program to date

  4. PURSUING EUROPEAN DEBT CRISIS: FISCAL DISCIPLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer SEZGIN

    2013-01-01

    Maastricht Treaty accepts some criteria for securing fiscal and monetary discipline. Fiscal discipline criteria consist of budget deficit and public borrowing criteria. On monitoring these criteria it is obvious that fiscal discipline is not provided in recent years. There is one monetary policy but lots of fiscal policies at EU. This effects efforts that aim re-constituting fiscal discipline negatively. So economic crisis increases. Monetary policy can not be effective without fiscal policy....

  5. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vogt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore these interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland, forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Direct agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, N2 fixation, organic and synthetic fertiliser accounted for most of the catchment N inputs, representing 82% in the grassland and 62% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment, contributing 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 exchange and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 13% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 61% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: Catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90%, with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011. This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  6. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vogt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore this interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland, forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, organic and synthetic fertiliser accounted for most of the catchment N inputs with 80% in the grassland and 57% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment with 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 emissions from denitrification and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 3% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 55% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90% with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011. This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  7. Performance Budgeting in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Kim; Nowook Park

    2007-01-01

    Korea is in the initial stages of implementing performance-based budgeting. The system was introduced as part of a comprehensive fiscal reform package in the late 1990s. This article discusses the background, framework and implementation of performance budgeting and its impact in the budget process.

  8. Event-based estimation of water budget components using the network of multi-sensor capacitance probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-scale-free approach was developed for estimation of water fluxes at boundaries of monitoring soil profile using water content time series. The approach uses the soil water budget to compute soil water budget components, i.e. surface-water excess (Sw), infiltration less evapotranspiration (I-E...

  9. The price relevance of fiscal developments

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, António; Jalles, João Tovar

    2015-01-01

    We use SURE estimation methods to assess the link between prices, bond yields and the fiscal behavior. A first equation determines the country-specific cost of government financing via the long-term government bond yield, as a function of budget balance positions. A second equation links the price level to the cost of government financing. Our results for 15 EU countries in the period 1980Q1-2013Q4, show that: improvements in the fiscal stance lead to persistent falls in sovereign yields; hig...

  10. Looking Forward: Colorado's Fiscal Prospects Amid a Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Wade, Ed.; Jones, Rich, Ed.; Watt, Joe, Ed

    2009-01-01

    This report projects the amount Colorado would need to spend to maintain state services at 2007 levels through fiscal year 2012-13 and the amount of revenues that will be generated to pay for them. The costs of services were estimated based on factors that drive the budget, such as the number of students in college, inflation rates and the number…

  11. Using "snapshot" measurements of CH4 fluxes from peatlands to estimate annual budgets: interpolation vs. modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sophie M.; Baird, Andy J.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in estimating annual budgets of peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchanges. Such budgeting is required for calculating peatland carbon balance and the radiative forcing impact of peatlands on climate. There have been multiple approaches used to estimate CO2 budgets; however, there is a limited literature regarding the modelling of annual CH4 budgets. Using data collected from flux chamber tests in an area of blanket peatland in North Wales, we compared annual estimates of peatland-atmosphere CH4 emissions using an interpolation approach and an additive and multiplicative modelling approach. Flux-chamber measurements represent a snapshot of the conditions on a particular site. In contrast to CO2, most studies that have estimated the time-integrated flux of CH4 have not used models. Typically, linear interpolation is used to estimate CH4 fluxes during the time periods between flux-chamber measurements. It is unclear how much error is involved with such a simple integration method. CH4 fluxes generally show a rise followed by a fall through the growing season that may be captured reasonably well by interpolation, provided there are sufficiently frequent measurements. However, day-to-day and week-to-week variability is also often evident in CH4 flux data, and will not necessarily be properly represented by interpolation. Our fits of the CH4 flux models yielded r2 > 0.5 in 38 of the 48 models constructed, with 55% of these having a weighted rw2 > 0.4. Comparison of annualised CH4 fluxes estimated by interpolation and modelling reveals no correlation between the two data sets; indeed, in some cases even the sign of the flux differs. The difference between the methods seems also to be related to the size of the flux - for modest annual fluxes there is a fairly even scatter of points around the 1:1 line, whereas when the modelled fluxes are high, the corresponding interpolated fluxes tend to be low. We consider the

  12. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  13. Fiscal Transparency in Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Hölscher; Mariusz Jarmuzek; Roman Matousek; Eva Katalin Polgar

    2006-01-01

    Fiscal transparency became a topic of lively public and academic debate in the aftermath of the Mexican and Asian financial crises. The concept of fiscal transparency is, however, largely of a qualitative nature and is therefore something of a challenge to measure. This paper proposes an index of fiscal transparency that comprises various aspects of fiscal policy formulation, such as medium-term budgeting and analysis, accounting and data quality, off-budgetary activity, intergovernmental rel...

  14. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J., III; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  16. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Habib B.; Champollion, Nicolas; Cazenave, Anny; Wada, Yoshihide; Schrama, Ernst; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS(the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to+0.30 ± 0.18mmyr‑1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of ‑108 ± 64 km3 yr‑1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  17. Estimating US fiscal and monetary interactions: from Volcker chairmanship to the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, Eddie; Hauzenberger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    Locating the appropriate degree of interaction between fiscal and monetary policy plays a crucial role in ensuring economic stability. Their joint impact is, however, still unclear. We observe significant differences in the transmission of shocks, in particular between the Great Recession and the Great Moderation, and find a high degree of interactions between monetary and fiscal policy. Further, government revenues largely influence decisions on spending, while spending does not influence ta...

  18. Budgeting in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hawkesworth; Richard Emery; Joachim Wehner; Jannick Saegert

    2010-01-01

    This report covers the budget process in Lithuania. It discusses the four phases in separate sections: budget preparation, legislative approval, budget execution, and accounting and audit. Each section ends with a list of recommendations. The new strategic planning process should strengthen the policy focus of the budget at the level of the line ministries and could be accompanied by a more robust medium.term fiscal framework. All public.private partnerships (PPPs) should be subject to approv...

  19. Identifying Fiscal Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    De Graeve, Ferre; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Fiscal theorists warn about the risk of future inflation as a consequence of current fiscal imbalances in the US. Because actual inflation remains historically low and data on inflation expectations do not corroborate such risks, warnings for fiscal inflation are often ignored in policy and academic circles. This paper shows that a canonical NK- DSGE model enables identifying an anticipated component of inflation expectations that is closely related to fiscal policy. Estimation results sugges...

  20. A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Yver

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and European surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H2 surface flux, then deposition velocity and surface emissions and finally, deposition velocity, biomass burning, anthropogenic and N2 fixation-related emissions were simultaneously inverted in several scenarios. These scenarios have focused on the sensibility of the soil uptake value to different spatio-temporal distributions. The range of variations of these diverse inversion sets generate an estimate of the uncertainty for each term of the H2 budget. The net H2 flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere varies between −8 and +8 Tg yr−1. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on bottom-up and top-down estimations. Our estimate of global H2 soil uptake is −59±9 Tg yr−1. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H2 emissions estimated using a H2/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions within the range of their respective uncertainties. Additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements would be needed to infer a more robust partition of H2 sources and sinks.

  1. Heat budget estimation of a forest area using LANDSAT-TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of heat budget terms of the forest in Mt. Ikoma area, located at the boundary of Osaka and Nara Prefectures, are analyzed using LANDSAT TM (Thematic Mapper) data. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are derived independently by the use of the bulk equations. In the bulk equation for sensible heat transfer at each pixel, surface temperature (provided by TM band 6 data), air temperature (interpolated according to elevation) and wind speed are used as variables. The bulk transfer coefficient is corrected using the bulk-Richardson number calculated from air and surface temperatures for each pixel. The moisture availability, wind speed, specific humidity of air and saturation specific humidity at surface temperature are used as variables in the bulk equation for latent heat transfer. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to estimate the moisture availability for each pixel. The bulk transfer coefficient for water vapor is assumed to be equal to that for heat. TM data, sensed on August 6, 1990 is used to estimate distributions of heat budget terms in this study. The heat fluxes, averaged over the forest area, are estimated as 269Wm-2 for sensible and 256Wm-2 for latent heat, whereas mean estimations for net radiation and ground heat flux are 529Wm-2 and 42Wm-2 respectively. The mean value of moisture availability in the bulk equation for latent heat transfer is derived as 0.08. The distributions of sensible and latent heat flux in the forest area show that each flux on east side of mountain is greater than that on west side, because surface temperatures on east side are higher than those on west side approximately 2-3°C, due to the azimuth angle of the sun

  2. Fiscal Transparency, Measurement and Determinants: Evidence from 27 Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tehou TEKENG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal transparency has been consistently identified as a key feature of efficient fiscal policy and a prerequisite for good public governance. However, measuring fiscal transparency remains an empirical challenge, and extant literature on developing countries is still sparse. To that end, this paper examines the determinants of fiscal transparency in developing countries. We add to the existing literature by proposing a new replicable index of fiscal transparency that is consistent with the definition provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank. Additional determinants of fiscal transparency, which are exclusively relevant in the study of developing countries, are also examined. In particular, we introduce such factors as natural resources, openness of the economy, the literacy rate of the population, and the quality of institutions. Because of possible endogeneity arising from interdependence among some variables, two-stage least squares (2SLS is used to ensure that the estimators are consistent. As a robustness check, the same estimation procedure was replicated by replacing our index of fiscal transparency with respectively the index of Andreula et al. (2009 and the Open Budget Index, both of which use a significant similar number of developing countries of our selected sample. The results provide additional credence to our suggested procedure. The paper found that the level of natural resources and the openness of the capital account negatively affect fiscal transparency. However, the quality of institutions and literacy were found to positively affect fiscal transparency. The findings of this paper provide an explanation of why, after a decade of fiscal transparency programs, many developing countries are still lagging behind, thereby losing the potential benefits mentioned in the literature. These findings could help guide policies directed at improving fiscal transparency in the case of developing countries.

  3. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  4. A new estimation of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen budget using atmospheric observations and variational inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yver

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the recent tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 budget with a particular focus on soil uptake and surface emissions. A variational inversion scheme is combined with observations from the RAMCES and EUROHYDROS atmospheric networks, which include continuous measurements performed between mid-2006 and mid-2009. Net H2 surface flux, soil uptake distinct from surface emissions and finally, soil uptake, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions and N2 fixation-related emissions separately were inverted in several scenarios. The various inversions generate an estimate for each term of the H2 budget. The net H2 flux per region (High Northern Hemisphere, Tropics and High Southern Hemisphere varies between −8 and 8 Tg yr−1. The best inversion in terms of fit to the observations combines updated prior surface emissions and a soil deposition velocity map that is based on soil uptake measurements. Our estimate of global H2 soil uptake is −59 ± 4.0 Tg yr−1. Forty per cent of this uptake is located in the High Northern Hemisphere and 55% is located in the Tropics. In terms of surface emissions, seasonality is mainly driven by biomass burning emissions. The inferred European anthropogenic emissions are consistent with independent H2 emissions estimated using a H2/CO mass ratio of 0.034 and CO emissions considering their respective uncertainties. To constrain a more robust partition of H2 sources and sinks would need additional constraints, such as isotopic measurements.

  5. Estimation of national and regional phosphorus budgets for agriculture in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Saban Ozbek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents national and regional phosphorus (P budgets for agriculture in Turkey by using Eurostat/OECD common methodology. Regional P budgets presented in this paper are the first estimations for Turkey known to date. In Turkey, the values of P surplus for agriculture (PS and P use efficiency for agriculture (PUE in 2011 were 2 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 77%, respectively. PS values varied from -2 to 15 kg P ha-1 yr-1 among regions in 2011. In 2008, PS and PUE values (0 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 96%, respectively were lower than the average EU values (3 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 104%, including Norway and Switzerland. The relationship between PS values and some socio-economic properties in Turkey regions were also analyzed. According to the results, the correlations of PS with gross domestic product per capita, permanent meadows and pastures share in utilized agricultural area (UAA, population density, illiterate share and arable land share in UAA were statistically significant. We can conclude from the study results that the environmental effect of agricultural phosphorus on water bodies varies greatly both among regions in Turkey and among European countries because of high variations in PS values.

  6. Satellite observations make it possible to estimate Poyang Lake’s water budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery with hydrologic and meteorological data, we developed a box model to estimate the water exchange between Poyang Lake (the largest freshwater lake of China) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) River from 2000 to 2009. Significant intra- and inter-annual variability of the water budget was found, with an annual mean outflow of Poyang Lake of 120.2 ± 31.2 billion m3 during 2000–2009 and a declining trend of 5.7 billion m3 yr−1 (p = 0.09). The impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Changjiang River in June 2003 led to a rapid lake–river outflow of 760.6 million m3 day−1, resulting in a loss of 7864.5 million m3 of water from the lake in a short period. Shortly thereafter, a statistically significant decrease in the drainage basin’s runoff coefficient was discovered. These findings provide large-scale evidence on how local precipitation and the TGD control the lake’s water budget, where continuous monitoring using the established approach and satellite data may provide critical information to help make water management decisions.

  7. Accurate satellite-derived estimates of the tropospheric ozone impact on the global radiation budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenically-produced tropospheric O3 are derived primarily from models. Here, we use tropospheric ozone and cloud data from several instruments in the A-train constellation of satellites as well as information from the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System to accurately estimate the radiative effect of tropospheric O3 for January and July 2005. Since we cannot distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources with the satellite data, our derived radiative effect reflects the unadjusted (instantaneous effect of the total tropospheric O3 rather than the anthropogenic component. We improve upon previous estimates of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios from a residual approach using the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS by incorporating cloud pressure information from OMI. We focus specifically on the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud effect on both the short- and long-wave radiative budget. The estimates presented here can be used to evaluate the various aspects of model-generated radiative forcing. For example, our derived cloud impact is to reduce the radiative effect of tropospheric ozone by ~16%. This is centered within the published range of model-produced cloud effect on unadjusted ozone radiative forcing.

  8. INSTITUTIONS AND FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    As budgetary commitments outpace current revenues and long-term liabilities balloon, the fiscal sustainability of state and local governments is a matter of mounting concern. Over the years, these governments have experimented with a wide variety of political and fiscal institutions, ranging from direct democracy to balanced budget rules, with the goal of slowing the growth of government and increasing financial responsibility. This article synthesizes the related empirical literature, summar...

  9. Compendium of Data for the Hanford Site (Fiscal Years 2004 to 2008) Applicable to Estimation of Recharge Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, William E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-09-24

    This report is a compendium of recharge data collected in Fiscal Years 2004 through 2008 at various soil and surface covers found and planned in the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The addition of these new data to previously published recharge data will support improved estimates of recharge with respect to location and soil cover helpful to evaluations and risk assessments of radioactive and chemical wastes at this site. Also presented are evaluations of the associated uncertainties, limitations, and data gaps in the existing knowledge base for recharge at the Hanford Site.

  10. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  11. Fiscal institutions, fiscal policy and sovereign risk premia

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerberg, Mark; Wolff , Guntram B.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of fiscal institutions such as the strength of the finance minister in the budget process and deficits on interest spreads contained in bond yields of the countries now belonging to the Eurozone. Deficits significantly increase risk premia measured by relative swap spreads. The effect of deficits is significantly lower under EMU. This effect partly results from neglecting the role of fiscal institutions. After controlling for institutional changes, fiscal policy rema...

  12. Fiscal institutions, fiscal policy and sovereign risk premia in EMU

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerberg, Mark; Wolff , Guntram B.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect of fiscal institutions such as the strength of the finance minister in the budget process and deficits on interest rate spreads of Eurozone countries. Deficits significantly increase risk premia measured by relative swap spreads. The effect of deficits is significantly lower under EMU. This effect partly results from neglecting the role of fiscal institutions. After controlling for institutional changes, fiscal policy remains a significant determinant of risk premia ...

  13. Estimating US fiscal and monetary interactions in a time varying VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, Eddie; HAUZENBERGER, Klemens

    2013-01-01

    We contribute to the growing empirical literature on monetary and fiscal interactions by applying a sign restriction identification scheme to a structural TVP-VAR in order to disentangle and evaluate the policy shocks and policy transmissions. This in turn allows us to study the Great Recession in a consistent fashion. Four facts stand out from our findings. We observe significant differences in the endogenous responses to shocks in particular between the Volcker period and the Great Rece...

  14. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Ballantyne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of C in the atmosphere, ocean, and land; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate error and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2 σ error of the atmospheric growth rate has decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr−1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr−1 in the 2000s, leading to a ~20% reduction in the over-all uncertainty of net global C uptake by the biosphere. While fossil fuel emissions have increased by a factor of 4 over the last 5 decades, 2 σ errors in fossil fuel emissions due to national reporting errors and differences in energy reporting practices have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr−1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr−1 during the 2000s. At the same time land use emissions have declined slightly over the last 5 decades, but their relative errors remain high. Notably, errors associated with fossil fuel emissions have come to dominate uncertainty in the global C budget and are now comparable to the total emissions from land use, thus efforts to reduce errors in fossil fuel emissions are necessary. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that C uptake has increased and 97% confident that C uptake by the terrestrial biosphere has increased over the last 5 decades. Although the persistence of future C sinks remains unknown and some ecosystem services may be compromised by this continued C uptake (e.g. ocean acidification, it is clear that arguably the greatest ecosystem service currently provided

  15. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the atmosphere

  16. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...

  17. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  18. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  19. Estimating the Impact of State Budget Cuts and Redirection of Prevention Resources on the HIV Epidemic in 59 California Local Health Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Lin; Arielle Lasry; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Richard J Wolitski

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the wake of a national economic downturn, the state of California, in 2009-2010, implemented budget cuts that eliminated state funding of HIV prevention and testing. To mitigate the effect of these cuts remaining federal funds were redirected. This analysis estimates the impact of these budget cuts and reallocation of resources on HIV transmission and associated HIV treatment costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the effect of the budget cuts and reallocation for California...

  20. Observational estimation of heat budgets on drifting ice and open water over the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of the surface heat budget over drifting ice and open water in the Arctic Ocean are made using eddy correlation and flux-profile methods using data obtained from drifting ice and from the R/V Xuelong in the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition during August 19-24,1999. The results show that the net radiation received by the ice surface is mainly lost through the sensible heat flux and the heat flux due to melting ice, and the latent heat flux making small contribution to the heat balance. However, the heat balance of the open water surface was dominated by the radiative flux whereas the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the oceanic heat flux were greater than those on the sea-ice surface. These results emphasize that thermodynamic processes are quite different between air/open water and air/sea-ice over the Arctic Ocean which is important when considering the effect of sea-air-ice interaction on climate change process during the summer period.

  1. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  2. Public marginal willingness to trade off among water quality programs: Estimates of statewide and watershed-specific budget values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Glenn C.; Newsome, Michael A.; Stone, D. Brad

    2000-05-01

    A budget survey is used to elicit individuals' relative values for various public water quality programs. Because a budget constraint is incorporated explicitly and people allocate across various statewide and watershed-specific programs, marginal willingness to trade off values is revealed. These values are useful in the decision making of state and federal agencies responsible for water quality programs. We estimate values using the results of a 1997 random sample of Kentucky residents, with oversampling of residents of a small watershed in eastern Kentucky. Results show that people allocate the largest amounts to combat illegal dumping, untreated sewage, and hazardous material disposal. The lowest-ranked budget category, farming erosion, receives less than half the amount allocated to illegal dumping. We find that in the watershed, while the top two categories are the same as for the state as a whole, mining drainage and logging erosion are more important.

  3. Shaping the Fiscal Policy Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper provides an overview of experiences with fiscal and structural reforms in Denmark and Sweden, focusing on areas of particular relevance to members of the euro area struggling with large budget imbalances. First, given the current priority to austerity plans in the euro area, we review......, we study the record of national fiscal rules, fiscal councils and gradual improvement of public finances, as implemented by Sweden for more than a decade. Third, given the challenges raised by ageing populations and budget pressures in several euro area countries, we assess the experiences with...

  4. The Political Economy of Fiscal Policy: Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eslava

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the political economy of fiscal policy, in particular the accumulation of government debt. We examine three possible determinants of fiscal balances: opportunistic behavior by policymakers, heterogeneous fiscal preferences of either voters or politicians, and budget institutions. We focus on the contributions of the last 10 years and emphasize findings related to developing countries. We include a recent body of literature on the fiscal preferences ...

  5. The political economy of fiscal policy: Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Eslava, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the political economy of fiscal policy, in particular the accumulation of government debt. We examine three possible determinants of fiscal balances: opportunistic behavior by policymakers, heterogeneous fiscal preferences of either voters or politicians, and budget institutions. We focus on the contributions of the last 10 years and emphasize findings related to developing countries. We include a recent body of literature on the fiscal preferences ...

  6. Stability consequences of fiscal policy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Railavo, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Using an optimisation-based model with endogenous labour supply and a proportional tax rate, we compare the stabilising properties of different fiscal policy rules. The economy is affected by shocks from both government spending and technology. The fiscal policy rule can be based on government liabilities or the government budget deficit. As both are given as measures of fiscal policy performance in the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), we also use a fiscal policy rule based on the combination...

  7. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model parameter probability distributions. This results in a quantitative reconstruction of past carbon budget and its uncertainty derived from an explicit choice of model, data-based constraints, and prior distribution of parameters. Our estimated ocean sink for the 1980s is 17±7 Gt C (90% confidence interval) and is comparable to the estimate of 20±8 Gt C given in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment [Schimel et al., 1996]. Constraint choice is tested to determine which records have the most influence over estimates of the past carbon budget; records individually (e.g., bomb-radiocarbon inventory) have little effect since there are other records which form similar constraints. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  8. White House Budget Proposal Would Provide National Science Foundation With 1.2% Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-03-01

    The proposed 7.255 billion budget request for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2015, announced by the White House on 4 March, would increase funding just 83 million, 1.2% above the FY 2014 estimate (see Table 1). The budget for NSF's Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) would nudge up 0.1% to 1.304 billion, an increase of 1.36 million (see Table 2).

  9. Cost-of-Capital Estimation and Capital-Budgeting Practice in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Giang Truong; Graham Partington; Maurice Peat

    2008-01-01

    We use a sample survey to analyse the capital-budgeting practices of Australian listed companies. We find that NPV, IRR and Payback are the most popular evaluation techniques. Real options techniques have gained a toehold in capital budgeting but are not yet part of the mainstream. Discounting is typically by the weighted average cost of capital, assumed constant for the life of the project, and with the same discount rate across divisions. The WACC is usually based on target weights for debt...

  10. Radiation budget estimates over Africa and surrounding oceans: inter-annual comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Desbois

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Three independent datasets of Radiation Budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA spanning two decades are compared: the Scanner Narrow Field of View data (from ERBE, ScaRaB, and CERES instruments, 1985–2005, the ERBS Nonscanner Wide Field of View data (1985–1998 and the simulated broadband fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD, 1983–2004. The analysis concerns the shortwave (SW reflected flux, the longwave (LW emitted flux and the net flux at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA over Africa and the surrounding oceans (45° S–45° N/60° W–60° E, a region particularly impacted by climate variability. For each month, local anomalies are computed with reference to the average over this large region, and their differences between the 2002–2005 and 1985–1989 periods are analysed. These anomalies are, for a large part, independent on the general observed trends (about 2.5 W m−2 per decade, which may be affected by possible calibration drifts. Although the regional flux anomalies can be related to calibration through the scene identification and the choice of the anisotropy correction, this effect is limited if the calibration drifts remains reasonable. Large inter-annual variations are observed locally. Over a part of the South East Atlantic (35°–10° S/10° W–10° E, including the marine low cloud area off Angola, there is a decrease of the yearly means of net flux estimated to 2.2, 3 and 6 W m−2 respectively for the Scanner, Nonscanner and ISCPP-FD data. Over a narrow strip of the Sahel Zone, the net flux increases by about 5 W m−2. We believe that these observations are real. They could be due to the impact of calibration drift but only if the drifts were significant (>4% and correlated between the datasets, which is highly improbable.

  11. Radiation budget estimates over Africa and surrounding oceans: inter-annual comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ben Rehouma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three independent datasets of Radiation Budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA spanning two decades are compared: the Scanner Narrow Field of View data (from ERBE, ScaRaB, and CERES instruments, 1985–2005, the ERBS Nonscanner Wide Field of View data (1985–1998 and the simulated broadband fluxes from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD, 1983–2004. The analysis concerns the shortwave (SW reflected flux, the longwave (LW emitted flux and the net flux at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA over Africa and the surrounding oceans (45° S–45° N/60° W–60° E, a region particularly impacted by climate variability. For each month, local anomalies are computed with reference to the average over this large region, and their differences between the 2002–2005 and 1985–1989 periods are analysed. These anomalies are relative values and are mostly independent on the absolute observed trends (about 2.5 Wm−2 per decade which may be affected by possible calibration drifts. Large inter-annual variations are observed locally. Over a part of the South East Atlantic (35°–10° S/10° W–10° E, including the marine low cloud area off Angola, there is a decrease of the yearly means of net flux estimated to 2.2, 3 and 6 Wm−2 respectively for the Scanner, Nonscanner and ISCPP-FD data. Over a narrow strip of the Sahel Zone, the net flux increases by about 5 Wm−2.

  12. Fiscal Multipliers for India.

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Sukanya; Bhanumurthy, N R

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a framework for the estimation of fiscal multipliers for the Indian economy in the structural macroeconomic modelling tradition. Empirical estimates of short-run multipliers are obtained by giving shocks to a range of fiscal instruments - expenditures and taxes. As per our estimates, the values of capital expenditure multiplier, transfer payments multiplier and other revenue expenditure multiplier are 2.45, 0.98, and 0.99, respectively, while the tax multipliers...

  13. 1985 nuclear budget requests up 12 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimates of government agencies for the fiscal 1985 nuclear-related budget were presented to the Ministry of Finance, which amount to 343.76 billion yen (up 12.1 %). The budgetary requests by the Science and Technology Agency are 179.24 billion yen in the general account and 90.21 billion yen in the special account for power resource development, and the budgetary requests by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are 1.03 billion yen and 70.08 billion yen, respectively. The budget demands by the STA, which supervises Power Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc. are for the continuation of current projects, including the beginning of the construction of the prototype FBR Monju and the neutral beam injector for the fusion device JT-60. The budget demands by MITI are similarly for the safety measures and verification tests for nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  14. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian; Wu, Alfred M.

    2013-01-01

    critical review of the theories on fiscal federalism, we develop a refined prototype of fiscal federalism. The model shows that quasi-traditional fiscal federalism is a much closer reality in China, while we argue that the refined fiscal federalism should be the direction of future reform in China....

  15. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model I: Philosophy and approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Freitas, Vânia; van der Veer, Henk W.; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijsman, Johannes W. M.; Pecquerie, Laure; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters are abstract quantities that are not directly observable. We here present a new approach of parameter estimation, the covariation method, that permits all parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to be estimated from standard empirical datasets. Parameter estimates are based on the simultaneous minimization of a weighted sum of squared deviations between a number of data sets and model predictions or the minimisation of the negative log likelihood function, both in a single-step procedure. The structure of DEB theory permits the unusual situation of using single data-points (such as the maximum reproduction rate), which we call "zero-variate" data, for estimating parameters. We also introduce the concept of "pseudo-data", exploiting the rules for the covariation of parameter values among species that are implied by the standard DEB model. This allows us to introduce the concept of a generalised animal, which has specified parameter values. We here outline the philosophy behind the approach and its technical implementation. In a companion paper, we assess the behaviour of the estimation procedure and present preliminary findings of emerging patterns in parameter values across diverse taxa.

  16. H.R. 3221: Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    H.R. 3221 would amend the Higher Education Act of 1965, which authorizes most federal postsecondary education programs. It would prohibit new federally guaranteed loans from being made under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program and would increase direct spending for the Federal Pell Grant Program and other programs. The elimination of…

  17. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: a revision of global budget estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V.H.; Smith III, T.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove pri

  18. Estimation of future carbon budget with climate change and reforestation scenario in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Damin; Lim, Chul-Hee; Song, Cholho; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Piao, Dongfan; Heo, Seongbong; Jeon, Seongwoo

    2016-09-01

    In terms of climate change, quantifying carbon budget in forest is critical for managing a role of forest as carbon sink. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace and caused to worsen the carbon budget. Under the circumstance, this study aimed to assess the impact of climate change and reforestation on the carbon budget in 2020s and 2050s, using the VISIT (Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases) model. In order to analyze the impact of reforestation, future land cover maps for the 2020s and 2050s were prepared. Among the deforested areas (2.5 × 106 ha) identified by comparing land cover maps for different periods, the potential reforestation areas were selected by a reforestation scenario considering slope, accessibility from residence, and deforestation types. The extracted potential reforestation areas were 1.7 × 106 ha and the increased forest area was spatially distributed to each district. The percentage change in carbon budget caused by climate change from the 2000s to 2020s is 67.60% and that from the 2020s to 2050s is 45.98% on average. Based on the future land cover, NEP (net ecosystem production) with reforestation will increase by 18.18% than that without reforestation in the 2050s, which shows the contribution to carbon balance. In connection with this long term projection, it is revealed that the gross fluxes such as photosynthesis and respiration may be impacted more obviously by the climate change, especially global warming, than the net carbon flux because of the offset between the changes in the gross fluxes. It is analyzed that changes in carbon budget are very sensitive to climate changes, while the impact of reforestation is relatively less sensitive. Although it is impossible to significantly improve carbon sequestration by establishing forest in a short-term, reforestation is imperative in a long-term view as it clearly has a potential mechanism to offset emitted carbon.

  19. Sediment budget-based estimates of trace metal inputs to a Chesapeake estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, W. A.; Nielsen, C. C.; Cornwell, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    This article evaluates whether a sediment budget for the South River, Maryland, can be coupled with metals data from sediment cores to identify and quantify sources of historic metal inputs to marsh and subtidal sediments along the estuary. Metal inputs to estuarine marsh sediments come from fluvial runoff and atmospheric deposition. Metal inputs to subtidal sediments come from atmospheric deposition, fluvial runoff, coastal erosion, and estuarine waters. The metals budget for the estuary indicates that metal inputs from coastal erosion have remained relatively constant since 1840. Historical variations in metal contents of marsh sediments have probably resulted primarily from increasing atmospheric deposition in this century, but prior to 1900 may reflect changing fluvial sources, atmospheric inputs, or factors not quantified by the budget. Residual Pb, Cu, and Zn in the marsh sediments not accounted for by fluvial inputs was low to moderate in 1840, decreased to near zero circa 1910, and by 1987 had increased to levels that were one to ten times greater than those of 1840. Sources of variability in subtidal cores could not be clearly discerned because of geochemical fluxes, turbulent mixing, and bioturbation within the cores. The sediment-metal budgeting approach appears to be a viable method for delineating metal sources in small, relatively simple estuarine systems like the South River and in systems where recent deposition (for example, prograding marshes) prevents use of deep core analysis to identify “background” levels of metal. In larger systems or systems with more variable sources of sediment and metal input, however, assumptions and measurement errors in the metal budgeting approach suggest that deep core analysis and normalization techniques are probably preferable for identifying anthropogenic impacts.

  20. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  1. Fiscal Transfers and Fiscal Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether US and German state governments pursue sustainable fiscal policies taking into account fiscal transfers. Using panel data techniques we investigate whether the debt-to-GDP ratio had a positive influence on the primary surplus (Bohn-model). We show that including/excluding fiscal transfers changes the results. If fiscal transfers are not included in the primary surplus, the test results do not indicate that the US and German state governments pursued sustainable fiscal polic...

  2. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  3. An Analysis of the New Budget Law of Mongolia of 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lkhagvadorj, Ariunaa

    2012-01-01

    The government of Mongolia developed and passed a new Budget Law on 23 December 2011 in order to improve the legal framework for budgeting, budget relations and fiscal management by integrating the Budget Law of 2002 and Public Sector Management and Finance Law. The purpose of new Budget Law is to ensure fiscal stability, enhance the efficiency and predictability of resource allocation, and to increase citizens’ participation in the budgeting process. The new Budget Law in its 11 chapters...

  4. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis mak...

  5. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaohua; Yan, Denghua; Wang, Hao; Li, Chuanzhe; Weng, Baisha; Qin, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, t...

  6. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  7. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hunt, Linda A.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Emery, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs) on 22-31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23) and 25 April-2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24) to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions) and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) to estimate nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  8. Tank waste remediation system baseline tank waste inventory estimates for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of tank-by-tank waste inventories is derived from historical waste models, flowsheet records, and analytical data to support the Tank Waste Remediation System flowsheet and retrieval sequence studies. Enabling assumptions and methodologies used to develop the inventories are discussed. These provisional inventories conform to previously established baseline inventories and are meant to serve as an interim basis until standardized inventory estimates are made available

  9. States in fiscal distress

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Inman

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-10 recession has imposed significant fiscal hardships on state and local governments. The result has been state budget deficits and the need to increase state taxes, cut spending, and withdraw funds from state “rainy day” accounts. The primary cause of state budget “gaps” has been the rise in the level of state unemployment. There is no evidence that these gaps are related to state political institutions, a state’s prior receipt of federal funding, or possibly favored access to key c...

  10. Balancing local budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYÖRGY

    2014-01-01

    Local budgets in Romania are balanced with revenues transferred from state budget according to the criterions laid down in the Local Public Finance Act. These criterions are focusing on the financial capacity, population and surface, each local budget getting balancing amounts inversely with the administrative unit’s wellness and directly to size. The repartition algorithm is used for more than a decade, but periodically it was revised in order to be better folded to fiscal policy and economi...

  11. Fiscal Policy and the Price Level

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico Barbara; Marini Giancarlo

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the issue of price stability in a continuous time optimizing general equilibrium model with overlapping generations. It is shown that fiscal policy has effects on nominal variables. Fiscal expansions are inflationary even when the government intertemporal budget constraint is respected for any prices sequence and there is no recourse to money financing. Our results shed new light on the interaction between fiscal policy and nominal prices.

  12. The Myth of Expansionary Fiscal Austerity

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2010-01-01

    Recently governments, economists, and international financial institutions have been debating the merits of further fiscal stimulus to combat the Great Recession versus fiscal austerity or “adjustment” – that is, higher taxes and/or lower government spending – to combat budget deficits. Some supporters of austerity have gone as far as arguing that fiscal adjustment could restore economic growth. These analyses are being touted to oppose increased stimulus to boost the economy. This paper exam...

  13. BUDGETING FOR CITY AND COUNTY GOVERNMENTS: HOW PERFORMANCE-BASED BUDGETING COULD HAVE REDUCED BUDGET DEFICITS

    OpenAIRE

    L. W. Murray, Ph.D.; Alev M. Efendioglu, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    The recession of 2007-09 resulted in large budget deficits for municipal governments in the U.S. One of the major causes was the use of traditional line-item budgeting. Research has shown that line-item budgeting is particularly ineffective during times of fiscal turbulence and uncertainty as policy-makers tend to overestimate anticipated revenues during recessionary periods while underestimating the growth rate of expenses. Further complicating the budgetary process is the large, and grow...

  14. Societal Aging: Implications for Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers implications of population aging for the conduct of fiscal policy, grouping the issues into four areas, focusing on the impact of aging on: (1) the size of government budget imbalances; (2) the composition of government spending and government budget flexibility; (3) the composition of tax collections and the desirability of alternative tax systems; and (4) the effectiveness of fiscal policy as a tool for stabilization. Societal aging puts considerable stress put on publi...

  15. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  16. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  17. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  18. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  19. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  20. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  1. Energy fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a general presentation of energy fiscality in France: taxes on energy, mechanisms of stabilization of government's fiscal incomes in case of significant oil prices change, some particularities of energy taxes, the fiscality according to the energy content and according to the carbon content. The fiscality of petroleum products (automotive fuels and other products), natural gas and electricity in France is presented in appendixes together with a comparison of the fiscality in use in the rest of Europe (automotive fuels, domestic fuels, natural gas and electricity for domestic use and for industrial use). (J.S.)

  2. Estimation of the ATLAS Inner Detector material budget by use of hadronic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersson, Nora Emilia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The dominant inefficiency in track reconstruction comes from particle interactions with the material in the detector. A good understanding of the material in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS detector is therefore a vital part of track and object reconstruction. In recent years a new technique has been developed, which by reconstructing nuclear interactions with the detector material allows one to quantify the material budget. The relatively low momentum interactions yields large opening angles between the outgoing particles. This makes it feasible to pinpoint the location of the interaction with excellent spatial resolutions, both perpendicular and parallel to the beam axis, permitting detailed comparisons of even minute detector elements. Utilising a second-pass tracking, specially designed to reconstruct secondary tracks with large impact parameters, the technique maps 0.3 $m^{3}$ of the ID volume. The collected results from the Run-1 and the Run-2 analyses will be presented.

  3. Simultaneous Estimation of Photometric Redshifts and SED Parameters: Improved Techniques and a Realistic Error Budget

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties on the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the mu...

  4. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhoglyadova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs on 22–31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and 25 April–2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry to estimate nitric oxide (NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  5. Simultaneous Estimation of Photometric Redshifts and SED Parameters: Improved Techniques and a Realistic Error Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts.

  6. WAREHOUSE TRANSFERS AND FISCAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Dorica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraud and fiscal evasion phenomenon generate indisputable negative effects, which are felt directly on the level of fiscal receipts earnings, determining major distortions in the market’s functioning mechanism. If in the European Union, the contribution of the three large tax categories (direct tax, indirect and social contributions in forming revenue are relatively close, in Romania, fiscal and budget revenue are directly dependent on the indirect tax and duties, especially on VAT and various sales taxes. If there is reductions in the fiscal evasion as to what these taxes are concerned, the premises for creating budget resource needed to fund the economic growth are created. In judicial literature, tax evasion is considered as being the logic result of all defects and inadvertencies of an imperfect legislation, of broken application methods, as well as a lack of foreseeing and lack of skill on the law-maker’s side, with their excessive tax system is as guilty as those who contribute in creating it. Regardless of how this phenomenon is defined, fiscal evasion represents the lack of fulfillment by the taxpayer of his fiscal obligation. The field in which tax evasion acts is as widespread as the different taxes, manifesting especially in the direct and indirect taxes, influencing their efficiency.

  7. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  8. The Costs and Benefits of Fiscal Rules: Evidence from U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Tamim Bayoumi

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows that in American states balanced budget rules are effective in enforcing fiscal discipline but they have no costs in terms of increased output variability. More specifically, we show that tighter fiscal rules are associated with larger average surplus and lower cyclical variability of the budget balance. However, the lower flexibility of the budget balance does not affect state output variability.

  9. Tying hands is not commitment: can fiscal rules and institutions really enhance fiscal discipline?

    OpenAIRE

    Debrun, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of fiscal institutions, including budget rules and non-partisan agencies, in enhancing fiscal discipline. A stylized model of fiscal policy illustrates that optimal institutions lack credibility unless the costs to bypass them are sufficiently high. To the extent that the deficit bias is related to electoral uncertainty, complete budgetary transparency and strong democratic accountability suffice to establish credibility. Under incomplete budgetary transparency, ...

  10. Estimated natural ground-water recharge, discharge, and budget for the Dixie Valley area, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrill, J.R.; Hines, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Dixie Valley area includes seven valleys in west-central Nevada (Dixie, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys; total, 2,380 square miles). Dixie Valley receives surface-water and ground-water flow from Stingaree, Cowkick, Eastgate, Pleasant, and Jersey Valleys and subsurface flow from Fairview Valley, which is a topographically closed basin. The relation between precipitation and altitude was re-evaluated for the Dixie Valley area using new data, and empirical estimates of recharge were revised accordingly. The revised estimate of total recharge is 23,000 acre-feet per Re-evaluation of ground-water discharge focused on Dixie Valley as the largest basin in the study area. Phreatophytic vegetation was mapped and partitioned into nine zones on the basis of species composition and foliage density. For woody phreatophytes, annual evapotranspiration rates of 0.7 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for greasewood and 1.1 cubic feet of water per cubic foot of foliage for rabbitbrush were adapted from lysimeter studies near Winnemucca, Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the foliage density of the respective phreatophytes in each zone to estimate a specific rate for that zone. Rates for salt-grass (0.5 to 0.8 foot per year) and the playa surface (0.1 to 0.3 foot per year) were based on a range of rates. used in other recent studies in western and central Nevada. These rates were multiplied by the areas of the zones to produce estimates of the annual volume of ground water discharged. The discharge estimated for Dixie Valley is between 17,000 and 28,000 acre-feet per year. The revised discharge estimate for the entire Dixie Valley area is between 20,000 and 31,000 acre-feet per year. The revised ground-water budget for the entire Dixie Valley study area has a total recharge of about 23,000 acre-feet per year. This is within the range of estimates of natural discharge--from 20,000 to 31,000 acre-feet per year. For Dixie Valley

  11. Fiscal Deadline, Thorny Deficits Bedevil States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    A handful of recession-ravaged states have kicked off a new fiscal year without balanced budgets, leaving public school educators in limbo as they struggled to manage spending amid dwindling resources and political bickering over unprecedented budget gaps. The crisis remains most severe in California, which, as of last week, faced a $26.3 billion…

  12. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...

  13. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...

  14. Mongolia - Improving Public Investment Planning and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This note focuses on the second of these reform agendas, and in particular on how the institutional and organizational system for public investment planning and budgeting can be improved. Considerable analytical work has already been done on the macroeconomic and fiscal framework, and the Fiscal Stability Law (FSL), prepared with on-going technical assistance from the International Monetary Fund ...

  15. Providing low-budget estimations of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland. This letter reviews current research methodologies in estimating greenhouse gas production and provides guidance on the provision of robust estimates of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands through the use of low cost reliable and sustainable measurement, modelling and remote sensing applications. The guidance is highly applicable to, and aimed at, wetlands such as those in the tropics and sub-tropics, where complex research infrastructure may not exist, or agricultural wetlands located in remote regions, where frequent visits by monitoring scientists prove difficult. In conclusion, the proposed measurement-modelling approach provides guidance on an affordable solution for mitigation and for investigating the consequences of wetland agricultural practice on GHG production, ecological resilience and possible changes to agricultural yields, variety choice and farming practice. (letter)

  16. The Political Economy of Fiscal Reform in Brazil: The Rationale for the Suboptimal Equilibrum

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Melo; Carlos Pereira; Saulo Souza

    2010-01-01

    This project examines fiscal reforms in Brazil since the 1990s, particularly in taxation, budgeting, and fiscal federalism. While recentralizing fiscal authority and massively expanding the extractive capacity of the state, policymakers chose not to revamp an inefficient tax system that has nonetheless proven capable of generating high levels of revenue. In budgeting, the economic crises of the mid-1990s prompted the government to rein in subnational fiscal imbalances but discouraged policyma...

  17. Ensuring Fiscal Sustainability in G-7 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Leigh; David Hauner; Michael Skaarup

    2007-01-01

    Rising longevity, falling fertility rates, and the retirement of the baby boom generation will substantially raise age-related government spending in most advanced and many emerging market countries. This paper assesses the evolution of fiscal sustainability for each of the G-7 countries using two standard primary gap indicators. The estimated fiscal adjustment required to ensure long-run fiscal sustainability is substantial for all G-7 countries. In particular, ensuring fiscal sustainability...

  18. Fiscal Deficits and Stock Prices in India: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.

  19. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  20. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  1. Comparison of different approaches to estimate uncertainty budget in k0-INAA measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three CRMs of different matrix composition were analysed, representing an environmental matrix sample (BCR-320R Channel Sediment), a botanical matrix sample (SRM 1547 Peach Leaves) and a zoological matrix sample (SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue). The element mass fractions were obtained using the KayWin program. Analytical measurement uncertainty was determined by two approaches: (1) the routine procedure applying combination of the overall uncertainty u(m) = 3.5 % and statistical uncertainty of the peak area determination and (2) the procedure applying the dedicated ERON program for calculating uncertainty. Performance of altogether 31 certified values was tested by means of calculating En numbers. For the remaining 52 non-certified values, comparison between uncertainties obtained by the two approaches was made. When using the first approach, the E n number showed satisfactory performance in 28 cases; by using the second approach, the En number showed satisfactory performance in 27 cases. None of the unsatisfactory performances (En > 1) appeared to be of systematic nature. The uncertainties obtained by applying the two approaches revealed a big extent of consistency. As the present nuclear database lacks lot of data that serve as input to the ERON program, in particular uncertainties of Q0 factors, estimates need to be introduced for the missing values, emphasising the urgent need to upgrade the database with missing data. (author)

  2. Carbon budgets for three autotrophic Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of the coastal air-water CO2 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-03-01

    Estuaries are `hot spots' in the global carbon cycle, yet data on carbon dynamics, in particular air-sea CO2 fluxes, from autotrophic systems are rare. Estuarine carbon budgets were constructed for three geomorphically distinct warm temperate Australian estuaries over an annual cycle. All three estuaries were net autotrophic, with annual net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) ranging from 8 ± 13.4 molC m-2 yr-1 to 10 ± 14 molC m-2 yr-1. There was a net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the estuaries of between 0.4 ± 0.6 molC m-2 yr-1 and 2 ± 0.9 molC m-2 yr-1. Loading of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the estuaries varied markedly within and between the estuaries, and was directly related to freshwater inflow. While NEM was similar in all three estuaries, the ratio of benthic versus pelagic contributions to NEM differed, with NEM dominated by pelagic production in the river dominated system, benthic production dominating in the intermediate estuary, and equal contributions of benthic and pelagic production in the marine dominated lagoon. All three estuaries exported more organic carbon than was imported, fueled by additional organic carbon supplied by NEM. The estuaries essentially acted as bioreactors, transforming DIC to organic carbon. Burial of organic carbon ranged from 1.2 ± 0.3 molC m-2 yr-1 to 4.4 ± 1.2 molC m-2 yr-1 and represented up to half of NEM. The annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in these systems, along with previous estimates of the global estuarine CO2flux being based predominantly on heterotrophic, large river dominated estuarine systems, indicates that the global estimate of the estuarine air-water CO2flux may be over-estimated due to the lack of studies from autotrophic marine dominated estuaries.

  3. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  4. Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) to Estimate Ground Heat Flux and Reduce Surface Energy Budget Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Francesco; Sharma, Varun; Lunati, Ivan; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-04-01

    Ground heat flux plays a crucial role in surface energy budget: an incorrect estimation of energy storage and heat fluxes in soils occur when probes such as heat flux plates are adopted, and these mistakes can account for up to 90% of the residual variance (Higgins, GRL, 2012). A promising alternative to heat flux plates is represented by Multi Function Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP). They have proven to be accurate in thermal properties and heat fluxes estimation (e.g. Cobos, VZJ, 2003) and can be used to monitor and quantify subsurface evaporation in field experiments (Xiao et al., VZJ, 2011). We perform a laboratory experiment with controlled temperature in a small Plexiglas column (20cm diameter and 40cm height). The column is packed with homogeneously saturated sandy soil and equipped with three MFHPPs in the upper 4cm and thermocouples and dielectric soil moisture probes deeper. This configuration allows for accurate and simultaneous ground heat flux, soil moisture and subsurface evaporation measurements. Total evaporation is monitored using a precision scale, while an infrared gun and a long wave radiometer measure the soil skin temperature and the outgoing long-short wave radiation, respectively. A fan and a heat lamp placed above the column allow to mimick on a smaller and more controlled scale the field conditions induced by the diurnal cycle. At a reference height above the column relative humidity, wind speed and air temperature are collected. Results are interpreted by means of numerical simulations performed with an ad-hoc-developed numerical model that simulates coupled heat and moisture transfer in soils and is used to match and interpolate the temperature and soil moisture values got at finite depths within the column. Ground heat fluxes are then estimated by integrating over almost continuous, numerically simulated temperature profiles, which avoids errors due to use of discrete data (Lunati et al., WRR, 2012) and leads to a more reliable estimate of

  5. Estimates of direct biological transport of radioactive waste in the deep sea with special reference to organic carbon budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations can be made for the maximum theoretical transport of pollutants such as radionuclides by movement of organisms out of a deep-sea benthic boundary layer dump site based on a presumption of a steady state organic carbon budget and estimated biological concentration factors. A calculated flux rate depends on the difference between a limiting input of organic matter and that carbon used by the biota or accumulating in the sediment. On average, the potential biological mass transport is low compared to physical transport. Exceptions to this generalization are possible in the far field after spatial gradients are obliterated or if natural mass migrations or periodic spawning concentrations occur in the near field. Biologically mediated fluxes of contaminants due to mixing of sediments by bioturbation or vertical flux due to scavenging by sinking particles are significant for movements of pollutants to and from sediments. These pathways contribute to the direct input of contaminants into food webs which may contain harvestable species. These fluxes are unimportant for mass transfers in the ocean but they determine the exposure of critical groups to contaminants

  6. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  7. Becoming a Leader in University Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explains what senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) and those aspiring to the position should know and do in terms of budgeting to make the transition from division to university leadership. Before SSAOs can help lead any university-wide budget process, particularly ones that unfold amid fiscal decline, they must master divisional…

  8. Nuclear energy policy for fiscal 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan with little energy resources, about 80 % of the total energy consumption is imported ; of which the petroleum is about 60 %. Nuclear power generation has advantages of the supply security and the high economy. It is the nucleus of petroleum substitute. The role of nuclear power should further increase in the future. Under this situation, the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, the advancement of LWR power plants and the development of advanced type reactors must be pursued positively. In tables are given the nuclear-power-relation budget estimates for fiscal 1986 in general account and in special accounts power source siting and diversification and also the treasury investments and loans, itemized in the respective subjects. (Mori, K.)

  9. Quantitative vs. Qualitative in the Romanian Fiscal Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As it encountered a fiscal event (budget liquidity crisis in 2009, Romania should have proceeded to one of the most ambitious fiscal correction in the last 30 years in EU. Nevertheless, the absence of vision regarding the increase in quality of the fiscal adjustment is obvious. The fiscal correction made until now has rather been a quantitative one, falling within certain strictly numerical targets. In this paper, we present a series of signals arguing for the necessity to increase the fiscal quality. Moreover, we propose a few immunization mechanisms of the Romanian economy against the contagion of the current uncertainty in the Euro area or against the future crises.

  10. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  11. NASA budget increases for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The fiscal year 1994 budget request for NASA is $15.3 billion, an increase of $934.6 million, or 6.5%, above the 1993 appropriation of $14.3 billion. Within this first budget request developed under NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, the emphasis has changed and some details remain unresolved. At the agency's budget briefing, Goldin echoed Clinton's mantra for change and increased investment in new technologies. Saying that NASA was “too much into human space flight,” Goldin has proposed increased funding for technology development at the expense of the space station. He has also made reductions in some existing programs and increased funding for others.

  12. Congress trims NSF budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The last-minute spending bill adopted by Congress just before its 1987 holiday recess provides $1,717 billion for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1988. The approved figure is more than 9% lower than the request in President Reagan's budget plan. In addition, wording in the House version of the bill that mandated protection of ocean science and women and minorities programs did not appear in the final product that was approved by Congress and signed into law.In absolute terms, NSF's budget will be 6% more than in 1987, far less than expected by the agency and the White House, which had proposed a doubling of NSF's budget over the next several years. The Research and Related Activities section of the budget, out of which comes the bulk of NSF's support of basic research, was funded at $1,453 billion, $200 million less than its $1,653 billion request, and the Antarctic Research section received $124.8 million of $143 million in the President's budget. Science Education, on the other hand, was budgeted for $139.2 million, $25 million more than requested.

  13. THE ANALYSYS OF ANTI-CRISIS FISCAL MEASURES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TOMA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this writing is, in fact, the analyze of the fiscal policy’s effectiveness in order to combat thenegative phenomena which characterizes the periods of economical crisis: the fall of the actual production,unemployment and inflation. We are trying to make a fine analysis of the concepts and the phenomena which give thecharacteristics of the fiscal anti-crisis policy’s effectiveness. We estimate the effectiveness of the fiscal measures only incomparison to other financial policies (monetary policy and budget policy and by making an analyze of the effectsproduced by taking fiscal policy decisions in a normative analysis. We reached a final conclusion upon the fiscal policyby examining the theoretical and the practical research so far. So, on the one hand, the fiscal policy in order to achieveits goal must be combined with the other macroeconomic policies and on the other hand, the fiscal policy used toreduce the massive fiscal pressures has low results in what concerns the stimulation of investments and aggregatesupply. An active budgetary policy which includes public investment spending can correct the macroeconomicimbalances (both on the market of goods and services and on the market of labor on short and on long-term only withthe condition of respecting certain limits of the budget’s deficit and of the public debt, when it comes to times ofrecession and economic crisis. More than that, this kind of policy in combination with certain tax incentives whichstimulate the investments in the private environment can produce positive effects upon the gross domestic product andemployment.

  14. Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Andrew Chalk; Richard Hemming

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of approaches to assessing fiscal sustainability. It summarizes the general analytical background, focusing on the present value budget constraint, which is the benchmark against which solvency is determined, tests of sustainability (including sustainability indicators), and sustainability and uncertainty. The paper then looks at the way in which fiscal sustainability has been assessed in different types of IMF work. Finally the link be...

  15. State Public Debt Laws and Fiscal Performance

    OpenAIRE

    César Velázquez

    2006-01-01

    Institutions play a fundamental role on the fiscal performance of governments. In the literature of federalism, fiscal institutions are one possible way to control subnational debt that may cause problems in the financial sector and affect a country's macroeconomic stability. This is particular relevant in developing countries where problems of soft-budget constraints at the regional and local level are more common and reliance on market discipline is harder. This paper studies the impact of ...

  16. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California; with a section on estimating evapotranspiration using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stannard, David I.

    1997-01-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the ground-water-flow system associated with Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. By using the energy-budget eddy-correlation technique, measurements made between June 1983 and April 1984 to estimate evapotranspiration were found to range from 0.1 centimeter per day during winter months to about 0.3 centimeter per day during summer months; the annual average was 0.16 centimeter per day. These estimates were compared with evapotranspiration estimates calculated from six other methods.

  17. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  18. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  19. Do Municipal Mergers Improve Fiscal Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    basic argument is that the conceptualisation of fiscal management in political science is often too narrow as it focuses on the budget and pays hardly any attention to balances in the final accounts and debts – elements of management which are central to policy making. On this background, the causal......Improved fiscal management is a frequent justification for promoting boundary consolidations. However, whether or not this is actually the case is rarely placed under rigorous empirical scrutiny. Hence, this article investigates if fiscal outcomes are improved when municipalities are merged. The...... relationship between municipal mergers and fiscal outcomes is analysed. Measured on the balance between revenues and expenses, liquid assets and debts, municipal mergers improve the fiscal outcomes of the municipalities in a five-year perspective, although the pre-reform effects tend to be negative. For...

  20. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  1. The new Spanish Autonomous Communities fiscal stability framework

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, M. Jose; Manzano, Agustin

    2004-01-01

    From to beginning of year 2002, the Spanish Autonomous Communities (CC. AA.) fiscal performance is conditioned by a new legal framework compounded from the financial agreement and the legislation on budget stability. This new framework implies a change in the CC. AA. fiscal behaviour. Are the CC. AA. ready to provide its citizens the public services they demand and fulfil its fiscal stability commitments? Are all the CC. AA. in the same position? Using political economic models and data on pa...

  2. Budgeting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to describe the budgeting process in school districts. Discusses general budget calendars and explains the process of constructing a Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart of the budgeting process. Presents a detailed list of activities to be included in the budgeting process and a PERT chart indicating how these activities…

  3. Fiscal Policy in a Structural VAR Model for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Christian; Buettner, Thiess

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fiscal policy measures on GDP and the government budget balance in a structural VAR model. In order to identify expenditure shocks we follow Blachard/Perotti (2002) and assume that government expenditure is partly predetermined in the budget. For the identification of tax policy shocks we exploit changes in tax law in Germany between 1967 and 2008. Our results support significant short term effects of fiscal expansionary policies. In the medium term, however...

  4. Estimates of maximum limits of food colours use in Brazil through the Danish Budget Method and the Bär and Würtzen-modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machinski Júnior, M

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of the permissible levels for the use of additives in foods must be based on the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). A method that may be applied for this purpose is the Danish Budget Method which estimates the maximum amount of the additive that may be added to the food based on the functional properties of the additive, and on the categories of the food in which the additive will be used. Based on the latest information Bär and Würtzen propose some modifications to the original Budget Method, one of which is the addition of a correction factor which takes into account the competition between different food additives with the same functional properties. In the present paper, both the Budget Method and the Bär and Würtzen-modified method were applied to evaluate whether the maximum levels of food colours use exceeded their ADI or not. Applying the original Budget Method, the results showed that the colours Sunset Yellow, Amaranth, Erythrosine, Ponceau 4R and Cochineal possibly exceeded the ADI; while applying the modified method only the colours Erythrosine and Cochineal would exceed the ADI. Brazilian regulatory authorities should be advised to establish maximum limits of use for the following categories of colours: Caramel, Inorganic, Natural and Artificial Colours Identical to the Natural Ones, where ADIs have been evaluated by JECFA. PMID:9764219

  5. Romanian Fiscal Policy in Perspective of Admittance in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mitrica

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analizes the convergence between Romanian and European fiscal policy in terms of three issues: the fiscal revenues percentage of GDP, the structure of public revenues and the public budget deficit (under the constrait of 3% of GDP. The analysis reveals small differences for the first and second issues and an important opportunity cost for the ceiling of deficit.

  6. BUDGETING FOR CITY AND COUNTY GOVERNMENTS: HOW PERFORMANCE-BASED BUDGETING COULD HAVE REDUCED BUDGET DEFICITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Murray, Ph.D.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The recession of 2007-09 resulted in large budget deficits for municipal governments in the U.S. One of the major causes was the use of traditional line-item budgeting. Research has shown that line-item budgeting is particularly ineffective during times of fiscal turbulence and uncertainty as policy-makers tend to overestimate anticipated revenues during recessionary periods while underestimating the growth rate of expenses. Further complicating the budgetary process is the large, and growing, amount of employee health care and pension unfunded liabilities. Municipal governments that employed performance-based budgeting, however, experienced budgetary deficits that were significantly smaller and whose duration was measurably shorter, suggesting that this process of budgeting provided significant advantages.

  7. Budget Balance: Fiscal Policy Target or Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Savu Nicoleta Andreea

    2014-01-01

    International economic and financial crisis triggered in 2008 showed, on the one hand that for policy makers, the system of current statistics (national accounts) suffers from some fundamental structural weaknesses due to lack of relevant information and quality of existing data and, on the other hand emphasized the need to identify and bring in operational state a set of models that allow the improvement of macroeconomic forecasting methods that can issue warnings, not beeing easy to transpo...

  8. Assessing the impact of fiscal measures on the Czech economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambriško, Róbert; Babecký, J.; Ryšánek, J.; Valenta, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, January (2015), s. 350-357. ISSN 0264-9993 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Bayesian estimation * fiscal multipliers * fiscal policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  9. Grant legislation vs. political factors as determinants of soft budget spending behaviors. Comparison between Italian and French regions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses intergovernmental transfers in France and Italy to assess to which extent soft budget spending behaviors result from slack in fiscal constraints or from political factors. It innovates on the previous literature, which concentrated on single countries, by adopting a comparative perspective. We estimate two separate but identical autoregressive forecasting models on French and Italian data to evaluate how rules and political factors lead the regional administrators of each ...

  10. Fiscal Consolidation As a Public Policy: Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Bakırtaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available                         AbstractFiscal consolidation is the implementation of policies to reduce government expenditures and the public debt ratio to GDP. These policies are used to ensure fiscal discipline and minimize the debt stock by either tax or expenditure side. In this respect, the importance of fiscal consolidation policy is to ensure fiscal discipline without making negative effects on economic growth and economic life. Besides the conceptual framework, periods and the success criteria of fiscal consolidation are important factors for evaluating the success or failure of fiscal consolidation. In this study, it has been identified that there is no consensus on these criteria in the literature.Keywords: Fiscal Consolidation, Budget Deficits,Government Spending, Public EconomyJEL Classification Codes: E62, H32, H62

  11. Decentralization in regional fiscal systems in Russia - trends and links to economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Freinkman, Lev; Yossifov, Plamen

    1999-01-01

    To shed light on decentralization in Russia, the authors examine intergovernmental fiscal relations within regions. To analyze trends, they review channels of fiscal allocation within regions - tax sharing and local transfer schemes. To evaluate the potential impact of various fiscal decentralization patterns on regional economic performance (including growth and the budget deficit), the authors study data on the structure of 89 Russian consolidated regional budgets for 1992-96. They find tha...

  12. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  13. FY 2004 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 summarizes the NITRD agencies coordinated research activities and FY 2004 plans, as required...

  14. Cutback budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Behn

    1984-01-01

    The process of cutback budgeting that occurs in an era of retrenchment differs significantly from budgeting in circumstances of revenue growth. Negotiating an agreement on a set of decrements is far more complicated than allocating increments: No one wants to be the first to propose a cut in another constituency's budget, and any coalition formed in support of a given package of cuts is inherently unstable. Still, several conditions appear to facilitate cutback budgeting: an overarching issue...

  15. The State Fiscal Situation: The Lost Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Governors Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The fiscal condition of states deteriorated dramatically over the last two years because of the depth and length of the economic downturn, and state officials do not expect this situation to improve any time soon. Previous downturns have proven that the worst budget years for a state are the two years after the national recession is declared over.…

  16. Capital budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel BERCEANU; Costel IONAŞCU

    2009-01-01

    This paper has like objective to present some aspects concerning capital budgeting. So, after a short introduction where we specify necessary conditions for a decision situation and we define investment decision and capital budgeting we made a large presentation of stages of capital budgeting process.

  17. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  18. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    O. Cheberyako; O. Ryabokon

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on t...

  19. Strengthening the Capacities of Parliaments in the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Varea; Carlos Santiso

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, parliaments have shown increasing activism in the budget process by demanding more information about the government's performance in managing public resources. Nevertheless, in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), parliaments face important challenges, taking an effective part in the budget process and in fiscal policy management. Their capacity to influence budgetary matters and more generally fiscal policy and public financial management is hindered not only by the cen...

  20. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. MODIS estimates of annual evapotranspiration of irrigated crops in the Nile delta based on the FAO method: application to the Nile river budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, V.; Abdrabbo, M. A. A.; Saleh, S. M.; Hassanein, M. K.; Abou-Hadid, A. F.; Chehbouni, A.

    2010-10-01

    Egypt is experiencing a water crisis because all resources are used and the Nile is not able to provide for the increasing needs especially for irrigation. In order to better manage the available resources, an accurate quantitative assessment of water fluxes, and especially evapotranspiration, is needed to improve the management of irrigation water. We show here how MODIS low resolution satellite images (250m) were used, jointly with climatic data interpolated from stations, to compute the annual irrigation consumption of the Nile delta based on the FAO-56 method. The results are used to estimate of the Water budget of Egypt and give insights about irrigation efficiency.

  2. A comparison of estimates of basin-scale soil-moisture evapotranspiration and estimates of riparian groundwater evapotranspiration with implications for water budgets in the Verde Valley, Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Wiele, Stephen M.; Pool, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth in the Verde Valley in Arizona has led to efforts to better understand water availability in the watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a substantial component of the water budget and a critical factor in estimating groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, four estimates of ET are compared and discussed with applications to the Verde Valley. Higher potential ET (PET) rates from the soil-water balance (SWB) recharge model resulted in an average annual ET volume about 17% greater than for ET from the basin characteristics (BCM) recharge model. Annual BCM PET volume, however, was greater by about a factor of 2 or more than SWB actual ET (AET) estimates, which are used in the SWB model to estimate groundwater recharge. ET also was estimated using a method that combines MODIS-EVI remote sensing data and geospatial information and by the MODFLOW-EVT ET package as part of a regional groundwater-flow model that includes the study area. Annual ET volumes were about same for upper-bound MODIS-EVI ET for perennial streams as for the MODFLOW ET estimates, with the small differences between the two methods having minimal impact on annual or longer groundwater budgets for the study area.

  3. Conference OKs science budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  4. Budget Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Breunig, Christian; Mortensen, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Budget dynamics may sound as a contradiction in terms to scholars familiar with Wildavsky and colleagues' seminal work on public budgeting (Wildavsky 1964). As stated by Davis, Dempster, and Wildavsky (1966, 529): “This year’s budget is based on last year’s budget, with special attention given to a narrow range of increases or decreases.” For some years this simple model was considered something of an empirical law of public budgets. However, already in the 1970s several scholars started to q...

  5. 76 FR 21750 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... 45 CFR 96.85(b), which were published in the Federal Register on March 3, 1988, at 53 FR 6824 and amended on October 15, 1999, at 64 FR 55858. Dated: March 22, 2011. Yolanda J. Butler, Acting Director... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families State Median Income Estimate for a...

  6. Government presents 1979 nuclear budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal items of the nuclear budget for the fiscal year 1979 are 165,700 Million for the Science and Technology Agency for the promotion of nuclear energy development, and for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 3,360 Million from the general account for nuclear items, 57,500 Million from the special account for power source development and 99,900 Million for fiscal investments and loans. In the Science and Technology Agency, compared with the last fiscal year, the appropriations have been especially increased for the research and development of nuclear fusion in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the Ministry of ITI, the distinctive budgetary features are those for streamlining the safety regulation administration, uranium extraction from sea water, and thermal effluent management. The 1979 government nuclear budget is described as follows: in the STA, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, and National Institute of Radiological Sciences; in the MITI, general account, special account, and fiscal investments and loans; the items in other ministries. (J.P.N.)

  7. A tidal creek water budget: Estimation of groundwater discharge and overland flow using hydrologic modeling in the Southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, Béatrice; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Twilley, Robert R.

    2011-07-01

    Taylor Slough is one of the natural freshwater contributors to Florida Bay through a network of microtidal creeks crossing the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER). The EMER ecological function is critical since it mediates freshwater and nutrient inputs and controls the water quality in Eastern Florida Bay. Furthermore, this region is vulnerable to changing hydrodynamics and nutrient loadings as a result of upstream freshwater management practices proposed by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP), currently the largest wetland restoration project in the USA. Despite the hydrological importance of Taylor Slough in the water budget of Florida Bay, there are no fine scale (˜1 km 2) hydrodynamic models of this system that can be utilized as a tool to evaluate potential changes in water flow, salinity, and water quality. Taylor River is one of the major creeks draining Taylor Slough freshwater into Florida Bay. We performed a water budget analysis for the Taylor River area, based on long-term hydrologic data (1999-2007) and supplemented by hydrodynamic modeling using a MIKE FLOOD (DHI, http://dhigroup.com/) model to evaluate groundwater and overland water discharges. The seasonal hydrologic characteristics are very distinctive (average Taylor River wet vs. dry season outflow was 6 to 1 during 1999-2006) with a pronounced interannual variability of flow. The water budget shows a net dominance of through flow in the tidal mixing zone, while local precipitation and evapotranspiration play only a secondary role, at least in the wet season. During the dry season, the tidal flood reaches the upstream boundary of the study area during approximately 80 days per year on average. The groundwater field measurements indicate a mostly upwards-oriented leakage, which possibly equals the evapotranspiration term. The model results suggest a high importance of groundwater contribution to the water salinity in the EMER. The model performance is satisfactory

  8. The Deterioration in the US Fiscal Outlook, 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey B. Liebman

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2001, US budget surpluses averaged 2% of GDP. By 2011, the Congressional Budget Office was projecting persistent "current policy" budget deficits exceeding 6% of GDP, even after the economy recovered from the recession. This paper reviews the remarkable deterioration in the US fiscal outlook. It shows that more than half of the deterioration occurred before the 2007-9 recession, as a combination of tax cuts, increased spending, and worse than expected economic performance shifted...

  9. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  10. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  11. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  12. Crisis Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Schick

    2009-01-01

    Budgeting is fundamentally altered, if only temporarily, by pressures that overwhelm established policies and practices. This article discusses conventional and non-conventional responses to crisis, and how crisis impacts on the budget process. Just as crisis has mobilised governments to take global actions that spill beyond national boundaries, the aftermath of crisis will spur them to harmonise and integrate budget policies that affect the international financial system.

  13. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  14. Pro-cyclical Fiscal Policy in Brazil : Evidence from the States

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Marco; Revilla, Julio E.

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature on budget cyclicality has generally focused more on assessing the degree of pro-cyclicality in federal (central government) revenues and expenditures and less on budget cyclicality at the sub-national level in multi-tiered systems. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on budget cyclicality by examining how sub-national fiscal revenues and expenditure...

  15. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out to...... cost, while at the same time politicians may be better at sticking to budgets if political consensus exists. The analysis is based on a pooled regression analysis of the local governments in Denmark in the years 2008 and 2009 using a data set combining survey data with administrative data on the local...

  16. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  17. Decentralized Budgeting in Education: Model Variations and Practitioner Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, George; Metsinger, Jackie; McGinnis, Patricia

    In educational settings, decentralized budgeting refers to various fiscal practices that disperse budgeting responsibility away from central administration to the line education units. This distributed decision-making is common to several financial management models. Among the many financial management models that employ decentralized budgeting…

  18. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  19. Proposed NIH Budget Includes Mandatory Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    President Obama has proposed an overall budget increase of $825 million for the NIH in fiscal year 2017 compared with 2016. That money would be reserved for three efforts: the NCI's "moonshot" initiative, the Precision Medicine Initiative cohort program, and the BRAIN program. PMID:26984350

  20. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  1. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  2. Participatory Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Innovation for Development and South-South Cooperation, IDEASS

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the principles underlying participatory budgeting. It analyzes the merits and demerits of participatory budgeting practices around the world with a view to guiding policy makers and practitioners on improving such practices in the interest of inclusive governance. This publication includes five regional surveys, and seven country case studies can be found ...

  3. Estimation of the Components of the Carbon and Water Budgets for Winter Wheat by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Croplands occupy more than one third of Earth's terrestrial surface contributing to climate change and also being impacted by those changes, since their production is conditioned by climatic conditions and water resources. It is thus essential to quantify and analyze the production and the main components of the carbon and water cycles for crop ecosystems. We propose here a regional modeling approach that combines: high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data, a simple crop model and an extensive set of in-situ measurements for model's calibration and validation. The model, named SAFYE-CO2 (Simple Algorithm for Fluxes and Yield Estimates), is a daily time step model based on Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and coupled with a water budget module (FAO-56 method). SAFYE-CO2 estimates components of the carbon budget (gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), …) and of the crop water cycle (evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration (ETR) and soil water content) and also time courses of dry aboveground biomass and yield by assimilating Green Area Index (GAI) data obtained from HSTR satellite observations. For this work, we used a unique set of Formosat-2 and SPOT images acquired from 2006 to 2011 in southwest France. Crop and soil model parameters were set using both in-situ measurements and values found in the literature. Phenological parameters were calibrated by the GAI assimilation. The results indicate that the model correctly reproduces winter wheat biomass and yield production (relative error about 25%) for years with contrasted climatic conditions. The estimated net carbon flux components were overall in agreement with the flux measurements, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.9 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.84 for NEE). Regarding the ETR, a good correlation (R2 about 0.73) and satisfactory errors (RMSE about 0.47 mm.d-1) were found. Carbon and water budgets as well

  4. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  5. Fiscal decentralization and Pollution: Institutions Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Mennel, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of fiscal decentralization on different indicators of pollution for more than 80 countries from 1970 to 2000. Our cross country estimates show that fiscal decentralization increases pollution. However, higher quality of institutions can limit the destructive environmental effects of decentralization. The empirical results confirm a strand of the literature on decentralization that predicts a “race to the bottom” under federalism. The mitigating effect of good governance...

  6. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-10-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  7. A DRAWBACK IN TURKISH BUDGET CLASSIFICATION: WHERE HAVE PUBLIC INVESTMENTS GONE?

    OpenAIRE

    AKBEY, Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, Turkish fiscal structure has changed its budgeting and budget classification system from a program based and accordingly classified hybrid one (between Program Budgeting and Planning-Programming-Budgeting systems) to a strategically planned, performance based and analytically classified multi-year budgeting system that was structured in line with European System of Accounts (ESA) and Government Finance Statistics (GFS) which have been shaped by neoliberal praxis. What’s wrong with th...

  8. Making Progress in Idaho State Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, Dick

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Idaho state budgeting decisions for Fiscal Year 2014 and assesses what progress has been made to return to the state’s revenue and spending levels before the hard times in 2009 and 2010 (Kinney 2010; Kinney 2011). After briefly describing Idaho’s population and politics, the report discusses the state’s economic and General Fund revenue contexts for budget decision making. It then analyzes the governor’s budget and the legislature’s appropriations and considers two importa...

  9. Bottom-up Budgeting FY 2015 Assessment: Camarines Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Maramot, Joyce Anne; Yasay, Donald B.; de Guzman, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is an adaptation of the participatory budgeting model in identifying and providing solutions to poverty at the municipal/city level. Leaders of civil society organizations engage with LGU officials in formulating a poverty alleviation plan to be considered in preparing the budget of national agencies the following fiscal year. This paper reports on how the guideline was implemented in three municipalities in Camarines Sur. The study then presents suggestions and reco...

  10. Fiscal positions and government bond yields in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph W. Gruber; Steven B. Kamin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fiscal positions, both the level of debt and the fiscal balance, on long-term government bond yields in the OECD. In order to control for the endogenity of fiscal positions to the business cycle we utilize forward projections of fiscal positions from the OECD's Economic Outlook. In a panel regression over the period from 1988 to 2007, we find a robust and significant effect of fiscal performance on long-term bond yields. Our estimates imply that the marginal effect of...

  11. Fiscal policy and the 'Great Recession' in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter Coenen; Roland Straub; Mathias Trabandt

    2012-01-01

    How much did fiscal policy contribute to euro area real GDP growth during the Great Recession? We estimate that discretionary fiscal measures have increased annualized quarterly real GDP growth during the crisis by up to 1.6 percentage points. We obtain our result by using an extended version of the European Central Bank’s New Area-Wide Model with a rich specification of the fiscal sector. A detailed modeling of the fiscal sector and the incorporation of as many as eight fiscal time series ap...

  12. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; Molen, van der M.K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T.C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inven

  13. The Fiscal Sustainability of the Greater Toronto Area

    OpenAIRE

    Enid Slack; Richard M. Bird

    2004-01-01

    Recently many commentators have expressed concern about the fiscal health of Toronto and, more generally, the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Such concern is puzzling because most of the available evidence suggests that municipalities in the GTA are fiscally healthy. Over the past decade, for example, none have deficits in their operating budgets, none have borrowed excessively to pay for capital expenditures, none have raised property taxes significantly, none have run up large tax arrears, and ...

  14. Open Budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Government initiatives to publicize budgetary information allow for greater public supervision In an unprecedented move,four ministries under the Central Government recently posted their 2010 budgets on their official websites.

  15. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Scott D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production and industrial (net emissions from forest industry forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1. The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100

  16. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  17. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  18. Fiscal determinants of government borrowing costs: do we have only ourselves to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Funda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and the problems in peripheral EU countries resulted in increased attention to fiscal developments and their impact on borrowing costs for both public and private sector. Existing theoretical literature suggests that worsening of current and expected budget balances as well as an increase of public debt lead to a rise in short and long term interest rates for sovereign debtors. However, empirical results are inconclusive, especially for emerging market countries. This paper analyzes the factors that determine the dynamics of government bond spreads, with special emphasis on fiscal indicators. The survey covered 17 European countries, of which 9 are developed and 8 are emerging market economies, all of them members of the EU except Croatia. The empirical part of the paper employs dynamic panel data method and uses the Arellano and Bond estimator to get consistent estimates of parameters of interest. The results show that in the period 2004-2011 fiscal balance and public debt projections had a significant impact on the differences in government bond yields for emerging market countries, with the effect being much stronger during the period after the onset of financial crises. On the other hand, it seems that sovereign spread dynamics in developed countries is driven mostly by the global market sentiment.

  19. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  20. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from the...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  1. Monetary Science, Fiscal Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper

    2010-01-01

    Monetary policy decisions tend to be based on systematic analysis of alternative policy choices and their associated macroeconomic impacts: this is science. Fiscal policy choices, in contrast, spring from unsystematic speculation, grounded more in politics than economics: this is alchemy. In normal times, fiscal alchemy poses no insurmountable problems for monetary policy because fiscal expectations can be extrapolated from past fiscal behavior. But normal times may be coming to an end: aging...

  2. Activist Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Alan J.; William G. Gale; Harris, Benjamin H.

    2010-01-01

    During and after the "Great Recession" that began in December 2007, the U.S. federal government enacted several rounds of activist fiscal policy. In this paper, we review the recent evolution of thinking and evidence regarding the effectiveness of activist fiscal policy. Although fiscal interventions aimed at stimulating and stabilizing the economy have returned to common use, their efficacy remains controversial. We review the debate about the traditional types of fiscal policy interventions...

  3. The Fiscal Impact of Population Aging in the US: Assessing the Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ronald; Edwards, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Population aging, accelerating as the baby boom generations age, will have important fiscal consequences because expenditures on Social Security, Medicare, and institutional Medicaid make up more than a third of the Federal budget. However, the projected fiscal pressures are far in the future, and long-term projections are very unreliable. Our analysis here has two goals: to examine the fiscal impact of population aging, and to do this in a probabilistic setting. We find that the old age depe...

  4. Islamic Republic of Iran; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This report assesses the Observance of Standards and Codes on Fiscal Transparency for the Islamic Republic of Iran. Since the enactment of the five-year Development Plan covering 2000–04, the authorities have taken a number of steps to enhance fiscal transparency, especially with respect to the budget process. Important recent actions include eliminating implicit exchange rate subsidies, budgetizing other implicit subsidies including those associated with price controls, and adopting contem...

  5. Great Recession and Fiscal Squeeze at U.S. Subnational Government Level

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the fiscal impact of the Great Recession of 2007-08 on state and local governments in the United States. It documents the sharp decline in tax revenue and discusses how states responded to close the budget gaps in order to obey the balanced budget provisions. It highligts the procyclical nature of this policy response, provides a brief comparison with subnational policy stances in other advanced economies, and discusses some options for making subnational fiscal policy les...

  6. Estimating the Budgets of Nutrients for Phytoplankton Bloom in the Central Yellow Sea Using a Modified Lower Tropic Ecosystem Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chengyi; WANG Yuheng; WEI Hao

    2014-01-01

    A modified lower trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO) is coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for an application in the central Yellow Sea. The model is used to simulate the horizontal distributions and annual cycles of chlorophyll-a and nutrients with results consistent with historical observations. Generally, during the winter background and spring bloom periods, the exchange with neighboring waters constitutes the primary sources of nutrients. Howerver, during the winter background period, the input of silicate from the layer deeper than 50 m is the most important source that contributes up to 60%to the total sources. Dur-ing the spring bloom period, the transport across the thermocline makes significant contribution to the input of phosphate and silicate. During the post spring bloom period, the relative contribution of relevant processes varies for different nutrients. For ammonium, atmospheric deposition, excretion of zooplankton and decomposition of particulate and dissolved nitrogen make similar contributions. For phosphate and silicate, the dominant input is the transport across the thermocline, accounting for 62% and 68% of the total sources, respectively. The N/P ratio averaged annually and over the whole southern Yellow Sea is up to 51.8, indicating the potential of P limitation in this region. The important influence of large scale sea water circulation is revealed by both the estimated fluxes and the corresponding N/P ratio of nutrients across a section linking the northeastern bank of the Changjiang River and Cheju Island. During the winter background period, the input of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate by the Yellow Sea Warm Current is estimated to be 4.6×1010, 2.3×1010, 2.0×109 and 1.2×1010 mol, respectively.

  7. 34 CFR 364.34 - What are the fiscal and accounting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disbursement of and accounting for those funds. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the fiscal and accounting requirements? 364.34... Requirements? § 364.34 What are the fiscal and accounting requirements? In addition to complying...

  8. Budget Deficits and Indirect Taxes during the Political Instability Periods in Turkey: Cointegration Analysis and EC Model Estimation, 1985-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bildirici, M.; Cosar, N.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine a relationship between budget deficit and indirect taxes in political instability. Between 1985 and 2003, budget policies were influenced by unstable political conditions. In order to explain the financing of the budget deficits under the political instabilities. In the first part of the study, theoretical developments will be explained. Second, Turkish political and economic conditions will be analyzed. Third, econometric tests and results will be...

  9. Science budget bills wind through U.S. Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. economy booming and the science community pushing for across the board increases for federal research and development programs, science budgets are faring well in the House and Senate. When Congress returns to Washington in September following a summer recess, its priorities include finalizing four major, nondefense budget bills that affect science. These bills could provide significant funding increases for fiscal year 1998.How do these number compare to the new balanced budget agreement? According to analysts, the budget for the next fiscal year actually increases, with precipitous cuts delayed for several years. Although the outlook for long-term funding may be grim, science budgets look good for this year.

  10. Fiscal and Externality Rationales for Alcohol Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian W.H.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; West, Sarah E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops and implements an analytical framework for estimating the optimal levels and welfare effects of alcohol taxes and drunk-driver penalties, accounting for externalities and how policies interact with the broader fiscal system. We find that the fiscal component of the optimal alcohol tax exceeds the externality-correcting component under many parameter scenarios and assumptions about revenue recycling; overall, the optimal tax is anything from three to more than ten times the...

  11. Fiscal multipliers in war and in peace

    OpenAIRE

    David Andolfatto

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of fiscal stimulus argue that government spending is needed to replace the private spending normally lost during a recession. Estimates of the so-called fiscal multiplier based on wartime episodes are used to support the proposition that a peacetime intervention can "stimulate" the economy in a desirable manner. The author argues that a wartime crisis is fundamentally different from a peacetime economic crisis. What may be desirable in war is not necessarily so in peace. This is de...

  12. Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) for Enhanced Riparian Water Use Estimates, Basin Sediment Budgets, and Terrain Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Farid, A.; Miller, S. N.; Semmens, D.; Williams, D. J.; Moran, S.; Unkrich, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    The uses of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) or LIDAR for earth science applications beyond topographic mapping are rapidly expanding. The USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, in collaboration with the Geosensing Systems Engineering Group at the Univ. of Florida and a wide range of other investigators, designed and conducted a multi-purpose ALSM mission over southeastern Arizona. Research goals include: 1) differentiate young and old riparian cottonwood trees to improve riparian water use estimates; 2) assess the ability of LIDAR to define channel bank steepness and thus cross-channel trafficability; 3) assess the ability of LIDAR to define relatively small, isolated depressions where higher soil moisture may persist; and, 4) quantify changes in channel morphology and sediment movement between pre- and post-monsoon flights. The first flight mission was successfully completed in early June and a post-monsoon mission is scheduled for October. Research goals, mission planning, and initial results will be further developed in this presentation. Acknowledgements: The Upper San Pedro Partnership, DOD-Legacy Program, EPA-Landscape Ecology Branch, U.S. Army-TEC, and the Bureau of Land Management are gratefully acknowledged for supporting this effort. The second author is supported by SAHRA (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) under the STC Program of the National Science Foundation, Agreement No. EAR-9876800.

  13. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  14. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  15. An Empirical Study on Fiscal Sustainability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal sustainability has become a prominent issue in developing countries, and fiscal sustainability assessments have become an increasingly demanded component of macroeconomic analysis. Unfortunately, there is no single basic source of information on fiscal sustainability. Country economists who are new to fiscal sustainability analysis could rely on sample work by other economists and could delve into scattered journal articles for the theoretical background. This paper focuses on a particular country: Malaysia. The main purpose of this paper is to monitor fiscal sustainability in Malaysia using empirical analysis, and see whether the fiscal sustainability indicators are consistent with the co-integration framework. We employ VAR analysis as it is simple to compute and easily automated. We show how it is possible to analyze a change of policy within a VAR framework. We also use a Multivariate Co-integration Test methodology to conduct inference about the co-integrating relationship between fiscal sustainability indicators and output (GDP. Empirical validation from the time series analysis finds that fiscal sustainability indicators and Gross domestic Product (GDP are co-integrated, which provides some support for the position that Malaysia’s fiscal sustainability is sustainable in the long run in sampling period. This finding suggests that the Government should improve the presentation of sustainability of fiscal policy and develop the analysis, review the sustainability indicators, and strengthen the role of the long term estimates in the design of short term fiscal policy.

  16. Maintenance Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. McCree

    Three methods for the preparation of maintenance budgets are discussed--(1) a traditional method, inconclusive and obsolete, based on gross square footage, (2) the formula approach method based on building classification (wood-frame, masonry-wood, masonry-concrete) with maintenance cost factors for each type plus custodial service rates by type of…

  17. Budgeting in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hawkesworth; Richard Emery; Joachim Wehner; Kristin Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Bulgaria’s budget management has seen a series of structural and procedural reforms, including in budget execution, treasury functions, internal audit, and programme and medium-term budgeting. This article discusses the use of modern budgeting techniques in Bulgaria such as top-down budgeting, multi-year budgeting perspectives and the use of performance information in the budget process, and makes recommendations for budget formulation, the role of Parliament, budget execution and management ...

  18. Lack of fiscal discipline: Challenges and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of fiscal discipline is one of the most pressing issues in the framework of various economic systems today. The consequences of the global economic crisis have shown all the weaknesses of measures and mechanisms in terms of decision-making in fiscal policy. This problem can be seen now in almost every country. The problem of inadequate implementation of fiscal policy and the maintenance of fiscal discipline is reflected in the fact that their consequences are not visible right away, but tend to show their negative effects much later. Today, we have a situation where a certain current government suffers badly implemented prior fiscal discipline of a previous government. The paper identified causes of fiscal indiscipline, which is most easily seen in the budget process. In addition to determining the causes of fiscal indiscipline, the author puts forward a set of different possible solutions that could positively affect the stabilization of the growing public debt and eliminate the cause of fiscal indiscipline. Possible solutions are analyzed, as well as the positive and negative aspects of their use, and possible implementation problems of specific solutions.

  19. Public investment under fiscal constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi

    2009-01-01

    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  20. The Growth and Stabilization Properties of Fiscal Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrab Rafiq

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the size of the fiscal multiplier values generated in Malaysia. The results show that a government spending shock leads to broad positive economic effects. Although, the effectiveness of fiscal policy alters across macroeconomic states. The estimates show that since the Asian financial crisis the medium- and long-run effect of fiscal policy spending has declined. Some of this is down to greater credit availability and less investment spending.

  1. Time varying fiscal policy in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Coutinho Pereira; Artur Silva Lopes

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the time heterogeneity effects of fiscal policy in the U.S., we use a non-recursive, Blanchard and Perotti-like structural VAR with time-varying parameters, estimated through Bayesian simulation over the 1965:2-2009:2 period. Our evidence suggests that fiscal policy has lost some capacity to stimulate output but that this trend is more pronounced for taxes net of transfers than for government expenditure, whose effectiveness declines only slightly. Fiscal multipliers keep conve...

  2. Trimming the Fat, Stretching the Meat for 1990s School Budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1989-01-01

    Given the need for school administrators to exercise fiscal restraint and pare down expenses before recommending tax increases, this article provides information concerning trends in class size, school building renovation, energy economies, teacher and administrator layoffs, and state budgets. (MLH)

  3. Budget requests for FY 1988 nuclear energy up 2.7 % to 369 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budget appropriations requested for nuclear energy in fiscal 1988 total 369,816 million yen, made up of 182,664 million yen general account and 187,152 million yen special account for power resources development. The increase, 2.7 % up on last fiscal year's appropriations is at the same level as in the previous year in terms of rate. Based on these demands, the government's budget will be drafted after a series of negotiations and coordination with the Ministry of Finance by the end of this year. The demands set out above cover only nuclear energy-related budgets in the overall budget requests made by each administrative agency. (author)

  4. Grant legislation vs. political factors as determinants of soft budget spending behaviors. Comparison between Italian and French regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Josselin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses intergovernmental transfers in France and Italy to assess to which extent soft budget spending behaviors result from slack in fiscal constraints or from political factors. It innovates on the previous literature, which concentrated on single countries, by adopting a comparative perspective. We estimate two separate but identical autoregressive forecasting models on French and Italian data to evaluate how rules and political factors lead the regional administrators of each country to form their expectations about the amount of transfers they will receive from the central government. This allows to proxy the transfer expectations in both countries and their role in determining soft budget spending behaviors. The estimates indicate that transfer expectations are a quantitatively important component of regional spending in both countries, regardless thedifferent degrees of stringency of grant legislations and the type of grants and expenditures (total, currentand capital examined.

  5. Sustainability of Fiscal Policy and Government Revenue-Expenditure Nexus: The Experience of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the issue of fiscal policy sustainability in Indonesia. To do so, we first diagnose the Indonesia’s public finance by analysing the evolution of key fiscal indicators—debt, budget deficit, revenue and expenditure—over time. It is found that the fiscal policy in Indonesia has been responsible and conservative. The budget deficit has been maintained below 3 percent of GDP with a decreasing trend in public debt-to-GDP ratio since 2001 to present. We then test the ...

  6. Managing fiscal risk in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Brixi, Hana Polackova; Shatalov, Sergei; Zlaoui, Leila

    2000-01-01

    To understand the fiscal position of a country, contingent liabilities and other sources of fiscal risk need to be considered. The authors develop a framework to assess and manage fiscal risk in Bulgaria. Bulgaria's Currency Board Arrangement has effectively imposed fiscal discipline, but leaves only limited room to accommodate potential fiscal shocks. Through risks embedded in the portfol...

  7. Update on Congress and new budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard

    Thanks to some all-night sessions, Congress has adjourned until next year, having completed work on all but one of 13 appropriations bills. Hearings are being held by the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Finance Committee on economic growth packages, with little else scheduled. Congress is due to reconvene briefly on January 3, but will recess again until January 21.The action on the budget for fiscal year 1993, which begins on October 1, 1992, is now at the other end of Pennsylvania Avenue. Departments, agencies, and the Office of Management and Budget are in the midst of assembling the budget request for FY 1993. The executive branch maintains an almost total blackout on any official or unofficial news about what is being requested, much less what will be in the new budget.

  8. Top-down Budgeting as a Tool for Central Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Kim; Chung-Keun Park

    2006-01-01

    Top-down budgeting emerged in the 1990s as a response to fiscal crisis. Previously, the traditional bottom-up approach to budget formulation had conferred centralised authority for resource allocation on the finance ministry. Then, in an attempt to control the growing fiscal deficits in the 1990s, the finance ministry only set the overall expenditure ceiling and subceilings, and delegated detailed resource allocation decisions to line ministries. However, the level of delegation and the metho...

  9. Transparency and numeric rules in the budgeting process: Theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Nicolás

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I develop a simple dynamic agency model postulating that, among budgetary institutions, transparency of the budgeting process is the main driving force in explaining differences in fiscal outcomes and that budgetary numeric rules can be an active long-run constraint only if the budgeting process is transparent enough. The model does not only account for long-run differences where countries with better budgetary institutions will have more disciplined fiscal outcomes, but can rat...

  10. Our changing planet: the FY 1993 U.S. Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences. A supplement to the U.S. President's Fiscal Year 1993 Budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USGCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY 1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction)

  11. Our Changing Planet: The FY 1993 US Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, a supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Reasearch Program (USGCRP) was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY-1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  12. The OSSA budget: Another view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    The recent letter by L. H. Meredith commenting on the proposed fiscal year (FY) 1989 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) fails to recognize the public procedures and planning processes that were involved in the determination of the budget. The letter also ignores the long-range planning that OSSA has been pursuing in very close consultation with the scientific community in order to achieve, insofar as possible, a rationalization of the budget and programmatic decision-making process. This planning, which addresses well the issues Meredith seems concerned about, does not absolutely guarantee budgetary success for the long term. However, without the planning, any success will be nearly impossible to achieve. I strongly suggest that Meredith (and any other interested member of AGU) obtain and read carefully copies of the minutes of the last two or three meetings of the OSSA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee (SESAC) and a copy of the initial OSSA Strategic Plan. These minutes document a portion of the dialog between NASA and the science community which was instrumental in formulating this year's budget and the plans for following years.

  13. Fiscal Stress: Worldwide Trends in Higher Education Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossensteyn, Hans

    2004-01-01

    While higher education is generally a high priority in boosting economic development, public budgets to sustain expansion of higher education systems remain limited around the globe. This fiscal stress creates an impetus for governments to develop various strategies to meet the growing demand--from both students and society--for higher education…

  14. Zero base approach to fiscal management of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, D A; Majonos, J S

    1985-08-01

    Lab administrators who face the challenge of providing quality care while cutting costs need a way to periodically re-evaluate all lab functions and services. The guidelines presented here, based on the Zero Base Budget approach, formulate a management strategy for the lab that could lead to better fiscal planning. PMID:10272519

  15. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition. PMID:26242904

  16. The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Emerging Markets Sovereign Spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Country risk or sovereign spreads affect directly the investment of companies and sovereigns, being an important figure to domestic interest rates and to economic growth. This paper analyzes the impact of fiscal policy on the determinants of the sovereign risk of 23 emerging market countries between 1995-2008. The results associate lower spreads to fiscal austerity, i.e. an accumulation of primary budget surplus that keeps the debt to GDP ratio constant over time. An increase of 1% on primary budget surplus decreases the spreads around 50 basis point. It evidences that fiscal policy sustainability plays a relevant role in determining the sovereign spreads besides contributing as a policy that mitigates external shocks.

  17. Uganda - Fiscal Policy for Growth : Public Expenditure Review 2007, Volume 1. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Uganda needs to increase infrastructure investments if impressive growth is to continue. But the Budget is showing increasing signs of stress from expenditure pressures and fiscal tightening. Recent increases in employee costs in central Government functions of public administration, justice law and order, defense, prisons and police have deteriorated the composition of the Budget from the...

  18. Fiscal Multipliers in Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Canzoneri, Matthew; Collard, Fabrice; Dellas, Harris; Diba, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession, and the fiscal response to it, has revived interest in the size of fiscal multipliers. Standard business cycle models have difficulties generating multipliers greater than one. And they also cannot produce any significant state-dependence in the size of the multipliers over the business cycle. In this paper we employ a variant of the Curdia-Woodford model of costly financial intermediation and show that fiscal multipliers can be strongly state dependent in a countercyclic...

  19. Inter Local Government Capital Budget Execution Comparism

    OpenAIRE

    F. Olurankinse

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Unrealistic capital budgeting has long been the bane of social economic development in Nigeria and of course, at the local government level. Local governments are established with specific functions to assist the state and federal government to bring about effective rural development and good governance at the grassroots level. Approach: Both fiscal and physical evaluation of the performances of this tier of government in ondo state reveals a low level of performance both i...

  20. Civil society organizations, participation and budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Willmore, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The author defines terms and concepts discussed in an Expert Group Meeting on Civil Society Participation in Fiscal Policy held at UN headquarters in New York City. He addresses first the question, What is civil society? The term is used in varied ways by different writers, which makes communication difficult and impedes clarity of thought. Second, he attempts to categorize and synthesize the many ways that civil society participates in the budget process.

  1. Kosova budgetary sustainability and fiscal policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Myrvete Pantina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting is the process of governmental resource allocation in order to achieve specificsocial and economic goals. Since the governmental resources are scarce in most transitional countries, as isthe case in Kosova, they need to be allocated based on priority needs, in order to ensure greater efficiency.In post-war Kosova the primary objectives of drafting policies were concentrated around establishingbudgeting systems, collecting revenues by means of the tax system and development of a comprehensivereconstruction programme, it could be said that these goals were achieved within a short period of time.When we take into account the fact that the Central Banking Authority of Kosova (CBAK is still unableto completely manage the monetary policy, and does this only to a certain extent, and the fact that Kosovauntil now did not have access to additional foreign financing, these elements make it all the more necessaryto be more careful in preserving fiscal sustainability, since the fiscal policy, until now, was the sole meansof macroeconomic policies at the hands of the government.The objective of this paper is to present the proceedings of the Kosova fiscal policy and budgeting during2000-2007, as well as provide several recommendations which could result in an increased efficiency infiscal policy by generating budgetary revenues

  2. Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Discusses fiscal decentralization and economic development in developed and developing countries. Explores historical trends in fiscal centralization and puts them in context of the developing countries.

  3. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Agüera

    Full Text Available Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O

  4. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  5. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  6. "Can Expenditure Cuts Eliminate a Budget Deficit?: The Australian Experience"

    OpenAIRE

    George Argyrous

    1998-01-01

    Australia Governments since the late 1970's have attempted to eliminate the fiscal deficit through reductions in expenditure. These efforts have failed. With each successive business cycle the Federal Government's budget outcome has been an ever growing deficit. This paper explains the failure of the government to achieve its balanced budget objective through expenditure reductions. It argues that the impact of these expenditure reductions on the course of the business cycle and the long term...

  7. STRUCTURE-TOOL DISCREPANCIES IN PUBLIC BUDGET: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    AKBEY, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Throughout twentieth century, the budgetary theory has exhausted six budgeting systems including the Classical one. This means one budgeting system per about seventeen years in average, and there were three main causes of these rapid changes: First, the concept of “power of purse” has been evaluated rigidly against the “power of fiscal policy”, in contrast to transformations in economic conjuncture. Second, as a result of insistence on this rigid evaluation, and on classical liberal budgetary...

  8. ESTIMATES OF KRASNOYARSK REGION BUDGET LOSSES DUE TO THE TAX SHORTFALLS FROM BUSINESSES RELATED WITH A TEMPORARY DISABILITY OF SMOKING EMPLOYEES AND THE REDUCTION IN LABOR INTENSITY DUE TO THE SMOKING BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlovich Artuchov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate Krasnoyarsk region budget losses due to the shortfalls of taxes from businesses related with a temporary disability of smoking employees and the reduction of labor intensity due to the smoking breaks in 2011.In our work we used the method of economic losses estimation, developed by Conference Board of Canada.The following results were obtained. The estimation of tax shortfalls due to a temporary disability of smoking employees and decrease of labor intensity due to smoking breaks was carried out. It was obtained that Krasnoyarsk region budget losses as a result of the tax shortfalls are equal to 532.8 million rubles – due to increased sick absence risks among smokers and 3 414.3 million rubles – due to the lack of workers on the workplace during smoking breaks. Thus, it was found that the total budget losses of Krasnoyarsk region in 2011 reach 0.34% of the gross regional product.The obtained results can be used for the assessments of the economic losses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-22

  9. Fiscal Storms: Public Spending and Revenues in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan NOY; Nualsri, Aekkanush

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in both the social and natural sciences has been devoted to increasing our ability to predict disasters, prepare for them and mitigate their costs. Curiously, we appear to know very little about the fiscal consequences of disasters. The likely fiscal impact of a natural disaster has not been examined before in any comparable or comparative framework. We estimate and quantify the fiscal consequences of natural disasters using quarterly fiscal and disaster data for a large panel...

  10. "Fiscal Decentralization, Commitment and Regional Inequality: Evidence from State-level Cross-sectional Data for the United States"

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuo Akai; Masayo Sakata

    2005-01-01

    While conventional approaches to fiscal decentralization suggest that decentralization lowers the power of redistribution among regions, recent theories argue that fiscal decentralization works as a commitment device. In this manner, where the budget in a given region is highly dependent on transfers from the central government, there is an incentive for effort following fiscal decentralization. The former effect is argued to increase regional inequality, while the latter suggests a decrease ...

  11. Hydrogen program summary Fiscal Year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-03-01

    The annual program summary provides stakeholders within the hydrogen community with a snapshop of important advances that have occurred in the National Hydrogen Program over the fiscal year, including industry interactions and cooperation. The document will also be used to encourage additional potential industrial partners to join the Hydrogen Program Team. Fiscal Year 1994 marked a turning point for the Hydrogen Program, with a budget that grew significantly. The focus of the program was broadened to include development of hydrogen production technologies using municipal solid waste and biomass, in addition to an increased emphasis on industrial involvement and near-term demonstration projects. In order to maintain its near- and long-term balance, the Hydrogen Program will continue with basic, fundamental research that provides the long-term, high-risk, high-payoff investment in hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  12. Análisis del proceso de descentralización fiscal en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Vega Castro

    2008-01-01

    Peru is experiencing a deep political and fiscal decentralization process, especially since 2002. The newly created regional governments now share power and resources with the existing municipal governments as well as with the national or central government. The national government has transferred important responsibilities and fiscal resources to regional governments and also has reinforced local governments’ budgets. Both levels of subnacional governments have doubled their budget revenue...

  13. Estimating Evapotranspiration Over Agricultural Landscapes with Thermal Infrared Data: Towards the Comparison of Two Approaches Using Simple Energy Budget and Svat Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeard, G.; Coudert, B.; Jarlan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring presents wide range of applications from agriculture and water resources management to meteorology. Several approaches have been developed to retrieve ET based on a joint use of remote sensing data and land surface modeling, in particular with a SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfers) model or a SEB (Surface Energy Budget) model. The objective of our work is to estimate spatialized ET fluxes from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) imagery. We will focus on simulating fluxes at low resolution with 2 methodologies: 1- Simulating with a SEB model directly at low resolution (landscape scale: 4km) with TIR forcing. 2- Aggregating high resolution (agricultural field scale) estimates from a SVAT model constrained by TIR data and forced by a spatialized database (landcover, LAI, vegetation height and meteorological forcing). By doing a sensitivity analysis and comparing both approaches we will point out mechanisms that govern scale switching, and how high resolution "informations" and aggregation scenarios impact low resolution estimates. Within this preliminary study, we compare in-situ potentialities of a SEB model (TSEB) versus a SVAT model (SEtHyS). TSEB (Two Sources Equation Balance) is a model of turbulent exchange (Norman & al. 1995) partitioning the available energy between soil and vegetation and driven directly via remote sensing TIR sensors. SEtHyS (French acronym for soil moisture monitoring) is a SVAT model (described by Coudert & al. 2006) which is physically based and has more inputs and parameters requirements. Besides fluxes, it outputs brightness temperatures which can be compared and constrained with TIR data. Models fluxes simulations are compared to in-situ Eddy-Correlation (EC) fluxes measurement stations. Models are then compared performing a sensitivity analysis on their inputs and parameters so as to characterize their capabilities and behaviors, and quantify error ranges that will be induced by spatialization over

  14. The President's Budget: New Investments, a Vision for Vulnerable Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kisha

    2014-01-01

    President Obama's Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget, released on March 4, reflects the Administration's commitment to helping low-income individuals and vulnerable families access pathways to economic mobility, healthy development, and high quality of life. The budget proposal adheres to spending levels established in the Bipartisan Budget…

  15. 24 CFR 990.315 - Submission and approval of operating budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Financial Management Systems...: (1) Prior to the beginning of its fiscal year, a PHA shall prepare an operating budget in a manner prescribed by HUD. The PHA's Board of Commissioners shall review and approve the budget by resolution....

  16. Proposed State Budget Improves Outlook for Kids, but Leaves Much Work to Be Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the Administration's proposed state budget does not project a deficit. Painful budget cutting in recent years combined with voters passing Proposition 30 in November to generate revenues finally have put California on more stable fiscal ground. However, it is critical to recognize that kids have borne a…

  17. Zero-Based Budgeting: Application to Chicano Studies at a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pete R.

    Enrollment trends and zero-based budgeting techniques are employed to justify continued support of Rio Hondo College's Mexican American Cultural Institute. After introductory material discussing the usefulness of zero-based budgeting in assuring fiscal accountability, the report identifies three Chicano Studies alternatives: an Associate of Arts…

  18. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  19. Estimating ground-water exchange with lakes using water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches for ten lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L.A.; Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water budget and chemical mass-balance approaches were used to estimate ground-water exchange with 10 lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida. At each lake, heads were monitored in the surficial aquifer system and deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, lake stage and rainfall were measured continuously, and lakes and wells were sampled three times between October 1995 and December 1996. The water-budget approach computes net ground-water flow (ground-water inflow minus outflow) as the residual of the monthly waterbudget equation. Net ground-water flow varied seasonally at each of the 10 lakes, and was notably different between lakes, illustrating short-term differences in ground-water fluxes. Monthly patterns in net ground-water flow were related to monthly patterns of other hydrologic variables such as rainfall, ground-water flow patterns, and head differences between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The chemical mass-balance approach combines the water budget and solute or isotope mass-balance equations, and assumes steady-state conditions. Naturally occurring tracers that were analyzed for include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bromide, the isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18. Chloride and sodium were the most successful solute tracers; however, their concentrations in ground water typically varied spatially, and in places were similar to that in lake water, limiting their sensitivity as tracers. In contrast, the isotopes were more robust tracers because the isotopic composition of ground water was relatively uniform and was distinctly different from the lake water. Groundwater inflow computed using the chemical massbalance method varied significantly between lakes, and ranged from less than 10 to more than 150 inches per year. Both water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches had limitations, but the multiple lines of evidence gained using both approaches improved the understanding of the role of ground water in the

  20. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...

  1. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically...

  2. Improvement in C-budget estimation at a sub-arctic black spruce forest by application of field data to remote sensing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Miyata, A.

    2006-12-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) at a sub-arctic black spruce forest in interior Alaska has been measured as eddy fluxes since 2003. Based on the observed dataset, the empirical relationship and parameters controlling NEE were examined. BIOME-BGC model was modified for cold regions and was tuned for the forest, and then the model output was examined. Modified and tuned BIOME-BGC reproduced 3-yr trends of C-budget well at the forest, while that with general parameter sets showed overestimate in C-sink. To evaluate forest productivity over Alaska black spruce forest, the observed 3-yr dataset and MODIS standard products (NDVI, LST) were linked using an empirical model. Satellite images were coupled into a model, and the model outputs were examined by comparing the observed results and BIOME BGC outputs. The MODIS linked model provided good agreements in 3-yr C-budget, while MOD17 standard outputs showed overestimation in C-sink in mid-summer. The applications of observed dataset to remote sensing and modeling provided reasonable 3-yr trends of C-budget, thus the spatial distribution of C-budget might be better than original products.

  3. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  4. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  5. El carácter prociclico de la política fiscal: notas sobre la ley de prudcencia y transparencia fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jiménez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to describe the basic limitations of the current fiscal responsibility lawto deal with the economic recession due to its pro cyclical character. Section 2 contains atheoretical model, which relates the aggregate demand to the pro cyclical fiscal rule. Two casesof static comparative analysis are developed in section 3: external shock and monetary policyshock; and the possibility of a fiscal and monetary policy mix to reactivate the economy is alsoanalyzed. In section 4 contains the empirical evidence of the fiscal policy character in the lastdecade. Finally, a brief review on the application of the fiscal rules experiences is developed inthe last section, and some changes on the law are suggested in order to make it more credible andefficient for public budget management.

  6. Research spending up slightly in Energy Department's 1994 budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Hazel R. O'Leary says her department's proposed budget for fiscal 1994 reflects shifting priorities to meet the needs of a changing world. Thus, nuclear weapons programs, once defended as necessary to protect the nation's security, are being diminished or phased out while support for environmental programs is being increased. Caught in the middle is total R and D, which is slated to increase 2.8% to $7.4 billion in fiscal 1994. For fiscal 1994, President Bill Clinton is asking for a total of $19.6 billion for DOE, a 3% increase from fiscal 1993. According to O'Leary, DOE will place increased emphasis on developing new, clean, and renewable energy sources that meet national energy and economic requirements, and will spend more to increase energy efficiency and conservation

  7. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  8. The Political Economy of the Budget Process: The Case of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Mejía Acosta; Vicente Albornoz; María Caridad Araujo

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the main actors (formal and informal) involved in the budget-making process in Ecuador, and presents evidence regarding the main political and economic determinants of fiscal performance. It also discusses whether different political and institutional arrangements governing the budget process affect incentives for the composition of the budget. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the scholarly literature by analyzing the formal rules, incentives, and coalition dynamics of t...

  9. FY 1989 nuclear budget requests up 5.3%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiscal 1989 budget requests were presented by administrative organizations to the Ministry of Finance by the end of August. On September 9, the Atomic Energy Commission presented a report on 'nuclear energy related draft budget approximations', a systematic summary of the budget requests made by eight ministries and agencies relating to the utilization of nuclear energy. According to the report, the eight ministries and agencies, including the Science and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, requested a fiscal 1989 nuclear energy related budget of yen178,626 mil. in the general account (down 1.4% from 1988), and yen207,979 mil. in the special account for power resources development (up 11.8%), for a total of yen386,605 mil., an increase of 5.3%. Government guarantees for the coming years, making forward contracts possible for projects extending over two fiscal years or more, amount to yen55,285 mil. in the general account and 36,225 mil. in the special account, for a total of yen91,510 mil. Details of the budget approximation sought by the Science and Technology Agency (including the Japan atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are described. (N.K.)

  10. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  11. Fiscal Multipliers in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Pritha Mitra; Tigran Poghosyan

    2015-01-01

    Amid renewed crisis, falling tax revenues, and rising debt, Ukraine faces serious fiscal consolidation needs. Durable fiscal adjustment can support economic confidence and rebuild buffers but what is its overall impact on growth? How effective are revenue versus spending instruments? Does current or capital spending have a larger impact? Applying a structural vector autoregressive model, this paper finds that Ukraine’s near-term revenue and spending multipliers are well below one. In the me...

  12. Fiscal determinants of empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Raich, Uri

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment of local governments and citizens is a primary object of decentralization. Using the analytic lens of empowerment, the author explores the nature of decentralized governance and how this type of structure is likely to be more or less empowering. His primary concern is fiscal decentralization, specifically the association between fiscal determinants and the degree of empowerment of both citizens and local governments. The author's main argument is that both the revenue and expendit...

  13. Evaluating the performance of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN on water and energy flux estimation with a single- and a multi- layer energy budget scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiying; Ryder, James; Bastrikov, Vladislav; McGrath, Matthew J.; NAUDTS Kim; Otto, Juliane; Ottlé, Catherine; Peylin, Philippe; Polcher, Jan; VALADE Aude; Black, Andrew; Elbers, Jan A.; Moors, Eddy; Foken, Thomas; Gorsel, Eva van

    2016-01-01

    Canopy structure is one of the most important vegetation characteristics for land-atmosphere interactions, as it determines the energy and scalar exchanges between the land surface and the overlying air mass. In this study we evaluated the performance of a newly developed multi-layer energy budget in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems – CANopy), which simulates canopy structure and can be coupled to an atmospheric model using an im...

  14. Analysis of the Activity of Fiscal Control Carried out by the General Directorate of Public Financem Maramures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cucosel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, Fiscal control activities are carried out by the bodies of fiscal control within the Ministry of Public Finance and its territorial units called fiscal control bodies, and by the specialized services of the local administrative authorities in order to handle local duties and taxes. The fiscal control includes a set of activities whose purpose is to verify the authenticity, legitimacy and sincerity of the tax statements, to verify that the taxpayers comply with their budget obligations and activities of investigation and finding tax evasion. The taxpayers – physical persons or legal entities, foreign and domestic, and associations with no legal entity status are subject to fiscal control if they have budget obligations.

  15. New fiscal crisis Nueva crisis fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-01-01

    The fiscal deficit in Latin America is currently caused by the external and internal debt, and the fact that economic authorities have lost the ability to manage an important part of macroeconomic policy as a result of the process of decentralization. Along with less macroeconomic control, destabilizing factors increase due to the greater mobility of international financial markets, where any changein signals provokes abrupt and massive movements of capital in favor of or against a country. T...

  16. Does Fiscal Consolidation Really Get You Down? Evidence from Suicide Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Collins, Alan

    2014-01-01

    While linkages between some macroeconomic phenomena (e.g. unemployment, GDP growth) and suicide rates in some countries have been explored, only one study, hitherto, has established a causal relationship between fiscal consolidation and suicide, albeit in a single country. This study examines the impact of budget consolidation on suicide mortality across all Eurozone peripheral economies, while controlling for various economic and sociodemographic differences. The impact of fiscal adjustments...

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE ROMANIAN FISCAL LEGISLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Muntean; Doina Pacurari

    2008-01-01

    Fiscal policy constitutes – within the state's economic policy – a system by means of which the taxes and duties owed to the country's consolidated budget are established and collected. Taking into account the role fiscal policy has been playing since Romania's admission in the European Union, one of the goals ceaselessly looked for is its adapting to the international community's acquis through the implementation of the European directives in our context. The EU directives make reference to ...

  18. Analysis of Fiscal Deficit Sustainability in Nigerian Economy: An Error Correction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Oyeleke O. J; Ajilore O. T

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the sustainability of fiscal policy in Nigeria over the period of 1980-2010 to determine whether or not the government has violated intertemporal government budget constraint. Using error correction method of analysis, the study revealed that fiscal policy was weakly sustainable in the economy of Nigeria. This study therefore recommends that government should improve on her tax revenue generation and other source of income but limit her expenditure to growth enhancing p...

  19. Behavioral Pattern of Fiscal Policy Variables and Effects on Economic Growth: An Econometric Exposition on Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ismaila; Lawrence Ehikioya Imoughele

    2015-01-01

    The rationale of this study is to examine the effect of fiscal policy variables on economic growth in Nigeria. The fiscal policy variables considered in the study include government gross fixed capital formation, tax, government expenditure, budget deficit as well as external debt. The study covered the period 1986 to 2012. Unit roots of the time series were examined using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller technique after which the co-integration test was conducted using the Johansen Co-integration...

  20. Atomic energy policy in fiscal year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international demand and supply of petroleum advance in relaxed condition at present, but tend to get stringent in long term. Nuclear power is the most promising substitute energy for petroleum, and in Japan, 28 nuclear power plants with 20.56 million kW output are in operation, generating 20.4% of the total generated power in 1983. According to the perspective of long term power supply, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants will reach 62 million kW and 27% of the total installed capacity by 2000. It is important to positively deal with the industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the upgrading of nuclear power generation, the development of the reactors of new types and so on, preparing for the age that nuclear power generation will become the center of power supply. The atomic energy policy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in fiscal year 1985 is reflected to the budget, financial investment and funding and other measures based on the above viewpoint. The outline of the budget and financial investment and funding for fiscal year 1985 is explained. The points are the promotion of industrialization of nuclear fuel cycle, the promotion of nuclear power generation and the promotion of understanding and cooperation of nation on the location of electric power sources. (Kako, I.)

  1. Budgeting and Budgetary Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Budgetary institutions have historically played a critical role in a gradual movement toward responsive, responsible, and accountable public governance in industrial countries. This paper includes the following headings: overview; a primer on budgeting and budgetary institutions; the budget and its coverage; capital budgets -- theory and practice; budget methods and practices; a primer on ...

  2. Connecting Evaluation and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how evaluation is an essential tool for good budgeting and a core element of any well-designed government wide performance budgeting system. It is organized into 5 sections: (1) Evaluation and performance budgeting- the principle outlines the role which evaluation should, in principle, play in supporting good budgeting. It identifies the key ways performance informatio...

  3. Internal Communication During the Budgeting Process : -A case study of developing a model for factors affecting internal communications during the budgeting process

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Mikael; Chen, Xiaohang

    2014-01-01

    The budget is used in many organizations to estimate and control costs. The budgeting process requires extensive knowledge and information exchange between the budget setters in the organization. It is therefore critical for budget setters, often finance and line managers, to communicate and exchange knowledge to reach a budget for the upcoming period.   The aim of this thesis is to highlight both budgeting and internal communication findings from past research, and develop a model for how in...

  4. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  5. Work plan for defining a standard inventory estimate for wastes stored in Hanford Site underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan addresses the Standard Inventory task scope, deliverables, budget, and schedule for fiscal year 1997. The goal of the Standard Inventory task is to resolve differences among the many reported Hanford Site tank waste inventory values and to provide inventory estimates that will serve as Standard Inventory values for all waste management and disposal activities. These best-basis estimates of chemicals and radionuclides will be reported on both a global and tank-specific basis and will be published in the Tank Characterization Database

  6. Contingent government liabilities : a hidden risk for fiscal stability

    OpenAIRE

    Polackova, Hana

    1998-01-01

    This paper points out that Governments are facing increasing fiscal risks and uncertainties. Two of the reasons for this situation are: first, the international integration of financial markets, which has meant greater volumes and volatility of cross-border flows of private capital; and, second, the privatization of state functions, accompanied by implicit or explicit state guarantees. The third reason is that policymakers pursuing a balanced budget or some deficit target tend to favor off-bu...

  7. Incentives to provide local public goods: fiscal federalism, Russian style

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

    2000-01-01

    Based on a unique data set on Russian city budgets, this paper shows that revenue sharing between regional and local governments provides local governments with no incentive to increase tax base or provide public goods. Any change in local government’s own revenues is almost entirely offset by changes in shared revenues. This leads to governmental over-regulation of private businesses. It is shown that fiscal incentives are a determinant of the formation of private business and the efficiency...

  8. Using Financial Market Information to Enhance Canadian Fiscal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Huw Lloyd-Ellis; Xiaodong Zhu

    2004-01-01

    In this article we argue that the evaluation and implementation of Canadian fiscal policy could be significantly improved through the systematic use of information provided by global financial markets. In particular, we show how the information contained in internationally traded asset returns can be used to (1) provide a more meaningful cyclical-adjustment of the budget deficit, (2) assess the sustainability of the public debt, and (3) reduce the risk of the debt becoming unsustainable witho...

  9. The National Income Between Monetary and Fiscal Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-01-01

    Andersen and Jordan (1968) and Andersen (1971) argued that fiscal actions have a negligible effect on nominal income and can not sustain a stable and balanced economic growth. Also, they argued, along with other researchers who have embraced monetarism ideas from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, that the budget deficit presents negativeeffects in the economy that limit private investment. In this article, we analyzed the empirical relationship that is established between the tax actions...

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF THE FISCAL CONVERGENCE CRITERIA IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN TERMS OF THE SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty led to the creation of the EMU and the euro area has resisted more than some of its critics believed, in the context of major macroeconomic imbalances, the issue of nominal convergence has been the subject of numerous research. This paper aims to analyze the capacity of fiscal criteria to reflect the ability of EU Member States to achieve economic development for the integration in the EMU and to comply strict fiscal policy that governing its operation. In the context of certain technical deficiencies of fiscal criteria, we analyzed the developments of budget deficit and gross public debt in the EU during 2000 and 2012. The results show that until 2007 the EU economies were able, overall, to meet the budget deficit criteria, but due to the financial crisis and the prolonged slowdown in economic growth, the fiscal balance had an unfavorable evolution since 2008, while the evolution of the gross public debt has worsened increasingly. Due to this pressure situation on the sustainability of public finances, examining the adoption, application and enforcement of the fiscal policy rules expressed by the evolution of the Fiscal Rule Index for the period 2000-2011, the importance of rules in the fiscal management of the Union and especially of the euro area appears increasingly obvious.

  11. La política fiscal en economías exportadoras de materias primas. Evidencia para Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Luis N. Lanteri

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of external price shocks on fiscal policy in Argentina during the last two decades. The paper evaluates, through VAR models with long-term restrictions, the effects of the terms of trade, and the output gap, in revenues, expenditures and the primary fiscal deficit, for the period 1993-2015. The estimation results show that the fiscal policy would have been pro cyclical, since the expenditures and the primary fiscal deficit of the national government increased du...

  12. US Monetary and Fiscal Policies - conflict or cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshan Che; Eric M. Leepe; Campbell Leith

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature estimating DSGE models for monetary policy analysis ignores fiscal policy and assumes that monetary policy follows a simple rule. In this paper we allow both fiscal and monetary policy to be described by rules and/or optimal policy which are subject to switches over time. We find that US monetary and fiscal policy have often been in conáict, and that it is relatively rare that we observe the benign policy combination of an conservative monetary policy paired with a debt...

  13. THE ESSENCE OF FISCAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Comaniciu

    2008-01-01

    The existence of fiscal management determine the identification of the essential coordinates of it: the main objective; the sphere of action; essential characteristics; fundamental values; the main function; principles and legities. The essence of fiscal management represent its functions and on the basis of conceiving and exercising management from fiscality field resides an aggregate of principles. In this paper we will try to define the fiscal management, to identify the fundamental and sp...

  14. Evaluating fiscal equalization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Bert; Kadjatmiko; Kaiser, Kai; Suharnoko Sjahrir, Bambang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate fiscal decentralization focusing on the potential mis-targeting of intergovernmental fiscal equalization transfers. The approach builds on an explicit comparison and the summary measurement of different (horizontal) allocation distributions across states or localities. Whereas formula-based fiscal transfers have the merit of being transparent and promoting revenue predictability in fiscal decentralization, in practice, two challenges emerge: (1) W...

  15. The Design of Fiscal Adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Alesina, Alberto Francesco; Ardagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers three results. First, in line with the previous literature, we confirm that fiscal adjustments based mostly on the spending side are less likely to be reversed. Second, spending based fiscal adjustments have caused smaller recessions than tax based fiscal adjustments. Finally, certain combinations of policies have made it possible for spending based fiscal adjustments to be associated with growth in the economy even on impact rather than with a recession. Thus, expansionary ...

  16. Local debt: from budget responsibility to fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Dafflon, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In the past thirty years, local governments in most European countries have been granted at least limited access to borrowing. The rules in force include limitations on the amount of borrowing and/or debt service, restrictions on the purpose of debt and on borrowing from foreign institutions and/or from the central bank. The description of these rules and sanctions constitute the thrust of several academic studies on local borrowing and debt. What are the ingredients that make it work efficie...

  17. Fiscal Responsibility and Australian Commonwealth , State and Territory Government Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Wines

    2006-01-01

    The government sector in Australia has seen the introduction of accrual accounting principles in recent years. However, this process has been complicated by the presence of two alternative financial reporting frameworks in the form of a) the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) uniform framework and b) the accrual accounting rules specified in Australian professional accounting standards, principally AAS 31. While a variety of cash and accrual based measurements are available pursuant to these...

  18. LA RELACIÓN ENTRE EL GASTO PÚBLICO Y LOS MULTIPLICADORES DE LA POLÍTICA FISCAL BAJO COMPETENCIA MONOPOLÍSTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Angeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Usabiaga Ibáñez

    2001-01-01

    In this work we analyse the effects on fiscal policy effectiveness of different hypotheses on the perception of public expenditure by consumers in a double monopolistic competition framework. More precisely we study how the different specifications considered affect the values of fiscal policy multipliers –and especially the balanced budget multiplier-, the level of aggregate demand and the relation between the degree of monopoly power and fiscal policy effectiveness. In general we conclude t...

  19. Prudence and Opportunity: A Shadow Federal Budget for 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Laurin; William Robson

    2013-01-01

    Canadians can be proud of their country’s relatively strong recovery from the 2009 slump, but should not be complacent. Canada’s fiscal situation is strong only by comparison with the dire situations in other major advanced countries. Our national saving rate is too low to support needed investments. And economic and fiscal risks abroad cloud the outlook. The C.D. Howe Institute’s 2013 Shadow Budget protects Canada in the near term by accelerating the federal government’s planned return to bu...

  20. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  1. Fiscal Shocks and Fiscal Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd-Ellis, H.; Xiaodong Zhu

    1998-01-01

    We use the returns on a set of international financial securities to identify exogenous shocks to the Canadian federal surplus. We find that a large portion of the variation in the surplus can be replicated by a linear combination of these returns and that the rising debt observed in the 1980s and 1990s was a result of adverse exogenous shocks and a delayed response by the government to these shocks. We develop a formal framework to evaluate the potential gains from a fiscal risk management s...

  2. New fiscal crisis Nueva crisis fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal deficit in Latin America is currently caused by the external and internal debt, and the fact that economic authorities have lost the ability to manage an important part of macroeconomic policy as a result of the process of decentralization. Along with less macroeconomic control, destabilizing factors increase due to the greater mobility of international financial markets, where any changein signals provokes abrupt and massive movements of capital in favor of or against a country. This problem is aggravated by the dismantling of the principal regulations, especially those relating to exchange controls, foreign investment, and international trade. Fiscal policyends up defending the stability of the main economic variables, in anuncertain and unpredictable context determined by an autonomous finance capital. It defends the stability of three key prices: inflation, currency, and interest rateo An abrupt change in any of these may depreciate the real value of financial assets, with which financial wealth would disappear like foam.El déficit fiscal en América Latina se origina actualmente en las deuda externa e interna, y en que la autoridad económica ha perdido el manejo de una parte importante de la política macroeconómica como resultado del proceso de descentralización. A la par del menor control macroeconómico, los factores desestabilizadores aumentan por la mayor movilidad de mercados financieros internacionales, donde cualquier cambio en las señales suscita movimientos de capital abruptos y masivos en favor o en contra de un país. Este problema se agrava con el desmonte de las principales regulaciones, en especial a las referidas al control cambiario, la inversión extrnajera y el comercio internacional. La política fiscal termina defendiendo la estabilidad de las principales variables macroeconómicas, en un contexto incierto e impredecible determinado por un capital financiero autónomo. Defiende la estabilidad de tres

  3. Fiscal Forecasting in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carabotta, Laura

    2015-01-01

    [eng] The thesis “Fiscal forecasting in Italy” is comprised of three main chapters in which is analyzed, from an empirical point of view, several issues related to public finance forecasts, with an application to Italy. Chapter II, “Accuracy of fiscal forecasts in Italy” is focused on one of the most important aspects of the new Treaty: it requires that the decisions and recommendations taken by the European Commission are no longer be based on outcomes but on forecasts. In this chapter, I e...

  4. Sustaining Fiscal Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The current round of China’s economic development is expected to clear up in 2010, the final year of the country’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-10) that will pave the way for the next wave of economic growth. This year’s fiscal policies should follow several guidelines to lay a solid foundation for the stable and sustainable growth of the economy, writes Jia Kang, Director of the Research Institute for Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance, in a recent Guangming Daily article. Edited excerpts follow

  5. Sustaining Fiscal Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The current round of China's economic development is expected to clear up in 2010,the final year of the country's 11th Five-Year Plan(2006-10)that will pave the way for the next wave of economic growth.This year's fiscal policies should follow several guidelines to lay a solid foundation for the stable and sustainable growth of the economy,writes Jia Kang,Director of the Research Institute for Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance,in a recent Guangming Daily article.Edited excerpts follow:

  6. Global Fiscal Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    McKibbin, Warwick J.; Andrew B Stoeckel

    2011-01-01

    The build up in government debt in response to the ‘great recession’ has raised a number of policy dilemmas for individual countries as well as the world as a whole. Where the government fiscal stimulus was seen as necessary to restore confidence to markets and stimulate deteriorating economies in the aftermath of the ‘great recession’ by 2010 the massive fiscal stimulus programs and associated run-up in debt had, for many economies, become a confidence sapping exercise. This need for a chang...

  7. Consequences of the Adoption of European Fiscal Pact in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ispas Roxana,

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the implications that the signing of the European Fiscal Pact will have on Romania. At the same time are also taken into account the estimates of the European commission concerning GDP and the negotiation of the structural deficit level. The advantages and the disadvantages that influence Romania’s economy and some measures for increasing the incomes are also shown from the economical point of view. The fiscal governance pact of the European Union may have a posit...

  8. EFECTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FISCAL GOVERNANCE PACT ON ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Ispas

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the implications that the signing of the European Fiscal Pact will have on Romania. At the same time are also taken into account the estimates of the European commission concerning GDP and the negotiation of the structural deficit level. The advantages and the disadvantages that influence Romania’s economy and some measures for increasing the incomes are also shown from the economical point of view. The fiscal governance pact of the European Union may have a posit...

  9. Fiscal impacts model documentation. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fiscal Impacts (FI) Model, Version 1.0 was developed under Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program to aid in development of the MRS Reference Site Environmental Document (PNL 5476). It computes estimates of 182 fiscal items for state and local government jurisdictions, using input data from the US Census Bureau's 1981 Survey of Governments and local population forecasts. The model can be adapted for any county or group of counties in the United States

  10. Fiscal headwinds: Is the other shoe about to drop?

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Lucking; Wilson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal fiscal policy during the recession was abnormally expansionary by historical standards. However, over the past 2½ years it has become unusually contractionary as a result of several deficit reduction measures passed by Congress. During the next three years, we estimate that federal budgetary policy could restrain economic growth by as much as 1 percentage point annually beyond the normal fiscal drag that occurs during recoveries.

  11. FISCAL MANAGEMENT OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to analyze the taxation influence upon the company’s activity. Fiscal management is integrated into the company management and must therefore be defined in terms of general policy objectives of the company. The efficiency of fiscal policy is an essential element of fiscal management. This can be achieved directly (through the tax law that includes measures of fiscal incitement or indirectly (when the tax system offers a number of tax deductions for expenses, the possibility to cover losses from previous financial periods, the limitation of deductible expenses according to earnings before taxes etc.. The two forms of efficiency of fiscal policy are placed in the calculation of relations between fiscal management, strategic planning, tax risk and accounting. Fiscal policy should aim at the company’s research and to achieve optimal cost of taxation. This paper analyses the methods that the companies dispose of in order to reduce this cost.

  12. The Fiscal Placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Lipovská

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary fiscal policy is associated with long time lags that, according to many authors, prevent its efficient implementation during economic crises. Implementation lags, i.e. the lag between the day on which economic policymakers decide on a specific form of response to the actual economic situation and the day on which a relevant law takes effect, have the signalling function. In this article we analyse the implementation lag in the discretionary fiscal policy in the Czech Republic during economic crises. First, we present arguments according to which time lags are pro-cyclic and thus they prevent implementation of the discretionary fiscal policy. We will verify the grounds behind the arguments concerning the Czech economy. Furthermore, we focus on the reasons due to which the implementation lag may be neutral as concerns the economic cycle. In the third part, we present our own concept of fiscal placebo pursuant to which the implementation lag may have negative, neutral, or even positive impacts on the actual economy. We have demonstrated, that anti-crisis laws have taken effect, with a single exception, always only after the end of the recession to which they were supposed to react and the volume of the funds used by the government to achieve stabilization is relatively low.

  13. Assessing Swaziland’s Fiscal Sustainability and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mafusire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, Swaziland’s fiscal policy was extensively scrutinized following its worst fiscal crisis in decades. The impacts of fiscal adjustment on Swaziland’s growth, inflation, and sectoral allocations of resources were some of the issues analyzed. The fall in the Southern African Customs Union revenue receipts to levels below the trend line, for two consecutive years, and the fiscal challenges that followed were the main motivation behind this interest. This paper attempts to establish whether fiscal sustainability was threatened, and if so what were the policy options? Based on the results from econometric estimations, using a sample for the 1986 to 2012 period, I show that the country’s fiscal sustainability was not threatened. However, calculations of the tax gap and the primary gap covering the period 2000 to 2016 reveal that fiscal sustainability was threatened. Subject to the major drivers of government expenditure and revenue handles, it is concluded that, in the short run, the two needed to be realigned while also allocating more resources to support growth.

  14. 2017 Budget Outlays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  15. 2017 Budget Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  16. 2017 Budget Budauth

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This dataset includes three data files that contain an extract of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) budget database. These files can be used to reproduce...

  17. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  18. Budgeting in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk-Jan Kraan; Daniel Bergvall; Ian Hawkesworth; Philipp Krause

    2006-01-01

    This review of the Hungarian budget process was carried out in May 2006. The review covers budget formulation, budget execution, parliamentary approval, accounting and auditing, and sub-national financing. Hungary has modernised its budget process over the last ten years, first as part of the pre-accession programme and then, since EU accession in 2004, in connection with the Convergence Programme 2005-08. Nevertheless, there remain some shortcomings which include the focus on the actual (non...

  19. MICROCOMPUTER BUDGET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    McGrann, James M.; Kent D. Olson; Powell, Timothy A.; Nelson, Ted R.

    1986-01-01

    The enterprise budget, whole farm cash flow, and income statement are fundamental tools of farm and ranch management. The "Microcomputer Budget Management System" (MBMS) is a microcomputer software package that facilitates the storage and use of information for crop and livestock budgeting. It performs the calculations for several enterprise budgeting formats and for preparation of whole farm resource use reports and financial statements. The MBMS also includes internal machinery and irrigati...

  20. Performance Budgeting in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Çatak; Canan Çilingir

    2010-01-01

    The effective and efficient use of public resources has vital importance for Turkey. To serve this purpose, public financial management was reformed and a performance budgeting system was launched in Turkey. This article assesses the current situation of the implementation of the performance budgeting system in Turkey from the perspective of public administrations under the general budget. It examines all stages of the performance budgeting process (strategic planning, performance programming...

  1. Rescuing the concept of vertical fiscal imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Chanchal Kumar

    2007-01-01

    This article restores the concept of vertical fiscal imbalance (VFI) to its original meaning. The literature shows that there is neither a universally accepted definition of VFI nor a commonly accepted approach to measuring it. Estimates of VFI are derived, much like accounting or deficit measurements, by comparing the revenues and expenditures of two levels of government. VFI is, however, too nuanced an issue to be described by this kind of national accounting procedure. We argue that ease ...

  2. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  3. Zero Base Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarndal, Anne G.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional budgeting starts with the previous year's budget, but zero base budgeting demands that each activity be justified from "scratch," and establishes a number of increments for each unit, in order of priority. Given the set of increments and the money available, management can determine what activities to finance. (Author)

  4. School District Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  5. Budgeting in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Jón R. Blöndal; Daniel Bergvall

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses budgeting institutions, processes and practices at the federal level in Austria. Separate sections are devoted to the budget formulation process, the role of parliament, and various aspects of budget implementation and government management issues. Each section highlights the government’s reform agenda and current practices, and analyses the two vis-à-vis OECD best practices.

  6. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  7. Fiscal consolidation and unemployment: does EPL matter? A look at EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    Turrini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of fiscal consolidation on unemployment and job market flows across EU countries using a recent database of consolidation episodes built on the basis of a 'narrative' approach (Devries et al., 2011). Results show that the impact of fiscal consolidation on cyclical unemployment is temporary and significant mostly for expenditure measures. As expected, the impact of fiscal policy shocks on job separation rates is much stronger in low-EPL countries, while for high...

  8. Fiscal Decentralization, Rural Industrialization, and Undocumented Labor Mobility in Rural China (1982-87)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiu Por (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between fiscal decentralization, which gave greater rural industrialization and fiscal authority to local governments, and the emergence of rural-rural undocumented inter-provincial labor migration during China's initial reform period. A Heckman model is employed to correct for the zero observation problems and to consistently estimate the labor mobility with a modified gravity equation. Given the institutional barriers, the fiscal decentralization has two...

  9. Keynesian Fiscal Stimulus: What Have We Learned from the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence S. Seidman

    2012-01-01

    What have we learned from the Great Recession about Keynesian fiscal stimulus? This article contains five sections that develop the following five points: (1) There is confusion about what constitutes fiscal stimulus; (2) economists are deeply divided about fiscal stimulus; (3) A fundamental error has been committed by an influential economist in estimating the recession magnitude of the Keynesian multiplier; (4) A fundamental error has been committed by two influential economists in their an...

  10. Dual regime fiscal multipliers in converging economies - a simplified STVAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Bencik

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses fiscal policy effects over the business cycle in V4 countries using a simplified smooth transition VAR (STVAR) model. The estimated parameters imply a presence of two different regimes associated with recessions and expansions, leading to different impulse-response functions. Transformation of these functions to fiscal multipliers confirms a different nature of long run effects. In expansions, the fiscal multipliers peak below unity and diminish to zero. In recession, the ...

  11. "Keynesian Fiscal Stimulus: What Have We Learned from the Great Recession?"

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Seidman

    2011-01-01

    What have we learned from the Great Recession about Keynesian fiscal stimulus? This article contains five sections that develop the following five points: (1) There is confusion about what constitutes Keynesian fiscal stimulus; (2) Economists are deeply divided about fiscal stimulus; (3) A fundamental error has been committed by an influential economist in estimating the recession magnitude of the Keynesian multiplier; (4) A fundamental error has been committed by two influential economists i...

  12. Ajuste fiscal nos estados: uma análise do período 1998-2006 Fiscal adjustment in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wulff Gobetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a forma de enquadramento dos estados ao Programa de Ajuste Fiscal (PAF e à Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF, destacando seus impactos nas escolhas de alocação dos recursos públicos e na taxa de investimento. Os resultados obtidos após minucioso trabalho de depuração das bases de dados confirmam a melhoria da situação financeira de estados no período posterior à LRF, mas sugerem que existe um trade-off entre os indicadores fiscais, de um lado, e os investimentos e gastos em infraestrutura, de outro, exigindo uma reflexão sobre a qualidade e sustentabilidade do ajuste fiscal. Os dados orçamentários analisados também apontam evidências de contabilidade criativa.The objective of this article is to offer an analysis of the accommodation by Brazilian states with Fiscal Adjustment Program and with Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA, showing their impacts on the choices of public resources allocation and on the investment rate. The results obtained after detailed work of data depuration confirm the improvement of financial situation of the states in the period post FRA, but also suggest the existence of a trade-off between fiscal indicators and infrastructure investment, demanding a reflection about the quality and the sustainability of the fiscal adjustment. The budget data analyzed also indicate evidences of creative accountability.

  13. Inter Local Government Capital Budget Execution Comparism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Olurankinse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Unrealistic capital budgeting has long been the bane of social economic development in Nigeria and of course, at the local government level. Local governments are established with specific functions to assist the state and federal government to bring about effective rural development and good governance at the grassroots level. Approach: Both fiscal and physical evaluation of the performances of this tier of government in ondo state reveals a low level of performance both in terms of physical development and provision of social welfare services require to enhance the quality of life at the grassroots level. Those responsible for the management of funds at this level ascribed their poor performances to underfunding. This study therefore aims at finding out if truly this claim of underfunding is actually the cause of their poor performance. The study will look at the total capital budget allocation to some selected local governments visa is their actual spending. A sample of nine local governments was selected using random sampling technique based on their settlement pattern. Results: A comparative analysis was done to determine which local government has the largest rate of capital budget execution. The result shows that the local government with the least capital allocation has the largest rate of capital budget execution. Conclusion: The study concludes that the performance of any local government is not a function of availability of huge capital funds but ability to utilize the scarce resources to achieve optimum result.

  14. US fiscal regimes and optimal monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Mavromatis

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy in the US has been documented to have been the leading authority in the ‘60s and the ‘70s (active fiscal policy), while committing to make the necessary fiscal adjustments following Volcker’s appointment (passive fiscal policy). Moreover, while passive, US fiscal policy has at times fl

  15. Fiscal reaction under endogenous structural changes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Simonassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of fiscal policy in smoothing the impact of shocks such as the international financial and economic crises, the paper analyzes the sustainability of the Brazilian fiscal policy by taking into consideration the possibility of multiple endogenous structural breaks on the coefficients of government reaction function. From monthly data in the period 1991–2008, tests on the reliable estimates dictate the occurrence of structural change in May 1994, and another in February 2003. There has been a situation of fiscal solvency in Brazil, but only from May 1994 the hitherto innocuous actions of government to formulate policies on public debt turn out to be significant, as it rose twofold after February 2003. This reinforces the existence of a more flexible alternative to implement strategic policy in Brazil, if an eventual alternative for increasing public spending is a way of hindering the effects of international financial crises without compromising the fiscal targets.

  16. Impact of Fiscal Autonomy on Poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahir Faridi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an underdeveloped state with strong central government. At present there are three levels of government functioning in Pakistan i.e. the federal, provincial and the local. Due to the competence and distributional aspects, the resource allocation method always remained under discussion. Therefore, the present study focused on the role of fiscal autonomy in reducing poverty in Pakistan. Both expenditure and revenue indicators of fiscal policy are considered in this study. For the purpose of analysis, time series annual data from FY1972 to FY2010 is used. Ordinary least square technique is applied to estimate the effect of fiscal autonomy on poverty. The study concludes that the central government should transfer fiscal powers to lower tiers of government in order to reduce poverty in Pakistan.

  17. Budget Authority By Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The following summarizes the Department's funding and staffing requests for fiscal years 2013 through 2015. Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. This is...

  18. Medicaid Expenditures and State Budgets: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Marton, James; Wildasin, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid spending growth has made Medicaid a major element in state budgets; financial support from Federal matching grants is now a main component of state government revenues and of intergovernmental fiscal relations. We discuss recent, ongoing, and prospective reforms of intergovernmental finances and regulations, including the 1996 welfare reform, the introduction of Medicare Part D, Section 1115 waivers, SCHIP reauthorization, and a shift to block grants. Each would affect the assignment of...

  19. United States Department of Energy Budget Highlights FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    The President`s Fiscal Year 1994 budget request for the Department of Energy reflects the Administration`s goal of redressing the balance between the Nation`s energy and economic requirements and protection of the environment. The Department plans to undertake a careful restructuring of its national defense responsibilities, in line with post Cold War exigencies; contribute to the Administration`s deficit reduction objectives; and fulfill the President`s commitment to invest in science and technology development and transfer.

  20. Challenges, Growth and Opportunity: A Shadow Federal Budget for 2015

    OpenAIRE

    William B.P. Robson; Alexandre Laurin

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the C.D. Howe Institute’s annual Shadow Federal Budget lays out a prudent fiscal course in the face of a challenging world economic environment, bolstering the confidence of Canadians in the sustainability of their public finances. It supports economic growth with tax changes and investments that support business investment and job creation. And it enhances opportunities for Canadians by investing in their skills for the workplace and better preparing them for retirement. ...

  1. Aligning ICT with Financial Budgeting and Forecasting Business Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dhadwal, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on improvement of budgeting and forecasting process has direct and critical impact on organizational fiscal health. Pinning the future state timely drives efficiency, improves planning, and puts down the building stone for long term success and higher profit margins. The following research is based on the same principles. The research was done with organization’s business and IT team with a focus of providing suggestions that enable IT to be better aligned with financial budgetin...

  2. National Saving and Budget Deficits.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Robert

    1994-01-01

    It has been widely argued that government budget deficits reduce national saving. Estimated relations indicate otherwise, both for the traditional or conventional, 'official' measure of national saving and a broader, more relevant measure, encompassing government and household as well as private business investment in tangible capital. Greater price-adjusted, high-employment deficits, increases in the real monetary base, and declines in real exchange rates have all been associated with more s...

  3. A Strategy for Renormalizing Fiscal and Monetary Policies in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Cottarelli; José Vinãls

    2009-01-01

    In response to the worst economic crisis since the 1930s, government budgets and central banks have provided substantial support for aggregate demand and for the financial sector. In the process, fiscal balances have deteriorated, government liabilities and central bank balance sheets have been expanded, and risks of future losses for the public sector have increased.

  4. WHY IS THE FISCAL POLICY IMPOSED BY IMF PRO-CYCLIC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius-Corneliu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economies which appealed to the IMF loan faced difficulties related to financing the public and the private foreign debt. IMF imposed the promoting of a restrictive fiscal policy to the beneficiary countries, in order to decrease the budget deficit, e

  5. "THE FISCAL FACTS: Public and Private Debts and the Future of the American Economy"

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Galbraith

    2006-01-01

    Today's federal budget deficits are a preoccupation of many American citizens and more than a few political leaders. Is the American government going bankrupt? Does our fiscal condition warrant radical surgery, as some now prescribe? Or, are we in such deep trouble that there is no plausible route of escape?

  6. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  7. La sociologie fiscale.

    OpenAIRE

    LEROY Marc

    2009-01-01

    La sociologie fiscale questionne les relations fondamentales entre l’impôt, l’Etat et la société. Cet article présente une revue de la littérature et des problématiques envisagées dans leur aspect sociopolitique. Plusieurs représentations sociales sont considérées : l’impôt-contribution, l’impôt-échange, et l’impôt-obligation/contrainte/tribut, mais l’élaboration d’une typologie de l’Etat fiscal met l’accent sur l’impôt-contribution payé par le citoyen qui est capable d’altruisme pour finance...

  8. Mexico's Fiscal Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 21, no.6, 1987. Refereed Journal Article Mexico's current crisis has its origins in a number of structural conditions that developed in the 1970s. This paper examines one of these structural impediments, the country's fiscal disequilibrium. An empirical analysis of the country's tax structure indicates that there is ample scope for major tax reforms geared to introducing more responsiveness into the country's tax collection system. Given t...

  9. FISCAL RULES AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Perée, Eric; Välilä, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the link between fiscal rules and public investment both normatively and empirically. We first review the arguments for and against including public investment spending in a fiscal deficit rule. We then seek to assess the determinants of public investment, with a special focus on the role of the fiscal rules embodied in EMU. We conclude that there are practical difficulties precluding the introduction of a 'golden rule' and that there is virtually no evidence that EMU woul...

  10. Fiscal equalization under political pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Esteller-Moré; Umberto Galmarini; Leonzio Rizzo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the design of fiscal equalization transfers aimed at inter-regional redistribution in a setting in which special interest groups distort the fiscal policies of local governments. Equity always calls for tax-base equalization while efficiency calls for tax-base equalization of fiscal capacities backed by strong lobby groups and for tax-revenue equalization of those backed by weak lobby groups. Hence, it is optimal to rely only on tax-base equalization if the special interest groups ...

  11. Is Catalonia being fiscally mistreated?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    This note critically appraises the claim that Catalonia is being fiscally mistreated, both in terms of the financing of its regional government and in terms of its net fiscal balance with the Spanish Central Government. Its conclusion is that nationalist complaints regarding these matters are not well founded. Looking at the available data, Catalonia's fiscal situation is similar to that of other regions with similar levels of income per capita relative to the national average, both within Sp...

  12. Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B

    2011-01-01

    Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...

  13. Intergovernmental fiscal relations, 'Argentine Style'

    OpenAIRE

    Gordin, Jorge P.

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the explanatory power of two competing views about intergovernmental fiscal transfers; one emphasizing the traditional neoclassical approach to federal-subnational fiscal relations and the other suggesting that transfers are contingent on the political fortunes and current political vulnerability of each level of government. These models are tested using data from Argentina, a federation exhibiting one of the most decentralised fiscal systems in the world and severe imbala...

  14. Inflation, External Debt and Financial Sector Reform: A Quantitative Approach To Consistent Fiscal Policy With An Application to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Anand; Sweder van Wijnbergen

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents and applies an integrated framework to assess the consistency between fiscal deficits and other macroeconomic targets, such as output growth and the rate of inflation. The model centers around the government budget constraint and can be used to either derive the financeable deficit given inflation targets, or to derive an equilibrium inflation rate for which no fiscal adjustment would be necessary. The financeable deficit is defined as the deficit that does not require mor...

  15. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the US NRC's accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement

  16. Budget Management Performance Based On The Department Of Education Regional Konawe

    OpenAIRE

    Harmin Ramba; Suratman Nur; Alwi; Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the bureaucratic accountability that includes answerability and enforcement in the management of the Regional Budget in education Konawe southeast Sulawesi province. this study used a qualitative research approach with an instrumental case study strategy. Case in this study is the planning and implementation of Revenue and Expenditure Budget of fiscal year 2011. The unit of analysis of this research is an organization with a shot in the Departm...

  17. The Economic Effects of Constitutions: Do Budget Institutions Make Forms of Government More Alike?

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanaz, Martin; Scartascini, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential theoretical argument, presidential systems tend to present smaller governments because the separation between those who decide the size of the fiscal purse and those who allocate it creates incentives for lower public expenditures. In practice, forms of government vary greatly, and budget institutions -the rules according to which budgets are drafted, approved, and implemented- are one (of many) drivers of such variation. This paper argues that under more hierarchi...

  18. The OECD/World Bank Budget Database: The Current Database and Plans for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Anderson

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the contents of the current OECD/World Bank Database which consists of the following parts: 1) General Information; 2) Formulation;3) Budget Execution; 4) Accounting, Control & Monitoring Systems; 5) Budget Documentation & Performance Management; 6) Fiscal Relations Among Levels of Government; 7) Special Relationships/Issues. Also discussed are changes planned for the update of the database and next steps. This document was presented by the Public Management and Tr...

  19. Global carbon budget 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  20. "Fiscal Illusion Causes Fiscal Delusion - Please Be Careful!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo

    Although fiscal illusion was first articulated by Puviani (1903), it is a current issue, and its consequences are rather serious, as shown in this paper. Fiscal illusion enlarges the public sector but it can, by itself, be a considerable threat to the trust between the State and its citizens, ultimately promoting serious instability in economic cycles and in democratic institutions.

  1. Characterization of sediment sources, sediment budget estimations, consequences and implications for populations in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuignier, Jean-Marie; Penna, Ivanna; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Natural and human-induced erosive processes shape landscape by transferring masses from the mountain to downstream areas. They also impact population both located in the source areas of sediments as well as urban areas settle on the depositional area. Mountain areas in Bolivia present high surface dynamics and high rates of rural migrations, causing e.g. a significant increase of population in Cochabamba city in the last 20 years. This work aims to estimate the sediment production on the Jatún Mayu (Pankuruma) watershed in Cochabamba department taking into account the different origins of sediments. The population of this region is predominantly rural and quechua speaking. The region of study consists in a mountain area situated in the Andes with altitudes ranging from 2500 to 4600m. Field work on July 2014 and high resolution satellite image interpretation (2004 & 2009) allowed us to map and measure landslides and gullies. Almost a hundred of landslides are recorded mostly around the river channel in the middle and the lower part of the valley and provide a moving surface estimated at 3,15km2. Most of the gullies are situated in the upper part of the valley where the vegetation is less abundant on low-sloping agricultural lands. Photogrammetric reconstructions using camera and drone were the main method used to characterise some strategic points along the river in order to get dimensions of landslides, gullies, as well as the riverbed roughness, as the final goal was to model the flooding prone area at the mouth of the watershed, were migrants have been settling for the last years. A total of 9 points of interests along the river bed were surveyed and for each of them a square surface equal to 25m2 was analysed. Approximately 250 pictures by area were needed to estimate roughness along the channel. A flood model has been performed, by using the Riverflo-2D software, to produce a susceptibility map of the downstream region.

  2. Public budgets: New challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Attila, György

    2010-01-01

    Budgeting is passing through changes all over the world in order to find more efficient ways to guide public money usage. The last half of century gave us multiple examples of how to improve budgetary performance, but there are a lot to do in next decades to accomplish this goal. The challenges regarding public budgeting are: using accrual based budgeting, use performance information to determine the allocations for each agency, and strengthening the budgetary transparency.

  3. Land-use change alters New Zealand's terrestrial carbon budget: uncertainties associated with estimates of soil carbon change between 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In New Zealand, afforestation and reforestation of grazing land give rise to large (relative to national CO2 emissions) vegetation carbon (C) sinks. These land-use changes may, however, lead to losses of mineral soil C. Full C accounting may, therefore, require including mineral soil C losses if credits are awarded for vegetation C. To monitor soil C stocks and changes, we developed an IPCC-based soil Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) in which New Zealand is stratified by soil type, climate, land-use and an erosivity index (slope precipitation). Geo referenced soil C data were used to assign steady-state soil C stocks to various combinations of these factors (cells). We then used a General Linear Model to compare soil C between cells, and derived land-use effects (LUEs) from this analysis that quantify soil C changes that accompany land-use change. These LUEs were used to predict soil C changes resulting from land-use change between 1990-2000. We tested the CMS by comparing predicted soil C stocks, and changes in these stocks, against more detailed soil C data. Overall, soil C estimates obtained from the CMS are consistent with detailed, stratified soil C measurements at specific sites and over larger regions. However, for grazing-land to exotic-forest conversions, estimates of soil C changes are higher and more variable than those based on paired-site studies. Nationally, soil C losses of 0.9 ± 0.4 Tg C/yr for all land-use changes over the period 1990-2000 appear likely, with uncertainties arising mainly from estimates of changes in the areas involved, and LUE values for cells with limited soil C data. Changes in soil C in reforested land are likely to be small, but precise area changes, soil C data and detailed paired-site studies are lacking for this key land-use change. By contrast, biomass C accumulation in new exotic plantation forests (afforestation) and native reforestation are 6-9 Tg C/yr, with C accumulation by afforestation being well quantified. Detailed

  4. CAPITALIZATION OF FISCAL AND ACCOUNTING INTERFERENCES FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ CHILAREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As economic entities in Romania are still in a relationship of interdependence between the accounting interest and the fiscal one, it makes the application of one or another accounting treatment under different circumstances on the transactions specific to the activity have a certain influence on the information released by the financial statements, but also on the tax bases and hence on the fiscal cost. This article argues that the sustainability and performance of a business requires, in addition to the effective management of the economic and financial resources in order to maximise performance and to ensure the cash flows, that the management must take into account both the good informing of the information users through the financial statements, and proper management of the fiscal implications in order to record a fiscal cost as low as possible while respecting the legal framework so that the fiscal risk is avoided or reduced as much as possible.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  6. 75 FR 22689 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Western Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is Supplement No. 12 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2009 Revision, published July 1, 2009, at 74 FR...

  7. 77 FR 32178 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Fiscal Service Reinsuring Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Alterra Reinsurance USA, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is Supplement No. 20 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76...

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF FISCAL RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Cojan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the fiscal risk analysis, with emphasis on environmental and organizational factors, which should be taking into account in the risk management process. A special attention was given to the role of the fiscal policy and voluntary compliance related issues.

  9. Fiscal Content of Financial Programs Supported by Stand-by Arrangements in the Upper Credit Tranches, 1969-78 (Objectifs de finances publiques des programmes financiers soutenus par des accords de confirmation portant sur les tranches de crédit supérieures, 1969-78) (Componentes fiscales de los programas financieros respaldados por acuerdos de derecho de giro en los tramos superiores de crédito, 1969-78)

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Beveridge; Margaret R. Kelly

    1980-01-01

    The paper catalogs and analyzes the fiscal policy content of financial programs under the 105 stand-by arrangements in the upper credit tranches approved by the Fund's Executive Board in the ten years to 1978. A growing tendency toward use of a fiscal performance clause was observed, with the most usual clauses being the use of bank credit by the government or the size of the overall budget balance. Evidence is presented indicating a close association between observance of the fiscal performa...

  10. Nueva crisis fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo, César

    1996-01-01

    El déficit fiscal en América Latina se origina actualmente en las deudas externa e interna, y en que la autoridad económica ha perdido el manejo de una parte importante de la política macroeconómica como resultado del proceso de descentralización. A la par del menor control económico, los factores desestabilizadores aumentan por la mayor movilidad de los mercados financieros internacionales, donde cualquier cambio de señales suscita movimientos de capital abruptos y masivos en favor o en cont...

  11. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  12. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement to the President's Budget for FY 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC. National Science and Technology Council.

    This document is the annual report prepared by the Interagency Working Group on Information Technology Research and Development of the National Science and Technology Council. This report is a Supplement to the President's fiscal year (FY) 2002 Budget that describes the Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD)…

  13. Higher Education Budget Cuts: How Are They Affecting Students? Report 09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    The public higher education systems have received significant budget cuts in the 2009-10 fiscal year, with the University of California (UC) receiving $813 million less than in 2007-08, California State University (CSU) receiving $625 million less, and the community college system receiving $812 million less. It is important to understand the…

  14. 77 FR 59745 - Delegation of Authority Regarding Electric Reliability Organization's Budget, Delegation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... requires additional funding before or after the fiscal budget review process, it may file with the... this requirement are rules that are procedural, ministerial, or internal administrative and management... No. 486, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 30,783 (1987). \\14\\ 18 CFR 380.4(a)(1)....

  15. Uganda - Public Expenditure Review 2003 : Supporting Budget Reforms at the Central and Local Government Levels

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 Public Expenditure Review (PER) report addresses budget process challenges, at both the central and local government (LG) levels, highlighting the progress made, and identifying challenges for the future. The first chapter reviews country economic performance over the previous year and its implications for fiscal performance. In addition to tracking the various macroeconomic indi...

  16. 1979-80 Budget Process. Phase I: Educational Programs. Procedures Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Div. of Educational Planning and Development.

    As Proposition 13 necessitated more drastic curtailment of expenditures than had been anticipated when the modified zero-based operational plan for 1978-79 was devised, the budget development procedure was revised for 1979-80. The process is divided into three phases: educational programs, district fiscal plan, and the operational plan. This…

  17. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  18. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  19. Performance Budgeting in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Rikke Ginnerup; Thomas Broeng Jørgensen; Anders Møller Jacobsen; Niels Refslund

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and current content of the performance management system in the Danish central government. Since the 1980s, innovations have included results-based management, performance contracts, activity-based budgeting, accrual accounting and budgeting, and the use of evaluations and reports.

  20. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  1. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers. PMID:6660233

  2. Budget 2011: A budget lacking in ambition

    OpenAIRE

    Dolphin, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Growth is key to the government’s plans for the recovery. Tony Dolphin, Senior Economist at the Institute for Public Policy Research looks at this year’s budget and finds that while it may promote growth now, a broader strategy may be needed in the long term.

  3. On the potential of ICOS atmospheric CO2 measurement network for the estimation of the biogenic CO2 budget of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kadygrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance assessment of the European Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS atmospheric network for constraining European biogenic CO2 fluxes (hereafter Net Ecosystem Exchange, NEE. The performance of the network is assessed in terms of uncertainty in the fluxes using a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric inversion system assimilating hourly averages of atmospheric data to solve for NEE at 6 h and 0.5° resolution. The performance of the ICOS atmospheric network is also assessed in terms of uncertainty reduction compared to typical uncertainties in the flux estimates from ecosystem models that are used as prior information by the inversion. The uncertainty in inverted fluxes is computed for two typical periods representative of summer and winter conditions in July and in December 2007, respectively. These computations are based on a robust Observing System Simulation Experiments framework. We analyze the uncertainty in two-week mean NEE as a function of the spatial scale, with a focus on the model native grid scale (0.5°, the country scale and the European scale (including western Russia and Turkey. Several network configurations, going from 23 to 66 sites, and different configurations of the prior uncertainties and atmospheric model transport errors are tested in order to assess and compare the improvements that can be expected in the future from (1 the extension of the network, (2 improved prior information or (3 improved transport models. Assimilating data from 23 sites (a network comparable to present day capability with the estimate of errors from the present prior information and transport models, the uncertainty reduction on two-week mean NEE should range between 20 and 50% for 0.5° resolution grid cells in the best sampled area encompassing eastern France and western Germany. At the European scale, the prior uncertainty in two-week mean NEE is reduced by 50% (66%, down to ∼ 43 Tg C month-1 (resp. 26 Tg C month-1

  4. the fiscality, tool of an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies how the fiscality can be an adapted tool for the implementing of the french energy policy. The term fiscality designates here the fiscality of the energy production, consumption and use in the industrial fabrication processes. An evaluation of the french fiscality and the analysis of this accounting are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  5. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... the government's fiscal policy-making process.'' For the United States, reviews of the fiscal... Fiscal Transparency Report AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of State hereby presents the findings from the 2012 Fiscal Transparency review process in its first annual...

  6. Reconsidering to Fiscal Rules in European Union: Six-Pack and Evaluation of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Gok

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the EU has financial rules stipulated in the Maastricht Criteria, the 2008 global financial crisis had a negative impact on the financial performance of EU countries with reference to fiscal rules. Some EU member countries have slacked their fiscal policies, had budget deficit and postponed their fiscal rule policies to cope with global financial crisis. The fiscal rule is revived to establish fiscal discipline in EU member countries aftermath of financial crisis in Greece. Furthermore, the enormous levels of budget deficits in Portugal, Spain and Italian economies contributed the revival of discussions on harmonization to Maastricht Criteria. The EU Commission proposed a Six-Pack Application to effective co-ordination and monitoring of economic policies, on September 29th, 2010. The European Council approved the Six-Pack on October 4th, 2011, aiming to co-ordinate the economic policies of EU countries with reference to European Semester application. This paper aims to discuss the functionality and effectiveness of the Six-Pack Application and evaluate Turkey’s financial indicators with reference to the Six-Pack Application.

  7. Medicaid Expansion and Sales Tax Reform Dominate Arizona’s Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, David

    2015-01-01

    While Arizona’s Fiscal Year 2014 budget itself offered modest changes from 2012-2013, two budget policy areas became the battleground.  With the re-election of President Barack Obama in 2012, the biggest lingering question in the Republican-dominated state government was what would happen with Medicaid expansion.  Governor Jan Brewer chose the pragmatic path of seeking Medicaid expansion and eventually had to rely on Democrats for the votes to add it to the budget over leadership objections i...

  8. Proposed NASA Budget Includes Asteroid Capture but Cuts Planetary Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed 17.7 billion budget for NASA for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides 105 million for several asteroid-related initiatives, including preliminary studies for a potential mission that would capture an asteroid and drag it into orbit around the Moon. The agency's total proposed budget is down slightly compared to FY 2012 (see Table ; comparisons are to FY 2012 because government agencies had been operating on a continuing resolution for 2013 and final spending levels for 2013 were not available at the time the president released his proposed 2014 budget).

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF ACTORS IN THE MAKING OF THE BUDGET REVENUE OF REGIONAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research on the analysis of the policy making of the budget revenues and shopping area of Makassar city fiscal year 2009. One part of this research use approach to the actors and the relationships between actors in policy making. Within the framework of the system of policy making of Budget income and Expenditure area (Budgets Makassar city, this research is the description of the analysis of the local government and actors People’s Representative Council District Makassar city as policy makers in making Grant Makassar city

  10. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  11. Reference data about petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  12. FISCAL PRESSURE IN ROMANIA IN THE CURRENT PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal fiscal pressure threshold is difficult to determine given the conditions under which the state must ensure a balance between the goals to be funded, on account of the tax levies, and need to be available to the economic operators and the general public a sufficient portion of the income to continue their work. Practice has shown that an excessive taxation results in reducing budget revenue due to tax fraud and abstinence of tax payers. They will find ingenious ways to evade the payment of tax liabilities by non-taxable matter or by establishing their domicile for tax purposes in a country with low taxation.

  13. The National Income Between Monetary and Fiscal Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andersen and Jordan (1968 and Andersen (1971 argued that fiscal actions have a negligible effect on nominal income and can not sustain a stable and balanced economic growth. Also, they argued, along with other researchers who have embraced monetarism ideas from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, that the budget deficit presents negative effects in the economy that limit private investment. In this article, we analyzed the empirical relationship that is established between the tax actions and the long and short term national income in the U.S. economy and the economies of Eurozone.

  14. Tax-Credit Scholarships in Nebraska: Forecasting the Fiscal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to inform the debate over a proposal in Nebraska to give tax credits for contributions to organizations that provide scholarships to K-12 private schools. The study constructs a model to determine the fiscal impact of tax-credit scholarships on the state and on local school districts. The author estimates the impact that…

  15. Fiscal transparency, political parties, and debt in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    (at least for strategic reasons) tend to have higher deficits than left-wing governments, and that increasing political polarization increases debt accumulation. To test the predictions of the model, we construct a replicable index of fiscal transparency on 19-country OECD data. Simultaneous estimates...

  16. In Search of the Motives behind US Fiscal Macroeconomic Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Swank (Otto); J. Swank (Job)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper optimal control techniques are applied to estimate the motives behind US fiscal macroeconomic policy. Starting from a range of possible objectives and given the perception of policy makers about the environment in which they operate, the priorities of policy makers are esti

  17. Does fiscal cooperation increase local tax rates ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Charlot; Sonia Paty; Virginie Piguet

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of fiscal cooperation on local taxation in a decentralized country, using the French experience. We estimate a model of tax setting for local business tax using spatial and dynamic econometric techniques, for the period 1993-2003. We find first that reducing the number of municipalities is likely to limit tax competition and increase local business tax rates as a consequence. Second, we find that tax rates are higher when groups of local...

  18. CAPITAL BUDGETING DECISIONS-REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Gulia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available -The main objective of present study is to present review of literature related to capital budgeting decisions and to study the trends in using the capital budgeting techniques in depth. The study would facilitate the reader to know the past, current and future trend of capital budgeting techniques by the corporate houses. This study would provide guidelines to decision makers to make investing and financing decisions so that their profit get maximise at minimize risks.The secondary purpose of this study is to understand the rationale behind capital budgeting decisions. Whether such kinds of decisions affect the efficiency of the corporate houses. Efficiency either in terms of increase in revenue or decrease in costs of the operations. The benefits from large investments are received in some future period and the future is uncertain. For instance, a decision to acquire an asset that is going to last for 15 years requires a15-year forecast. A failure to forecast correctly will lead to serious errors which can be corrected only at a considerable expense. Future revenue involves estimating the size of the market for a product and the expected share of the firm in that. These estimates depend on a variety of factors, including price, advertising and promotions, and sales effort and so on. To what extend these estimates effect the quality of capital budgeting decisions is the more sophisticated way to explain the main objective of this study

  19. The Growing US Fiscal Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Shaviro

    2002-01-01

    The United States has a huge long-term fiscal gap, perhaps with a present value as great as $74 trillion. The US may thus be unable to continue meeting its current spending commitments without eventually enacting huge tax increases. The tax cut enacted in 2001 may have increased the fiscal gap by about $13 trillion, but the main cause of the gap is increasing life expectancy, which raises the cost of Social Security and Medicare. While the fiscal gap can in theory be eliminated at the stroke ...

  20. Performansın Mali Boyutu: Performans Esaslı Bütçe / The Financial Aspect of Performance: Performance Based Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Demokaan

    2015-01-01

    Performance-based budget has an important place in the post-1980 reform of the public administration. It adds an economic meaning to the public administration through effectiveness, efficiency and economy principles. The most important benefit of this budget type focuses output and outcomes more than input and processes. This situation provides the rational choices made in public spending and to enhance fiscal transparency and accountability. Performance based budget brings a broad range of p...

  1. Fiscal policy and economic adjustment in emerging economies: what happens after the economic reforms?

    OpenAIRE

    Domenica Tropeano

    2006-01-01

    Fiscal reform in developing countries has succeeded in increasing tax revenue from indirect taxes. Here it is assumed that those taxes will be transferred backwards to wages rather than forward to prices. This implies a certain degree of flexibility of nominal wages, which, however is not so unrealistic in informal sectors. Under these assumptions it is shown how some simple fiscal policies, such as a balanced budget expansion or an adjustment to a shock to the current account, work. The adju...

  2. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  3. Tax Smoothing with Stochastic Interest Rates: A Re-assessment of Clinton's Fiscal Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Huw Lloyd-Ellis; Shiqiang Zhang; Xiaodong Zhu

    2001-01-01

    The return to sound fiscal policy after the high budget deficits of the 1980s and early 1990s has been hailed by many as the Clinton administration's most important achievement. In this article, we evaluate post-war, US fiscal policy using an extension of Barro's (1979) tax-smoothing model, generalized to allow for stochastic variation in interest rates and growth rates. We show that the evolution of the US debt-GDP ratio has been remarkably consistent with the tax-smoothing paradigm, even du...

  4. Bank rescues and fiscal policy in the European Union during the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of the economic and financial crisis in 2008, the socalled Great Recession, has made that many European Union countries have made massive interventions in their banking and financial systems. These interventions have had a considerable impact in the public finances of these countries. The aim of the paper is to analyze the impact on the national public budgets of the measures of public support to problem financial institutions carried out between the years 2008 and 2013, and to study how this budgetary impact has affected to the fiscal imbalances and to the strategies of fiscal impulse and consolidation implemented along these years.

  5. Budgeting in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Anderson; Teresa Curristine; Olaf Merk

    2006-01-01

    Norway is a prosperous country with a healthy economy and a very high standard of living. Norway provides a truly unique example of long-term budgetary planning through its successful management of oil assets by means of the Government Pension Fund – Global. This article examines the annual budget process which is an important factor in the health of Norway’s public finances. The cabinet has a central role in formulating the budget via the annual budget conferences. Parliament has a strong fo...

  6. The capital budgeting manual

    OpenAIRE

    Segelod, Esbjörn

    1995-01-01

    There has been very many postal surveys of capital budgeting practice, but almost no studies of the written routines that fix the practice of those groups that use a capital budgeting manual. This article fills this vacuum by describing and analysing the capital budgeting manuals used by major Swedish groups, most of whom are multinationals. Changes in the manuals during the last 30 years are studied using hvo earlier Swedish studies of manuals from the 60’s and 70’s. Comparisons are made wit...

  7. Economic and Political Factors that Lead to the Budget Deficit in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chun Wai

    2006-01-01

    Despite the adverse impact of the budget deficit in Hong Kong has been alleviated since the economic recovery from 2003,the fiscal deficit may return when there is another downturn in the economy if the problem is not handled fundamentally. Based on the economic and political situation from 1998 to 2003, the factors that lead to the budget deficit in Hong Kong are analyzed in four perspectives, including (a) increase in public expenditure; (b) decrease in public revenues; (c) poor management of public money and (d) weak administration. With a better understanding on these factors,possible solutions to the fiscal problem faced by the government may be developed.

  8. CAPITALIZATION OF FISCAL AND ACCOUNTING INTERFERENCES FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dănuţ CHILAREZ; ENE George Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    As economic entities in Romania are still in a relationship of interdependence between the accounting interest and the fiscal one, it makes the application of one or another accounting treatment under different circumstances on the transactions specific to the activity have a certain influence on the information released by the financial statements, but also on the tax bases and hence on the fiscal cost. This article argues that the sustainability and performance of a business requi...

  9. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  10. Does Inflation Targeting Improve Fiscal Discipline? An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapsoba, René

    2011-01-01

    Based on panel data of 58 countries, of which 22 Inflation Targeters and 36 non Inflation Targeters, over the period 1980-2003, this paper highlights the effect of Inflation Targeting – IT- on Fiscal Discipline –FD-. We make four contributions to the literature. Firstly, by applying the 2SLS on the data, we estimate the effect of IT on central government FD as measured by Structural Primary Fiscal Balances. Secondly, we found that the effect of IT on FD takes place only on the Developing Coun...

  11. Strategic Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Fragetta; Tatiana Kirsanova

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies leadership regimes in monetary-fiscal policy interactions in three countries, the UK, the US and Sweden. We specify a small-scale, structural general equilibrium model of an open economy and estimate it using Bayesian methods. We assume that the authorities can act strategically in a non-cooperative policy game, and compare different leadership regimes. We find that the model of fiscal leadership gives the best fit for the UK and Sweden, while in the US the Nash or non-s...

  12. Fiscal policy and the duration of financial crises

    OpenAIRE

    Craigwell, Roland; Lorde, Troy; Moore, Winston

    2011-01-01

    Financial systems across the world have all come under pressure due to the on-going financial crisis. One of the most often asked questions during a collapse is how long and how deep will the decline be as well as what policy initiatives can be employed to shorten the recession. This study estimates a model of the duration of financial crises in an attempt to identify whether fiscal policy can reduce the time to recovery. The results suggest that fiscal shocks, which could provoke an overreac...

  13. Finanças públicas e evolução recente da noção de disciplina fiscal Public finance and the recent evolution of the concept of fiscal discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide César Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar a perspectiva de disciplina fiscal atualmente dominante, visando desnaturalizar essa questão tão dogmatizada pelo mainstream. O delineamento de dois contextos institucionais no âmbito da história recente do capitalismo mundial, segundo a concepção hegemônica no que tange à disciplina fiscal, permite identificar um primeiro contexto em que prevalece uma visão de disciplina fiscal frouxa e um segundo, no qual predomina a visão de disciplina fiscal forte, evidenciando o caráter historicamente datado dessa noção e a sua particularidade no contexto atual.The aim of this essay is to highlight the currently dominant perspective of fiscal discipline in order to denaturalize this question treated dogmatically by mainstream. The design of the two institutional contexts in the recent history of world capitalism, according to the hegemonic conception of fiscal discipline, identify a first context of soft budget constraint and a second of hard budget constraint, revealing the historically dated character of this notion and its particularity in the current context.

  14. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  15. Structural Estimates of Equilibrium Unemployment in Six OECD Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Albert van der Horst

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, neither unemployment rates nor institutions are uniform. In the EMU, countries have coordinated their monetary policy, and fiscal policy might follow. Does convergence in fiscal policy imply that unemployment rates will converge, too, or is diversified fiscal policy desirable? An answer to this question requires insight into the dependence on fiscal policy of the unemployment rate in equilibrium. This study estimates the equilibrium rate of unemployment and shows that it has been a...

  16. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  17. Gender budget pilot project

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Ursula; Pillinger, Jane; Quinn, Sheila; Cashman, Aileen

    2004-01-01

    This Report presents the findings of the first Irish research project on gender budgeting. It explores recent international and Irish experiences of strategies towards greater gender equality and develops a template for applying a gender budget approach in selected local development organisations. The research was funded by the Gender Equality Unit of the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform who have responsibility for promoting and monitoring gender mainstreaming in the Irish Natio...

  18. Intertemporal State Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Baker; Daniel Besendorfer; Kotlikoff, Laurence J.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents intertemporal budgeting as of 1999 for all 50 U.S.states. Intertemporal state budgeting compares the present value of a state's projected receipts with the present value of its projected expenditures (exclusive of interest payments)plus the current value of its net debt (liabilities minus assets). Our projections start with the 1999 U.S.Census Bureau's State Government Finances survey of receipts,expenditures,and debt.We group these highly detailed data into a framework th...

  19. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2011-01-01

    Organizers of China's upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys-low budget films-to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small-and Medium-Budget Film Prize of the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,which will kick off on October 19.

  20. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  1. Chicago, Keynes and Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez Caldentey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera mitad de la década de los años treinta los padres fundadores de la escuela de economía de Chicago y John Maynard Keynes en Inglaterra propusieron la puesta en marcha de trabajos públicos para combatir el desempleo y sobreponerse a la Gran Depresión. Frente a la rigidez de los precios de mercado y la impotencia de la política monetaria, la política fiscal contra cíclica pasó a ser vista como una estrategia viable y capaz de atenuar las fases del ciclo económico. A finales de la década tanto los economistas de Chicago como Keynes renunciaron al uso de este tipo de incentivos fiscales. Los economistas de Chicago centraron su rechazo en el potencial inflacionario de la política fiscal expansiva y enfocaron sus preocupaciones hacia los aspectos monetarios de la política fiscal. Por su parte Keynes mantuvo su apoyo a la política fiscal contra cíclica absteniéndose de recomendar los instrumentos que había propuesto anteriormente para combatir las fluctuaciones económicas. Utilizando el marco teórico que desarrolló en la Teoría General (1936, Keynes distinguió entre el presupuesto corriente y el de capital. El presupuesto corriente debía mostrar un equilibrio o un superávit con el fin de financiar el gasto en capital que actuaría como estabilizador del ciclo económico. Keynes distinguió así entre dos conceptos de política fiscal (la política fiscal compensatoria y la política fiscal basada en la programación de los gastos de capital. El segundo tipo de política fiscal, válido bajo la suposición de escasez del factor capital, suponía el rechazo de los instrumentos de estabilización fiscal de corto plazo (trabajos públicos y el uso de los impuestos para alterar los patrones de consumo. Más allá del punto de saturación del capital, la política fiscal podría cambiar su enfásis hacia el consumo y su rol compensatorio.

  2. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  3. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works. The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violate...

  4. Fiscal Aspects of Bank Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    James Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Governments frequently assist troubled banks. This paper examines the fiscal aspects of such assistance: rationale, design criteria, methods, and macroeconomic implications. It concludes that (1) banks should be assisted only when there is a clear systemic risk; (2) assistance should be tied to a comprehensive restructuring program, minimize fiscal cost, be equitable and transparent, prevent recurrence, and facilitate a sound macroeconomic environment; (3) debt-based assistance will worsen pu...

  5. Fiscal councils and economic volatility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geršl, A.; Jašová, M.; Zápal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2014), s. 190-212. ISSN 0015-1920 Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dynamic inconsistency * fiscal and monetary policy interaction * independent fiscal council Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.420, year: 2014 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1298_jasova.pdf

  6. Assessing Fiscal Risks in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Medina

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies, quantifies, and assesses fiscal risks in Bangladesh. By performing sensitivity analysis and using stochastic simulations, it measures risks arising from shocks to GDP growth, the exchange rate, commodity prices, and interest rates. It also analyzes specific fiscal and institutional risks, such as those related to the pension system, the issuance of guarantees, the state-owned commercial banks, and the external borrowing and debt management strategy. The paper finds that...

  7. Learning about Fiscal Policy Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Christian; Sablik, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In response to the financial crisis and recession of 2007-09, the federal government enacted a number of emergency fiscal policies intended to aid recovery. These included short-term stimulus measures, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and temporary tax reductions, such as the payroll tax cut in 2010. However, the unconventional and transitory nature of these fiscal policies may have contributed to greater economic uncertainty. Given the slow recovery that has follow...

  8. Hearing on Revenue Provision in President's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget. Testimony before the House Committee on Ways and Means. Statement of Rene Bouchard, District Superintendent, Steuben-Allegany Counties, and Chief Executive Officer, Steuben-Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Bath, New York on Behalf of National Rural Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Rene

    In an address to the House Ways and Means Committee on the Revenue Provision in the Year 2000 Budget, Rene Bouchard, CEO of Steuben-Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services, discusses the needs of rural schools and how the President's school modernization proposal would help them. Bouchard argues the need for federal assistance to school…

  9. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  10. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of... this notice in the Federal Register and will remain in effect until further notice. Pharmacy rates...

  11. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of... surgery rates remain in effect until further notice. Pharmacy rates are updated periodically. A...

  12. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military...

  13. Uncertainty and fiscal policy : The case of omitted variable bias

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that by omitting uncertainty when estimating the effects of a government spending shock on GDP could lead to biased estimates. The fiscal multiplier is how much an increase in government spending increases gross domestic product (GDP). There are two main theoretical views of looking at the economy: the neoclassical and the new Keynesian view. Neoclassical models predict multipliers that can be positive and negative depending on, among other things, the taxation system, becaus...

  14. The Impact of Legislature and Citizens on the Budgeting Process in Switzerland: Lessons for Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Tóth

    2005-01-01

    Scholars evaluating national and local budget procedures in Central and Eastern Europe generally advocate a greater role for legislative bodies and citizens. Mature federations and decentralised countries in Western Europe are often cited as prime examples of participatory budgeting which is supposed to lead to greater fiscal discipline, a better allocation of public resources and higher administrative efficiency. This paper investigates the strengths and weaknesses of legislative activism in...

  15. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  16. Considerations Regarding the Mix of Anticrisis Fiscal Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TALPOŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last centuries, it has been noticed that the economic activity does not unfold linearly, that the expansion periods are followed by a contraction of the economic activity, that the peak moments cannot be maintained endlessly and that, after recession, a relaunch of the economic activity may occur. The political and economical cycles, emphasized by the last decades, made people talk more about the countercyclical policies and about the behaviour of the politicians seen in strong connection with the behaviour of the voting population. To reduce the effects of the current crisis, the state uses fiscal incentives, this representing a combination of public expenses and a reduction of the taxes for the companies and the households which aims at the revival of the economic life, the increase of employment and the recovery of the business environment. The countercyclical policies are known and applied all over the world, each responsible government choosing those instruments of budget and fiscal policy which best match the concrete possibilities of economy and correspond with its political doctrines. Thus seen the mix of fiscal policies is firstly a political choice, but with a strong impact on the economy of a country.

  17. FY 1992 Budget committed to R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    President's Bush's Fiscal Year 1992 budget for research and development is clear proof of his commitment to R&D as a long-term investment for the next American century, according to D. Allan Bromley, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy. The FY 92 budget proposes to allocate $75.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $8.4billion, or 13% over the amount appropriated for FY 91. Calling it a “good budget,” Bromley revealed the specifics of research and development in the President's budget on February 4.Bromley believes that as a nation we are underinvesting in research and development,but sees the 1992 budget increases as concrete steps to address this problem. The newly organized and revitalized Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET)—an interagency forum of Cabinet secretaries, deputy secretaries, and the heads of independent agencies that reviews, coordinates, and helps implement federal science and technology policy-named three high-priority cross—cutting areas of R&D and organized special interagency programs in these areas. The areas are high-performance computing and communications, global change, and mathematics and science education.

  18. The Carbon Budget of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  19. The Effectiveness of a Fiscal Transfer Mechanism in a Monetary Union : A DSGE Model for the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Loes; Meijdam, Lex

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a transfer mechanism into a DSGE model with a rich fiscal sector to assess the effectiveness of fiscal transfers for a monetary union, in particular for the Economic and Monetary Union. Using a heterogeneous setup, the model is estimated for the North and the South of E

  20. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICIES ON PUBLIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Ciurlău

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy is the main component of financial policy. Being a component of economic policy, taxation must lead to economic objectives. Maintaining equilibria macroeconomic cannot be blamed solely in charge of monetary policy, fiscal policy and that the revenue must have a role in support and to bear the load efforts to stabilise. Large deficits are dangerous for current account, because they are associated with a greater risk of producing an adjustment steep in the exchange rate and high volatility of exchange rate has major implications on the stability and macroeconomic monetary, in general. This means that countries should his election budgets so as to cope with growing demand from the private sector and to take necessary safeguard measures against potential crises, whereas the extent fiscal deficit contributes directly to the magnitude current account deficit.