WorldWideScience

Sample records for budget estimates fiscal

  1. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  2. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  3. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 2: Construction of facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Construction of Facilities (CoF) appropriation provides contractual services for the repair, rehabilitation, and modification of existing facilities; the construction of new facilities and the acquisition of related collateral equipment; the acquisition or condemnation of real property; environmental compliance and restoration activities; the design of facilities projects; and advanced planning related to future facilities needs. Fiscal year 1994 budget estimates are broken down according to facility location of project and by purpose.

  4. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 1: Agency summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA FY 1994 budget request of $15,265 million concentrates on (1) investing in the development of new technologies including a particularly aggressive program in aeronautical technology to improve the competitive position of the United States, through shared involvement with industry and other government agencies; (2) continuing the nation's premier program of space exploration, to expand our knowledge of the solar system and the universe as well as the earth; and (3) providing safe and assured access to space using both the space shuttle and expendable launch vehicles. Budget estimates are presented for (1) research and development, including space station, space transportation capability development, space science and applications programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, space research and technology, commercial programs, aeronautics technology programs, safety and mission quality, academic programs, and tracking and data advanced systems; and (2) space operations, including space transportation programs, launch services, and space communications.

  5. Budget estimates: Fiscal year 1994. Volume 3: Research and program management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The research and program management (R&PM) appropriation provides the salaries, other personnel and related costs, and travel support for NASA's civil service workforce. This FY 1994 budget funds costs associated with 23,623 full-time equivalent (FTE) work years. Budget estimates are provided for all NASA centers by categories such as space station and new technology investments, space flight programs, space science, life and microgravity sciences, advanced concepts and technology, center management and operations support, launch services, mission to planet earth, tracking and data programs, aeronautical research and technology, and safety, reliability, and quality assurance.

  6. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  7. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation. Army Appropriation Fiscal Year 1984. Supporting Data Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress--February 1983. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    are to achieve greater reliablity, increased mobli ). and reduced life cycle costs through employing state-of-the-art technology , reduced weight and...Exploratory Application of High New pbop-, lo develop technologies to improve capabilities of the light fo re In Technology the 1990s and beyond. Budget Act...2. Advaneced Tedneleg naeege 63220A Adanced Rotororaft Technolog Now program to demeneIbats ting rotoreaf techpolog prior to englnsehn 83314A High

  8. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  9. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  10. California’s 2015-16 Budget: Fiscal Surpluses and Water Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    DiSarro, Brian; Hussey, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    California’s budget politics were temporarily sidetracked by an increasingly severe statewide drought, forcing the state to take action. Democratic lawmakers elected new leadership, who, like their predecessors, argued the state should increase social spending. The major budget clash centered on California’s booming economy and what to do with a large projected tax surplus. The legislature wanted to spend the revenue, while Governor Jerry Brown downplayed the fiscal estimates and wanted to sq...

  11. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  12. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run outp

  13. Fiscal Decentralization and Soft Budget Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev Andrey

    2002-01-01

    Liberalization policies of transition have led to the mass reduction of enterprise subsidization which prevailed in socialist economies. However, in some sectors of the economy, subsidies associated with price controls remain due to "social" and "political" factors. Moreover in multi-tier governments, subnational levels seem to be more sensitive to these factors because of their proximity to the constituency. Thus decentralization of fiscal resources might interfere with the elimination of re...

  14. Threat to AIDS funding continues past fiscal 1996 budget battles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M

    1996-01-01

    AIDS community advocates face an ongoing battle to gain funding for AIDS research, care, and prevention within the upcoming 1997 fiscal year. The level of uncertainty experienced by the advocates has never been this high. The Democrats' and Republicans' call for a balanced budget will hurt AIDS programs, and domestic discretionary spending will be severely restricted in fiscal years 1996 to 2002. The challenge to AIDS advocates is to try to preserve the integrity of vital programs and safeguard the already fragile AIDS care infrastructure.

  15. Review of the President’s Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request for the Defense Health Program’s Private Sector Care Budget Activity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-28

    2009 budget request for the Defense Health Program’s Private Sector Care BAG. To do this, we reviewed (1) DOD’s justification for the request for the... Private Sector Care BAG, including the underlying estimates and the extent to which DOD considered historical information; and (2) changes between this...develop the budget requests for the Private Sector Care BAG in fiscal years 2008 and 2009. We also interviewed officials and analyzed documents from

  16. Fiscal policy in Indonesia: Analysis of state budget 2017 in Islamic economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jaelani, Aan

    2016-01-01

    This study of fiscal policy in State Budget (APBN) 2017 that the task of the Indonesian government to run them to create prosperity for the community. The state budget is prepared using the rules of public economics consisting of state revenues, state expenditures, and budget financing have the posture of the budget, the issues of fiscal policy, and the role of the government in carrying out its functions. With the analysis of Islamic economics, fiscal policy in the State Budget 2017 is the d...

  17. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1993 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1992 Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    060425 Budget Activity: #4 - TcicalP ams PE Title: Integrated Electronic Wmunicaions Nqavigation Idenification (EW/CNID Development (U) FY 1991...dCvO.op and evaluate advanced electronic Jamit concepts, system and supporting technologies. Ts R&D effort mist be performed in a Top Secret (TS

  18. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply & Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tire Sharing Terminal). 4. Program Decreases 5. VY 1q84 President’s Budget Request S4L, TIT. Performance Criteria and Evaluation Field Operations The...and Evaluation FV 19R2 FY 1983 V 1Q84 Utilities (I) (Work Units) Steam & Hot Water (Total) MBT11 IR,2Q9 19,00 IQ,non (2) Purchased Other Sources MBTI

  19. Governors' FY 1998 Education Budgets Focus on Property Tax Cuts and Enrollment Changes. State Fiscal Brief, No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Schieder, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Donald J.

    This report summarizes the proposed budgets for U.S. public elementary and secondary education for fiscal year 1998 and describes the budgets and the major factors that influence those budgets. It is the second in a series of "State Fiscal Briefs" on education finance by the Center for the Study of the States. The report is primarily based on…

  20. State and Local Finances and the Macroeconomy: The High–Employment Budget and Fiscal Impetus

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Follette; Kusko, Andrea L.; Byron F. Lutz

    2008-01-01

    We use two measures of fiscal policy—the high–employment budget and fiscal impetus—to examine the interplay of the macroeconomy and state and local government budgets. We find that each one percent increase in GDP raises state and local net saving (as measured in the NIPA) by 0.1 percent of GDP through the automatic cyclical response of taxes and expenditures. We also find that the sector’s budget policies have been modestly pro–cyclical: The direct contribution to growth in real GDP has been...

  1. Structural breaks and fiscal sustainability of the Indonesian government budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantia S. Mokoginta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify government policy regimes or structural breaks as indicated by significant changes in debt to GDP ratio and to identify fiscal sustainability in Indonesia from 2000 to 2013. Using Fiscal Reaction Functions framework and Smooth Transition Regression, the study found two structural breaks following the three regimes. Foreign debt repayment dominates the government policy during Regime I. Fiscal consolidations and discipline such as reducing energy subsidies in 2002 and 2005, managing debt portfolio and increasing government revenues were dominant during Regime II. In Regime III, the government increases domestic debt, particularly to finance stimulus package. This study also found that the Indonesian fiscal is unsustainable during the period of study. Overall, the findings seem to suggest that managing government debt through fiscal consolidations, foreign debt repayment and debt portfolio management is not sufficient to achieve long-term fiscal sustainability.

  2. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3: Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8: Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9: Administration & Assoc Acts. Budget Activity 10: Support to Other Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    1982 Budget Man Costs 5) Officer Retention$ 6) Enlisted Retention 1/ (116) (123) 7) Submarine Motivatio 2/ 79 42 UDT/SEAL 3/ 44 42 8) Officer/Enlisted...Costs 5) Officer Retention -7W ~ 4§ 4 6) Enlisted Retention 1/ 216 266 216 271 7) Submarine Motivatio 2/ 81 44 81 45 UDT/SEAL 3/ 44 43 44 44 8) Officer

  3. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  4. FY 1997 Year End Budget Summary. State Fiscal Brief No. 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Schieder, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Donald J.

    This report summarizes the status of states' budgets at the end of fiscal year 1997. The year's strong national economy boosted tax revenues and helped to decrease welfare rolls. Unemployment at the end of 1997 was below 5 percent nationally and real GDP growth was 3.5 percent for the first 3 quarters of the year. These indicators translate into…

  5. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    at the Beginning of the Year Changes to Debt Held by the Public Deficit or surplus (-) CHAPTER ONE THE BUDGET OUTLOOK 21Figure 1-5. Debt Subject to...Standardized- Budget Deficit (-) or Surplusa Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Standardized

  6. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  7. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012 to 2022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    substantially as a percentage of GDP, decrease spending significantly from projected levels, or adopt some combi - nation of those two approaches...prepared by the Budget Analysis Division, supervised by Peter Fontaine, Theresa Gullo, Holly Harvey, Janet Airis, Tom Bradley, Kim Cawley, Jean Hearne

  8. Neo-isolationism, balanced-budget conservatism, and the fiscal impacts of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G A; Espenshade, T J

    1997-01-01

    "A rise in neo-isolationism in the United States has given encouragement to a new fiscal politics of immigration. Growing anti-immigrant sentiment has coalesced with forces of fiscal conservatism to make immigrants an easy target of budget cuts. Limits on legal alien access to social welfare programs that are contained in the 1996 welfare and immigration reform acts seem motivated not so much by a guiding philosophy of what it means to be a member of American society as by a desire to shrink the size of the federal government and to produce a balanced budget. Even more than in the past, the consequence of a shrinking welfare state is to metamorphose legal immigrants from public charges to windfall gains for the federal treasury."

  9. Tax Smoothing Discretion Versus Balanced Budget Rules in the Presence of Politically Motivated Fiscal Deficits: The Design of Optimal Fiscal Rules for Europe after 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, Giancarlo; Roubini, Nouriel

    1992-01-01

    We analyse the arguments in favour and against binding fiscal rules such as those recently agreed by European countries as preconditions for participation in the third phase of the European Monetary Union. The evidence in the paper suggests that a number of EC countries are following unsustainable fiscal policies and that this `deficits bias' may be partly due to political distortions. Binding balanced budget rules would eliminate the deficits bias that appears in the presence of such distort...

  10. Medicare program: data, standards, and methodology used to establish fiscal year 1994 budgets for fiscal intermediaries and carriers--HCFA. Final notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-14

    This notice is published in accordance with sections 1816(c)(1) and 1842(c)(1) of the Social Security Act which require us to publish the final data, standards, and methodology used to establish budgets for Medicare intermediaries and carriers. In this notice, we respond to the comments received in response to our notice of October 5, 1993 and we announce the adoption of the proposed data, standards, and methodology that we used to establish the Medicare fiscal intermediary and carrier budgets for fiscal year (FY) 1994, beginning October 1, 1993, as final and without revision.

  11. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh G. Tali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  12. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  13. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-05-12

    The Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Budget-Risk Management Summary report is prepared to support the annual request to sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex by DOE, Headquarters. The request requires sites to provide supplementary crosscutting information related to ES&H activities and the ES&H resources that support these activities. The report includes the following: (1) A summary status of fiscal year (FY) 1999 ES&H performance and ES&H execution commitments; (2)Status and plans of Hanford Site Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup activities; (3) Safety and health (S&H) risk management issues and compliance vulnerabilities of FY 2001 Target Case and Below Target Case funding of EM cleanup activities; (4) S&H resource planning and crosscutting information for FY 1999 to 2001; and (5) Description of indirect-funded S&H activities.

  15. Primary surplus and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary surpluses for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate t...

  16. Primary balance and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary balances for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate th...

  17. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Military Construction, Navy Reserve 21,708 26,299 26,299 26,299 Military Construction, Air Force Reserve 25,986 33,620 33,620 33,620 Chemical Demil ...Air Force Reserve 7,634 Chemical Demil Construction, Defense 75,312 13,071,701 Appropriation 13,071,701 Budget Authority 13,071,701 TOA...7.00 3.00 Defense Prod Act 59.00 25.00 16.00 Chemical Demil 53.00 30.00 15.00 2.00 RDT&E Army 34.28 48.72 11.33 3.17 1.70 0.80 Navy 36.87 50.51 9.82

  18. Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994. Budget Estimate Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    found in mollusk shells or in magnetite-forming bacteria . - (U) Develop advanced coating concepts for high-temperature, carbon/carbon composite...strain of bacteria can remove a series of toxic heavy metals from contaminated solutions. - (U) Determined the neurochemicals which regulate biological...El Segundo, CA; TASC, Reading, MA; TAU Corp., Los Gatos , CA; and Veda Inc., Dayton, OH. (U) Related Activities: (U) PE 0602204F, Aerospace Avionics

  19. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  20. The Role of the Institute of Fiscal Constitution in the System of Public Budgets in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPÍŠIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the long run, public budgets in a great majority of developed economies suffer from recurring deficits and an increasing public debt. However, the condition of public finance deteriorated even in times of economic conjuncture, so the onset of the crisis in 2008 caught most of the developed world without financial reserves, or the so-called fiscal cushion. Thus most EU countries now fail to fulfill both the Maastricht Convergence Criteria and the Fiscal Compact Treaty, even if these are binding legal norms of the EU. Despite this, some EU countries voluntarily accepted a sort of financial debt cap, which the government of the Czech Republic accepted in February 2015 in the form of the so-called financial constitution, which contains a whole range of mechanisms at all levels of public budgets and public expenditures with a public debt in the amount of 55% of the GDP. The goal of this contribution is to analyze the content of the financial constitution, assess its structure and the aspects of its process application, and through selected public budgets also its possible influence on the whole economy. The content of the financial constitution shall also be compared to similar mechanisms abroad, especially in the neighboring countries.

  1. THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF FISCAL CONSTITUTION IN THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC BUDGETS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPÍŠIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the long run, public budgets in a great majority of developed economies suffer from recurring deficits and an increasing public debt. However, the condition of public finace deteriorated even in times of economic conjuncture, so the onset of the crisis in 2008 caught most of the developed world without financial reserves, or the so-called fiscal cushion. Thus most EU countries now fail to fulfill both the Maastricht Convergence Criteria and the Fiscal Compact Treaty, even if these are binding legal norms of the EU. Despite this, some EU countries voluntarily accepted a sort of financial debt cap, which the government of the Czech Republic accepted in February 2015 in the form of the so-called financial constitution, which contains a whole range of mechanisms at all levels of public budgets and public expenditures with a public debt in the amount of 55% of the GDP. The goal of this contribution is to analyze the content of the financial constitution, assess its structure and the aspects of its process application, and through selected public budgets also its possible influence on the whole economy. The content of the financial constitution shall also be compared to similar mechanisms abroad, especially in the neighboring countries.

  2. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  3. Proposal for the implementation of a fiscal rule system for Romania. Estimate for the reaction of the fiscal rule system to the output’s shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides arguments for the need to improve the fiscal rule proposed by the European Commission within the Fiscal Compact, considering the implementation of an augmented growth-based balance rule optimum for Romania. The first part of the paper presents the proposal for the implementation of an integrated system of fiscal rules in Romania. In the second part of this paper, we can find simulations for the reaction of the fiscal rule system proposed for the shocks occurring in the economic growth, these estimates being made by the help of the specialists from the National Forecast Commission

  4. The Impact of Fiscal Governance on Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    Does fiscal governance affect government borrowing costs? We operationalize fiscal governance as the ability of governments to pass a budget on time and, using a unique data set on budget enactment dates, analyze the effect of such late budgets on government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample...... of 36 US states in the period 1988-1997, we estimate that a budget delay of 30 days has a long run impact on the yield spread between 2 and 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity in the form of large reserves face small or no costs from late budgets....

  5. States' FY 1998 Education Budgets Increase 7.2%. State Fiscal Brief, No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, David S.; Schieder, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Donald J.

    This report, third in a series on education finance, examines U.S. education budgets recently passed by state legislatures and contrasts them with proposed gubernatorial budgets. The generally strong economy allowed state legislatures to increase total state FY 1998 education spending by over $2 billion (1.5 percent) from governors' own proposed…

  6. Estimating simple fiscal policy reaction functions for the euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a simple fiscal policy reaction function for the euro area and individual euro area countries. Our reaction function allows for primary surpluses to feature three components: an anti-cyclical response of primary surpluses to the output gap, a response to the debt-GDP ratio, and an exogenous fiscal policy shifter. In line with the cyclical adjustment literature and in contrast with much of the previous time-series literature, we find a consistently strong anti-cyclica...

  7. BUDGET ISSUES AND FISCAL POLICY IN ROMANIA AND IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on one of the priority themes of any governance, namely public administration reform, a particular importance being its financial component. In terms of austerity in which public authorities operate in Romania, balancing local budgets is a current topic and strongly debated. It is a clear difference between earning income communities and communities of sufficient own funds set up not doing any maintenance to cover the village. Communities who occupy the first places have economic, social, demographic benefits, that enable continuous development. Although there is always the tendency to criticize communities that do not have sufficient income,it must be seen that in Europe today the basic concept that builds on development theory is economic and social cohesion. It is believed that the uneven development of the territories actually reflect the economic weaknesses of the combination of which led to political and economic instability. An alternative to this situation is the solidarity of local communities, calculated to maintain a balance between both communities. It is believed that overall healthy economic development can be achieved by a balanced territorial development, and not by widening the existing gaps. In this paper we conducted an analysis of revenues and expenditures of local budgets in Romania, the time interval, 2013-2015, and each party's share of the local budget both in GDP and in the general consolidated budget. Analysis based on the data allows the expression of conclusions on the implementation of revenue and expenditures of local budgets.

  8. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  9. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  10. The Effect of Fiscal Rules on Public Investment if Budget Deficits are Politically Motivated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); B.D. Peletier; O.H. Swank (Otto)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractUncertainty about the future preferences of the government may induce policy makers to run excessive budget deficits. As a solution to this problem, economists have proposed to impose a binding debt rule. In this paper we argue that a binding debt rule does not eliminate the distortions

  11. Budget Policy, Deficits, and Defense: A Fiscal Framework for Defense Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    healthcare entitlements―and Reagan’s refusal to increase the largest revenue source―individual income taxes. From GRH to OBRA. Since Reagan and...Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (popularly known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings [ GRH ] for its Senate sponsors) mandated that the budget be balanced over a...were required to enact spending and tax laws that complied with a specific deficit ceiling.16 If they failed to do so, GRH provided for automatic

  12. Fiscal year 1997 budget battles begin as the President unveils his proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton's proposals to balance the budget include spending reductions in Medicare, Medicaid, and welfare programs. Many of these proposed changes translate into reduced funding for AIDS-related services. Tables show the specific programs that face a funding threat under the new bill, and show the financial impact on specific programs. A discussion of how each agency will be impacted by the changes in funding is included.

  13. STEWB - Simplified Transient Estimation of the Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P. D.; Simmons, C. S.; Cady, R. E.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    A simplified model describing the transient water budget of a shallow unsaturated soil profile is presented. This model was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the time-varying net infiltration at sites containing residual levels of radioactive materials. Ease of use, computational efficiency, and use of standard parameters and available data were requirements of the model. The model's conceptualization imposes the following simplifications: a uniform soil profile, instantaneous redistribution of infiltrated water, drainage under a unit hydraulic gradient, and no drainage from the soil profile during infiltration. The model's formulation is a revision of that originally presented by Kim et al. [WRR, 32(12):3475-3484, 1996]. Daily meteorological data are required as input. Random durations for precipitation events are generated based on an estimate of the average number of exceedances per year for the specific daily rainfall depth observed. Snow accumulation and melt are described using empirical relationships. During precipitation or snowmelt, runoff is described using an infiltration equation for ponded conditions. When no water is being applied to the profile, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage occur. The ET rate equals the potential evapotranspiration rate, PET, above a critical value of saturation, SC. Below this critical value, ET = PET*(S/SC)**p, where S is saturation and p is an empirical parameter. Drainage flux from the profile equals the hydraulic conductivity as represented by the Brooks-Corey model. The model has been implemented with an easy-to-use graphical interface and is available at http://nrc-hydro-uncert.pnl.gov/code.htm. Comparison of the model results with lysimeter measurements will be shown, including a 50-year record from the ARS-Coshocton site in Ohio. The interpretation of parameters and the sensitivity of the model to parameter values will be discussed.

  14. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1983 Submitted to Congress February 1982. Part 2 (Missiles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Procurnmunt, Army 0 FES 62 Program and Firnning (in thousands of dollarsI 5983 Fiscal year program Budget plan (amounts for Obligations idantification...computer simulation model . 2. Without these contract services, there would be no independent means of determining the suitability of software prior to its

  15. On the Budget Control of Fiscal Subsidy in China%论我国财政补贴的预算控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕清正

    2015-01-01

    财政补贴是财政支出的一种类型,预算控制是控制财政补贴支出的重要途径.在预算编制过程中,我国应继续强化财政部门的主导权,控制预算支出的具体名目.在预算审议的过程中,补贴支出采取分项审议和表决,科目和金额的调整必须由立法机关审批,禁止人大对补贴支出的增额修正权.在预算执行过程中,我国立法应当规定预算的变更均属于预算调整并加以规范,建立补贴备案.此外,还应完善财政信息公开和公民参与预算决策.%Fiscal subsidy is a type of financial expenditure, while budget control is an important approach controlling the expendi-ture of fiscal subsidy. In the process of budget planning, China should continuously enhance the dominance of financial depart-ments and control the details of budget expenditure. In the pro-cess of budget approval, the subsidy expenditures are reviewed and voted in accordance with different items, and the adjustment of items and amount of money should be examined and approved by legislative organs, and the supplementary amendment right of the People's Congress in subsidy expenditure is prohibited. In the process of budget enforcement, the law should regulate that the changes of budget all belong to budget adjustment and subsidy records should be established.

  16. The Role of Budget Stabilization Fund: Fiscal Reserves or Budget Readjustment?%预算稳定调节基金:财政储备还是预算调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凌波

    2012-01-01

    Budget stabilization fund is generally considered to be an important tool for counter- cyclical fiscal policy. The establishment of budget stabilization fund in China is not only to control and make a good use of excessive budgetary revenues, but also to establish fiscal reserves for emergency. Various functions of budget stabilization fund also bring many contradictions and controversy to its own running. Since budget stabilization fund will be written into the budget law, identifying the nature and role of the fund has become an urgent practical problem. This paper analyzes the generation, operation and effects of budget stabilization fund in China. It is pointed out that budget stabilization fund is considered more as a method of budget readjustment than as fiscal reserves. The urgent task is to formulate a regulation of the fund management.%预算稳定基金一般被认为是逆周期财政政策的重要工具,而在中国,引入预算稳定调节基金,首先是为了解决财政超收的治理问题,同时也承担着财政应急储备的功能。政策效用的多重性,为预算稳定调节基金这一工具提供了坚实的基础和充分的空间,但也给其自身运行带来许多矛盾和争论。随着预算稳定调节基金写入预算法,究竟是财政储备还是预算调节,基金的性质和走向已然成为当前迫切需要明确的现实问题。本文从财政储备调节理论出发,结合我国的财政预算管理实践,对预算稳定调节机制的产生、运行及其效果进行了分析,提出我国的预算稳定调节基金应尽可能更多地发挥预算调节作用,同时具备一定的应急储备功能。当前,预算稳定调节基金应尽快制定完善管理办法、规范运行。

  17. Fiscal Transparency and Economic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops indices of fiscal transparency for a broad range of countries based on the IMF's Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency, using data derived from published fiscal transparency modules of the Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSCs). The indices covers four clusters of fiscal transparency practices: data assurances, medium-term budgeting, budget execution reporting, and fiscal risk disclosures. More transparent countries are shown to have better credit...

  18. Fiscal Year 1985 Congressional budget request. Volume 1. Atomic energy defense activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Contents include: summaries of estimates by appropriation, savings from management initiatives, staffing by subcommittee, staffing appropriation; appropriation language; amounts available for obligation; estimates by major category; program overview; weapons activities; verification and control technology; materials production; defense waste and by-products management; nuclear safeguards and security; security investigations; and naval reactors development.

  19. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  20. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... leadership accountable. The International Monetary Fund defines fiscal transparency as ``the clarity... practices. To meet the minimum standards of fiscal transparency, budget data generally should be... Fiscal Transparency Report AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  1. Estimation of IT energy budget during the St. Patrick's Day storm 2015: observations, modeling and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Meng, X.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Tsurutani, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present estimates for the energy budget of the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm. Empirical models and coupling functions are used as proxies for energy input due to solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Fluxes of thermospheric nitric oxide and carbon dioxide cooling emissions are estimated in several latitude ranges. Solar wind data and the Weimer 2005 model for high-latitude electrodynamics are used to drive GITM modeling for the storm. Model estimations for energy partitioning, Joule heating, NO cooling are compared with observations and empirical proxies. We outline challenges in the estimation of the IT energy budget (Joule heating, Poynting flux, particle precipitation) during geomagnetic storms.

  2. A Review of Release Fiscal Budget and Final Account Information to the Public%财政预决算信息公开问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 邓可可

    2015-01-01

    本文从预决算信息公开的概念、重要性、评估、建议四个方面,对预决算信息公开问题进行综述。预决算信息公开在保障公众知情权,加强监督、防治腐败,加快政府转型、促进“服务型”、“责任型”政府建设,推动政治体制改革、提高政府治理能力,实现“中国梦”方面具有重要意义。预决算信息公开的评估主要是根据具体原则要求,设立相对应的评价指标体系进行评估。建立预算公开的顶层制度设计、完善预算公开的相关法律法规、提高预算信息公开的质量和获取的便利性、引入公民参与机制等措施能够提升预决算信息公开的程度。通过综述,得出,即重视和分析预算、决算两方面信息的重要性,并对其进行对比绩效分析来促进财政信息公开。%This article reviews release fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public from four aspects, Which are concepts , importance, estimates and suggestions. Release fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public do good to protect the right of the public, strengthen supervision and prevent corruption, accelerate the transformation of the gov-ernment to promote the“service and responsible”state-building, promote political reform and improve the capacity of adminis-trative governance , realize“China Dream”. Budget and final accounts information disclosure evaluation is mainly based on the requirements of specific principles set up corresponding evaluation index system for evaluation. Establish the top-level system design of budget openness, perfect relevant laws and regulations, improve the quality and the convenience of budget informa-tion's openness, and introduction the mechanisms of citizen participation, all these can enhance the degree of releasing fiscal budgets and final accounts information to the public. By review, we can obtain the paper's innovations, that is paying

  3. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  4. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  5. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget C

  6. 75 FR 26780 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Families State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2011 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP... Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Community Services,...

  7. A numerical study on dust devils with implications to global dust budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimates of the contribution of dust devils (DDs) to the global dust budget have large uncertainties because the dust emission mechanisms in DDs are not yet well understood. In this study, a large-eddy simulation model coupled with a dust scheme is used to investigate DD dust entrainment. DDs a...

  8. A partial budget model to estimate economic benefits of Lactational treatment of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2005-01-01

    linical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is rarely treated during lactation because it is widely believed to be uneconomical, although there are no economic studies that support this view. Partial budgeting was used to develop a deterministic simulation model to estimate the net cost or benefit of ant

  9. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  10. Fiscal sustainability and fiscal policy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    (relative to GDP) needed to meet the intertemporal budget constraint. While a very useful metric it also suffers from some problems, and the paper discusses some of the problems with this metric as a way to assess fiscal sustainability problems. A particular important issue is the extent to which the S2......Analyses of fiscal sustainability have become integral parts of fiscal policy planning due to high debt levels and projected demographic changes. A popular metric by which to evaluate sustainability gaps is the so-called S2 metric given as the permanent change in the primary budget balance...... indicator can be given a normative interpretation, and this issue is extensively discussed. The paper ends by discussing the formulation of fiscal policy targets to ensure fiscal sustainability....

  11. Institutions improving fiscal performance: Evidence from Swedish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts of interest within hierarchic government organizations regarding the importance of fiscal discipline create the need for institutions that curb the bargaining power of units in charge of implementing policy and align their incentives to the interests of the whole organization. We examine...... this general public sector problem by collecting unique data on budget institutions and conflicts of interest within the Swedish municipalities. Our estimations suggest that institutions pertaining to both the planning stage and the implementation stage of the budget process are important for fiscal...

  12. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  13. Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Estimates Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster Assistance, and Civic Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    109,731 2,300 -4,369 107,662 * The FY 2010/2011 Actual column includes obligations for the Haiti Earthquake and Pakistan Flooding Disaster Relief...of severe natural and man-made disasters such as the Pacific Tsunami (2005), Pakistan Earthquake (2006), Burma Cyclone (2007), Georgia conflict (2008... Haiti Earthquake (2010), and Pakistan Flooding (2010) the U.S. military has and will continue to be called upon to provide aid and assistance

  14. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 2: Mission support and Inspector General

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The mission support appropriations provides funding for NASA's civil service work force, space communication services, safety and quality assurance activities, and for maintenance activities for the NASA institution. These objectives are accomplished through the following elements: safety, reliability, and quality assurance; space communication services; research and program management; and construction of facilities.

  15. A Cost Estimation of Biofuels for Naval Aviation: Budgeting for the Great Green Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    At the same time, increased use of domestic biofuels ( ethanol and biodiesel )…expanded domestic supplies and reduced the need for imports” (EIA, 2011...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Cost Estimation of Biofuels for Naval Aviation: Budgeting for the Great...Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2009 titled “Near-Term Feasibility of Alternative Jet Fuels.” Over the past three years, multiple MIT theses

  16. Estimating Heat Fluxes by Merging Profile Formulae and the Energy Budget with a Variational Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述文; 邱崇践; 张卫东

    2004-01-01

    A variational technique (VT) is applied to estimate surface sensible and latent heat fluxes based on observations of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity, respectively, at three heights (1 m, 4 m, and 10m), and the surface energy and radiation budgets by the surface energy and radiation system (SERBS). The method fully uses all information provided by the measurements of air temperature, wind, and humidity profiles, the surface energy budget, and the similarity profile formulae as well. Data collected at Feixi experiment station installed by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) Program are used to test the method. Results show that the proposed technique can overcome the well-known unstablility problem that occurs when the Bowen method becomes singular; in comparison with the profile method, it reduces both the sensitivities of latent heat fluxes to observational errors in humidity and those of sensible heat fluxes to observational errors in temperature, while the estimated heat fluxes approximately satisfy the surface energy budget. Therefore, the variational technique is more reliable and stable than the two conventional methods in estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  17. Estimation of the long-term nutrient budget and thresholds of regime shift for a large shallow lake in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Xiangshen; Dong, Lin; He, Wei; Wang, Qingmei; Mooij, Wolf M.; Xu, Fuliu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we apply an integrated empirical and mechanism approach to estimate a comprehensive long-term (1953–2012) total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loading budget for the eutrophic Lake Chaohu in China. This budget is subsequently validated, firstly, by comparing with the

  18. Estimation of the long-term nutrient budget and thresholds of regime shift for a large shallow lake in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; Dong, Lin; He, Wei; Wang, Qingmei; Mooij, W.M.; Xu, Fuliu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we apply an integrated empirical and mechanism approach to estimate a comprehensive long-term (1953-2012) total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loading budget for the eutrophic Lake Chaohu in China. This budget is subsequently validated, firstly, by comparing with the avail

  19. The Considerations of the Superintendent in the Development of the School Budget during Times of Fiscal Constraint: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    John Smith is the superintendent of Green Hill Public Schools. This case study follows John through the whole budget process from July 2011 to July 2012. An interpretative perspective was used to tell his story. Ten interviews were given from October 2011 to July 2012. Newspaper articles and the minutes from meetings were analyzed and used as…

  20. Estimation of nitrogen budgets for contrasting catchments at the landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vogt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of nitrogen (N flows at the landscape scale is fundamental to understand spatial interactions in the N cascade and to inform the development of locally optimised N management strategies. To explore these interactions, complete N budgets were estimated for two contrasting hydrological catchments (dominated by agricultural grassland vs. semi-natural peat-dominated moorland, forming part of an intensively studied landscape in southern Scotland. Local scale atmospheric dispersion modelling and detailed farm and field inventories provided high resolution estimations of input fluxes. Direct agricultural inputs (i.e. grazing excreta, N2 fixation, organic and synthetic fertiliser accounted for most of the catchment N inputs, representing 82% in the grassland and 62% in the moorland catchment, while atmospheric deposition made a significant contribution, particularly in the moorland catchment, contributing 38% of the N inputs. The estimated catchment N budgets highlighted areas of key uncertainty, particularly N2 exchange and stream N export. The resulting N balances suggest that the study catchments have a limited capacity to store N within soils, vegetation and groundwater. The "catchment N retention", i.e. the amount of N which is either stored within the catchment or lost through atmospheric emissions, was estimated to be 13% of the net anthropogenic input in the moorland and 61% in the grassland catchment. These values contrast with regional scale estimates: Catchment retentions of net anthropogenic input estimated within Europe at the regional scale range from 50% to 90%, with an average of 82% (Billen et al., 2011. This study emphasises the need for detailed budget analyses to identify the N status of European landscapes.

  1. An algorithm to estimate the heating budget from vertical hydrometeor profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Lang, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometeor profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a nonhydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algoritm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

  2. Fiscal year 1999 budget request for the Department of Energy. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, US Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, March 4, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This contains statements on the US DOE budget request for fiscal year 1999 by Hon. Daniel K. Akaka, Hawaii, Hon. Jeff Bingaman, New Mexico, Hon. Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Colorado, Hon. Larry E. Craig, Idaho, Hon. Slade Gorton, Washington, Hon. Rod Grams, Minnesota, Hon. Tim Johnson, South Dakota, Hon. Frank H. Murkowski, Hon. Federicao Pena, Secretary, Department of Energy, Hon. Gordon H. Smith, Oregon, Hon. Craig Thomas, Wyoming.

  3. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece's organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, nearly half of the gains from the measure's application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government's revenue, i.e., losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers' high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure's inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy's deprivation of useful resources.

  4. Estimating the fiscal effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos eSouliotis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country’s economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, near half of the gains from the measure’s application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government’s revenue, i.e. losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers’ high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure’s inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy’s deprivation of useful resources.

  5. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Views on the Administration’s Fiscal Year 1989 Public Health Service Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    police, and providers of allied health care, such as social workers, therapists , aides, and laboratory personnel. The report emphasized that a well- 1...million is also requested for bioethics and biosafety projects. Expert Views The state and local public health officials believe that patient care...million for AIDS services and drug treatment demonstration projects, $3 million for bioethics and biosafety (unchanged from the PHS budget request), and

  6. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  7. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Extract for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    5.1 10.2 Social Security Amendments of 1983 ....1 24.6 30.9 23.4 23.8 25.2 54.4 Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983...provided in Part 4 of the 1984 Budget. Detailed discussions of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, the Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983...Amendments of 1983 2 ............ 10.9 11.8 14.5 17.2 18.1 Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983

  8. Budget, fiscal and monetary policy in Poland and demand for transport – forwarding – logistics industry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic policy of a country does not always have an effect on the demand for transport. The lack of a clear relation between the nature of macroeconomic policy and changes in demand for transport services is a consequence of the overall complexity of the economic system. It can also be a result of the lack of consistency between budget and monetary policy. Macroeconomic policy as a tool to control global demand only indirectly affects the changes in demand for transport. Transport activity is in fact determined by changes in the real economy, which directly influence the increase or decrease in demand for transport services.

  9. Chemical Data Assimilation Estimates of Continental US Ozone and Nitrogen Budgets during INTEX-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert B.; Schaack, Todd K.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Kittaka, Chieko; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Natarajan, Murali; Olson, Jennifer; Soja, Amber; Zapotocny, Tom; Lenzen, Allen; Stobie, James; Johnson, Donald; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Thompson, Anne; Cohen, Ron; Dibb, Jack E.; Crawford, James H.; Rault, Didier F.; Martin, Randall; Szykman, James J.; Fishman, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Global ozone analyses, based on assimilation of stratospheric profile and ozone column measurements, and NOy predictions from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) are used to estimate the ozone and NOy budget over the Continental US during the July-August 2004 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A). Comparison with aircraft, satellite, surface, and ozonesonde measurements collected during the INTEX-A show that RAQMS captures the main features of the global and Continental US distribution of tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy with reasonable fidelity. Assimilation of stratospheric profile and column ozone measurements is shown to have a positive impact on the RAQMS upper tropospheric/lower stratosphere ozone analyses, particularly during the period when SAGE III limb scattering measurements were available. Eulerian ozone and NOy budgets during INTEX-A show that the majority of the Continental US export occurs in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere poleward of the tropopause break, a consequence of convergence of tropospheric and stratospheric air in this region. Continental US photochemically produced ozone was found to be a minor component of the total ozone export, which was dominated by stratospheric ozone during INTEX-A. The unusually low photochemical ozone export is attributed to anomalously cold surface temperatures during the latter half of the INTEX-A mission, which resulted in net ozone loss during the first 2 weeks of August. Eulerian NOy budgets are shown to be very consistent with previously published estimates. The NOy export efficiency was estimated to be 24 percent, with NOx+PAN accounting for 54 percent of the total NOy export during INTEX-A.

  10. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Reconciled climate response estimates from climate models and the energy budget of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Hawkins, Ed; Stolpe, Martin B.

    2016-10-01

    Climate risks increase with mean global temperature, so knowledge about the amount of future global warming should better inform risk assessments for policymakers. Expected near-term warming is encapsulated by the transient climate response (TCR), formally defined as the warming following 70 years of 1% per year increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, by which point atmospheric CO2 has doubled. Studies based on Earth's historical energy budget have typically estimated lower values of TCR than climate models, suggesting that some models could overestimate future warming. However, energy-budget estimates rely on historical temperature records that are geographically incomplete and blend air temperatures over land and sea ice with water temperatures over open oceans. We show that there is no evidence that climate models overestimate TCR when their output is processed in the same way as the HadCRUT4 observation-based temperature record. Models suggest that air-temperature warming is 24% greater than observed by HadCRUT4 over 1861-2009 because slower-warming regions are preferentially sampled and water warms less than air. Correcting for these biases and accounting for wider uncertainties in radiative forcing based on recent evidence, we infer an observation-based best estimate for TCR of 1.66 °C, with a 5-95% range of 1.0-3.3 °C, consistent with the climate models considered in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

  12. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  13. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  14. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...

  15. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  16. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Algorithms to Estimate Lake Tahoe Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The evaporative loss is a dominant component in the Lake Tahoe hydrologic budget because watershed area (813km2) is very small compared to the lake surface area (501 km2). The 5.5 m high dam built at the lake's only outlet, the Truckee River at Tahoe City can increase the lake's capacity by approximately 0.9185 km3. The lake serves as a flood protection for downstream areas and source of water supply for downstream cities, irrigation, hydropower, and instream environmental requirements. When the lake water level falls below the natural rim, cessation of flows from the lake cause problems for water supply, irrigation, and fishing. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to correctly estimate the lake hydrologic budget. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ). We generated the stream flows and pollutants loadings of the streams using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) supported watershed model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC). The bulk transfer coefficients were calibrated using correlation coefficient (R2) as the objective function. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the meteorological inputs and model parameters. The DLM-WQ estimated lake water level and water temperatures were in agreement to those of measured records with R2 equal to 0.96 and 0.99, respectively for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average evaporation from the lake, stream inflow, precipitation over the lake, groundwater fluxes, and outflow from the lake during 1994 to 2008 were found to be 32.0%, 25.0%, 19.0%, 0.3%, and 11.7%, respectively.

  17. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  18. Dynamic Energy Budget model parameter estimation for the bivalve Mytilus californianus: Application of the covariation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzelle, A.; Montalto, V.; Sarà, G.; Zippay, M.; Helmuth, B.

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models serve as a powerful tool for describing the flow of energy through organisms from assimilation of food to utilization for maintenance, growth and reproduction. The DEB theory has been successfully applied to several bivalve species to compare bioenergetic and physiological strategies for the utilization of energy. In particular, mussels within the Mytilus edulis complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus) have been the focus of many studies due to their economic and ecological importance, and their worldwide distribution. However, DEB parameter values have never been estimated for Mytilus californianus, a species that is an ecological dominant on rocky intertidal shores on the west coast of North America and which likely varies considerably from mussels in the M. edulis complex in its physiology. We estimated a set of DEB parameters for M. californianus using the covariation method estimation procedure and compared these to parameter values from other bivalve species. Model parameters were used to compare sensitivity to environmental variability among species, as a first examination of how strategies for physiologically contending with environmental change by M. californianus may differ from those of other bivalves. Results suggest that based on the parameter set obtained, M. californianus has favorable energetic strategies enabling it to contend with a range of environmental conditions. For instance, the allocation fraction of reserve to soma (κ) is among the highest of any bivalves, which is consistent with the observation that this species can survive over a wide range of environmental conditions, including prolonged periods of starvation.

  19. MEASURING THE STRUCTURAL BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJOCU ANA-MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the institutional framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance put great emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union, especially for countries belonging to the Eurozone, but also for the accession countries. Surveillance of budgetary policies and the excessive deficit procedure are directions, which have to be followed, to meet debt limit and public deficit of gross domestic product, so as to fulfil fiscal and financial stability and economic integration. The objectives of this paper are to analyze, using the method of estimating the structural budget deficit, the EU Member State’s ability to fulfill the requirements of fiscal and financial stability. The findings of the scientific research and the methodology used shows the potential of the 28 member states of the European Union to fulfil the requirements for fiscal and financial stability

  20. Compendium of Data for the Hanford Site (Fiscal Years 2004 to 2008) Applicable to Estimation of Recharge Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, William E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-09-24

    This report is a compendium of recharge data collected in Fiscal Years 2004 through 2008 at various soil and surface covers found and planned in the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The addition of these new data to previously published recharge data will support improved estimates of recharge with respect to location and soil cover helpful to evaluations and risk assessments of radioactive and chemical wastes at this site. Also presented are evaluations of the associated uncertainties, limitations, and data gaps in the existing knowledge base for recharge at the Hanford Site.

  1. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  2. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-08

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  3. Power-Budget Equations and Calibration Factors for Fish Abundance Estimation Using Scientific Echo Sounder and Sonar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Lunde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic methods used in fish abundance estimation constitute a key part of the analytic assessment that makes the basis for abundance estimation of marine resources. The methods rely on power-budget equations and calibrated systems. Different formulations of power-budget equations and calibration factors have been proposed for use in scientific echo sounder and sonar systems. There are unresolved questions and apparent inconsistencies in prior literature related to this field. A generic (instrument independent and unifying theory is presented that attempts to explain the different power-budget and calibration factor formulations proposed and used in prior literature, and how these are mutually related. Deviations and apparent inconsistencies in this literature appear to be explained and corrected. This also includes different (instrument specific formulations employed in important modern scientific echo sounder systems, and their relationship to the generic theory of abundance estimation. Prior literature is extended to provide more complete power-budget equations for fish abundance estimation and species identification, by accounting for echo integration, electrical termination, and the full range of electrical and acoustical echo sounder parameters. The expressions provide a consistent theoretical basis for improved understanding of conventional methods and instruments used today, also enabling improved sensitivity and error analyses, and correction possibilities.

  4. The Impact of Fiscal Governance on Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    Does fiscal governance affect government borrowing costs? We operationalize fiscal governance as the ability of governments to pass a budget on time and, using a unique data set on budget enactment dates, analyze the effect of such late budgets on government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample...

  5. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  6. Summary of the Governor's Proposed 2008-09 Budget for Higher Education. FS 08-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Thursday, January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. The proposal attempts to address an estimated $14.5 billion deficit projected for the next 18 months by reducing 2008-09 State funding for most programs by an average 10% below the figure projected based on growth in workload and…

  7. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  8. An estimation on budget and control of phosphorus in the Changjiang River catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-Liang; Li, Zheng; Miao, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Based on field investigations in the Changjiang River mouth, rain sampling from the river's upper reaches to the mouth, historical data, and relevant literatures, the budget and major control factors of total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in the river catchment were estimated and discussed from the catchment scale. It will supply a base for effective controlling P concentration in the Changjiang River and its mouth. Results show that the export fluxes of TP and DIP were mainly controlled by the river runoff. The TP and DIP in the Changjiang River came mainly from agricultural nonpoint source P losses from fertilizer and soil and point sources of industrial waste and residential sewage discharges. The export fluxes of TP and DIP in the river mouth were only 27.0% and 28.3% of the imports from the river catchment, respectively, suggesting that most of P were removed in transportation. A mass of freshwater marshes in the river catchment were the main areas to remove P. Significant increasing in utilization of fertilizer P and incessant increasing in water and soil loss areas were the primary reasons of agricultural nonpoint source P losses. How to decrease the agricultural nonpoint source P loss from the catchment scale is a key controlling P concentration in the Changjiang River and its mouth. The point source industrial waste P discharge has been primarily treated in the river catchment, but the residential sewage P discharge needs further control.

  9. Observational estimation of heat budgets on drifting ice and open water over the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of the surface heat budget over drifting ice and open water in the Arctic Ocean are made using eddy correlation and flux-profile methods using data obtained from drifting ice and from the R/V Xuelong in the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition during August 19-24,1999. The results show that the net radiation received by the ice surface is mainly lost through the sensible heat flux and the heat flux due to melting ice, and the latent heat flux making small contribution to the heat balance. However, the heat balance of the open water surface was dominated by the radiative flux whereas the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the oceanic heat flux were greater than those on the sea-ice surface. These results emphasize that thermodynamic processes are quite different between air/open water and air/sea-ice over the Arctic Ocean which is important when considering the effect of sea-air-ice interaction on climate change process during the summer period.

  10. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Eriophorum, Sphagnum and then tundra heath during the observation periods. The catchment-level carbon fluxes from aquatic systems are dominated by CO2 emissions from streams. Integrated across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present, and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modelled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, integrating comprehensive and diverse fluxes including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this study also highlights some limitations in modelling subarctic ecosystem responses to climate change including aquatic system flux dynamics, nutrient limitation, herbivory and other disturbances and peatland expansion, our application provides a mechanism to resolve the complexity of carbon cycling in subarctic ecosystems while simultaneously pointing out the key model developments for capturing complex subarctic processes.

  11. Estimating the fluvial sediment input to the coastal sediment budget: A case study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Isaac; Bray, Malcolm; Hooke, Janet

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of fluvial sediment supply to the coastal sediment budget is important for the assessment of the impacts on coastal stability. Such knowledge is valuable for designing coastal engineering schemes and the development of shoreline management planning policies. It also facilitates understanding of the connection between rivers in the hinterland and adjoining coastal systems. Ghana's coast has many fluvial sediment sources and this paper provides the first quantitative assessments of their contributions to the coastal sediment budget. The methods use largely existing data and attempt to cover all of Ghana's significant coastal rivers. Initially work was hindered by insufficient direct measured data. However, the problem was overcome by the application of a regression approach, which provides an estimated sediment yield for non-gauged rivers based on data from gauged rivers with similar characteristics. The regression approach was effective because a regional coherence in behaviour was determined between those rivers, where direct measured data were available. The results of the assessment revealed that Ghana's coast is dissected by many south-draining rivers, stream and lagoons. These rivers, streams and lagoons supply significant amounts of sediment to coastal lowlands and therefore contribute importantly to beaches. Anthropogenic impoundment of fluvial sediment, especially the Akosombo dam on the Volta River, has reduced the total fluvial sediment input to the coast from about 71 × 10 6 m 3/a before 1964 (pre-Akosombo dam) to about 7 × 10 6 m 3/a at present (post-Akosombo dam). This sharp reduction threatened the stability of the east coast and prompted an expensive ($83 million) defence scheme to be implemented to protect 8.4 km-long coastline at Keta. Sections of Ghana's coast are closely connected to the hinterland through the fluvial sediment input from local rivers. Therefore, development in the hinterland that alters the fluvial sediment input from

  12. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S. [Corporate Research Laboratories, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey (United States); Jain, Atul K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States); Wuebbles, Donald J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1999-12-27

    A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model parameter probability distributions. This results in a quantitative reconstruction of past carbon budget and its uncertainty derived from an explicit choice of model, data-based constraints, and prior distribution of parameters. Our estimated ocean sink for the 1980s is 17{+-}7 Gt C (90% confidence interval) and is comparable to the estimate of 20{+-}8 Gt C given in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment [Schimel et al., 1996]. Constraint choice is tested to determine which records have the most influence over estimates of the past carbon budget; records individually (e.g., bomb-radiocarbon inventory) have little effect since there are other records which form similar constraints. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  13. Towards a sediment budget estimation of the Gepatschferner glacier (Tyrol, Austria) - Approaches and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Matthias; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment production, storage and transport in glacial systems are spatially and temporally variable. Due to the ongoing global warming an accelerated glacial retreat is expected, leading to an exposure of unconsolidated sediments. Additionally, a higher sediment production from destabilised rock walls caused by permafrost degradation and glacial debuttressing is expected. At least those paraglacial processes become more important in alpine catchments in the near future. But, there is still a knowledge gap on the quantification of sediment transporting processes in those regions. The research questions we are focussing on are part of the PROSA project ("High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing Proglacial Systems of the Alps") and are investigated at the Gepatschferner glacier. The Gepatschferner is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley. It is the second largest glacier in Austria (15.7 km², 2012). The Gepatschferner is drained by the Fagge River. In this presentation we will focus on two main components of the sediment budget of the Gepatschferner: the input to and the output from the glacier system. The sediment input from the surrounding rockwalls to the glacier is observed by comparing multi-temporal airborne LiDAR DEMs (2006, July 2012, September 2012) to determine sediment delivery by rockfall. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the Fagge River in front of the glacier outlet in oreder to determine the glacio-fluvial output of sediment from the glacier system. During the ablation periods from 2012 to 2014 the water level was recorded. At different stages the discharge was measured and a reliable stage-discharge relation could be established. That relation was used in combination with the recorded stage for the computation of the hydrograph in each season. Additionally, the solid sediment output was estimated using the discharge data as well as suspended sediment concentration from several

  14. Carbon budget estimation of a subarctic catchment using a dynamic ecosystem model at high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Miller, P. A.; Persson, A.; Olefeldt, D.; Pilesjo, P.; Heliasz, M.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Yang, Z.; Smith, B.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of organic carbon is stored in high-latitude soils. A substantial proportion of this carbon stock is vulnerable and may decompose rapidly due to temperature increases that are already greater than the global average. It is therefore crucial to quantify and understand carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic/arctic ecosystems. In this paper, we combine an Arctic-enabled version of the process-based dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS (version LPJG-WHyMe-TFM) with comprehensive observations of terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes to simulate long-term carbon exchange in a subarctic catchment at 50 m resolution. Integrating the observed carbon fluxes from aquatic systems with the modeled terrestrial carbon fluxes across the whole catchment, we estimate that the area is a carbon sink at present and will become an even stronger carbon sink by 2080, which is mainly a result of a projected densification of birch forest and its encroachment into tundra heath. However, the magnitudes of the modeled sinks are very dependent on future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, comparisons of global warming potentials between two simulations with and without CO2 increase since 1960 reveal that the increased methane emission from the peatland could double the warming effects of the whole catchment by 2080 in the absence of CO2 fertilization of the vegetation. This is the first process-based model study of the temporal evolution of a catchment-level carbon budget at high spatial resolution, including both terrestrial and aquatic carbon. Though this study also highlights some limitations in modeling subarctic ecosystem responses to climate change, such as aquatic system flux dynamics, nutrient limitation, herbivory and other disturbances, and peatland expansion, our study provides one process-based approach to resolve the complexity of carbon cycling in subarctic ecosystems while simultaneously pointing out the key model developments for capturing

  15. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1986, Submitted to Congress February 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    multi-channel processors for towed and conformal array applications; and (4) the Mini-GPS v22?iT*r Pr"cjranl’ whlch Wl11 develop a cigarette package...Receiver: GPS receiver with Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) A 30-month effort was started in FY 1984 to develop a cigarette cack sized h full...530 FY 1986 RDT&E DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY Materials Processing Technology ; lectronics Techn Title: Title: Materials Budget Activity: and El 1

  16. Department of the Army FY 1994 Budget Estimates, Military Construction, Family Housing and Homeowners Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Sources for Overseas Projects Conference Report No. 100-498 (Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1988), pg...AIR POLLUTON 0 B. WATER POLLUTION 0 C. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH 0 PAGE NO. 34 PREVIOUS EDITIONS MAY BE USED INTERNALLY DD Fou 1390CUNTIL...coal pile runoff. Construct a chemical feed and mix chamber to treat the contaminated runoff prior to discharge. Supporting facilities include water

  17. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  18. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  19. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: a revision of global budget estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V.H.; Smith III, T.; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove pri

  20. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  1. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  2. Estimation of future carbon budget with climate change and reforestation scenario in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Damin; Lim, Chul-Hee; Song, Cholho; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Piao, Dongfan; Heo, Seongbong; Jeon, Seongwoo

    2016-09-01

    In terms of climate change, quantifying carbon budget in forest is critical for managing a role of forest as carbon sink. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace and caused to worsen the carbon budget. Under the circumstance, this study aimed to assess the impact of climate change and reforestation on the carbon budget in 2020s and 2050s, using the VISIT (Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases) model. In order to analyze the impact of reforestation, future land cover maps for the 2020s and 2050s were prepared. Among the deforested areas (2.5 × 106 ha) identified by comparing land cover maps for different periods, the potential reforestation areas were selected by a reforestation scenario considering slope, accessibility from residence, and deforestation types. The extracted potential reforestation areas were 1.7 × 106 ha and the increased forest area was spatially distributed to each district. The percentage change in carbon budget caused by climate change from the 2000s to 2020s is 67.60% and that from the 2020s to 2050s is 45.98% on average. Based on the future land cover, NEP (net ecosystem production) with reforestation will increase by 18.18% than that without reforestation in the 2050s, which shows the contribution to carbon balance. In connection with this long term projection, it is revealed that the gross fluxes such as photosynthesis and respiration may be impacted more obviously by the climate change, especially global warming, than the net carbon flux because of the offset between the changes in the gross fluxes. It is analyzed that changes in carbon budget are very sensitive to climate changes, while the impact of reforestation is relatively less sensitive. Although it is impossible to significantly improve carbon sequestration by establishing forest in a short-term, reforestation is imperative in a long-term view as it clearly has a potential mechanism to offset emitted carbon.

  3. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1982 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1981. Descriptive Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    0Jw .011v i.to 0 -4 )ca4V414 0 z I.0 c434.J4-a .0 4 w $ ldh & P 4 0 4 W t -- 40.𔃺 1 (A 41 0 d) 0 043 C) > c ~ w4.h >0 A-$*. 0 00W )t9 vV404. 41 &W...cc J m~ 0.~ 9: A r - 0o 04 u00 1.c. V-4 44.0 .0.0 P . 0 4. " 00U .01 0 40 w 0 0 C 41 0_ a.1.40c 1 U 44 -0 C:q 0 1.A 04 :44d pvC : 0 O- 40 ~ 40 0c

  4. FY 2007 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2007 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  5. FY 2008 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2008 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  6. FY 2010 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2010 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  7. FY 2009 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Published: February 2008 Pages: 37 This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2009 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the...

  8. FY 2006 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information...

  9. FY 2011 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This Supplement to the President`s Fiscal Year FY 2011 Budget provides a technical summary of the budget request for the Networking and Information Technology...

  10. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  11. 提高公路工程概预算编制质量的探讨%The study on the improvement of the weave quality of highw ay engineering budget estimate and budget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎扬标

    2001-01-01

    公路工程概算是初步设计文件的重要组成 部分,公 路工程预算是施工图设计文件的重要组成部分,对公路工程建设项目至关重要.提高概、预 算编制质量需从5个方面努力:合理取定材料单价(包括人工和机械台班单价);核准工程数量并要按编制概预算的要求进行表述;要有优化后确定的施工方案;准确地 选用定额并对缺少的项目做好补充定额工作;按编制好的概预算进行工程造价分析.在编制 工程概、预算的实践过程中应特别注意积累宝贵资料并不断提高概、预算编制水平.%Highway engineering budget estimate is one of the im portant parts of the preliminary sketch documents.Highway engineering budget is one of the important parts of constructional drawing documents.So they are essen tial to the constructional items of the highway engineering.To improve the weave quality of the budget estimate and budget need efforts of 5 aspects:   1. To select the unit cost of materials;   2. To check engineering quality and express it according to the weave budget es timate and budget;   3. To have the construction plan after optimizing;   4. To select accurately quota and make up for the quota of the abstract items.   5. To analyze the engineering cost according to the complete budget estimate an d budget.   In practice,we should pay much attention to accumulating rare datum and improve the weave level of budget estimate and budget.

  12. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hunt, Linda A.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Emery, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs) on 22-31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23) and 25 April-2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24) to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions) and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) to estimate nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  13. Cooperative research with the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology. Estimation and investigation of estimation method on property change accompanied with excavation. Intermediate report in 1994 and 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PRNFDC) and the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology (IRET) of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology conducted a cooperative research on a testing study based on in-door fundamental examination on Acoustic emission (AE) original position measuring tester to catch property change due to micro elastic wave formed with generation and propagation of rock deformation and fracture and AE measurement and specific resistance tomography under 3 years plan from 1989 fiscal year. In 1994 fiscal year, survey on the specific resistance tomography for pre-research on tunnel excavation effect test and experiment on the specific resistance measurement at in-door scale for fundamental study of estimation method were conducted. And, in 1995 fiscal year, by laying a main point of the experiment at in-door scale, the estimation and investigation on the excavation effect estimation method on a base of the past study results on the fundamental experiment results were conducted. In this paper, these experiment results conducted at IRET and PRNFDC in 1994 and 1995 fiscal years were reported. (G.K.)

  14. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    China's central–local relations have been marked by perpetual changes amidst economic restructuring. Fiscal decentralization on the expenditure side has been paralleled by centralization on the revenue side, accompanied by political centralization. Hence, our understanding of China's fiscal...

  15. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio; Dincecco, Mark

    We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal...... innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...... estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples....

  16. Estimation of the ATLAS Inner Detector material budget by use of hadronic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersson, Nora Emilia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The dominant inefficiency in track reconstruction comes from particle interactions with the material in the detector. A good understanding of the material in the Inner Detector (ID) of the ATLAS detector is therefore a vital part of track and object reconstruction. In recent years a new technique has been developed, which by reconstructing nuclear interactions with the detector material allows one to quantify the material budget. The relatively low momentum interactions yields large opening angles between the outgoing particles. This makes it feasible to pinpoint the location of the interaction with excellent spatial resolutions, both perpendicular and parallel to the beam axis, permitting detailed comparisons of even minute detector elements. Utilising a second-pass tracking, specially designed to reconstruct secondary tracks with large impact parameters, the technique maps 0.3 $m^{3}$ of the ID volume. The collected results from the Run-1 and the Run-2 analyses will be presented.

  17. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhoglyadova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs on 22–31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and 25 April–2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry to estimate nitric oxide (NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  18. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  19. WAREHOUSE TRANSFERS AND FISCAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu Dorica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fraud and fiscal evasion phenomenon generate indisputable negative effects, which are felt directly on the level of fiscal receipts earnings, determining major distortions in the market’s functioning mechanism. If in the European Union, the contribution of the three large tax categories (direct tax, indirect and social contributions in forming revenue are relatively close, in Romania, fiscal and budget revenue are directly dependent on the indirect tax and duties, especially on VAT and various sales taxes. If there is reductions in the fiscal evasion as to what these taxes are concerned, the premises for creating budget resource needed to fund the economic growth are created. In judicial literature, tax evasion is considered as being the logic result of all defects and inadvertencies of an imperfect legislation, of broken application methods, as well as a lack of foreseeing and lack of skill on the law-maker’s side, with their excessive tax system is as guilty as those who contribute in creating it. Regardless of how this phenomenon is defined, fiscal evasion represents the lack of fulfillment by the taxpayer of his fiscal obligation. The field in which tax evasion acts is as widespread as the different taxes, manifesting especially in the direct and indirect taxes, influencing their efficiency.

  20. Shaping the Fiscal Policy Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    This paper provides an overview of experiences with fiscal and structural reforms in Denmark and Sweden, focusing on areas of particular relevance to members of the euro area struggling with large budget imbalances. First, given the current priority to austerity plans in the euro area, we review...

  1. When is fiscal adjustment an illusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easterly, W; de Haan, J; Gali, G

    1999-01-01

    Fiscal adjustment is an illusion when it lowers the budget deficit or public debt but leaves government net worth unchanged. Conventional measures of the budget deficit largely show the change in public sector debt. Ideally, the measured deficit would reflect the change in Public sector net worth. M

  2. THE NATIONAL BUDGET BALANCING IN THE CONTEXT OF GOVERNMENTAL ANTIRECESSIONARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dyshleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers international experience of balancing national budget under crisis conditions. Scientific approaches to achieving fiscal balance are examined. Some proposals are put forward to undertake anti-crisis activities as to fiscal policy in Ukraine.

  3. How Fiscal Policy Affects Non-Oil Economic Performance in Azerbaijan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of fiscal policy in promoting economic growth has been subject to many studies since its suggestion by Keynes who stated expansionary/contractionary impact of public expenditures/taxes. In this context, effectiveness of fiscal policy use to develop non-oil sector in resource rich economies should be studied. This paper investigates short- and long-run effects of budget expenditures and tax related budget revenues (direct transfers from oil fund excluded over non-oil GDP while controlling for oil price volatility and oil production in case of Azerbaijan. Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing (ARDLBT Approach to cointegration is employed for data covering 2000Q1-2015Q2. Estimation results theoretically consistent and statistically significant long-run effects of both budget expenditures and tax-related budget revenues. However, in the short-run, the effects are contrary to the theoretical expectations. Findings are useful for Azerbaijan fiscal policy makers especially in the current complicated nature of economic processes in the economy due to oil related challenges.

  4. A Research on Annual Budget Report at the Beginning of Fiscal Year in the Commonwealth of Australia and Its Implication for China%澳大利亚年初预算报告研究及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美多; 金笑驰

    2013-01-01

      澳大利亚联邦政府具有较为完善的预算报告体系。其年初预算报告包括:预算陈词、预算一览、预算概述、预算战略和展望、预算措施、政府间财政关系、机构资源和拨款议案八个重要组成部分。这些预算文件具有全面性、结果导向、中期规划和亲和性的鲜明特征,为我国完善中央年初预算报告提供了有益的借鉴。此外,分阶段完成年初预算报告的具体性、全面性、全局性和规划性四个步骤的改革,将有助于提高我国的预算信息公开程度,从而“创造条件让人民监督、批评政府”。%  The Commonwealth of Australia has a consummate budget reporting system. One of the most important is the annual budget report at the beginning of the fiscal year including eight parts:budget speech, budget at glance, budget overview, budget strategy and outlook, budget measures, Australia’s federal relations, agency resourcing, and appropriation bills. These budget papers are comprehensive, result-oriented, medium term planning, and reader-friendly. They provide helpful experiences for China and we could promote open and transparent budget information by improving our annual budget report with four stages, which will create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government.

  5. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  6. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE FISCAL-BUDGETARY POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF TAXATION SYSTEM REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MOCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the budgetary impact determined by the Government’s proposition of modifying Law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code, respectively the diminution of the central levies and taxes (VAT, profit tax, income tax, microenterprises’ income tax, excises, etc., represents a mandatory condition provided by the legislation in the field, having as primary role the observance of the fiscal budgetary policy’s objectives on medium-term and long-term assumed by Romania through the Treaty regarding the stability, coordination and governance in the European Union. The tax sustainability on medium-term and long-term supposes that the Government promotes a cautious fiscal-budgetary policy and an efficient administration of the appeared risks that wouldn’t imply adjustments of the expenses, incomes or a budgetary deficit with adverse economic and social effects.This work intends to analyze the financial impact on Romania’s budget following the proposition of the Government to reduce the central levies and taxes, the opportunity of adopting a high fiscal relaxation while observing the medium-term and long-term budgetary objectives and the consolidation of the existing macroeconomic balances. The data used in the proposed scientific work takes into consideration the estimated VAT and GDP for 2015-2017 in Romania. The set of used data was available in the database of ANAF and the data provided in the Fiscal budgetary strategy 2015-2017.The results of the study highlight the importance of the correct dimensioning of the effects of the first round and those of the second round represented by the fiscal relaxation measures in the revision project of law no. 571/2003 regarding the Fiscal code in the context of using fiscal multipliers and the elasticity of the budgetary aggregates.

  7. Fiscal Deficits and Stock Prices in India: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.

  8. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates, but Opportunities Exist to Further Enhance Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    estimates in future joint reports. CIO officials told us that for consistency within the department and for external consumers of funding...Connect with GAO on Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube . Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts. Visit GAO on the web

  9. An Empirical Riverine Carbon Budget for New Zealand: National scale estimate of organic and inorganic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. T.; Baisden, W. T.; Davies-Colley, R.; Trustrum, N.

    2002-12-01

    New Zealand rivers contribute a large amount of sediment to the ocean, partially attributable to tectonic uplift combined with softer rocks under inappropriate land-use and high-frequency rain events. Preliminary calculations suggest that in NZ between 3-11 Mt carbon is transported annually through erosion, compared with about 8.5 Mt per yr released from fossil fuel burning. Therefore, if a large proportion of this erosional carbon is oxidized before sequestration in sedimentary basins, soil erosion may represent a major greenhouse contribution. Our current study aims to refine a national estimate of both particulate and dissolved organic carbon leaving New Zealand through rivers. We are also attempting to understand both the biochemical processing of organic matter in transit to the ocean, as well as the resulting evasional flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Initial estimates of these fluxes based on measurements collected over a 12-month period from 50 rivers, as well as from a number of flood snapshots around the country, will be presented. Using surrogates such as spectrophotometric absorbance for DOC developed using this year's dataset, these measurements will be used to quantify the annual riverine flux of particulate and organic carbon from a 12-year record. Carbon fluxes from individual catchments will also be compared to landscape properties (soil parent material, slope, climate, and land-use patterns). The relationship between the solute flux from and landscape properties within a catchment is crucial to extending the estimates of carbon flux to ungauged catchments to estimate total carbon flux in river drainage from the NZ landmass.

  10. A Data-constrained Estimate of the Global Ocean Iron Cycle: Budgets, Timescales, and Iron Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frants, M.; Holzer, M. B.; DeVries, T. J.; Matear, R.

    2014-12-01

    The oceanic iron cycle is estimated by optimizing a simple steady-state model based on a data-assimilated global circulation, with a prescribed optimized phosphorus cycle and a prescribed aeolian source pattern. Key biogeochemical parameters are determined by minimizing a suitably weighted quadratic misfit between the model's dissolved iron concentration and a global data set of sparse measurements. The global dissolved iron inventory is estimated to be (7.1±0.1)×1011 mol Fe, of which (6.9±0.1)×1011 mol Fe is bound to organic ligands and hence bioavailable, while the remainder is "free" iron. The aeolian iron input rate is estimated at (3.3±0.5)×109 mol Fe/year, corresponding to a bulk residence time for bioavailable iron of 215±40 years, comparable to the bulk biological cycling timescale estimated at 246±24 years. Iron limitation is quantified in terms of the difference [Fe∗] between the actual iron concentration and that needed to utilize the available phosphate. The optimized model captures the observed high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions of the ocean as iron-limited regions with [Fe∗]iron age, ΓFe, as the mean time since iron at a given point was last injected from the atmosphere and compute ΓFe using an equivalent linear formulation of the model. In the euphotic zone, ΓFe ranges from a few decades or less in regions of high aeolian input to ˜1800 years in the Southern Ocean. The patterns of ΓFe show that iron is supplied to the Southern Ocean euphotic zone primarily from depth rather than being advected within the thermocline following deposition from continental dust plumes. Because [Fe∗] is negative in the deep southern oceans, upwelling waters maintain Southern Ocean iron limitation.

  11. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  12. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  13. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  14. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  15. Assimilating Earth observation data across the UK for estimating greenhouse gas budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Martin; Disney, Mathias; Lewis, Philip; Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Successful monitoring of biogenic greenhouse gas emissions at regional scale requires a research framework that brings together knowledge about the spatiotemporal variability of gas fluxes under current and anticipated environmental and anthropogenic conditions. In this framework, knowledge about emissions derived from finer spatiotemporal scales is aggregated to calibrate and validate models operating at coarser scales, while top-down estimates of surface biophysical conditions are used to constrain models operating at finer scales. A key challenge in forming this framework is finding a solid basis to link process-based knowledge of individual research sites with Earth Observation (EO) data covering the landscape at approximately a 500m to 1km resolution. Approaches to provide for this link have often considered data from individual satellites or overflights, posing important limitations on the number of observations available through space and time, especially for regions frequently covered in clouds. A novel approach considers a data assimilation scheme through which a vast set of data from a constellation of satellites can be used to inform upon the biophysical state of the land surface. The simultaneous use of these data in a data assimilation scheme requires normalization with respect to the various instrument specifications, including bandpass and sun-sensor-target geometry at times of overpass. In this study we demonstrate a linear mapping of spectral reflectances across an array of satellites, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MERIS), Sentinel 2 (S2), and Vegetation (VGT). The implications of this linear mapping scheme on data availability for the estimation of biophysical characteristics and associated uncertainties are discussed.

  16. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  17. Why Is the Self-Sufficiency of Urban Districts Budgets Not Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban districts occupy a special place in the system of municipalities due to their potential and role in the implementation of governmental economic policy. Possessing the most developed infrastructure, facilities and a good financial basis, large and medium-sized cities accumulate the major part of budget revenues. However, the predominant part of their revenues that amounts, according to various estimates, to 70–85% [1, 6, 15] goes to superior budgets. As a consequence of the reforms of intergovernmental fiscal relations and local government that were held in 2000–2009, cities were left without stable, legislated fiscal revenue sources that were sufficient to fulfill their obligations to the population. Currently, city government can fully dispose of single tax on imputed income, individual property tax and land tax. Significant imbalances in the distribution of budget revenues make cities dependent on the financial assistance of higher levels of public authority and lead to an accumulation of problems. The Federal Treasury data on the execution of urban districts budgets show the stagnation of own revenues in 2011–2014. According to the calculations made by ISEDT RAS, in 2014, the availability of own budget revenues per capita was below the average value in 60% of the capital cities of Russia’s constituent entities (regardless of Moscow and Saint Petersburg. This affected even major centers like Voronezh, Volgograd, Ufa, Chelyabinsk and Omsk. In the Vologda Oblast, the fiscal capacity of residents in urban districts that include the cities of Vologda and Cherepovets was 17% below the national average due to the reduction in the amount of receipts of own budget sources since 2012. In the conditions of acute shortage of financial resources to meet the growing obligations to support citizens, local authorities are forced to make borrowings; this fact limits the possibility of conducting a responsible fiscal policy and implementation of

  18. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically....... First, by modeling the SBC problem as a war of attrition between the applicant countries' governments and firms, we find that outside conditionality can foster SBC hardening. Second, estimating SBC hardening in a partial adjustment model by measuring the development of labor productivity, we find...

  19. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  20. California's Budget Problems Leave Community Colleges Holding IOU's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    When California approved its budget last month, the community-college system managed to escape the sharp budget cuts that befell most other agencies. But the state's fiscal troubles have nonetheless created a cash crisis for two-year colleges. As part of its plan to close a $41-billion budget deficit, California will delay providing $540-million…

  1. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  2. Responsabilidad fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-01-01

    Una de las características distintivas del sistema constitucional adoptado en 1991 es el desarrollo de mecanismos de control al ejercicio de la autoridad, uno de los cuales es el control fiscal, que bajo un tratamiento normativo diferente del vigente hasta entonces, se orienta a la preservación de los recursos públicos y a su aplicación a los fines esenciales del Estado. Dentro del nuevo esquema constitucional del control fiscal, su objeto de vigilancia lo constituye la gestión fiscal, cuyo e...

  3. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  4. State and Local Governments: Fiscal Pressures Could Have Implications for Future Delivery of Intergovernmental Programs. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-899

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    State and local governments work in partnership with the federal government to implement numerous intergovernmental programs. Fiscal pressures for state and local governments may exist when spending is expected to outpace revenues for the long term. GAO (Government Accountability Office) was asked to examine (1) the long-term fiscal pressures…

  5. Romanian Fiscal Policy in Perspective of Admittance in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mitrica

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analizes the convergence between Romanian and European fiscal policy in terms of three issues: the fiscal revenues percentage of GDP, the structure of public revenues and the public budget deficit (under the constrait of 3% of GDP. The analysis reveals small differences for the first and second issues and an important opportunity cost for the ceiling of deficit.

  6. Romanian Fiscal Policy in Perspective of Admittance in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mitrica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analizes the convergence between Romanian and European fiscal policy in terms of three issues: the fiscal revenues percentage of GDP, the structure of public revenues and the public budget deficit (under the constrait of 3% of GDP. The analysis reveals small differences for the first and second issues and an important opportunity cost for the ceiling of deficit.

  7. Selected approaches to estimate water-budget components of the High Plains, 1940 through 1949 and 2000 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Ryter, Derek W.; Falk, Sarah E.; Houston, Natalie A.; Peterson, Steven M.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Christenson, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, underlying almost 112 million acres in the central United States, is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation. It is the primary water supply for drinking water, irrigation, animal production, and industry in the region. Expansion of irrigated agriculture throughout the past 60 years has helped make the High Plains one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Nation. Extensive withdrawals of groundwater for irrigation have caused water-level declines in many parts of the aquifer and increased concerns about the long-term sustainability of the aquifer. Quantification of water-budget components is a prerequisite for effective water-resources management. Components analyzed as part of this study were precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge, surface runoff, groundwater discharge to streams, groundwater fluxes to and from adjacent geologic units, irrigation, and groundwater in storage. These components were assessed for 1940 through 1949 (representing conditions prior to substantial groundwater development and referred to as "pregroundwater development" throughout this report) and 2000 through 2009. Because no single method can perfectly quantify the magnitude of any part of a water budget at a regional scale, results from several methods and previously published work were compiled and compared for this study when feasible. Results varied among the several methods applied, as indicated by the range of average annual volumes given for each component listed in the following paragraphs. Precipitation was derived from three sources: the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model, data developed using Next Generation Weather Radar and measured precipitation from weather stations by the Office of Hydrologic Development at the National Weather Service for the Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting model, and precipitation measured at weather stations and spatially distributed using an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation

  8. Fiscal Consolidation As a Public Policy: Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Bakırtaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available                         AbstractFiscal consolidation is the implementation of policies to reduce government expenditures and the public debt ratio to GDP. These policies are used to ensure fiscal discipline and minimize the debt stock by either tax or expenditure side. In this respect, the importance of fiscal consolidation policy is to ensure fiscal discipline without making negative effects on economic growth and economic life. Besides the conceptual framework, periods and the success criteria of fiscal consolidation are important factors for evaluating the success or failure of fiscal consolidation. In this study, it has been identified that there is no consensus on these criteria in the literature.Keywords: Fiscal Consolidation, Budget Deficits,Government Spending, Public EconomyJEL Classification Codes: E62, H32, H62

  9. Update on the Governor's Proposed 2009-10 Budget. Report 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On December 31, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the summary of his proposed budget for fiscal year 2009-10, including proposed changes to the current year (2008-09) budget. The complete budget was released on January 9, 2009. The budget plans assume current-year General Fund revenues of $91 billion--down from September's $102 billion…

  10. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  11. FY 2004 Supplement to the President`s Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...This Supplement to the Presidents Budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 summarizes the NITRD agencies coordinated research activities and FY 2004 plans, as required by...

  12. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  13. 探讨石油工程概预算编制与费用管理%Budget estimate making and cost management in petroleum engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚鸣

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum engineering budget estimate making and cost management is one of the key content in financial management, which directly affect the economic benefits of a corporation. The state of financial management of oil companies in China are investigated in this paper to put forward solutions that can effectively improve quality of budgeting and cost management.%石油工程的概预算编制与费用管理可以说是企业财务管理的关键内容之一,这一环节的进行直接影响到企业后期的经济收益.本文通过对我国石油企业财务管理工作现状的研究,探讨有效提高企业概预算编制质量加强企业费用管理的方法.

  14. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic energy Budget model I: Philosophy and apporach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lika, K.; Kearney, M.R.; Freitas, V.; Veer, van der H.W.; Meer, van der J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Pecquerie, L.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters a

  15. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model I: Philosophy and approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lika, K.; Kearney, M.R.; Freitas, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; van der Meer, J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Pecquerie, L.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for metabolic organisation captures the processes of development, growth, maintenance, reproduction and ageing for any kind of organism throughout its life-cycle. However, the application of DEB theory is challenging because the state variables and parameters a

  16. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Africa Command (AFRICOM) locations ($ 451 million) Asia-Pacific The intent of Asia-Pacific initiatives is to improve American ability to meet alliance...up to 700 degrees Fahrenheit . Nomex adds an additional two to four seconds of fire protection for vehicle egress. The request will enable the Army to

  17. Compendium of Budget Accounts. Fiscal Year 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Service Retirement and 72-1036 153 44 44 44 Disability Fund (FA) Property Management Fund (AU/FA) 72-4175 151 0 0 6 Sahel Development Program (FA) 72...Obligations Account Acct. Act. Est. Req. (Cognizant Committee) ID Func. 1996 1997 1998 Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program 12-3318 304 4 0 0 (AR

  18. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  19. The Fiscal Compact: Europe’s Not Always Able to Speak German: On the Dutch Implementing Act and the Hazardous Interpretation of Article 3(2) Fiscal Compact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reestman, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fiscal Compact: duty to implement balanced budget rule, automatic correction mechanism and independent budget supervisor in national law - The Netherlands: Act on sustainable government finances - Act does not bind the (budget) legislature - Conformity with the implementation duty in Article 3(2) Fi

  20. 76 FR 21750 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... median income (SMI) estimates may adopt these estimates (up to 60 percent) on the estimates' date of... income eligibility criteria so that such criteria are in accord with the FFY 2012 SMI. This listing of 60 percent of SMI provides one of the maximum income criteria that LIHEAP grantees may use in determining...

  1. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  2. Dry deposition and canopy uptake in Mediterranean holm-oak forests estimated with a canopy budget model: A focus on N estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguillaume, L.; Izquieta-Rojano, S.; García-Gómez, H.; Elustondo, D.; Santamaría, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Avila, A.

    2017-03-01

    Bulk/wet and throughfall fluxes of major compounds were measured from June 2011 to June 2013 at four Mediterranean holm-oak (Quercus ilex) forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Regression analysis between net throughfall fluxes and precipitation indicated that the best defined canopy process was leaching for K+ and uptake for NH4+ at all sites. A more variable response between sites was found for Na+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl-, which suggests that the interplay of dry deposition, leaching and uptake at the canopy was different depending on site climate and air quality characteristics. A canopy budget model (CBM) was used to try to discriminate between the canopy processes and enable to estimate dry deposition and uptake fluxes at three of the sites that complied with the model specifications. To derive N uptake, an efficiency factor of NH4+vs. NO3- uptake (xNH4) corresponding to moles of NH4+ taken up for each NO3- mol, has to be determined. Up to now, a value of 6 has been proposed for temperate forests, but we lack information for Mediterranean forests. Experimental determination of N absorption on Quercus ilex seedlings in Spain suggests efficiency factors from 1 to 6. Based on these values, a sensitivity analysis for xNH4 was performed and the NH4sbnd N and NO3sbnd N modeled dry deposition was compared with dry deposition estimated with independent methods (inferential modeling and washing of branches). At two sites in NE Spain under a milder Mediterranean climate, the best match was obtained for xNH4 = 6, corroborating results from European temperate forests. Based on this value, total DIN deposition was 12-13 kg N ha-1 y-1 at these sites. However, for a site in central Spain under drier conditions, variation of the NH4+ efficiency factor had little effect on DD estimates (which ranged from 2 to 2.6 kg N ha-1 y-1 with varying xNH4); when added to wet deposition, this produced a total N deposition in the range 2.6-3.4 kg N ha-1 y-1. Dry deposition was the predominant

  3. Aspect of fiscal consolidation: Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Kalaš

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary market conditions facing continuous debt crisis, the notion of fiscal consolidation is one of potential solutions for solving the main economic issues in any country. As regards fiscal consolidation, it necessary to point out to the importance of developing strategies aimed at minimizing deficit and debt level. Serbia is among those countries in which irrational spending is widely present with unfavourable tendency regarding the aspect of production and consumption. Over the past 25 years, Serbia has spent much more than it has produced, which has led to large budget deficits and debt level. The aim is to point out to the concept of fiscal consolidation and its implementation in Serbia, while the subject of this paper is to present the package of measures and strategies defined by the government of the Republic of Serbia and the Fiscal Council Program.

  4. Review on Budget Estimates Adjustment of Mupo Hydropower Station%木坡水电站调整概算综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of investment management, the owners started the preparation of budget estimates adjustment of Mupo Hydropower Station. Through analysis of the causes of the increase of investment of Mupo Hydropower Station, the impact of geological factors, national policy adjustments and changes in market prices and other factors on the actual investment of hydropower projects having large underground works proportion is reflected, and the design estimates improved timing is analyzed in order to provide reference for the budget estimates adjustment of other hydropower project.%为满足投资管理的需要,业主启动了木坡水电站调整概算的编制。通过对木坡水电站投资增加原因的剖析,反映了地下工程比重大的水电项目建设期间,地质因素、国家政策调整和市场价格变化等因素对项目实际投资的影响,同时分析了设计概算改进的时机,以期对其他水电工程项目调整概算的编制和申报起到借鉴作用。

  5. 77 FR 15376 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... income eligibility criteria on these State Median Income (SMI) estimates may adopt these estimates (up to... the FFY 2013 SMI. The 60 percent of SMI criterion provides one of the maximum income criteria that... appropriations for FFY 2009 through April 15, 2011 raised this criterion from 60 percent of SMI to 75 percent...

  6. 78 FR 28597 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... adopt these estimates (up to 60 percent) on their date of publication in the Federal Register or on a later date as discussed in the ``Dates'' section. This enables grantees to implement this notice during.... DATES: Effective Date: These estimates become effective at any time between the date of this...

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  8. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  9. Technical elements, demonstration projects, and fiscal models in Medicaid managed care for people with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, T A; Walsh, K K; Criscione, T

    1997-08-01

    We presented a general model of the structure and functioning of managed care and described elements (provider networks, fiscal elements, risk estimation, case-mix, management information systems, practice parameters, and quality improvement) critical to service delivery for people with developmental disabilities. A number of technical elements of managed care systems were delineated and reviewed in relation to the inclusion of people with developmental disabilities. Several managed care demonstration projects were described and, finally, a multi-year hypothetical budget model, including long-term care, was presented as a framework for considering how managed care affects specific service structures. Implications for people with developmental disabilities were discussed.

  10. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  11. A tidal creek water budget: Estimation of groundwater discharge and overland flow using hydrologic modeling in the Southern Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, Béatrice; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Twilley, Robert R.

    2011-07-01

    Taylor Slough is one of the natural freshwater contributors to Florida Bay through a network of microtidal creeks crossing the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER). The EMER ecological function is critical since it mediates freshwater and nutrient inputs and controls the water quality in Eastern Florida Bay. Furthermore, this region is vulnerable to changing hydrodynamics and nutrient loadings as a result of upstream freshwater management practices proposed by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP), currently the largest wetland restoration project in the USA. Despite the hydrological importance of Taylor Slough in the water budget of Florida Bay, there are no fine scale (˜1 km 2) hydrodynamic models of this system that can be utilized as a tool to evaluate potential changes in water flow, salinity, and water quality. Taylor River is one of the major creeks draining Taylor Slough freshwater into Florida Bay. We performed a water budget analysis for the Taylor River area, based on long-term hydrologic data (1999-2007) and supplemented by hydrodynamic modeling using a MIKE FLOOD (DHI, http://dhigroup.com/) model to evaluate groundwater and overland water discharges. The seasonal hydrologic characteristics are very distinctive (average Taylor River wet vs. dry season outflow was 6 to 1 during 1999-2006) with a pronounced interannual variability of flow. The water budget shows a net dominance of through flow in the tidal mixing zone, while local precipitation and evapotranspiration play only a secondary role, at least in the wet season. During the dry season, the tidal flood reaches the upstream boundary of the study area during approximately 80 days per year on average. The groundwater field measurements indicate a mostly upwards-oriented leakage, which possibly equals the evapotranspiration term. The model results suggest a high importance of groundwater contribution to the water salinity in the EMER. The model performance is satisfactory

  12. Responsabilidad fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características distintivas del sistema constitucional adoptado en 1991 es el desarrollo de mecanismos de control al ejercicio de la autoridad, uno de los cuales es el control fiscal, que bajo un tratamiento normativo diferente del vigente hasta entonces, se orienta a la preservación de los recursos públicos y a su aplicación a los fines esenciales del Estado. Dentro del nuevo esquema constitucional del control fiscal, su objeto de vigilancia lo constituye la gestión fiscal, cuyo ejercicio inadecuado, lesivo del erario, da lugar a la deducción de la consecuente responsabilidad patrimonial por parte de las contralorías. Ante la ausencia de desarrollo legal dada la precariedad de la regulación procesal contenida en la Ley 42 de 1993, la evolución conceptual al respecto fue asumida por las altas cortes hasta la expedición de la Ley 610 de 2000. Sin embargo, la demora en la expedición del estatuto legal que desarrollara integralmente el ejercicio de esta atribución de las contralorías, impide efectuar un juicio sobre las bondades o las fallas de la existencia y aplicación de esta institución jurídica de estirpe constitucional.

  13. Air Force Major Defense Acquisition Program Cost Growth Is Driven by Three Space Programs and the F-35A: Fiscal Year 2013 President’s Budget Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    production FSD full-scale development FY fiscal year FYDP Future Years Defense Program GBS Global Broadcast System GLCM Ground Launched Cruise...Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) aircraft • Air-Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) • Ground-Launched Cruise Missile ( GLCM ) • AGM-65A/B

  14. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  15. Army Corps of Engineers: Budget Formulation Process Emphasizes Agencywide Priorities, but Transparency of Budget Presentation Could be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    used for specific projects, and projects are classified mainly into these accounts. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program ( FUSRAP ) is...weapons and relatively small size (the fiscal year 2010 budget request for the Corps included 24 FUSRAP projects). To understand the Corps’ budget

  16. Integrating field measurements, a geomorphological map and stochastic modelling to estimate the spatially distributed rockfall sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Hilger, Ludwig; Vehling, Lucas; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of catchment-scale rockfall rates relies on the regionalisation of local measurements. Here, we propose a new framework for such a regionalisation by the example of a case study in the Upper Kaunertal, Austrian Central Alps (62.5 km2). Measurements of rockfall deposition during 12 months onto six collector nets within the study area were combined with published mean annual rates from the literature, and a probability density function was fitted to these data. A numerical model involving a random walk routing scheme and a one-parameter friction model was used to simulate rockfall trajectories, starting from potential rockfall source areas that were delineated from a digital elevation model. Rockfall rates sampled from the fitted probability density function were assigned to these trajectories in order to model the spatial distribution and to estimate the amount of rockfall deposition. By recording all trajectories as edges of a network of raster cells, and by aggregating the latter to landforms (or landform types) as delineated in a geomorphological map of the study area, rockfall sediment flux from sources to different landforms could be quantified. Specifically, the geomorphic coupling of rockfall sources to storage landforms and the glacial and fluvial sediment cascade was investigated using this network model. The total rockfall contribution to the sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal is estimated at c. 8000 Mg yr- 1, 16.5% of which is delivered to the glaciers, and hence to the proglacial zone. The network approach is favourable, for example because multiple scenarios (involving different probability density functions) can be calculated on the basis of the same set of trajectories, and because deposits can be back-linked to their respective sources. While the methodological framework constitutes the main aim of our paper, we also discuss how the estimation of the budget can be improved on the basis of spatially distributed production rates.

  17. North-eastern Aegean sea: an effort to estimate steady-state N & P budgets during September 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRASAKOPOULOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The north-eastern Aegean sea, characterised by a complex topographical structure, is the area where highly saline waters of Levantine and South-Central Aegean origin are diluted by the outflowing through the Dardanelles of less saline waters of Black Sea origin and by river runoff from the Greek and Turkish mainland. Salinity and nutrient data collected during the INTERREG-I project are used to develop budget calculations and empirical models according to the LOICZ biogeochemical modelling guidelines. The results of the study indicate that the dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes imported into the NE Aegean through the Dardanelles are less important than it was believed in the past. Overall, the system acts as a net sink of DIN and DIP, as well as being a net producer of organic matter, as primary production exceeds respiration. Moreover, the system appears to fix more nitrogen than is lost through denitrification.

  18. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data For Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress, January 31, 1983. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    pulsed and continuous wave lasers. Develop techniques to handle very large thermal energy loads, demonstrate a 12 KWH lithium thionyl chloride battery ...electrical power for directed energy weapons and railguns was also demonstrated. Demonstrated a lithium aluminum-iron disulfide battery which Improved tactical...fuels and explosives; (4) electrochemical processes important for improved batteries ; (5) new analytic methods for utilization in combustion

  19. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1988/89 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-09

    4ctobCb0bxa a <w 3 a H a b —i a. a -i a «j y « 1-1 jcraa ^—(■o-’xa^ aasb >. 0 a «*— 3 U —1 .O OS... base a o » b r-t c b >Hu a —i bi z obe—" b 3 a. t o a * -t « s « UH ii -o e " oo b a. a o...the measurement capabilities I up to 100 GHz and provide for the measurement of targets up to 8 ft. long. CURRENT SITUATION: Lincoln laboratory is

  20. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1992/1993 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1991: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    54 Space-Based Radar ( SBR ) 0604410F 686 55 Systems Survivability (Nuclear Effects) 0604711F 735 56 B-52 Squadrons 0101113F 1 57 Advanced Cruise...performance turbine engines. - (U) Research on processing ceramics from organometallic precursors by pyrolysis will continue to sbift toward materials...Project 4086. Space Subsystems Interactions: This project will identify and measure the impacts of the environment on Space Based Radar ( SBR ) concepts

  1. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1982. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    development or strength/Jtamlua criteria for Air Force job performance; computer analysis of disease prediction in aircrew personnel; quantification of laser...quarantine to rid animals of disease and stabilize animals before initiation of controlled research. "*« (U) FY 1984 Planned Program: New thrusts...A-10 «a. declared the winner In June 1974. The first DT4E aircrsft was delivered £ Fahr .,!™ 7 DT4E testing was initiated In Pebrusry 1,75 snd was

  2. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1990/91 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1989. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    infrared sensors to correct for atmospheric limitations on ranging and imaging for smart weapons. - (U) Push lidar technology to develop an eyesafe lidar for...Advanced Soace Tecnology Assessments: This project develops and coordinates the Air Force science and technology space and missile investment...govenvent wide. Careful analysis identifies weakness in our technology base or potential tecnology breakthroughs. Irdedent organizations, both inside and

  3. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1987 Submitted to Congress February 1986. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    1,969 -288 *.*.. TOT,SHP LNCHD WPN RWK/MNT 7 T IMT ,0 In T7 = 700911 • .-. .... Activity Group: Ship Launched Weapons Rework and Maintenance (cont’d...34 Provides funds for the inspection, testing, repair, and alteration of Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDV) and Dry Deck Shelters (DDS), Underwater Breathing...projections. Support is provided for the Swimmer Area Navigation System (100), and handheld sonar (350). One additional Dry Deck Shelter will be

  4. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1986 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1985, Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    HMCOH^|3<P« COTJ60M3 . 000003*0) «OP. QTJft)ft)e>- iCT -l60<MC UriM 4) b n 0)0) «if L, PI...09 TJ TJ 09 C C -H u 4) O Ü ft) -H H . U K O > ict O K 0 <-»-ü cd c ed a] » ft) tu cd E a> E 1-• P M...U4>H »En S£ O ft A Elt II H U II t4 II £ fi JT • 01 C EPS IAPO

  5. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2. Budget Activity 7. Central Supply and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Support for Mat’l condition 170 550 600 3. Subsafe/EOC engr Support TRAC 250 300 350 4. 0n-Site analysis 100 200 400 5. Life cycle mgmt...8217•"•".". ,.:^V^-V-’^- ..•-. .. •-. .-.V.’,;;f.V.V;..;. t- /V- •<• w* r T,^^7r^T^7TT,Tr,TpT^T?T3T^*,TTTT^7 vTT ^TT

  6. Department of Defense Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Budget Estimates. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Defense-Wide. Volume 1 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    algorithms based on wavelets and superparamagnetic resonance for sorting neuronal spike data; develop a Bayesian network framework for analysis of cellular...nuclear spin sensitivity. − Investigate fundamental issues of nanowire communication with electrically active biological systems ( neurons ) including high...initiative encompasses high-resolution multispectral, multipolarization , radio frequency, electro-optical (EO) and active optical sensors. The program

  7. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1981, Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress January 1980, Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    CO (5 <H ■H (8 o fttH fH a) Ü -H •H y 4J 0) M XI C8 Q. ö 0 05 i-( •H 4J e-g bj Vl <: p., 00 CM w O V) a o ’ a u 41 ri...H CO 21 H r-l «at!tlJ|iUO> 3 s B Cd «4H 3 6 II £ JB H s O as 4-1 JO O B ftth )ärlH« I-* u £ ft z H ca GO Ř-1 «J U o O

  8. Update on the 2009-10 State Budget. Report 09-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On February 20, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law the 2009 Budget Package. This set of bills revised the current year (2008-09) budget and adopted a budget for the upcoming 2009-10 fiscal year. This 17-month spending plan was designed to address a two-year budgetary shortfall of more than $40 billion. The plan contains the…

  9. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S. Department of…

  10. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  11. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  12. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  13. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  14. Dynamic effects of fiscal policy and fiscal multipliers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Deskar-Škrbić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of discretionary measures of fiscal policy on the economic activity and to estimate the size of fiscal multipliers in Croatia. Econometric framework is based on the structural VAR model (SVAR, with Blanchard-Perotti identification method that uses information on institutional characteristics of fiscal system. The analysis is conducted on quarterly data for total expenditures and indirect taxes of central, central consolidated and general consolidated government and aggregate demand for the period from 2004-2012. The results show that our initial assumptions about the difference in the size of the multiplier of government expenditures and indirect tax revenues between three levels of government consolidation have been confirmed.

  15. Fiscal impacts of immigration to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, E S; Espenshade, T J

    1992-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to fill a gap in the demographic literature by reviewing previous fiscal studies of immigration in the United States. Each study is introduced by describing the data it uses, the methodologies employed in calculating costs and revenues, and the resulting estimates of fiscal consequences. Evaluative comments are also stressed. Seventeen studies are included in this review, divided into those that emphasize national fiscal impacts (these studies aggregate the effects of immigrants across all levels of government), state fiscal impacts, and fiscal effects on local governments."

  16. 公路投标预算编制技巧与报价策略%Technique of Budget Estimate Compilation and Tactics of Quotation for Highway Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宗文

    2001-01-01

    在公路建设市场中,投标的施工企业都期望中标并获得利润和信誉。通过对各种资料和信息的准确了解,认真分析招标办法和竞争对手投标报价水平,编制出的投标价尽可能接近业主预算价,使最终报价成为最佳标价,提高中标率。%In the highway construction market, all the construction enterprises hope to win the bid and gain profit & reputation. Based on the accurate grasp of all kinds of data and information and through analyzing carefully the bidding method and the bid quotation level of the competitors to compile a budget estimate price which is close as possible to the budget price of the client, so as to work out the best quotation price and thus to increase the chance of winning the bid.

  17. APPLYING THE ARRANGEMENTS OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION IN CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The issue of implementation of the areas of fiscal consolidation is particularly relevant in terms of the accumulation of public deficits and public debt in such amounts when the country is on the verge of insolvency. A clear policy to gradually reduce these deficits is necessary, since the budget deficit and quasi-fiscal deficits are rapidly increasing. This will help stabilizing public debt dynamics, and facilitating resolving the shortterm financial difficulties. The situation in Ukraine i...

  18. Index of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Testimony: Fiscal Year 1991 Environmental EPA Lacks Assurance That Disinfectants Kill Germs, by Richard L. Hembra , Resources, Community, and Economic...91-1, Oct. 2. EPA’S Contract Management: Audit Backlogs and Audit Follow-up Problems Undermine EPA’S Contract Management, by Richard L. Hembra ...GAO/T-RCED-91-5, Dec. 11. Observations on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Budget Request for Fiscal Year 1992, by Richard L. Hembra , Resources

  19. Fiscal Policy Implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Duarte Lledo; Marcos Poplawski-Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates economic, political, and institutional constraints to fiscal policy implementation in sub-saharan Africa. We find that planned fiscal adjustments or expansions are less likely to be implemented the larger they are, the more inaccurate the growth forecasts they are based on, the more fragile the regulatory system in the country, and the weaker the institutions framing the design, approval, and execution of the budget. The findings support ongoing efforts in the region t...

  20. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-10-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  1. On Revision of China’ s Budget Law on the Background of Deepening Fiscal and Taxation System Reform---An Analysis of Revision Background, Content and Effect of China’ s Budget Law%全面深化财税体制改革视野下中国《预算法》的修订研究--中国《预算法》修订的背景、内容与效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海涛; 肖鹏

    2014-01-01

    Abts ract:The Budget Law was revised on the tenth meeting of the twelve session of the NPC Standing Committee on August 31st in 2014 .Compared with the Budget Law in1994 , there are eight breakthroughs in 2014 Budget Law:First , Emphasizing the principle of completion , secondly, emphasizing the principle of transparency , thirdly, emphasizing the principle of ruling by law , fourthly, expanding the principle of yearly budget , fifthly, emphasizing the principle of budget performance , sixthly, strengthe-ning the administration of local government debt , seventhly , strengthening the administration of Extra budgetary revenue , eighth-ly, strengthening the function of redistribution .The promulgation and Implementation of Budget law will help to promote the na-tional governance ability , and will help to construct modern fiscal system .%2014年8月31日,十二届全国人大常委会第十次会议通过颁布了修订后的《预算法》。《预算法》修订工作作为党的十八届三中全会《关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》和《全面深化财税体制改革方案》的突破口,凸显八个方面的重大突破:突出预算的全面完整性原则,实现四本预算的全覆盖;突出预算的公开透明原则,循序渐进地推进预算信息公开;突出预算的法治性原则,构建预算对政府施政的硬约束机制;拓展预算的年度性原则,建立跨年度预算平衡机制;强化预算的绩效性原则,倡导“用钱必问效、无效必问责”的理念;加强地方政府债务管理,明确地方政府债务管理的职责权限划分;加强预算超收收入管理,设立预算稳定调节基金;强化预算的再分配功能,推进基本公共服务均等化。《预算法》的颁布实施也将对提升国家治理能力、建立现代财政制度、规范政府施政行为、制约和监督政府权力运行、提升纳税人权利意识、提升人大审查监督政府

  2. Fiscal determinants of government borrowing costs: do we have only ourselves to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Funda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and the problems in peripheral EU countries resulted in increased attention to fiscal developments and their impact on borrowing costs for both public and private sector. Existing theoretical literature suggests that worsening of current and expected budget balances as well as an increase of public debt lead to a rise in short and long term interest rates for sovereign debtors. However, empirical results are inconclusive, especially for emerging market countries. This paper analyzes the factors that determine the dynamics of government bond spreads, with special emphasis on fiscal indicators. The survey covered 17 European countries, of which 9 are developed and 8 are emerging market economies, all of them members of the EU except Croatia. The empirical part of the paper employs dynamic panel data method and uses the Arellano and Bond estimator to get consistent estimates of parameters of interest. The results show that in the period 2004-2011 fiscal balance and public debt projections had a significant impact on the differences in government bond yields for emerging market countries, with the effect being much stronger during the period after the onset of financial crises. On the other hand, it seems that sovereign spread dynamics in developed countries is driven mostly by the global market sentiment.

  3. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  4. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  5. Do Municipal Mergers Improve Fiscal Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    relationship between municipal mergers and fiscal outcomes is analysed. Measured on the balance between revenues and expenses, liquid assets and debts, municipal mergers improve the fiscal outcomes of the municipalities in a five-year perspective, although the pre-reform effects tend to be negative....... The basic argument is that the conceptualisation of fiscal management in political science is often too narrow as it focuses on the budget and pays hardly any attention to balances in the final accounts and debts – elements of management which are central to policy making. On this background, the causal...... of endogeneity problems and enabling causal inference. The analysis is based on administrative data from the Danish municipalities in the period 2003–11....

  6. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition.

  7. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates Amended Fiscal Year 1988 and 1989 Biennial Budget Submitted to Congress February 1988. Operation and Maintenance, Navy. Book 1. Budget Activity 1: Strategic Forces Budget Activity 2: General Purpose Forces Budget Activity 3: Intelligence and Communications Budget Activity 4: Airlift and Sealift

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    W = - Q;0) OLA CO a~ -0UJ I=LA td - r ( A 0 CL OLA1 a 0) w OJ0~K b .1 0 al ( apC 0.0 0 r 41-10 ,01 , -4. -W 4v - 0c -OL 4 >, CW 0 - ) -4 4LA*;.(0 VOO...00-C m0C 0.L C 0 0 4 M’ I W-CCC LA OLA *HZ A- 4.00>0Ff- 0 . LA -4 A.-4WQ) vO C: d -)4 CAU -4 LAW oW 0.40 *- 6 bC rd w04 A b0𔃺 1O. -l.a0.. 40) 4-1 0... boLA u)0 o 4 cd u C M - 0 ( L) - 1)U 010010) 0 Q)LA0 a C M- a vG~~1 50 0 > = Q) aLa) a) u 0 0) G C- L/)--4 0 OO 0 0. ZY- ~U4 4 U( 0 Hl >A> )w- i-I d

  8. Reported Federal Drug Abuse Expenditures--Fiscal Years 1981 to 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AI57 836 REPORTED FEDERAL DRUG ABUSE EXPENDITURES--FISCAL YEARS / 1981 TO i985(U) HERCULES AEROSPACE PRODUCTS CO MAGNA UTp BACCHUS NORKS 83 JUN 85...General Accounting Officec°- IReported Federal Drug Abuse Expenditures-- ~ Fiscal Years 1981 To 1985 GAO’s review centers on the Federal Drug Abuse Budget...Summary, a document which describes federal agencies’ budget author- ity and outlays for drug abuse programs, including drug law enforcement and pre

  9. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  10. An organic carbon budget for coastal Southern California determined by estimates of vertical nutrient flux, net community production and export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, William Z.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Berelson, William M.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Fleming, John C.; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2016-10-01

    Organic carbon export and burial in coastal upwelling regions is an important mechanism for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. In order to understand how these complex systems will respond to future climate forcing, further studies of nutrient input, biological production and export are needed. Using a 7Be-based approach, we produced an 18-month record of upwelling velocity estimates at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), Southern California Bight. These upwelling rates and vertical nutrient distributions have been combined to make estimates of potential new production (PNP), which are compared to estimates of net community oxygen production (NOP) made using a one-dimensional, two-box non-steady state model of euphotic zone biological oxygen supersaturation. NOP agrees within uncertainty with PNP, suggesting that upwelling is the dominant mechanism for supplying the ecosystem with new nutrients in the spring season, but negligible in the fall and winter. Combining this data set with estimates of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from water column 234Th:238U disequilibrium and sediment trap deployments, and an estimate of the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC):POC consumption rates, we construct a simple box model of organic carbon in the upper 200 m of our study site. This box model (with uncertainties of ±50%) suggests that in spring, 28% of net production leaves the euphotic zone as DOC, of this, 12% as horizontal export and 16% via downward mixing. The remaining 72% of net organic carbon export exits as sinking POC, with only 10% of euphotic zone export reaching 200 m. We find the metabolic requirement for the local heterotrophic community below the euphotic zone, but above 200 m, is 105±50 mmol C m-2 d-1, or 80% of net euphotic zone production in spring.

  11. Estimating the carbon budget and maximizing future carbon uptake for a temperate forest region in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Scott D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests of the Midwest U.S. provide numerous ecosystem services. Two of these, carbon sequestration and wood production, are often portrayed as conflicting. Currently, carbon management and biofuel policies are being developed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and national dependence on foreign oil, and increase carbon storage in ecosystems. However, the biological and industrial forest carbon cycles are rarely studied in a whole-system structure. The forest system carbon balance is the difference between the biological (net ecosystem production and industrial (net emissions from forest industry forest carbon cycles, but to date this critical whole system analysis is lacking. This study presents a model of the forest system, uses it to compute the carbon balance, and outlines a methodology to maximize future carbon uptake in a managed forest region. Results We used a coupled forest ecosystem process and forest products life cycle inventory model for a regional temperate forest in the Midwestern U.S., and found the net system carbon balance for this 615,000 ha forest was positive (2.29 t C ha-1 yr-1. The industrial carbon budget was typically less than 10% of the biological system annually, and averaged averaged 0.082 t C ha-1 yr-1. Net C uptake over the next 100-years increased by 22% or 0.33 t C ha-1 yr-1 relative to the current harvest rate in the study region under the optized harvest regime. Conclusions The forest’s biological ecosystem current and future carbon uptake capacity is largely determined by forest harvest practices that occurred over a century ago, but we show an optimized harvesting strategy would increase future carbon sequestration, or wood production, by 20-30%, reduce long transportation chain emissions, and maintain many desirable stand structural attributes that are correlated to biodiversity. Our results for this forest region suggest that increasing harvest over the next 100

  12. GETTING CLOSER TO EU STANDARDS - GEORGIA FISCAL GOVERNANCE ADJUSTMENT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David OBOLADZE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on fiscal governance from the perspective of developing the public finance management of Georgia. The paper investigates the fiscal governance framework in European Union countries and examines the impact of fiscal rules and budget procedures in EU countries. Well-designed fiscal frameworks are generally associated with better budgetary outcomes in terms of deficit and debt control. Following a thorough investigation of the current stance of fiscal governance in Georgia, the paper analyses the main medium and long term perspectives for Georgia to approximate with EU fiscal governance. The main objective of this paper is to provide policy guidelines needed for the appropriate and necessary reforms to ensure comprehensive, coherent and consistent fiscal governance framework for Georgia, which will improve the performance of public finance management and national economy of Georgia.

  13. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  14. An Empirical Study on Fiscal Sustainability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal sustainability has become a prominent issue in developing countries, and fiscal sustainability assessments have become an increasingly demanded component of macroeconomic analysis. Unfortunately, there is no single basic source of information on fiscal sustainability. Country economists who are new to fiscal sustainability analysis could rely on sample work by other economists and could delve into scattered journal articles for the theoretical background. This paper focuses on a particular country: Malaysia. The main purpose of this paper is to monitor fiscal sustainability in Malaysia using empirical analysis, and see whether the fiscal sustainability indicators are consistent with the co-integration framework. We employ VAR analysis as it is simple to compute and easily automated. We show how it is possible to analyze a change of policy within a VAR framework. We also use a Multivariate Co-integration Test methodology to conduct inference about the co-integrating relationship between fiscal sustainability indicators and output (GDP. Empirical validation from the time series analysis finds that fiscal sustainability indicators and Gross domestic Product (GDP are co-integrated, which provides some support for the position that Malaysia’s fiscal sustainability is sustainable in the long run in sampling period. This finding suggests that the Government should improve the presentation of sustainability of fiscal policy and develop the analysis, review the sustainability indicators, and strengthen the role of the long term estimates in the design of short term fiscal policy.

  15. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  16. “BOT+EPC”模式下公路工程概算编制问题分析%Analysis for Problems in Budget Estimate Making of Highway Project in “BOT+EPC” Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运涛; 敬世红

    2013-01-01

    As a new mode in the field of expressway construction, " BOT + EPC " proposes higher requirement for depth and accuracy of budget estimate making in design. In combination with construction practices on new 1000km expressway in Chongqing, this paper points out discordance between conventional two-stage design budget estimate with new construction mode. From the perspective of management for expressway construction, the paper indicates that changes of highway construction modes expedite adjustment of design budget estimate making and emphasizes several problems that should be particularly noticed in budget estimate making in new mode.%“BOT+EPC”作为高速公路建设领域的一种新模式,对设计概算编制深度和精度提出更高要求.结合重庆新千公里高速公路建设实践,指出传统意义上两阶段初步设计概算与新型建设模式不协调的一面.从高速公路建设管理的角度,指出公路建设模式变化催生设计概算编制随之调整,强调新模式下概算编制中应着重注意的若干问题.

  17. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 1. Budget Activity 1: Strategic Forces, Budget Activity 2: General Purpose Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Accounting Activity, Great LakesTransfer to BA-9 -47 c. Programmatic Decreases -92,7771) Reduction to Fund DrugTesting 2) Overseas...to re-align funding for drugtesting program publichealth service program, Sealift Prepositioningto finance ammunition prepositioning, and

  18. (U) Estimating the Photonics Budget, Resolution, and Signal Requirements for a Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This document examines the performance of a generic flat-mirror multimonochromatic imager (MMI), with special emphasis on existing instruments at NIF and Omega. We begin by deriving the standard equation for the mean number of photons detected per resolution element. The pinhole energy bandwidth is a contributing factor; this is dominated by the finite size of the source and may be considerable. The most common method for estimating the spatial resolution of such a system (quadrature addition) is, technically, mathematically invalid for this case. However, under the proper circumstances it may produce good estimates compared to a rigorous calculation based on the convolution of point-spread functions. Diffraction is an important contribution to the spatial resolution. Common approximations based on Fraunhofer (farfield) diffraction may be inappropriate and misleading, as the instrument may reside in multiple regimes depending upon its configuration or the energy of interest. It is crucial to identify the correct diffraction regime; Fraunhofer and Fresnel (near-field) diffraction profiles are substantially different, the latter being considerably wider. Finally, we combine the photonics and resolution analyses to derive an expression for the minimum signal level such that the resulting images are not dominated by photon statistics. This analysis is consistent with observed performance of the NIF MMI.

  19. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  20. Lack of fiscal discipline: Challenges and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of fiscal discipline is one of the most pressing issues in the framework of various economic systems today. The consequences of the global economic crisis have shown all the weaknesses of measures and mechanisms in terms of decision-making in fiscal policy. This problem can be seen now in almost every country. The problem of inadequate implementation of fiscal policy and the maintenance of fiscal discipline is reflected in the fact that their consequences are not visible right away, but tend to show their negative effects much later. Today, we have a situation where a certain current government suffers badly implemented prior fiscal discipline of a previous government. The paper identified causes of fiscal indiscipline, which is most easily seen in the budget process. In addition to determining the causes of fiscal indiscipline, the author puts forward a set of different possible solutions that could positively affect the stabilization of the growing public debt and eliminate the cause of fiscal indiscipline. Possible solutions are analyzed, as well as the positive and negative aspects of their use, and possible implementation problems of specific solutions.

  1. Sustainability of Public Debt and Budget Deficit: Panel cointegration analysis for the European Union Member countries

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the sustainability of fiscal policy of EU member countries within the panel cointegration and error-correction frameworks. Unlike the previous empirical papers in this area, we apply the test for panel cointegration between the primary budget deficit and the public debt defined in GDP ratios. Based on the cointegration test results, we conclude that the fiscal policy is consistent with the intertemporal budget constraint, i.e., it is sustainable in the panel of fifte...

  2. Geophysical science in the 1995 U.S. Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 7, President Clinton released his fiscal year 1995 budget of $1.52 trillion. At $16.9 billion, the overall budget for science and space will be 2% lower in 1995. Since science is “discretionary” funding—spending for programs other than entitlements and payments on the national debt—it is among the first to be cut. But considering other budget areas, science is faring relatively well. Agriculture's budget is being cut by a hefty 24%, energy is being cut by 8%, and defense is down 3%.

  3. Estimating the Budgets of Nutrients for Phytoplankton Bloom in the Central Yellow Sea Using a Modified Lower Tropic Ecosystem Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chengyi; WANG Yuheng; WEI Hao

    2014-01-01

    A modified lower trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO) is coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for an application in the central Yellow Sea. The model is used to simulate the horizontal distributions and annual cycles of chlorophyll-a and nutrients with results consistent with historical observations. Generally, during the winter background and spring bloom periods, the exchange with neighboring waters constitutes the primary sources of nutrients. Howerver, during the winter background period, the input of silicate from the layer deeper than 50 m is the most important source that contributes up to 60%to the total sources. Dur-ing the spring bloom period, the transport across the thermocline makes significant contribution to the input of phosphate and silicate. During the post spring bloom period, the relative contribution of relevant processes varies for different nutrients. For ammonium, atmospheric deposition, excretion of zooplankton and decomposition of particulate and dissolved nitrogen make similar contributions. For phosphate and silicate, the dominant input is the transport across the thermocline, accounting for 62% and 68% of the total sources, respectively. The N/P ratio averaged annually and over the whole southern Yellow Sea is up to 51.8, indicating the potential of P limitation in this region. The important influence of large scale sea water circulation is revealed by both the estimated fluxes and the corresponding N/P ratio of nutrients across a section linking the northeastern bank of the Changjiang River and Cheju Island. During the winter background period, the input of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate by the Yellow Sea Warm Current is estimated to be 4.6×1010, 2.3×1010, 2.0×109 and 1.2×1010 mol, respectively.

  4. 26 CFR 1.6153-2 - Fiscal years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal years. 1.6153-2 Section 1.6153-2...) INCOME TAXES Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-2 Fiscal years. In the case of an individual on the fiscal year basis, the dates prescribed for payment of the estimated tax shall be the 15th day of the...

  5. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency: Evidence in the Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Zuccolotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The transparency of governments to their citizens is seen as a necessary factor in democratic accountability and, consequently, in the consolidation of democracy. Although the importance of transparency in government is often highlighted, its causes are still unknown, especially in the Brazilian context. Following the trend of international empirical research, this exploratory study investigates the relationships between three sets of variables (current and past fiscal variables, socioeconomic variables and political variables and fiscal transparency in the Brazilian subnational context. To identify the relationship between fiscal, socioeconomic and political variables and fiscal transparency, the multiple linear regression technique was used. Prior to conducting the regression using the method of ordinary least squares, factor analysis was used, aiming to group the fiscal and socioeconomic variables into factors not only to reduce their quantity but also to eliminate their multicollinearity problems. Political variables, due to their qualitative nature, remained in their original form. The factor analysis sorted the variables into two groups: fiscal and socioeconomic factors. Because multiple regression allows only for the evaluation of the relationship between the parties included in the sample and the reference party, an F test was used to assess differences in the level of transparency among political parties. The results indicated that fiscal and socioeconomic variables explain the transparency levels of the Brazilian States. However, the political variables were not significant, indicating that the disclosure of fiscal information in Brazil seems not to be influenced by political ideologies. Furthermore, it is evident that the lack of a regulatory model of transparency in the budget process leads States to disclose a great deal of information about budget execution. Finally, the findings indicate that as an instrument for democratic

  6. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  7. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  8. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, D.; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  9. Department of the Navy FY 1992/FY 1993 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1991, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Countermeasures 4Q/FY97 UNCLASSIFIED 252 UNCLASSIFIED FY 1992/1993 RDT&E, NAVY DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY PROGRAM EZLN ZNT: 0603207N BUDGET ACTIVITY: 4 PROGRAM ULDUNT...Continuing UNCLASSIFIED 7,31 UNCLASSIFIED PROGRAM ELEMENT: 0604314N BUDGET ACTIVITY: 4 PROGRAM EZLN TITLE: ARAAM PROJECT NUMBER: W0981 PROJECT TITLE: AM

  10. Communicating the financial worth of the CNS through the use of fiscal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro-McDuffie, A; Chan, J S; Jerome, A M

    1993-03-01

    To maintain the clinical nurse specialist's (CNS's) leading role within hospital nursing services, routine communication to hospital administration of the impact of the CNS role on the hospital's budget is imperative. The CNS group at Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters implemented a quarterly Fiscal Report to clarify the financial worth of CNS practice. The Fiscal Report presents cost savings and revenue generating activities utilizing the role components of the CNS. During fiscal year 1991, the CNS group reported a total impact of $1,600,000. This article describes in detail the use of the Fiscal Report.

  11. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  12. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budget over the period 1958-2009, we explore the planning and realization of fiscal policy in the Netherlands. Our key findings are the following. First, planned surpluses are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic during the first half of the samp

  13. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic durin

  14. Fifty years of fiscal planning and implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Walschot, M.; Wierts, P.

    2013-01-01

    Using real-time data from the annual budgets over the period 1958-2009, we explore budgetary planning and implementation in the Netherlands. Three fiscal policy regimes are distinguished. Our key findings are the following. First, plans are on average unbiased, although they are overoptimistic durin

  15. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  16. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo

  17. The gains from early intervention in Europe: Fiscal surveillance and fiscal planning using cash data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hughes Hallett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time cash data allows us to make accurate intra-annual forecasts of an economy’s fiscal position, and to issue early warning signals for the need to correct fiscal imbalances. This paper shows how those signals can be used to design the necessary fiscal corrections, and discusses the gains that can be achieved from such interventions. Examples from Germany and Italy show that large corrections are often necessary early on to make adjustments later on acceptable and to keep debt ratios from escalating. There is a credibility issue here; we find the difference between front-loaded and back-loaded adjustment schemes is likely to be vital for the time consistency of fiscal policymaking. We also show that, without early interventions, the later deficit reductions typically double in size – meaning governments become subject to the excessive deficit procedure and significant improve-ment tests more often. Thus the budget savings from early intervention and the use of cash data are significant; in our examples they are similar in size to the operating budget of the department of housing and urban development in Germany. Similar results apply in other Eurozone countries.

  18. 美国联邦政府2017财年研发预算分析与启示%Research on R & D Budget of the U.S. Federal Government for Fiscal Year 2017

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明磊; 陈宝明

    2016-01-01

    According to the president’s R&D budget for ifscal year 2017 which president Obama submitted in Feb. 2016, the paper analyzes the investment structure of the America’s ifscal year 2017 R&D budget, as well as the main department distribution and R&D plans. Based on summarized the major characteristics and the main ifelds of R&D investment in ifscal year 2017, it put forward some focus points and enlightenment.%本文根据奥巴马2016年2月提交的2017财年联邦政府预算案,分析美国2017财年研发经费预算的投入结构、主要部门经费分布与研发计划,总结2017财年研发投入的主要特点和重点以及研发投入领域,提出一些需要关注的研发投入方向以及启示。

  19. Fiscal transparency, political parties, and debt in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    Many believe and argue that fiscal, or budgetary, transparency has large, positive effects on fiscal performance. However, the evidence linking transparency and fiscal policy outcomes is less compelling. To analyze the effects of fiscal transparency on public debt accumulation, we present a career...... (at least for strategic reasons) tend to have higher deficits than left-wing governments, and that increasing political polarization increases debt accumulation. To test the predictions of the model, we construct a replicable index of fiscal transparency on 19-country OECD data. Simultaneous estimates...... of debt and transparency strongly confirm that a higher degree of fiscal transparency is associated with lower public debt and deficits, independent of controls for explanatory variables from other approaches...

  20. Greece; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes—Fiscal Transparency Module-Update

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an update to the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on Fiscal Transparency for Greece. Two important steps toward improving fiscal transparency since the last ROSC update were Greece’s subscription to the Special Data Dissemination Standard in November 2002, and participation in the preparation of the data module of the ROSC. Other steps included improving fiscal audits and the evaluation of budget expenditure, and measures in the recent tax reform to...

  1. Does Fiscal Transparency Explain Social Development in Brazilian States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welles Matias de Abreu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies show significant results when compared with fiscal transparency social indicators in the framework of democratic processes. However, careful analysis of the consequences associated with fiscal transparency are still surprisingly scarce. The aim of this research is to verify the existence of relationship between fiscal transparency and local development in the Brazilian states. The theoretical framework is related to public budget, focusing on fiscal transparency, and social development. In addition, to control social development by groups of Brazilian regions, we use a dummy variable. Therefore, this paper contributes to find empirical evidence on the existence of directly proportional relationship between state fiscal transparency and local development in Brazil. Moreover, it is important to highlight that the regional issue is fundamental to explaining social development, which together with fiscal transparency should be consider essential for formulation and implementation of public policies focus on the reducing of poverty and inequality in Brazil. Therefore, we expect that his article collaborated with data and ideas in order to stimulate further studies related to the consequences of fiscal transparency, considering all government levels: state, municipality and federal.

  2. Estimation of Carbon Budgets for Croplands by Combining High Resolution Remote Sensing Data with a Crop Model and Validation Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Veloso, A.; Ceschia, E.; Tallec, T.; Dejoux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands occupy large areas of Earth's land surface playing a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence, it is essential to quantify and analyze the carbon fluxes from those agro-ecosystems, since they contribute to climate change and are impacted by the environmental conditions. In this study we propose a regional modeling approach that combines high spatial and temporal resolutions (HSTR) optical remote sensing data with a crop model and a large set of in-situ measurements for model calibration and validation. The study area is located in southwest France and the model that we evaluate, called SAFY-CO2, is a semi-empirical one based on the Monteith's light-use efficiency theory and adapted for simulating the components of the net ecosystem CO2 fluxes (NEE) and of the annual net ecosystem carbon budgets (NECB) at a daily time step. The approach is based on the assimilation of satellite-derived green area index (GAI) maps for calibrating a number of the SAFY-CO2 parameters linked to crop phenology. HSTR data from the Formosat-2 and SPOT satellites were used to produce the GAI maps. The experimental data set includes eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 fluxes from two experimental sites and partitioned into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). It also includes measurements of GAI, biomass and yield between 2005 and 2011, focusing on the winter wheat crop. The results showed that the SAFY-CO2 model correctly reproduced the biomass production, its dynamic and the yield (relative errors about 24%) in contrasted climatic, environmental and management conditions. The net CO2 flux components estimated with the model were overall in agreement with the ground data, presenting good correlations (R² about 0.93 for GPP, 0.77 for Reco and 0.86 for NEE). The evaluation of the modelled NECB for the different site-years highlighted the importance of having accurate estimates of each component of the NECB. Future works aim at considering

  3. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  4. Our Changing Planet: The FY 1993 US Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, a supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Reasearch Program (USGCRP) was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY-1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  5. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2017-03-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  6. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-05-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  7. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates.

  8. The President's Budget: New Investments, a Vision for Vulnerable Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kisha

    2014-01-01

    President Obama's Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget, released on March 4, reflects the Administration's commitment to helping low-income individuals and vulnerable families access pathways to economic mobility, healthy development, and high quality of life. The budget proposal adheres to spending levels established in the Bipartisan Budget…

  9. Truth or Consequences: The State Budget for 2004-2005 and Its Impact on Texans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Patrick; Castro, Eva De Luna; Dunkelberg, Anne; Hagert, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the Texas state budget for 2004-05, discusses the impact of the fiscal and policy decisions that were made, and serves as a roadmap to the service restorations that must be considered as the economy and state revenues rebound. In addition to the analysis of budget and policy changes in the body of the report, useful…

  10. Proposed State Budget Improves Outlook for Kids, but Leaves Much Work to Be Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2013

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the Administration's proposed state budget does not project a deficit. Painful budget cutting in recent years combined with voters passing Proposition 30 in November to generate revenues finally have put California on more stable fiscal ground. However, it is critical to recognize that kids have borne a…

  11. Fiscal Budget Constraint and The Determination of Price Level:A Critique on FTPL%财政约束与价格水平决定:FTPL的一个批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利平

    2005-01-01

    本文在一个内生增长一般均衡货币模型中,通过引入名义债券、实际债券、货币和物质资本,讨论了政府财政约束与价格水平决定的关系.我们发现,在平衡增长路径上均衡通货膨胀率完全由货币增长率决定,政府跨时预算约束方程只是个恒等式.如果价格水平财政理论(Fiscal Theory of Price Level,FTPL)成立,则小得可以忽略的财政扰动可以导致物价水平的巨大波动,这是无法让人接受的;进一步的研究发现,问题出现的原因是FTPL将名义债券市场和其他资产市场割裂开来,孤立地讨论了名义债券市场出清的条件,由此认为跨时预算约束方程是一个均衡定价方程;当将诸市场统一起来考虑时,公众可以在货币、债券和物质资本之间进行选择,财政当局不再是一个价格决定者,其债券发行量成为一个内生变量,必须服从跨时预算约束方程,后者成为一个恒等式,从而价格水平主要由货币当局的货币发行决定.

  12. MACROTHEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Liutyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the unexplored category of "fiscal consolidation". The study shows a different interpretation of the content of fiscal consolidation. It was emphasized that in today's fiscal policy in the EU aims mainly at implementing fiscal consolidation programs that provide sustainable public finances by implementing measures to limit the fiscal imbalances (especially deficit of governance and public debt. The paper analyses the fiscal consolidation program aimed at stabilizing of public finances and improve their sustainability. The research proved that fiscal rules and norms contribute to the process of fiscal consolidation.

  13. State Budgets Are Likely to Squeeze 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges in nearly half of the states will probably face midyear reductions in their appropriations, according to a survey of members of the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges. The study paints a bleak picture of a widening fiscal crisis among state governments, which started in the most recent budget year and is…

  14. THE INTERTEMPORAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET CONSTRAINT - AN APPLICATION FOR THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, J; SIERMANN, CLJ

    1993-01-01

    In this paper it is examined whether fiscal policy in the Netherlands is in accordance with the intertemporal budget constraint. After a careful review of previous studies, it is decided to use the test as proposed by Trehan and Walsh [1989, 1991], which consists of examining the stationarity of the

  15. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...

  16. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have pur

  17. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  18. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Agüera

    Full Text Available Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O

  19. A carbon budget for the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Estimating net community production and export in a highly productive polar ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Yager

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polynyas, or recurring areas of seasonally open water surrounded by sea ice, are foci for energy and material transfer between the atmosphere and the polar ocean. They are also climate sensitive, with both sea ice extent and glacial melt influencing their productivity. The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP is the greenest polynya in the Southern Ocean, with summertime chlorophyll a concentrations exceeding 20 µg L−1. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE in austral summer 2010–11, we aimed to determine the fate of this high algal productivity. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll a, mesozooplankton, and microbial biomass to make a carbon budget for this ecosystem. We also measured primary and secondary production, community respiration rates, vertical particle flux and fecal pellet production and grazing. With observations arranged along a gradient of increasing integrated dissolved inorganic nitrogen drawdown (ΔDIN; 0.027–0.74 mol N m−2, changes in DIC in the upper water column (ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 mol C m−2 and gas exchange (0–1.7 mol C m−2 were combined to estimate early season net community production (sNCP; 0.2–5.9 mol C m−2 and then compared to organic matter inventories to estimate export. From a phytoplankton bloom dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, a high fraction (up to ∼60% of sNCP was exported to sub-euphotic depths. Microbial respiration remineralized much of this export in the mid waters. Comparisons to short-term (2–3 days drifting traps and a year-long moored sediment trap capturing the downward flux confirmed that a relatively high fraction (3–6% of the export from ∼100 m made it through the mid waters to depth. We discuss the climate-sensitive nature of these carbon fluxes, in light of the changing sea ice cover and melting ice sheets in the region.

  20. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  1. Hydrogen program summary Fiscal Year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-03-01

    The annual program summary provides stakeholders within the hydrogen community with a snapshop of important advances that have occurred in the National Hydrogen Program over the fiscal year, including industry interactions and cooperation. The document will also be used to encourage additional potential industrial partners to join the Hydrogen Program Team. Fiscal Year 1994 marked a turning point for the Hydrogen Program, with a budget that grew significantly. The focus of the program was broadened to include development of hydrogen production technologies using municipal solid waste and biomass, in addition to an increased emphasis on industrial involvement and near-term demonstration projects. In order to maintain its near- and long-term balance, the Hydrogen Program will continue with basic, fundamental research that provides the long-term, high-risk, high-payoff investment in hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  2. Capital Budgeting: Do Private Sector Methods of Budgeting for Capital Assets Have Applicability to the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Professor Michael Porter and recognize the strategic importance of conducting a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis as part...business use and not 28 expected to be converted to cash in the current or upcoming fiscal year, such as manufacturing equipment, real estate , etc... ANALYSIS .......................................................................5 A. DOD CAPITAL BUDGETING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS..............5 1

  3. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984, Procurement, Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles. Part 4. Ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    3D526) 53 DAKA-PPC (3E443) 5 Cost & Audit (2) APA (9) MIPA (10) DANA-PP (3E374) 1 Plano /Systema (1) PWTCV (10) PAA (11) DAMA-RA (3E360) I Construction (1...transferred 10,000 10.000 Unobhigated balance available, COY 24 4002 For completion of prior year budget pie 390,633 300,163 347,127 𔃿.000l iunobligeted

  4. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 3. Budget Activity 3. Intelligence & Communications. Budget Activity 8. Training, Medical & OGPA. Budget Activity 9. Administration & Assoc Acts. Budget Activity 10. Support to Other Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    el ectricity generating plants, purchased steam and hot water, heat plants, utility distribucion systems, waste systems, air conditioning and...operation of vehicles/other transportation equipment, port services (includes navigational assistance to ships, operation of service craft, degaussing...One-Time FY 1984 Costs (-22) 1) Reduction in transportation of things assncirated with establishment of three new NAVOCEANCOMTEi S -13 3 - 54

  5. A política fiscal e as taxas de juros nos países emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajax Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa o papel da política fiscal sobre as taxas de juros de 18 países emergentes no o período 1996-2008. A questão se justifica, na medida em que, estes países são heterogêneos em muitos aspectos tais como sistema de metas inflação, taxa de poupança, nível de reservas, regime cambial e político; diferenças que podem também afetar a relação entre política fiscal e os juros. O resultado mostra que, mesmo considerando a heterogeneidade diversa dos países emergentes incluídos na amostra, não é possível rejeitar a hipótese de que uma política baseada na austeridade fiscal diminui a taxa de juros doméstica. Um aumento de 1% no superávit primário reduz entre 550 a 100 pontos base os juros, valor três vezes superior ao estimado em Aisen & Hauner (2008 para economias emergentes. Este resultado ilustra a importância da política fiscal na determinação das taxas de juros nos países emergentes, e, portanto, as limitações que o Banco Central se submete no exercício da política monetária.This paper analyzes the role of fiscal policy sustainability on the determinants of domestic interest rate of 18 emerging market countries, in the period 1996-2008. This issue deserves attention since countries in the sample present a great level of heterogeneity relating to inflation target and exchange rate regime, political system, foreign reserves and saving rates; and such differences may also affect interest rate. Despite the heterogeneity between countries, the result shows that is not possible to reject the hypothesis that fiscal policy sustainability decreases domestic interest rate in emerging markets. An increase of 1% at primary budget decreases interest rate between 50 to 100 basis point; a figure tree times higher than the one estimated by Aisen & Hauner (2008 for emerging economies. This fact illustrates the importance of fiscal policy in determining interest rate in emerging economies and therefore the limitation

  6. APPLYING THE ARRANGEMENTS OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Drozd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of implementation of the areas of fiscal consolidation is particularly relevant in terms of the accumulation of public deficits and public debt in such amounts when the country is on the verge of insolvency. A clear policy to gradually reduce these deficits is necessary, since the budget deficit and quasi-fiscal deficits are rapidly increasing. This will help stabilizing public debt dynamics, and facilitating resolving the shortterm financial difficulties. The situation in Ukraine is complicated by the very low possibility to eliminate external shocks, since foreign exchange reserves and financial reserves are at their minimum, and continuing to show a downward trend. In addition, Ukraine’s economy is experiencing a phase of economic recession. Although the causes of these adverse events are complex and represent a number of external and internal factors, a path to immediate macroeconomic stabilization in Ukraine is possible. Reducing these macroeconomic imbalances should be the main task for the government in the near future, because otherwise there is no real opportunity to achieve sustainable economic growth. Further structural fiscal reforms in public spending are mandatory to maintain macroeconomic stability and economic development in the medium term. Fiscal consolidation will reduce external imbalances, help restoring fiscal space lost due to the crisis, and reduce the financial needs of the state budget and premium for sovereign risk. There are good reasons to conduct fiscal consolidation measures largely by public spending because their level relative to GDP is very high. Furthermore, it is the running costs should be subject to consolidation as capital expenditures have been already reduced to historically low levels. It is proven that there are very limited opportunities for consolidation on the basis of public revenues, because the concentration of GDP in the budget is already high and it would be difficult to raise

  7. The influence of fiscal rules on healthcare policy in the United States and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, H Christiaan; Jeurissen, Patrick; Glied, Sherry

    2016-09-28

    Governments use fiscal rules to put a framework and limits on how budgetary challenges are addressed, but the rules themselves are still an understudied area among health policy scholars. For a long time, healthcare held a somewhat separate status because of the reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. However, the combined forces of advocates for integral decision-making, central budget control and the increasing costs might shift healthcare towards budgetary frameworks that currently apply to other spending categories. In this paper, we study fiscal rules that the US and the Netherlands have adopted since 2010 and their impact on healthcare policy. Our analysis shows that fiscal rules can have an impact on the rationing of healthcare. In the studied timeframe, the rules seem to have more impact on budget outcomes than on the budget process itself. In addition, the convergence of fiscal and program policy objectives seems to be better accomplished in a budgetary system that applies enforceable budget ceilings. Budgeting for health entitlements requires a comprehensive and tailor-made approach and the composition of traditional rules might not fully answer to the complexities of healthcare policy. This paper aims to contribute to that debate and the way we think about healthcare budgeting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Predicting percentage of individuals consuming foods from percentage of households purchasing foods to improve the use of household budget surveys in estimating food chemical intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambe, J.; Kearney, J.; Becker, W.; Hulshof, K.; Dunne, A.; Gibney, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the hypothesis that there is sufficient agreement between percentage of households purchasing selected foods using household budget surveys and percentage of individuals consuming these foods as determined in individual-based surveys to allow the former to act as a surrogate fo

  9. IMPLICATION OF FISCAL POLICY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY DURING 2000 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Roxana MOSTEANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the result of implication of fiscal policy and their objectives in Romanian economy during 2000 – 2015. The analysis is focused on the expectations and results achieved through the implemented objectives of the fiscal policy. The paper draws especially on the results reflected in the revenues collected to the general consolidated budget of the state, in the share of deficit of general consolidated budget of the state in GDP, on the level of taxation. Also the paper use the financial and fiscal regulation during the period mentioned. Fiscal policy has intense interactions with regional policies, budgetary, monetary, social, as well as and development strategies, regional or national. This aspect is important in order to achieve macroeconomic stability, resulted in achieving sustainable economic growth, in condition of des-inflation, maintaining the current account deficit within limits financed in a sustainable way (in particular foreign direct investment and strengthening the state foreign exchange reserve.

  10. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  11. Analysis of the Activity of Fiscal Control Carried out by the General Directorate of Public Financem Maramures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cucosel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, Fiscal control activities are carried out by the bodies of fiscal control within the Ministry of Public Finance and its territorial units called fiscal control bodies, and by the specialized services of the local administrative authorities in order to handle local duties and taxes. The fiscal control includes a set of activities whose purpose is to verify the authenticity, legitimacy and sincerity of the tax statements, to verify that the taxpayers comply with their budget obligations and activities of investigation and finding tax evasion. The taxpayers – physical persons or legal entities, foreign and domestic, and associations with no legal entity status are subject to fiscal control if they have budget obligations.

  12. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  13. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MANIFESTATION OF FISCAL FRAUD IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Serju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we shall try to present two mechanisms of fiscal fraud used by economical agents and also found in the control actions performed by the fiscal organs at different commercial societies from Romania. The presented mechanisms refer to the fiscal fraud resulted from fictitious acquisitions of goods and services done by Romanian firms which have as beneficiaries other commercial societies which are fiscally registered in Romania. Being empirically examined, the fiscal fraud will be presented through the use of some figures which will describe the detailed operations step by step.For the cases we have chosen to present we will describe the real circuit of goods and money according to the documents. We will also refer to the possibility of identifying the risk of fiscal fraud that results from the reports provided by the economic agents for different state institutions. We will also consider the information provide by the books of prime entry and bookkeeping, documents which have to be written by the commercial societies according to the Law accountancy nr. 82/199, with further modifications and completions. The mechanisms of fiscal fraud in use can be identical with the ones presented in this paper or they can be different as „new elements” can appear; these „new elements” depend on the type of activity performed, the modifications the legislative framework, the performers’ creativity or other external or internal factors which are not identified by the fiscal organs. By identifying the fiscal fraud mechanisms and the way in which they function, the fiscal organs will be given the opportunity to take the necessary measures so that the fiscal resources of the state consolidated budget should not be affected by such operations. It is will known that we can speak of fiscal fraud and shadow economy in any country but ,according to the reports and statistics published by different international institutions, Romania’s shadow

  14. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999......, the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  15. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  16. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  17. Descriptive Summaries of the Research Development Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation FY 1983. Supporting Data FY 1983, Budget Estimate Submitted to Congress February 1982, Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Life Budget Activity: f1 - Technology Base Sciences (ED) antidotes/ therapies for nerve agent, blister agent, and cyanide poisoning viii continue. A...infection in maxillofacial wounde.: High-pressure oxy- gen therapy demonstrated a reduction in maxillofacial infections. The efficacy of freeze-dried...conducted. A concept study was conducted on a iOOO-hp 6-speed hydrokinetic transmission for combat vehicles. UNCLASSIFIED 1-482 UNCLASSIFIEO Program

  18. Department of the Army Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1985 Submitted to Congress February 1984, Procurement, Programs, Aircraft, Missiles, Weapons & Tracked Combat Vehicles. Part 1. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    3E573) 2 Navy (4C640) 1 US Army Material & Readiness ASA(RD&A) (2E672) 1 DANA-WS (3E448) 3 Command ASA(M&RA) (2E594) I APA/1IPA/PWTCV (I oa) ATTN...192,126 233,183 1,0 ’ 01 ,uppIrs and materials 375.295 5:2,341 f21, 021 ii 001 Equipment 1,629,563 2.497,704 3,031,361 Iq 9001 Total direct obligations...UnobligatOd talamnco available., EO0 ,14 4002 for completion of prior Vver butfjot plucks 146, 0 111 00011 budget authority - . . 1-6 Fvbruary 1984 4

  19. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF THE FISCAL CONVERGENCE CRITERIA IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN TERMS OF THE SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty led to the creation of the EMU and the euro area has resisted more than some of its critics believed, in the context of major macroeconomic imbalances, the issue of nominal convergence has been the subject of numerous research. This paper aims to analyze the capacity of fiscal criteria to reflect the ability of EU Member States to achieve economic development for the integration in the EMU and to comply strict fiscal policy that governing its operation. In the context of certain technical deficiencies of fiscal criteria, we analyzed the developments of budget deficit and gross public debt in the EU during 2000 and 2012. The results show that until 2007 the EU economies were able, overall, to meet the budget deficit criteria, but due to the financial crisis and the prolonged slowdown in economic growth, the fiscal balance had an unfavorable evolution since 2008, while the evolution of the gross public debt has worsened increasingly. Due to this pressure situation on the sustainability of public finances, examining the adoption, application and enforcement of the fiscal policy rules expressed by the evolution of the Fiscal Rule Index for the period 2000-2011, the importance of rules in the fiscal management of the Union and especially of the euro area appears increasingly obvious.

  1. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  2. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...... federations) encourage local taxation, but may discourage federal taxation. Furthermore, the structure of public spending is skewed towards local spending. We also show that, when considering Leviathan governments, fiscal institutions reduce confiscatory taxation by the federal government. The result...... is contrary to the Cartelization Hypothesis ( Brennan and Buchanan 1980 ). Finally, we characterize the efficient design of intergovernmental fiscal ties....

  3. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  4. 2001 BUDGET: Spending Bills Show No Sign of Surplus--Yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, J

    2000-07-07

    The U.S. Treasury may be awash in excess revenue, but so far this year many science programs are feeling parched. At the midpoint of the annual budget cycle, health and defense agencies appear headed for large increases, while the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, NASA, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are facing a fiscal drought compared to their requests. A lot could change before the 2001 fiscal year begins in October, however.

  5. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  6. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  7. 77 FR 32178 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Reinsuring Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Alterra Reinsurance USA, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...

  8. 75 FR 22689 - Fiscal Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Western Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  9. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  10. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...

  11. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we...

  12. Should quarterly government finance statistics be used for fiscal surveillane in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Diego J. Pedregal; Javier J. Pérez

    2008-01-01

    We use a newly available dataset of euro area quarterly national accounts fiscal data and construct multi-variate, state-space mixed-frequencies models for the government deficit, revenue and expenditure in order to assess its information content and its potential use for fiscal forecasting and monitoring purposes. The models are estimated with annual and quarterly national accounts fiscal data, but also incorporate monthly information taken from the cash accounts of the governments. The resu...

  13. The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 1992-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    outlays are highly sensitive to market interest rates. Unprecedentedly high interest rates caused the first quantum leap in interest outlays, in the late...Harvey Jean Hearne Lori Housman Julia Isaacs Deborah Kalcevic Cory Oltman Janice Peskin Pat Purcell Kathleen Shepherd Social service programs, Head Start

  14. Fiscal Responsibility and Australian Commonwealth , State and Territory Government Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Wines

    2006-01-01

    The government sector in Australia has seen the introduction of accrual accounting principles in recent years. However, this process has been complicated by the presence of two alternative financial reporting frameworks in the form of a) the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) uniform framework and b) the accrual accounting rules specified in Australian professional accounting standards, principally AAS 31. While a variety of cash and accrual based measurements are available pursuant to these...

  15. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    equipment, and software ). Those two sectors are unlikely to provide as much support to economic growth this year. Residential investment is expected to...metropolitan housing markets and is not intended to rep- resent the national market. It picks up all transactions, including condominiums , and is updated...component provided solid support for the growth of GDP in 2006 and 2007, but spending for producers’ durable equipment and software has been much

  16. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    DeLong, Martin Feldstein, Robert J. Gordon, Robert E. Hall, Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Ellen Hughes-Cromwick, Lawrence Katz, Allan H. Meltzer , Laurence H...Although increases in short-term interest rates tend to depress demand for goods and services, other financial factors, including long-term interest...that appear to be depressing long-term 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.6 Past 40 Years Past 30 Years Past 20 Years Past 10 Years CBO

  17. Defense Budget Priorities and Choices, Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    defense systems, and investing in research and development for an SM-3/ground-based midcourse interceptor common kill vehicle, resulting in net...sustaining the quality and care of the all-volunteer force — all while implementing and deepening our alignment to the Defense Strategic Guidance signed by... guidance . Replacing these aging systems with new platforms will require considerable resources. Whereas during the 1990s drawdown America’s primary geo

  18. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Forbes, Robert J. Gordon, Robert E. Hall, Jan Hatzius, Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Simon Johnson, Anil Kashyap, Lawrence Katz, Laurence H. Meyer, William...cover and prepared the report for publication, with assistance from Jeanine Rees . Lenny Skutnik printed the initial copies, Linda Schimmel handled

  19. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  20. Fiscal rules as a challenge of the Republic of Kosovo towards the European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim Haliti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern and functional democracies there are different and numerous parameters for a stable and sustainable state; however we must also pay special attention to the way that a country breathes in a fiscal sense. Therefore the treatment of financial rules with special care and applied-theoretical skills indicates the possession of those financial rules that create a financial and fiscal stability in the country in order to maintain stable governance and to affect the development of all the other areas as well. Fiscal rules direct fiscal policies about the best options and procedures that must be pursued in order to develop finances as good as possibly toward the accomplishment of the revenue and budget expenditures. However, only the creation and the functionality of those rules is not enough, therefore they must also be monitored and communicated in front of the public since it is considered to be a very significant aspect in the life of modern democracies. Particularly, we must pay special attention to those fiscal rules that deal with public debt, budget deficit and budget expenditures.

  1. Sustaining Fiscal Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The current round of China's economic development is expected to clear up in 2010,the final year of the country's 11th Five-Year Plan(2006-10)that will pave the way for the next wave of economic growth.This year's fiscal policies should follow several guidelines to lay a solid foundation for the stable and sustainable growth of the economy,writes Jia Kang,Director of the Research Institute for Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance,in a recent Guangming Daily article.Edited excerpts follow:

  2. Sustaining Fiscal Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The current round of China’s economic development is expected to clear up in 2010, the final year of the country’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-10) that will pave the way for the next wave of economic growth. This year’s fiscal policies should follow several guidelines to lay a solid foundation for the stable and sustainable growth of the economy, writes Jia Kang, Director of the Research Institute for Fiscal Science under the Ministry of Finance, in a recent Guangming Daily article. Edited excerpts follow

  3. United States Department of Energy Budget Highlights FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    The President`s Fiscal Year 1994 budget request for the Department of Energy reflects the Administration`s goal of redressing the balance between the Nation`s energy and economic requirements and protection of the environment. The Department plans to undertake a careful restructuring of its national defense responsibilities, in line with post Cold War exigencies; contribute to the Administration`s deficit reduction objectives; and fulfill the President`s commitment to invest in science and technology development and transfer.

  4. Fiscal year 1980-81 implementation plan in support of technical development and integration of sampling and aggregation procedures. [crop acreage estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The specific objectives of the FY 1980-81 tasks are: (1) further refinements to the weighted aggregation procedure; (2) improved approaches for estimating within-stratum variance; (3) more intensive investigation of alternative sampling strategies such as full-frame sampling strategy, and (4) further developments in regard to a simulated approach for assessing the performance of the overall designed sampling and aggregation system.

  5. Passive behavior of the government. Budget problems are aggravating in the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of reforms, the current multi-level budgetary system does not fully correspond to the development strategy of the country and its regions. Still the Russian Government has not taken effective measures to address the main structural contradiction of the budgetary system, based on the non-adequate distribution of revenue and expenditure responsibilities, manifested in the sharp decline in the revenue base of territorial budgets during the 2009 global financial crisis. However, the crisis effects have not been analyzed and the conclusions have not been made. The Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation tried to solve the problem of territorial budgets imbalance not by enhancing existing mechanisms of revenue distribution at the regional level, but by granting large-scale loans to be repaid after 2012. Despite it, due to the sharp rise in the social burden, the deficit and the debt load enlarged and resulted in the budget crisis in the regions. The experts of the Higher School of Economics state that 20 RF subjects, having the level of public debt above 80%, had been actually in default by the end of 2014. Instead of finding ways out of the fiscal crisis, the Russian authorities gradually lose overall control over the processes of regional development. The mechanisms of federal target programs work poorly and the RF subjects have to finance program activities. In fact, the management of territorial development is reduced to the transfer of financial resources from the federal budget to the regions and the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation regulating interbudgetary relations has, in fact, become the only real institute of regional policy. But the interbudgetary policy of the Ministry of Finance does not gain visible economic returns: in 2006–2014 the amount of repayable financial assistance to the regional budgets increased from 0.6 to 1.5 trillion rubles, and the number of selfsufficient territories decreased from

  6. New fiscal crisis Nueva crisis fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Giraldo César

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal deficit in Latin America is currently caused by the external and internal debt, and the fact that economic authorities have lost the ability to manage an important part of macroeconomic policy as a result of the process of decentralization. Along with less macroeconomic control, destabilizing factors increase due to the greater mobility of international financial markets, where any changein signals provokes abrupt and massive movements of capital in favor of or against a country. This problem is aggravated by the dismantling of the principal regulations, especially those relating to exchange controls, foreign investment, and international trade. Fiscal policyends up defending the stability of the main economic variables, in anuncertain and unpredictable context determined by an autonomous finance capital. It defends the stability of three key prices: inflation, currency, and interest rateo An abrupt change in any of these may depreciate the real value of financial assets, with which financial wealth would disappear like foam.El déficit fiscal en América Latina se origina actualmente en las deuda externa e interna, y en que la autoridad económica ha perdido el manejo de una parte importante de la política macroeconómica como resultado del proceso de descentralización. A la par del menor control macroeconómico, los factores desestabilizadores aumentan por la mayor movilidad de mercados financieros internacionales, donde cualquier cambio en las señales suscita movimientos de capital abruptos y masivos en favor o en contra de un país. Este problema se agrava con el desmonte de las principales regulaciones, en especial a las referidas al control cambiario, la inversión extrnajera y el comercio internacional. La política fiscal termina defendiendo la estabilidad de las principales variables macroeconómicas, en un contexto incierto e impredecible determinado por un capital financiero autónomo. Defiende la estabilidad de tres

  7. FISCAL MANAGEMENT OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to analyze the taxation influence upon the company’s activity. Fiscal management is integrated into the company management and must therefore be defined in terms of general policy objectives of the company. The efficiency of fiscal policy is an essential element of fiscal management. This can be achieved directly (through the tax law that includes measures of fiscal incitement or indirectly (when the tax system offers a number of tax deductions for expenses, the possibility to cover losses from previous financial periods, the limitation of deductible expenses according to earnings before taxes etc.. The two forms of efficiency of fiscal policy are placed in the calculation of relations between fiscal management, strategic planning, tax risk and accounting. Fiscal policy should aim at the company’s research and to achieve optimal cost of taxation. This paper analyses the methods that the companies dispose of in order to reduce this cost.

  8. Impact of Fiscal Autonomy on Poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahir Faridi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an underdeveloped state with strong central government. At present there are three levels of government functioning in Pakistan i.e. the federal, provincial and the local. Due to the competence and distributional aspects, the resource allocation method always remained under discussion. Therefore, the present study focused on the role of fiscal autonomy in reducing poverty in Pakistan. Both expenditure and revenue indicators of fiscal policy are considered in this study. For the purpose of analysis, time series annual data from FY1972 to FY2010 is used. Ordinary least square technique is applied to estimate the effect of fiscal autonomy on poverty. The study concludes that the central government should transfer fiscal powers to lower tiers of government in order to reduce poverty in Pakistan.

  9. The Fiscal Compact and the European constitutions: ‘Europe speaking German’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.; Reestman, Jan Herman

    2012-01-01

    This brief contribution outlines some of the puzzling constitutional aspects of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, concluded in March 2012, also known as the 'Fiscal Compact'. It requires member states to entrench the 'balanced budget rule' into

  10. NIH Fiscal Policy for Grant Awards in FY 2013 Released | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice provides guidance about the NIH Fiscal Operations for the remainder of FY 2013 in light of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (P.L. 113-6), signed by President Obama on March 26, 2013, and the sequestration provisions of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended, 2 U.S.C. |

  11. WHY IS THE FISCAL POLICY IMPOSED BY IMF PRO-CYCLIC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius-Corneliu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economies which appealed to the IMF loan faced difficulties related to financing the public and the private foreign debt. IMF imposed the promoting of a restrictive fiscal policy to the beneficiary countries, in order to decrease the budget deficit, e

  12. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  13. Pakistan; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes—Fiscal Transparency Module—Update

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an Update to the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the Fiscal Transparency Module for Pakistan. Under the Project for Improvement of Financial Reporting and Auditing (PIFRA), key steps to enhance fiscal reporting and monitoring were taken recently. Accounting offices that process budget data are gradually being transformed to support the New Accounting Model and new information technology processes. Nineteen sites, including two core federal accounting off...

  14. Budget Authority By Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The following summarizes the Department's funding and staffing requests for fiscal years 2013 through 2015. Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. This is the...

  15. The Political Economy of the Budget Surplus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina

    2000-01-01

    Current surpluses in the U.S. have been achieved by a combination of a strong economy, low interest rates, and sharp cuts in defense spending. These surpluses follow a period (the 1980s) of rather exceptional budget deficit. This paper investigates the origin, size, and expected future patterns of the U.S. budget balance. It discusses how different political forces may generate alternative fiscal scenarios for the U.S. in the next decade.

  16. Kicking the Can: The U.S. Congress, the Bush Administration and the 2008 Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued its annual report on the health of the federal budget. The report details the U.S. government's long-term financial outlook, including the biggest fiscal challenge, i.e., the unsustainable growth in entitlement programs. Later the same month, U.S. federal budget legislation for FY 2008 was completed, with passage of an approximately $555 billion omnibus appropriations bill for largely non-defense spending ($70 billion...

  17. Overview of Governor Schwarzenegger's Proposed 2008-09 State Budget. Commission Report 08-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On January 10, 2008, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released his proposed budget for the 2008-09 fiscal year. State revenues for the 18 months covering the last half of 2007-08 and 2008-09 are projected to be nearly $16 billion below planned expenditures. The budget seeks to close this shortfall by cutting 2008-09 funding for most programs by 10%…

  18. Fiscal Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Nicholls, Stuart; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia;

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to buying food, price is influential, but is a ‘fat tax’ the answer to curb obesity? Dr Stuart G Nicholls from Lancaster University, Assistant Professor Dr Wencke Gwozdz and Professor, Dr Lucia A Reisch from Copenhagen Business School and Dr Kristin Voigt from Lancaster University l...... look at whether a fiscal policy would work....

  19. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  20. Fiscal consequences of changes in morbidity and mortality attributed to rotavirus immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P.; Postma, Maarten J.; Hutubessy, Raymond C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in population health status are known to influence government fiscal transfers both in terms of lost tax revenue and increased expenditure for health and social services. To estimate the fiscal impact of changes in morbidity and mortality attributed to rotavirus immunisation, we developed a

  1. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  2. Fiscal decentralization and the challenges of public ecological services delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Kotenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and propose the directions to solve the recent problems of financing public ecological services in the conditions of fiscal decentralization. The results of the analysis. This paper analyzes the decentralization reform impact on the possibilities of local authorities to finance the public ecological services in Ukraine. Advantages and threats of decentralizing reform are defined on the basis of theoretical vision of fiscal federalism in different state structures. The authors assessed basic central government documents in which the strategy and tactic of development. The lack of particular measures that are directed to the sustainable nature use on state level is defined. In practice, this means transference of financing powers from central to local government. Such process needs to be conducted with respective changes of financial flows directions and establishing effective forming and distributive tools. Traditionally, one of such tools, which are most appropriate to accumulate public environmental funds, is ecological tax. The study revealed that the enhancement of general fund of local budget revenues by local tax make the Local Environmental foundations' work impossible. Another initiative of central government is to transfer more than half revenues from the tax to the regional level. Such decision will be practicable only if impartial, formula based mechanism of subsequent allocation of funds between basic local authorities is developed. Scale projects now are funded by regional authorities. Authors proved that the better way to finance public ecological services on complementary basis is the local authorities’ cooperation. One of the advantages of such cooperation is the considering of the opportunities of self-taxation. This voluntary fiscal tool in Ukrainian European future must be stable source for financing of public ecological services. Decentralization reform also

  3. Fiscal Content of Financial Programs Supported by Stand-by Arrangements in the Upper Credit Tranches, 1969-78 (Objectifs de finances publiques des programmes financiers soutenus par des accords de confirmation portant sur les tranches de crédit supérieures, 1969-78) (Componentes fiscales de los programas financieros respaldados por acuerdos de derecho de giro en los tramos superiores de crédito, 1969-78)

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Beveridge; Margaret R. Kelly

    1980-01-01

    The paper catalogs and analyzes the fiscal policy content of financial programs under the 105 stand-by arrangements in the upper credit tranches approved by the Fund's Executive Board in the ten years to 1978. A growing tendency toward use of a fiscal performance clause was observed, with the most usual clauses being the use of bank credit by the government or the size of the overall budget balance. Evidence is presented indicating a close association between observance of the fiscal performa...

  4. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  5. TOWARDS A LAW OF SUSTAINABLE FISCAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our approach aims to raise the benchmarks intended, we believe, to print efficiency rules for public financial law which, by definition, governs the issue of budgetary resources. Knowing the mechanism of legal and tax and the use of this type of resource, given the current context, we introduce some approaches to the position of financial law located in the best connection with economics, and we consider key issues of this - crisis/ growth, sustainable development, strategies/ policies, state intervention tools etc. aiming to easier to put out various budgetary implications caused by certain processes/ phenomena in the real economy. Also, we bring some elements of analysis, comments and views coming to justify the importance of rights (set of rules and principles of major influence the financial and fiscal consolidation based in the extent possible, the development lasting nature. It is expected thus that such a law (fiscal consolidation based on sustainability can drive more speedily to create a stable tax system capable of generating sufficient budgetary resources in terms of efficiency and efficacy, ensuring cost reductions with unit budget and compliance taxpayers being, while flexible, simple, transparent and adaptable to national/ international changes.

  6. Fiscal consolidation in developed and emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André Camuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The debate regarding fiscal policy has given support to the formulation of an economic policy based on control of indebtedness and in persecution of public savings, acting as important support for the economic growth. This paper presents evidence that counter acts this theory of expansionary austerity. A set of panel data regressions is estimated – through Driscoll & Kraay’s, FGLS, panel corrected standard errors, and SUR estimators and the causality test approach proposed by Kónya (2006 – in search of robust inference related to the main determinants that encompasses the fiscal framework. Our conclusion is that the empirical evidence - using a set of 20 developed economies and other of 24 emerging economies - suggests that identical economic policies for different countries might conduce to results that are opposite to the desired outcome. Notwithstanding the adverse effects associated to explosive debt path, the search for “fiscal space” should be determined essentially by a pro-growth agenda. This is particularly important for the emerging economies facing the transition path challenges.

  7. Some U.S. Budget Gains Likely for Science, but Little Increase for Student Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The expected fiscal 1993 federal budget requested by the Bush administration is likely to involve meager increases for student aid and biomedical research, increases for Head Start, and major increases for the National Science Foundation and the Superconducting Supercollider. Critics suggest cuts in defense spending be used to provide increased…

  8. Commission Position on the State Budget Ballot Measure Proposed for June 2011. Report 11-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes actions proposed by Governor Brown to close the projected $25 billion budget deficit for the 2011-12 fiscal year. The report includes a resolution adopted by the Commission supporting the Governor's proposed ballot initiative to extend temporary tax rate increases adopted in 2009 that are set to expire at the end of the…

  9. Mechanisms of discretionary fiscal policy implementation at subfederal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsu Mahmutovna Galiakhmetova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify new approaches to implementation of effective discretionary fiscal policy to stimulate socioeconomic development at the subfederal level. Methods the study used comparative methods of economic analysis and logic synthesis. The basic methodological principles were used like dialectical approach to the cognition of socioeconomic phenomena in the area of discretionary fiscal policy at the subfederal level in the context of the comprehensive objective and subjective factors as well as the methodological principle ndash the unity of historical and logical systematic approach to economic phenomena and processes of mechanisms formation for the implementation of discretionary fiscal policy. Results the diagnostics is conducted of the current socioeconomic processes in the region implemented by the Tatarstan executive bodies of state power and administration of discretionary policy in the sphere of agriculture the economic levers are considered that determine the mechanisms of maneuvering of the regional budget expenses that affect the acceleration of socioeconomic development. Scientific novelty the paper presents new approaches to the formation of mechanisms for the effective implementation of discretionary policy at the subfederal level. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering the issues of the nature and trends of modern discretionary fiscal policy. nbsp

  10. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  11. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  12. Obama Budget Proposal Would Increase Science Agency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    Although the Obama administration’s $3.8 trillion U.S. federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 2011, announced on 1 February, would push the federal deficit to $1.6 trillion and include a 3-year budget freeze for a number of nondefense programs, science and technology “are doing very well,” according to John Holdren, assistant to the president for science and technology. While President Barack Obama announced in his State of the Union speech his intention to hold down costs, it “did not mean he was imposing a mindless across-the-board freeze,” Holdren said at a 2 February briefing. “In making the tough decisions embodied in the 2011 budget, he managed to preserve and expand what most needed to be preserved and expanded in the government's investments in research and development, and in science, technology, engineering, and math education.”

  13. U.S. Geological Survey activities, fiscal year 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Activities report for fiscal year 1981 presents a summary of the work performed between October 1, 1980 and September 30, 1981. The main sections of this report are: (1) The Year in Review; a brief overview of the significant events of the Geological Survey during fiscal year 1980; (2) Perspectives; essays focusing on specific events (rather than scientific topics) and programs involving multi-Division participation; (3) Missions, Organization, and Budget; a description of the Geological Survey 's major duties and assignments and of the organizational structure that supports its missions; and (4) Division Chapters; a description of the significant accomplishments (rather than a comprehensive program by program discussion) of each of the eight operating Divisions and Offices. Also included are supplementary information regarding key personnel, cooperators, and selected summary budgetary tables. (USGS)

  14. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  15. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1982. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 2 of 3. Tactical Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    suitability tests; Evaluation of TA-77C/TF30-P-4088 Aural Stall Warning System and Hover Approach Coupler System; Evaluation of AN/ARA-63 lectro-Magnetic...evaluation of 3000 pai single stage compresor and award contract for family of low and high pressure rotary, single screw, water lubricated air compressors

  16. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1983. Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy. Book 3. Tactical Programs, Intelligence, & Communications Management & Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    compresor , and fuel control system. Continue effort on cost reduction programs and repair engineering to maintain fleet support. T64. - Continue...Marine Corps assessment of the program concluded that the develome~t risk is stAll hbigh.0 A study conducted daring fPT 1102 demonstrated that...in- stall them at the test site. These equipments will be tested at the HELSTF in a realistic environment unavailable elsewhere, but are not intended

  17. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 Submitted to Congress January 1987. Operation & Maintenance, Navy. Book 2 of 3. Budget Activity 7: Central Supply and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    cost0 2 70022 Activity Gw=V: ki-I WeMM M rk M99di cla imt : Naval Air %ngtm III. Perfmane criteria. (cgtjnMM Ty 198 Y 1987 FY 1988 1988 Airaft GM Units...UnIts $ uints 3. SPECIAL WARFARE 5,908 5,016 9,977 10,987 Swimmer Delivery Vehicles Overhauled 6 4 6 7 Dry Deck Shelters Naintained/Overhauled 1 3 3 3... Swimmer Weapons Maintained 50 175 675 760 4. SMALL ARMS REPAIR 1,672 1,685 1,760 1,702 Approlmte No. of Wpns Repaired 7,081 5,423 :5,655 5,311 5

  18. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1982. Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy. Book 1 of 3. Technology Base, Advanced Technology Development, Strategic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    8217 fooring which has 200 sensors, is usable for one year, and has a satellite relay data line; transitioned to Advanced Development; * completed research...assessment of head, neck and pelvic effects of vertical impact acceleration and biodynamic effects of parachute-opening shock. Continue determination...dimensional head and neck prototype manikin. Begin comparison of head, neck, and pelvic effects of linear acceleration in the back-to-front vector on

  19. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1983. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 2. Tactical Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    EQUIPMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9-.7 6 451 O N C O M M UN IC A T IO N S SY S T E MS ...34masage processinx, Anti-Jam performance and Time Division Multipla Access backward compatibility consistent with both stated requirements ed analytic...Research Facility, Monterey, CA; and Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity, Ray St. Louis, MS . CONTRACTORS: None. OTHERS: Applied Research

  20. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1983. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 1. Technology Base, Advanced Technology Development, Strategic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    mobilization planning. E. (U) FY 1983 PROGRAM: In ROBOTICS, mphasis Is on the mrging of the Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAN...ocean and Arctic applications. Transition of the technologyy of the open ocean version to 6.2/6.3 has continued. Data has boen analyzed for sea tests of...improved readiness places a premium am capable And maintainable aircraft orating from highly mobile platform with constrained space and log it

  1. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress February 1982. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy. Book 3 of 3. Tactical Programs, Intelligence & Communications, Management & Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    34 ’,. scbheduled for fall 1982. Complete full-scale engineering development with primary emphiasis on actack capabilitied. Candu .- Bare .f Inspection and Survey...1277 S0829 Energy Conservation/Advanced- - ----- 1284 ,;038 Mobility. Fuels /Advanced...data ovet more channels at-greater range -than the current systems. -The Advanced Sonobuoy Communications Link system consists of an aircraft

  2. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Amended Fiscal Year 1988/89 Biennial Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress February 1988. Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    o<noba+»Nb-*br-i« a -i-1 as > d " £<a «a Ufib, a£E <-t-Heng«*eTj«3 OEr -iae f< 9 ** «TJO«o<«’H-«an bbams...c e sec c e c B ’ •H£>%-!3 ’J ><>SU • 0 c ŗ Ed CO o ■H •* f4 •* 1^ T* •H •H c«H tcc ^u-i y a E •H 1

  3. Proposed NASA Budget Includes Asteroid Capture but Cuts Planetary Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed 17.7 billion budget for NASA for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides 105 million for several asteroid-related initiatives, including preliminary studies for a potential mission that would capture an asteroid and drag it into orbit around the Moon. The agency's total proposed budget is down slightly compared to FY 2012 (see Table ; comparisons are to FY 2012 because government agencies had been operating on a continuing resolution for 2013 and final spending levels for 2013 were not available at the time the president released his proposed 2014 budget).

  4. Reconsidering to Fiscal Rules in European Union: Six-Pack and Evaluation of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Gok

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the EU has financial rules stipulated in the Maastricht Criteria, the 2008 global financial crisis had a negative impact on the financial performance of EU countries with reference to fiscal rules. Some EU member countries have slacked their fiscal policies, had budget deficit and postponed their fiscal rule policies to cope with global financial crisis. The fiscal rule is revived to establish fiscal discipline in EU member countries aftermath of financial crisis in Greece. Furthermore, the enormous levels of budget deficits in Portugal, Spain and Italian economies contributed the revival of discussions on harmonization to Maastricht Criteria. The EU Commission proposed a Six-Pack Application to effective co-ordination and monitoring of economic policies, on September 29th, 2010. The European Council approved the Six-Pack on October 4th, 2011, aiming to co-ordinate the economic policies of EU countries with reference to European Semester application. This paper aims to discuss the functionality and effectiveness of the Six-Pack Application and evaluate Turkey’s financial indicators with reference to the Six-Pack Application.

  5. CAPITALIZATION OF FISCAL AND ACCOUNTING INTERFERENCES FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ CHILAREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As economic entities in Romania are still in a relationship of interdependence between the accounting interest and the fiscal one, it makes the application of one or another accounting treatment under different circumstances on the transactions specific to the activity have a certain influence on the information released by the financial statements, but also on the tax bases and hence on the fiscal cost. This article argues that the sustainability and performance of a business requires, in addition to the effective management of the economic and financial resources in order to maximise performance and to ensure the cash flows, that the management must take into account both the good informing of the information users through the financial statements, and proper management of the fiscal implications in order to record a fiscal cost as low as possible while respecting the legal framework so that the fiscal risk is avoided or reduced as much as possible.

  6. Economic and Political Factors that Lead to the Budget Deficit in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chun Wai

    2006-01-01

    Despite the adverse impact of the budget deficit in Hong Kong has been alleviated since the economic recovery from 2003,the fiscal deficit may return when there is another downturn in the economy if the problem is not handled fundamentally. Based on the economic and political situation from 1998 to 2003, the factors that lead to the budget deficit in Hong Kong are analyzed in four perspectives, including (a) increase in public expenditure; (b) decrease in public revenues; (c) poor management of public money and (d) weak administration. With a better understanding on these factors,possible solutions to the fiscal problem faced by the government may be developed.

  7. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  8. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  9. Estimating the glacial melt water contribution to the fresh water budget from salinity and δ18O measurements in Godthåbsfjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Antje; van As, Dirk; Bendtsen, Jorgen; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fettweis, Xavier; Mortensen, John; Rysgaard, Soren

    2013-04-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet increases due to changes in the surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge through numerous outlet glaciers at the margins. The melt has global and local consequences. Globally the sea level rises and locally the increased fresh water inflow affects fishery and transportation. In this study we focus on the fjord system near Nuuk in West Greenland, Godthåbsfjord. Godthåbsfjord is a unique fjord with its length of about 300 km and a shallow sill at the fjord entrance that protects the fjord system. There are several tidewater glaciers terminating into the fjord and two land-terminating glaciers along the fjord contributing to the fresh water content in the fjord. The largest tidewater glacier is Kangiata Nunåta Sermia. The freshwater originates primarily from three processes: surface melt, ice berg calving and basal melt. Observations and climate models can give estimates for calving and surface melt. Basal melt, however, cannot be observed directly. Even though mass loss by basal melting is neglected on the global scale, it plays an important role in the small regional environment like fjords and the glaciers itself. Warmer ocean temperatures increase basal melt, and resulting lubrication accelerates tidewater glaciers. Overall, the freshwater content in the fjord increases. Salinity measurements taken in the fjord between 2007 and 2011 show a seasonal variability originating from the variation in fresh water inflow. Based on salinity records only, it is not possible to distinguish between the different fresh water sources like precipitation and melt. Hence, δ18O measurements are used in addition to salinity records to determine the origin of the fresh water because of the different δ18O signatures of run-off and glacial melt water. The resulting fresh water inflow and the glacial melt contribution are compared to independent estimates and regional climate model output.

  10. Fiscal externalities of becoming a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Douglas A; Lee, Ronald D; Miller, Timothy; Donehower, Gretchen; Genest, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical results suggest that there are externalities to childbearing, but those results usually assume that these externalities accrue uniformly within a homogeneous population. We advance this argument by developing separate estimates of the fiscal externalities associated with parents—those who devote time or material resources to minor children—and nonparents. Our analysis uses data from the US Panel Study of income Dynamics on the age profiles of taxes paid and publicly funded benefits consumed by parents and nonparents, together with a previously developed intertemporal economic-demographic accounting model. The accounting framework takes into account the net fiscal impacts of future generations as well as the present population. Our findings indicate that, with a 3 percent discount rate, parents produce a substantial net fiscal externality, about $217,000 in 2009 dollars. This is equivalent to a lifetime annuity of nearly $8,100 per year beginning at age 18. The results are sensitive to both the discount rate used and the proportion of parents within the cohort.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF FISCAL INDICATORS IN THE LAST YEARSIN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulcsar Edina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax revenues are an important part of budget revenues, and their structure represent the mirror of government's fiscal policy. Also their level and structure reflects the evolution of the economy in general. The evolution of tax revenues has been influenced by the financial crisis of this period. The tax revenue structure in Romania is characterized by relatively high share of indirect taxes revenues in comparison with another European Union states, where the share of revenues from direct, indirect taxes and social contribution is relatively close. Government expenditure is vital for the economy especially if they are focused on productive areas. They are the engine of economic developments and plays an important role in raising the standard of living of population in a state. In the last years, the growth rate of public expenditure was higher than the trend of tax revenues increase. Sizing revenue and public expenditure is essential for achieving the budget balance target and to meet the criterion stipulated in the Stability and Growth Pact. According to the Pact, the budget deficit may not exceed 3% of GDP. This development asymmetric led to increased deficits in the last years. The high level of structural deficit has canceled an initiative to tax relaxation in this recession period. The need for fiscal consolidation has been paramount in the context of chronic deficit and difficulties faced in financing it. The opportune solution to finance the high public deficit and to achieve the objective of financial stability of the economy was contracting of public debt from International Monetary Fund. Other measures to reduce the deficit were the reduction of public expenditure and increasing tax revenues. We propose in this paper to analyze the evolution of fiscal indicators in comparison with the evolution of macroeconomic indicators to capture the reaction of taxpayers and economic environment at measures adopted.

  12. Fiscal Federalism in Monetary Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Net fiscal transfers are commonly seen as a possible means to ensure the wellfunctioning of a currency area. We show that U.S. net fiscal transfers, measured as the difference between gross federal revenues and federal expenditures per state, are enormous. Moreover, we run panel regressions...... that suggest their dependence on relative GDP and relative GDP growth during crisis periods, an evidence of net fiscal transfers from relatively rich to relatively poor states (redistributive effect) and to states with an underperforming economic development (stabilization effect). The Euro-zone (EZ) lacks...... a system of fiscal federalism which raises the question whether it should be established in the medium- and long-run. If so, which should be the magnitude of net fiscal transfers? We calculate these transfers hypothetically for 1999-2010, using a relative volume comparable to the one in the USA....

  13. The Stabilising Role Of The Fiscal And Budgetary Policies Within The Simplified Keynesian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campeanu, Emilia Mioara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to investigate the fiscal and budgetary policies using the simplified Keynesian model. It focuses on the imbalance in the fiscal and budgetary policies trying to justify the rationality of the deficits: the political strategic aspect to leave a hardto- administrate legacy, and the inter-party conflict, which may influence the budgetary decisions of the government. The purpose of the presentation is to show the stabilizing role of the public budget in relation with the full employment goal.

  14. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  15. Bank rescues and fiscal policy in the European Union during the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of the economic and financial crisis in 2008, the socalled Great Recession, has made that many European Union countries have made massive interventions in their banking and financial systems. These interventions have had a considerable impact in the public finances of these countries. The aim of the paper is to analyze the impact on the national public budgets of the measures of public support to problem financial institutions carried out between the years 2008 and 2013, and to study how this budgetary impact has affected to the fiscal imbalances and to the strategies of fiscal impulse and consolidation implemented along these years.

  16. 7 CFR 920.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 920.7 Section 920.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means a 12-month...

  17. 31 CFR 332.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 332.12 Section 332.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  18. 7 CFR 953.122 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.122 Section 953.122 Agriculture... STATES Rules and Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period § 953.122 Fiscal period. The fiscal period, pursuant to § 953.9, which began on April 1, 1976, shall...

  19. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  20. 7 CFR 923.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 923.7 Section 923.7 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of each year or such...

  1. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, as fiscal agents of the United...

  2. 7 CFR 955.113 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 955.113 Section 955.113 Agriculture... and Regulations § 955.113 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 955.13, fiscal period shall mean the period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of each year, except that the fiscal period that began...

  3. 7 CFR 922.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 922.7 Section 922.7 Agriculture... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of each year or such...

  4. 31 CFR 352.13 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 352.13 Section 352.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....13 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  5. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31...

  6. 7 CFR 948.103 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.103 Section 948.103 Agriculture... Rules and Regulations General § 948.103 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 948.10, the fiscal periods for each... following year, both dates inclusive. The 1986-87 fiscal period which began July 1, 1986, will be...

  7. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.113 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1160.113 Section 1160.113 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.113 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the initial period of up to 30 months that this subpart is effective. Thereafter, the fiscal period shall be such annual period as the Board may...

  9. 7 CFR 929.6 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 929.6 Section 929.6 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.6 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period...

  10. 7 CFR 929.106 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 929.106 Section 929.106 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Rules and Regulations § 929.106 Fiscal period. The fiscal period... include the period of August 1, through August 31, 1968. Thereafter, the fiscal period will begin...

  11. 7 CFR 925.12 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 925.12 Section 925.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.12 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year...

  12. 31 CFR 316.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 316.12 Section 316.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  13. 7 CFR 917.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 917.9 Section 917.9 Agriculture... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on the last day of February of each year, or such...

  14. FISCAL PRESSURE IN ROMANIA IN THE CURRENT PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal fiscal pressure threshold is difficult to determine given the conditions under which the state must ensure a balance between the goals to be funded, on account of the tax levies, and need to be available to the economic operators and the general public a sufficient portion of the income to continue their work. Practice has shown that an excessive taxation results in reducing budget revenue due to tax fraud and abstinence of tax payers. They will find ingenious ways to evade the payment of tax liabilities by non-taxable matter or by establishing their domicile for tax purposes in a country with low taxation.

  15. Reference data about petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  16. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  17. The contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of two typical Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon-222, a naturally-occurring radioisotope with a half-life of 3.8 days, was used to estimate groundwater discharge to small lakes in wetland-dominated basins in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, Canada. This region is under significant water development pressure including both oil sands mining and in situ extraction. Field investigations were carried out in March and July 2008 to measure radon-222 distributions in the water column of two lakes as a tracer of groundwater discharge. Radon concentrations in these lakes ranged from 0.5 to 72 Bq/m3, while radon concentrations in groundwaters ranged between 2000 and 8000 Bq/m3. A radon mass balance, used in comparison with stable isotope mass balance, suggested that the two lakes under investigation had quite different proportions of annual groundwater inflow (from 0.5% to about 14% of the total annual water inflow. Lower discharge rates were attributed to a larger drainage area/lake area ratio which promotes greater surface connectivity. Interannual variability in groundwater proportions is expected despite an implied seasonal constancy in groundwater discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that a combination of stable isotope and radon mass balance approaches provides information on flowpath partitioning that is useful for evaluating surface-groundwater connectivity and acid sensitivity of individual water bodies of interest in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

  18. Concesiones, su impacto fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    David Duarte Arancibia

    2011-01-01

    Presentación expuesta durante el Cuarto Encuentro Técnico de Capacitación en Materia de Estructuración de Proyectos de Asociación Público Privada, llevado a cabo en Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México, el 16,17 y 18 de febrero de 2011. El sistema de concesiones tiene distintos objetivos, entre los cuales se pueden mencionar: disminuir déficit de infraestructura; eliminar cuellos de botella para el crecimiento económico; mantener disciplina en el gasto fiscal; no incrementar la deuda pública; me...

  19. Portugal; Fiscal Transparency Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Portugal’s practices meet most of the principles of the revised Fiscal Transparency Code at good or advanced levels. A number of areas still present practices at a basic level, but in most of these cases this reflects reforms that have recently been launched and have not yet been fully implemented so as to affect current practices. Indeed, if measured against the practices observed prior to the recent financial crisis, there has been remarkable progress. The challenge is t...

  20. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  1. On the potential of ICOS atmospheric CO2 measurement network for the estimation of the biogenic CO2 budget of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kadygrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance assessment of the European Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS atmospheric network for constraining European biogenic CO2 fluxes (hereafter Net Ecosystem Exchange, NEE. The performance of the network is assessed in terms of uncertainty in the fluxes using a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric inversion system assimilating hourly averages of atmospheric data to solve for NEE at 6 h and 0.5° resolution. The performance of the ICOS atmospheric network is also assessed in terms of uncertainty reduction compared to typical uncertainties in the flux estimates from ecosystem models that are used as prior information by the inversion. The uncertainty in inverted fluxes is computed for two typical periods representative of summer and winter conditions in July and in December 2007, respectively. These computations are based on a robust Observing System Simulation Experiments framework. We analyze the uncertainty in two-week mean NEE as a function of the spatial scale, with a focus on the model native grid scale (0.5°, the country scale and the European scale (including western Russia and Turkey. Several network configurations, going from 23 to 66 sites, and different configurations of the prior uncertainties and atmospheric model transport errors are tested in order to assess and compare the improvements that can be expected in the future from (1 the extension of the network, (2 improved prior information or (3 improved transport models. Assimilating data from 23 sites (a network comparable to present day capability with the estimate of errors from the present prior information and transport models, the uncertainty reduction on two-week mean NEE should range between 20 and 50% for 0.5° resolution grid cells in the best sampled area encompassing eastern France and western Germany. At the European scale, the prior uncertainty in two-week mean NEE is reduced by 50% (66%, down to ∼ 43 Tg C month-1 (resp. 26 Tg C month-1

  2. The contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radon-222, a naturally-occurring radioisotope with a half-life of 3.8 days, was used to estimate groundwater discharge to small lakes in wetland-rich basins in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, Alberta, a region under significant water development pressures including both oil sands mining and in situ extraction. A program of field investigations was carried out in March and July 2008 using a Durridge RAD-7® and RAD Aqua® to measure radon-222 activity distributions in dissolved gas in the water column of two lakes as a tracer of groundwater discharge in the timeframe of 4 half-lives (15 days. Radon activity concentrations in lakes was found to range from 0.5 to 72 Bq/m3, compared to radon activity concentrations in groundwaters, measured using a RAD H2O, in the range of 2000–8000 Bq/m3. Radon mass balance, used in comparison with stable isotope mass balance, suggested that the two lakes under investigation had quite different proportions of annual groundwater inflow, one being close to 0.5% of annual inflow and the other about 14%, with lower values in the former attributed to a larger drainage area/lake area ratio which promotes greater surface connectivity. Interannual variability in groundwater proportions is expected despite constancy of groundwater discharge rates due to observed variability in annual surface runoff. Combination of stable isotope and radon mass balance approaches provides information on flowpath partitioning that is useful for evaluating surface-groundwater connectivity and acid sensitivity of individual water bodies of interest in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

  3. Tax-Credit Scholarships in Nebraska: Forecasting the Fiscal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to inform the debate over a proposal in Nebraska to give tax credits for contributions to organizations that provide scholarships to K-12 private schools. The study constructs a model to determine the fiscal impact of tax-credit scholarships on the state and on local school districts. The author estimates the impact that…

  4. In Search of the Motives behind US Fiscal Macroeconomic Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Swank (Otto); J. Swank (Job)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper optimal control techniques are applied to estimate the motives behind US fiscal macroeconomic policy. Starting from a range of possible objectives and given the perception of policy makers about the environment in which they operate, the priorities of policy makers are esti

  5. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  6. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FISCAL BURDEN ON UKRAINE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aleksandrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article was reviewed reproductive aspect of the relationship between fiscal burden and a penchant for economic development under certain assumptions about the relationship of these variables. The analysis was based on a fairly simple dynamic model in which the share of income that goes to the development of production, relying constant. Computed optimal fiscal burden for the economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. The estimation and comparison of the calculations of the tax burden followed its dynamics, by comparative assessment with those of developed countries. The prospects of the proposed approach for predicting the development of national economy were analyzed.

  8. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  9. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  10. Uncompensated care: hospitals' responses to fiscal pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J; Melnick, G; Bamezai, A; Zwanziger, J

    1995-01-01

    This Data Watch examines the impact of hospital competition, the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS), and Medi-Cal selective contracting on the provision of uncompensated care by private hospitals in California during 1980-1989. It finds that hospitals subject to more intense competition and greater fiscal pressure from Medicare and Medi-Cal reduced their provision of uncompensated care relative to hospitals facing less pressure from these sources. We estimate that had hospitals not been subjected to increasing price competition from growth of managed care plans and financial tightening in public programs, they would have provided 36 percent more uncompensated care than was actually provided in 1989.

  11. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  12. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  13. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  14. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  15. The Effectiveness of a Fiscal Transfer Mechanism in a Monetary Union : A DSGE Model for the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Loes; Meijdam, Lex

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate a transfer mechanism into a DSGE model with a rich fiscal sector to assess the effectiveness of fiscal transfers for a monetary union, in particular for the Economic and Monetary Union. Using a heterogeneous setup, the model is estimated for the North and the South of E

  16. Spending Disclosure - Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...

  17. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  18. Chicago, Keynes and Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez Caldentey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera mitad de la década de los años treinta los padres fundadores de la escuela de economía de Chicago y John Maynard Keynes en Inglaterra propusieron la puesta en marcha de trabajos públicos para combatir el desempleo y sobreponerse a la Gran Depresión. Frente a la rigidez de los precios de mercado y la impotencia de la política monetaria, la política fiscal contra cíclica pasó a ser vista como una estrategia viable y capaz de atenuar las fases del ciclo económico. A finales de la década tanto los economistas de Chicago como Keynes renunciaron al uso de este tipo de incentivos fiscales. Los economistas de Chicago centraron su rechazo en el potencial inflacionario de la política fiscal expansiva y enfocaron sus preocupaciones hacia los aspectos monetarios de la política fiscal. Por su parte Keynes mantuvo su apoyo a la política fiscal contra cíclica absteniéndose de recomendar los instrumentos que había propuesto anteriormente para combatir las fluctuaciones económicas. Utilizando el marco teórico que desarrolló en la Teoría General (1936, Keynes distinguió entre el presupuesto corriente y el de capital. El presupuesto corriente debía mostrar un equilibrio o un superávit con el fin de financiar el gasto en capital que actuaría como estabilizador del ciclo económico. Keynes distinguió así entre dos conceptos de política fiscal (la política fiscal compensatoria y la política fiscal basada en la programación de los gastos de capital. El segundo tipo de política fiscal, válido bajo la suposición de escasez del factor capital, suponía el rechazo de los instrumentos de estabilización fiscal de corto plazo (trabajos públicos y el uso de los impuestos para alterar los patrones de consumo. Más allá del punto de saturación del capital, la política fiscal podría cambiar su enfásis hacia el consumo y su rol compensatorio.

  19. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    CO CM CO rH p- rop- mvop -p-cMO^rcM rH P-P-P-CM’S’VOOOCn p~ ro CM ro CM ro oo ro CM co in m oo oo VO *& CO rH rH rH...rH co in rH | 00 rH in rH vo O co in co <H ro rH CM CM CM CM Ol oo p- oo CM en vo m CM P- 00 P- CM Cn p- ro CM co f-i cop- mvop -p-cMo-sr rH

  20. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  1. This was a budget for business that seems to have worked at least to boost market confidence\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh, Linda Y.

    2012-01-01

    The UK has seemingly delivered on a difficult task: providing a growth strategy in the midst of austerity. Linda Yueh argues that despite the lack of fiscal room in the case of another crisis, the UK did what it could: strive for a neutral budget, thereby preserving the UK’s AAA rating.\\ud \\ud

  2. H.R.3564: A bill to exclude the receipts and disbursements of the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund from the budget of the United States Government, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, March 26, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The receipts and disbursements of the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund shall not be counted as new budget authority, outlays, receipts, or deficit or surplus for purposes of (1) the budget of the US Government as submitted by the President; (2) the congressional budget, or (3) the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985. All amounts in the fund at the end of any fiscal year shall be immediately available for obligation or expenditure, without further appropriation, for the purposes of this title at the commencement of the next fiscal year.

  3. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  4. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  5. U.S. science and technology under budget stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A set of hearings was held a few weeks ago by the House Science and Technology Committee, Don Fuqua, chairman, during which White House science advisor George A. Keyworth II ‘reiterated the Reagan Administration's wisdom of the marketplace philosophy’ (Chemical and Engineering News, Dec. 14, 1981). National Academy of Sciences President Frank Press responded to Keyworth's continuing statements on the ‘hard choices’ ahead with a proposed ‘compact’ among the public, private and academic research sectors. Representatives of the science R & D community are hanging on every word released from the White House, hoping to find some solace from the picture of disastrous budget cuts that appears to be emerging in all sectors. The budget cuts, cumulative for fiscal years 1982 and 1983, do not, in notable examples, leave room for hard choices; dismantling of entire programs appears to be expected. Two examples are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary scientific program and the programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). When NASA's program was recently described as ‘planetary science in extremis,’ the meaning intended was ‘near death,’ not ‘in the extreme’ (Science, Dec. 18, 1981). In the same light, Douglas M. Castle, former EPA director, defined ‘EPA under siege:’ ‘It's hard to find a rational explanation for [the 1983 fiscal year budget proposed by OMB] except that [the current EPA administrators] are, in fact, a wrecking crew’ (Environmental Science and Technology, December 1981). Meanwhile, the so-called ‘research universities’ in the United States are turning to more practical and applied avenues to secure funds for their R & D budgets. According to science policy analyst, Wil Lepkowski, ‘The practical goals of technology are fast swallowing academic science, and nothing seems likely to be the same again.’ (Chem. Eng. News, Nov. 23, 1981).

  6. Fiscal Reaction Function: Evidences from CESEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Zdravković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve on the methodology set in previous attempts to estimate the impact of gross government debt to primary balances in a wide set of 21 CESEE countries. Since the result of the long-lasting crisis in those countries is rising imbalance of public finances it is necessary to analyze what factors are causing such effects. Running the fixed effect, pooled and GMM regression it was found that both lagged government debt and output gap are positively related to primary balance. Moreover there was found evidence of non-linear relationship between primary balance and lagged debt, with fiscal fatigue occurrence at 70% threshold. Estimation of the augmented model shows that countercyclical response of primary balance is more pronounced in economic downturn relative to boom in cycle.

  7. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  8. Waste management fiscal year 1998 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project`s production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks.

  9. 7 CFR 955.13 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 955.13 Section 955.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.13 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the 12-month period beginning on September 16...

  10. 45 CFR 402.21 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal control. 402.21 Section 402.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... Administration of Grants § 402.21 Fiscal control. (a) Fiscal control and accounting procedures must be...

  11. 34 CFR 303.125 - Fiscal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal control. 303.125 Section 303.125 Education... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.125 Fiscal control. The statement must provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that such fiscal control and fund accounting...

  12. 7 CFR 915.6 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 915.6 Section 915.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means the twelve-month period ending...

  13. 7 CFR 945.111 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.111 Section 945.111 Agriculture... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 945.111 Fiscal period. The fiscal period that began June 1, 1981, shall end July 31, 1982. Each year thereafter...

  14. 7 CFR 947.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.9 Section 947.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates...

  15. 7 CFR 956.13 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 956.13 Section 956.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.13 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.111 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 1260.111 Section 1260.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.111 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means the calendar year or...

  17. 7 CFR 947.114 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.114 Section 947.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.114 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin July 1 of each year and end June 30 of...

  18. 12 CFR 545.101 - Fiscal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agency. 545.101 Section 545.101 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS § 545.101 Fiscal agency. A Federal savings association designated fiscal agent by the Secretary...

  19. 7 CFR 966.16 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 966.16 Section 966.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.16 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning August 1...

  20. 7 CFR 948.10 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.10 Section 948.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.10 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.10 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1221.10 Section 1221.10 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.10 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the 12-month period ending on December 31 or such other consecutive 12-month...

  2. 7 CFR 905.11 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 905.11 Section 905.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.11 Fiscal period. Fiscal period...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.7 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 1215.7 Section 1215.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Fiscal year. Fiscal year means the 12-month period from January 1 through December 31 each year, or...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.307 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1205.307 Section 1205.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.307 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is the 12-month...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.107 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1150.107 Section 1150.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Definitions § 1150.107 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the calendar year or such other...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1230.9 Section 1230.9 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the 12-month period ending on December 31 or such other consecutive...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1220.111 Section 1220.111 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The term fiscal period means the calendar year or such other annual period as the Board may determine with...

  8. 7 CFR 1212.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1212.7 Section 1212.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.7 Fiscal period. “Fiscal...

  9. 7 CFR 959.104 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.104 Section 959.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations General § 959.104 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin August 1 of each year and end...

  10. 7 CFR 946.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 946.9 Section 946.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning...

  11. 7 CFR 930.107 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.107 Section 930.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.107 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 930.7, fiscal period shall mean the...

  12. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120... Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.952 Fiscal agent. SBA shall appoint a Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.8 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1218.8 Section 1218.8 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.8 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as...

  14. 7 CFR 956.113 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 956.113 Section 956.113 Agriculture... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.113 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 956.13, fiscal period shall mean the period beginning January 1 and ending December 31...

  15. 7 CFR 925.112 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 925.112 Section 925.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 925.112 Fiscal period. Beginning January 1, 1988, fiscal...

  16. 31 CFR 330.9 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 330.9 Section 330.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.9 Fiscal...

  17. 7 CFR 927.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 927.9 Section 927.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period...

  18. 7 CFR 959.16 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.16 Section 959.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.16 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the annual period beginning...

  19. 7 CFR 906.15 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 906.15 Section 906.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.15 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  20. 7 CFR 1209.7 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 1209.7 Section 1209.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....7 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means the 12-month period from January 1 to December 31 each year,...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.303 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1250.303 Section 1250.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.303 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the calendar...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1206.7 Section 1206.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  3. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the...

  4. 7 CFR 953.9 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.9 Section 953.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the...

  5. 7 CFR 958.12 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 958.12 Section 958.12 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.12 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the Secretary pursuant...

  6. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  7. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  8. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  9. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  10. Budget update: Future is looking gloomier for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the wheels of the new Republican-controlled Congress have been turning, it looks like belts are indeed going to be tighter around U.S. research and development budgets. In mid-March, the House Budget Committee voted to cut $100 billion over the next five years from federal agency budgets and published guidelines for how this could be done. NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Geological Survey were again mentioned as potential targets and so was the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. If the reduction bill goes the legislative mile, the appropriations committees in each house of Congress will have to figure out where the cuts will fall. Republican and Democratic members of the House Science Committee quickly jumped into the traditional fray with their respective “Views and Estimates” on how science dollars should be doled out for fiscal year 1996. President Clinton has also jumped in the budget-cutting game with the release last week of a plan to cut $13 billion from four federal agencies over the next 5 years. In the meantime, a rescission bill for FY 1995 has been on the fast track through Congress. Here are some of the latest highlights:

  11. Visibility of Public Budget Burdens and Benefits in New European Union Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The size and pattern of any public budget depend, among other factors, on the visibility of both the burdens and benefits of public revenue and expenditure. Furthermore, such visibility is a necessary - not a sufficient - condition for an efficient allocation of resources between the private and public sectors of an economy. The aim of this contribution, based on a recent research, is to apply fiscal visibility indicators to territorial government levels of new European Union member countries...

  12. FISCAL POLICY AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim GASHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to analyze the fiscal policy and to suggest fiscal policy measures as very crucial instrument to market economy during the global financial crisis. Decision makers of monetary and financial policy in Kosovo currently are not under taking significant measures to promote growth and development. Public spending is excessive; the public debt is constantly growing, current account deficit also. In addition unemployment is high, capital investments in public and private sectors are insufficient, as well as investments in science and education. Market infrastructure in Kosovo is not functional and market laws are not enforced. The central government in Kosovo is facing trade of between market liberalization and challenges with public spending. Therefore fiscal policy measures are insufficient and cannot stimulate economic growth.

  13. Per capita versus adult-equivalent estimates of calorie availability in household budget surveys Estimativa domiciliar da disponibilidade calórica per capita versus adulto-equivalente em pesquisa de orçamento familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate an adult-equivalent scale for calorie requirements and to determine the differences between adult-equivalent and per capita measurements of calorie availability in the Brazilian population. The study used data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The calorie requirement for a reference adult individual was based on the mean requirements for adult males and females (2,550kcal/day. The conversion factors were defined as the ratios between the calorie requirements for each age group and gender and that of the reference adult. The adult-equivalent calorie availability levels were higher than the per capita levels, with the largest differences in rural and low-income households. Differences in household calorie availability varied from 22kcal/day (households with adults and an adolescent to 428kcal/day (households with elderly individuals, thus showing that per capital measurements can underestimate the real calorie availability, since they overlook differences in household composition.Objetivou-se estimar uma escala adulto-equivalente de necessidade energética e determinar as diferenças entre medidas adulto-equivalente e per capita para disponibilidade energética da população brasileira. Utilizaram-se dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2002/2003. A necessidade energética de um indivíduo adulto de referência baseou-se na média das necessidades de homens e mulheres adultos (2.550kcal/dia. Os fatores de conversão foram definidos como a razão entre a necessidade energética de cada grupo de idade e sexo e aquela do adulto de referência. Os valores de disponibilidade de energia adulto-equivalente foram superiores aos per capita, sendo as maiores diferenças nos domicílios da área rural e de menor renda. As diferenças na disponibilidade energética domiciliar variavam entre 22kcal/dia (domicílio contendo adultos e adolescente e 428kcal/dia (domicílio onde residem idosos

  14. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS ON THE BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEFAULT ON ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL STEFAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the audit/control missions, there were registered inaccurate situations which concern the correct registration of financial and exceptional operation revenues and expenditures, based on documents attesting their way and content. Thus, in the relation between the local budget of the administrative-territorial unit and two trading companies of local interest, with regard to the granting of subventions to the two companies, there were identified certain value discrepancies between the amounts approved by the local budget, in less and those provided in the budgets of the entities under discussion. The discrepancies of the budgets mentioned above had direct consequences on the reality of financial statements of the respective partners, on their budgets and on the fiscal regimes of the local subordination entities.

  15. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  16. The governance of domestic fiscal stability in the Eurozone prior to the financial crises (2000-2007): What lessons for implementation of the TSCG?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, N.S.; Donnelly, S.

    2012-01-01

    After its first thorough revision in 2005, the Stability & Growth Pact (SGP) has recently been transformed into a Fiscal Stability Treaty, which in all likelihood will become operational as from January 1, 2013. Part of this treaty is the incorporation of balanced budget rules into domestic constitu

  17. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  18. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  19. Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.

  20. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  1. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; J. Lustenhouwer; K. Mavromatis

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in t

  2. The FCC in Fiscal 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Fiscal 1971 saw major actions by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in all areas of its jurisdiction. In broadcasting, the FCC proposed new renewal rules and policies and issued a number of significant rulings on Fairness Doctrine matters. A policy statement outlining FCC cable television plans was submitted to the Congress. In the common…

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Would Fare Well in Proposed Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is among the U.S. federal science agencies that would see significant funding increases if Congress approves the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011. The FY 2011 budget request would provide USGS with $1.13 billion, an increase of $21.6 million, or 1.9%, above the FY 2010 enacted level. “In a time of budget austerity, to have the budget for a science agency like the USGS actually be at a level above 2010—and 2010 was a pretty good budget year for the USGS—is indeed a very good sign,” USGS director Marcia McNutt said at a 1 February budget briefing. “What we are seeing in the USGS budget is the reflection from both the president and the secretary [of the Department of the Interior, of which USGS is part] of their commitment that the problems that the nation is facing right now are problems to which science can help us find an answer,” she said.

  4. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL AMORTIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA GURAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the international trend, Romanian accounting had experienced various changes, especially as regards of progress on disconnection between accounting and fiscality. In the present, fiscal rules should not have any role in accounting decisions, because accounting rules are applied to produce accounting information that is useful in making decisions and to provide a "true and fair view" upon financial reality of the entity. However, the barrier in the habit of accounting to thinking for fiscal point of view all economic transactions remains insurmountable, yet. Starting from this perspective on disconnection between accounting and fiscality would mean that amortization recorded in the accounting, as a result of management policy, to be different from fiscality amortization, to calculate income tax. Although formally accepted, disconnect between accounting and fiscality continues to meet many difficulties. In this sense, it is usual in practice to use the same method of amortization for accounting purposes and for fiscal purposes to prevent complications of double track amortization and prevent wandering in the rules in this field. Accounting rule is deliberately eluded in favor of the fiscal rules. This is the reason we proposed to make in this paper a comparative study between norms and rules on accounting and fiscal amortization, paper in which we intend to show the benefits of applying accounting and fiscal rules separately.

  6. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  7. The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: 2010-2011 Update and Policy Options. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the net fiscal impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). The net fiscal benefits of the MPCP have continued to grow. The estimated increase was particularly sharp in FY10, from $37.2 million to $46.7 million. This increase was primarily due to the cut in the voucher amount, while MPS' per pupil revenues continued…

  8. An Analysis of the President’s 2014 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE CBO An Analysis of the President’s 2014 Budget MAY 2013 Report Documentation Page Form ...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 CBONotes Unless...Administration’s, and incorporates estimates by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation ( JCT ) for the President’s tax proposals.1 In conjunction

  9. EMERGENCY READINESS ASSURANCE PLAN (ERAP) FOR FISCAL YEAR (FY) 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Shane

    2014-09-01

    This Emergency Readiness Assurance Plan (ERAP) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 in accordance with DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System.” The ERAP documents the readiness of the INL Emergency Management Program using emergency response planning and preparedness activities as the basis. It describes emergency response planning and preparedness activities, and where applicable, summarizes and/or provides supporting information in tabular form for easy access to data. The ERAP also provides budget, personnel, and planning forecasts for FY-15. Specifically, the ERAP assures the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office that stated emergency capabilities at INL are sufficient to implement PLN-114, “INL Emergency Plan/RCRA Contingency Plan.

  10. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  11. Social Objectives in Polish Fiscal Policy – Spending vs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Franek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The organization of this article was subordinated to the connections between the government program documentation related to the state social objectives and their implementation at the budgetary level. The article shows the necessity of perceiving fiscal policy as an instrument toimplement government programming objectives. The aim of the article is to assess the degree of implementation of social objectives on the basis of information resulting from the experience gained in the area of performance budgeting in Poland.Methodology: To assess the scale of financing of social objectives in Poland in comparison with other European countries, the author used Eurostat data from COFOG (Classification of the Functions of Government. To assess the effectiveness of state operations related to the achievement of social objectives, the author used information from the implementation of the performance-oriented state budget. It was assumed that the performance-oriented system linking the clear structure of public expenditure with the objectives and measures assigned to them to assess the effectiveness of fiscalpolicy in particular areas of government intervention.Findings: The relations between individual strategic documents related to social objectives and performance-oriented budgetary structure are presented. The results indicate that the scale of financing of social tasks in Poland is at a lower level than the average for European countries. The author points out the functions related to the achievement of social objectives whose effectiveness could be improved.Originality: Using information from the implementation of the performance-oriented budget to compare the individual budget functions of social character on the basis of the evaluation of the degree to which the measures for these functions’ operations have been implemented.

  12. Regla de Oro, sostenibilidad y regla fiscal contracíclica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jimenez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The current fiscal policy does not differentiate capital expenditure from current expenditure. Since the global deficit target is fixed according to the present fiscal policy rule, the non financial expenditure becomes pro cyclical, and the public investment is adjusted to meet the targeted deficit. As a result, the public investment has dramatically decreased which, in turn, has affected the international competitiveness and the economic and social development of the Peruvian society. This paper proposes: 1 change the public expenditure policy public investment by eliminating its pro cyclical bias; and 2 redefining the system of fiscal accounting. To meet this purposes the budget must be divided in two parts: the current budget with a saving or primary surplus target, and the investment expenditure based on a rule of directing the public debt only to finance this kind of expenditure over the economic cycle. This is the so called Public Investment Golden Rule. To this Golden Rule is added other according to which the ratio of public net debt must be sustainable during the economic cycle. Finally, it’s proposed to adopting the new IMF accounting system. The Golden Rule becomes pretty velar in the context of this new system. When the operational result becomes equal to cero, the net investment becomes equal to the public debt. Hence, the null operational result according to the new accounting system is the only one which is consistent with the Golden Rule.

  13. A welfare perspective on the fiscal-monetary policy mix: The role of alternative fiscal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    L. Marattin; Marzo, M.; P. Zagaglia

    2010-01-01

    The need of fiscal consolidation is likely to dominate the policy agenda in the next decade; starting from statistical evidence on the conduct of fiscal policy in the EMU area over the last decade, this paper addresses the optimality of alternative fiscal consolidation strategies. We explore the welfare properties. In this paper we explore the welfare properties of debt-targeting fiscal policy implemented through, alternatively, distortionary taxation on consumption, labour and capital income...

  14. Fiscal policy : Brazilian fiscal policy in crisis context

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo:A grave crise financeira global de 2008/09 oferece uma oportunidade ímpar para rever e repensar as finanças públicas no Brasil. Dos impactos da crise até as respostas estatais, há muito que estudar: as reflexões teóricas sobre a presença do Estado na economia, as experiências internacionais de enfrentamento da crise via política fiscal, bem como a formulação e a execução da política fiscal e os desafios que esta acabou por impor ou ampliar especialmente para o país. A tese descreve e a...

  15. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  16. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  17. Fiscal Law Course (76th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    the Narrative in Paragraphs B through E below to Conduct a Step-By-Step Analysis. B. Determine Whether Congress Has Enacted any Statute on Point. 2...Budgeting. 1. Each budget is submitted with the 5-year MWR plan to the applicable IMCOM Region. The commander’s narrative will: a. a description of...properly chargeable to O&M. Costs pertaining to training of Honduran armed forces during, or in preparation for, the Ahuas Tara II exercise should have

  18. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  19. Fiscal Federalism in Russia: A Canadian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some of the key instrumental components of intergovernmental fiscal relations that arise in the Russian Federation -- expenditures, revenues, transfers, borrowing, and institutional arrangements -- in comparison both to Canada’s lengthy experience with federalism and to a framework developed on the basis of previous work on fiscal federalism in a variety of transitional and developing countries. Unsurprisingly, from either of these perspectives fiscal federalism in Russia...

  20. Reallocation Fiscal Policy: Implications for Enhancing Human Capital and Infrastructure Development on Economic Growth and Welfare Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the nation's economy continues to experience a variety of developments. Various economic challenges still facing the nation. At the Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA in 2015 soon arrives, the challenge is coming from a variety of factors, both internal factors (domestic and external (foreign. Restructuring as the evaluation and development of various infrastructure and economic infrastructure. Determination of the state budget and the budget allocation to be of key importance in the economic growth of the nation. The main problem is that correlation is not balanced in fiscal management. Likewise, expenses and income is not directly proportional to the economic growth and social welfare. The purpose of this study was (1 to describe and analyze the implementation of fiscal reallocation as a preference for the government in the way of reformulating policy and fiscal reallocation for sustainable economic development; (2 to determine and analyze the effect of an increase in human capital to economic growth; and (3 describe and analyze the relationship between infrastructure development and economic growth of the welfare of society. Therefore, to improve the welfare of the people of obstruction takes a comprehensive synergy between human capital and the development of adequate infrastructure, of course, this must be supported by the existence of a fiscal restructuring and reallocation policy making substantive and accommodating. So, that the implementation of AFTA in 2015, Indonesia is ready to be a trend setting in the economic growth, community welfare, human resource development and integrative development.