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Sample records for budgerigars melopsittacus undulatus

  1. Natural Unusual Myeloblastosis in a Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): Histopathologic Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordadmehr, M; Ashrafi-Helana, J; Madadi, M S; Jarolmasjed, S H

    2016-03-01

    The subgroup J avian leukosis virus favors the myelocytic series cells and causes myeloid leukosis (myeloblastosis and myelocytomatosis). Natural cases of myeloblastosis (myeloblastic myeloid leukosis) are uncommon and usually occur in adult chickens. This paper describes clinical signs and gross and histopathologic features of myeloblastosis in an adult female budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) that was infected naturally. At necropsy, the spleen was greatly enlarged (enlarged seven or eight times normal) while the other visceral organs were normal. Histologic examination of the spleen indicated a massive intravascular and extravascular accumulation of myeloblasts with a variable proportion of promyelocytes and myelocytes in the red pulp of the spleen. PMID:26953949

  2. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing. PMID:26012708

  3. Microsporidia in exotic birds: Intermittent spore excretion of Encephalitozoon spp. in naturally infected budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Kašičková, D.; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, D.; Ditrich, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 168, 3/4 (2010), s. 196-200. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960701; GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : budgerigars * Melopsittacus undulatus * Encephalitozoon spp. * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.331, year: 2010

  4. ANESTHETICS EFFECTS OF INTRANASAL OR INTRAMUSCULAR ASSOCIATION OF MIDAZOLAM AND RACEMIC OR S+ KETAMINE IN BUDGERIGARS (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Aléssio Trevisan; Everton Leonardi da Silva; Anderson Luiz de Carvalho; Rafael Messias Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal anesthesia in birds is considered a safe, simple and efficient technique. The aim of this study was compare the anesthetic effects of midazolam (5 mg.kg-1) with racemic (R) or S+ (S) ketamine (15 mg.kg-1), administered intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Eight budgerigars were used in a crossover design with four treatments: INR, INS, IMR and IMS. Onset time, dorsal recumbency time duration, total anesthesia time, total recovery time,...

  5. Investigations on the diagnosis and retroviral aetiology of renal neoplasia in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova-Curd, Stefka A; Huder, Jon B; Boeni, Jurg; Robert, Nadia; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-06-01

    The high susceptibility of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to neoplasia, and specifically renal neoplasia, has often been reported. Further investigations led to a suspicion of a retrovirus as the causative agent for renal neoplasia in budgerigars, but definitive proof has yet to be found. In the present study, 32 budgerigars suspected of having renal neoplasia (based on the clinical presentation) were examined. The objectives were to investigate the use of different diagnostic methods for the ante-mortem diagnosis of this condition and to find more supporting evidence of a retroviral aetiology. The predominant clinical signs observed in budgerigars with renal neoplasia were lameness and absence of deep pain sensation of one leg. Alterations in haematology, plasma chemistry, and urine analyses could not pinpoint the cases of renal neoplasia. Contrast radiography of the intestinal tract proved to be diagnostically more useful compared with plain radiographic studies. Histology confirmed the renal neoplasia as adenocarcinoma. Investigations for virus identification included product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian leucosis virus group-specific antigen. Cell cultures and electron microscopy were performed on a limited number of patients. These investigations could find no presence of an exogenous, replicating retrovirus, neither could viral particles be detected by electron microscopy. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that there is no evidence of retroviral involvement in the occurrence of renal neoplasia in budgerigars. PMID:20544420

  6. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

  7. Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Clark, Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would be followed by the clustering of these behaviors in a group of birds, which may be facilitated both by a standard pattern of responding to a startling stressor and also contagion. In this study, we measured yawning and stretching in 4-bird groups following a nonspecific stressor (loud white noise) for a period of 1 hr, determining whether auditory disturbances alter the timing and frequency of these behaviors. Our results show that stretching, and to a lesser degree yawning, were nonrandomly clumped in time following the auditory disturbances, indicating that the temporal clustering is sensitive to, and enhanced by, environmental stressors while in small groups. No decrease in yawning such as found after handling stress was observed immediately after the loud noise but a similar increase in yawning 20 min after was observed. Future research is required to tease apart the roles of behavioral contagion and a time-setting effect following a startle in this species. This research is of interest because of the potential role that temporal clumping of yawning and stretching could play in both the collective detection of, and response to, local disturbances or predation threats. PMID:22268553

  8. Protection of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) against Chlamydophila psittaci challenge by DNA vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Harkinezhad, Taher; Schautteet, Katelijn; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    Plasmid DNA (pcDNA1::MOMP A) expressing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila psittaci genotype A strain 89/1051 has been tested for its ability to induce protective immunity against Cp. psittaci challenge in budgerigars. Eight pairs of male and female budgerigars were housed in eight separate bird cages placed in two negative pressure isolators, four cages per group. All budgerigars were immunised twice intramuscularly with 100 μg plasmid DNA. Both groups received a primar...

  9. Observing real-time social interaction via telecommunication methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Humans communicate with one another not only face-to-face but also via modern telecommunication methods such as television and video conferencing. We readily detect the difference between people actively communicating with us and people merely acting via a broadcasting system. We developed an animal model of this novel communication method seen in humans to determine whether animals also make this distinction. We built a system for two animals to interact via audio-visual equipment in real-time, to compare behavioral differences between two conditions, an "interactive two-way condition" and a "non-interactive (one-way) condition." We measured birds' responses to stimuli which appeared in these two conditions. We used budgerigars, which are small, gregarious birds, and found that the frequency of vocal interaction with other individuals did not differ between the two conditions. However, body synchrony between the two birds was observed more often in the interactive condition, suggesting budgerigars recognized the difference between these interactive and non-interactive conditions on some level. PMID:27040864

  10. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

  11. EFEITOS ANESTÉSICOS DA ADMINISTRAÇÃO INTRANASAL OU INTRAMUSCULAR DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DE MIDAZOLAM E CETAMINA RACÊMICA OU S+ EM PERIQUITO AUSTRALIANO (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Aléssio Trevisan; Everton Leonardi da Silva; Anderson Luiz de Carvalho; Rafael Messias Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal anesthesia in birds is considered a safe, simple and efficient technique. The aim of this study was compare the anesthetic effects of midazolam (5 mg.kg-1) with racemic (R) or S+ (S) ketamine (15 mg.kg-1), administered intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Eight budgerigars were used in a crossover design with four treatments: INR, INS, IMR and IMS. Onset time, dorsal recumbency time duration, total anesthesia time, total recovery time,...

  12. TOPOGRAPHY AND VISCERAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805 TOPOGRAFIA E MORFOLOGIA DAS VÍSCERAS DO PERIQUITO-AUSTRALIANO (Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S. Matsumoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this research was to study the topography and morphology of Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus viscera. Ten Australian parakeet were used (5 males and 5 females. The animals were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, through perfusion in the musculature and visceral cavity. Macroscopically, the Australian parakeet viscera did not show expressive differences when compared to other domestic birds’ species. Microscopically, the main difference was the presence of mechanoreceptors (Corpuscles of Pacini in the tongue, found for the first time in this psittaciform  species.

    KEY WORDS: Melopsittacus undulatus, morphology, topography, viscera.

    Em virtude da escassez de dados referentes à morfologia e topografia das aves em geral, o presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a topografia e morfologia das vísceras do periquito-australiano (Melopsittacus undulatus, para assim proporcionar um conhecimento mais amplo sobre características específicas dessa espécie. Para a descrição da morfologia e topografia das vísceras foram utilizados dez periquitos, sendo cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Os animais foram fixados com solução de formaldeído 10%, através de perfusão na musculatura e cavidade visceral. Macroscopicamente, as vísceras do periquito não apresentaram muitas diferenças comparadas a outras espécies de aves domésticas. Microscopicamente, a principal diferença estava na presença de mecanorreceptores (corpúsculos de Pacini na língua, encontrados pela primeira vez nesta espécie de psitaciforme. 

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Melopsittacus undulatus, morfologia, topografia, vísceras.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193 bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%. PMID:24660934

  14. Leucocytozoon-like infection in parakeets, budgerigars and a common buzzard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R

    1991-07-13

    The gross and histological lesions of a protozoan infection, possibly caused by Leucocytozoon, in parakeets (genera Neophema and Cyanoramphus), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a wild buzzard (Buteo buteo) are described. The infection appears not to have been identified before in budgerigars in Great Britain, and in its chronic form resulted in vomiting and wasting. The possible identity of the parasite and the epidemiological factors are considered. PMID:1926686

  15. Spermagewinnung und –untersuchung sowie endoskopische Beurteilung des Geschlechts-apparates in Abhängigkeit von der Spermaproduktion bei Psittaziden am Beispiel des Wellensittichs (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Behncke, Helge

    2004-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, eine reproduzierbare Methode der Spermagewinnung bei Psittaciformes am Beispiel des Wellensittichs (Melopsittacus undulatus) zu entwickeln. Es sollten spermatologische Referenzwerte für diese Spezies erstellt werden, um eine erste Grundlage für deren Fruchtbarkeitsbeurteilung zu erhalten. Ferner sollten diese spermatologischen Parameter mit der endoskopischen Darstellung der Gonaden verglichen werden, um eine spezifische Beurteilungsmöglichkeit der Hodenaktivität ab...

  16. Cryptosporidial Infection of Lower Respiratory Tract in a Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharagozlou, M.J.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporial and bacterial co-infection is reported in a budgerigar with clinical manifestations of septicemia and respiratory tract infection. Microscopically large number of round to oval 2-5μm cryptosporidial organisms were found to be lodged on the parabronchial epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. The bacterial colonies were seen around the parabronchial spaces of the lung tissue. It is suggested that the C. baileyi is the most likely cryptosporidium species which caused respiratory cryptosporidiosis in the budgerigar.

  17. Differential vocalization in budgerigars: towards an experimental analysis of naming.

    OpenAIRE

    Manabe, K.; T Kawashima; Staddon, J E

    1995-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 3 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were trained with food reinforcement to make low- or high-frequency calls in response to different color stimuli, C1 and C2 (a color-naming task), using a gradual response-differentiation procedure and an automatic call-recognition system. Thus, a call within a certain frequency band was reinforced in the presence of C1 ("C1 call"), and a call within a different band was reinforced in the presence of C2 ("C2 call"). In Experiment 2, all...

  18. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Werther; R P Schocken-Iturrino; CES Verona; Barros LSS

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997). Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria) were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick) organisms, Gram posi...

  19. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

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    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  20. Phonological perception by birds: budgerigars can perceive lexical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-05-01

    Metrical phonology is the perceptual "strength" in language of some syllables relative to others. The ability to perceive lexical stress is important, as it can help a listener segment speech and distinguish the meaning of words and sentences. Despite this importance, there has been little comparative work on the perception of lexical stress across species. We used a go/no-go operant paradigm to train human participants and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to distinguish trochaic (stress-initial) from iambic (stress-final) two-syllable nonsense words. Once participants learned the task, we presented both novel nonsense words, and familiar nonsense words that had certain cues removed (e.g., pitch, duration, loudness, or vowel quality) to determine which cues were most important in stress perception. Members of both species learned the task and were then able to generalize to novel exemplars, showing categorical learning rather than rote memorization. Tests using reduced stimuli showed that humans could identify stress patterns with amplitude and pitch alone, but not with only duration or vowel quality. Budgerigars required more than one cue to be present and had trouble if vowel quality or amplitude were missing as cues. The results suggest that stress patterns in human speech can be decoded by other species. Further comparative stress-perception research with more species could help to determine what species characteristics predict this ability. In addition, tests with a variety of stimuli could help to determine how much this ability depends on general pattern learning processes versus vocalization-specific cues. PMID:26914456

  1. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

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    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on

  2. Basidioascus undulatus: genome, origins, and sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hai D. T.; Chabot, Denise; Hirooka, Yuuri; Roberson, Robert W.; Seifert, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Basidioascus undulatus is a soil basidiomycete belonging to the order Geminibasidiales. The taxonomic status of the order was unclear as originally it was only tentatively classified in the class Wallemiomycetes. The fungi in Geminibasidiales have an ambiguously defined sexual cycle. In this study, we sequenced the genome of B. undulatus to gain insights into its sexuality and evolutionary origins. The assembled genome draft was approximately 32 Mb in size, had a median nucleotide coverage of...

  3. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang; Nian-Zhang Zhang; Guang-Hui Zhao; Quan Zhao; Xing-Quan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked...

  4. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Werther

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997. Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick organisms, Gram positive and acidophilic in Giemsa staining, called megabacteria. Different kind of culture media was testes to replicated these organism in vitro. Also the dimension (large and width of the fresh microorganism from the proventricular mucus and from the first culture was compared. The macroscopic alterations observed at the necropsies was also listed.Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de um agente etiológico, denominado na Europa, Australia e EUA como "megabactéria", observado em estômago de pequenas aves (canários belgas, agapornis e periquitos australianos, provenientes da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo/SP. As necropsias de 64 aves silvestres (4 periquitos australianos, 12 agapornis e 48 canários, realizadas no perído de 1994 a 1997, foram analisadas, constatando-se em 56% dos casos a presença de estruturas filiformes, acidofílicas sob coloração Giemsa, gram positivas, existentes no muco do proventrículo, descritas na literatura como "megabactérias". Foram testados diversos tipos de meios de cultura para reprodução in vitro deste microrganismo. Foram ainda comparadas as dimensões (comprimento e largura dessa bactéria obtida apartir do esfregaço fresco de muco proventricular e da "megabactéria" proveniente de cultivo in vitro. Também foram listados os principais achados macroscópicos do animais portadores desta bactéria.

  5. Breeding of Melopsittacus undulatus in Captivity%虎皮鹦鹉人工繁殖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟福生; 曾元根; 莫小林; 马再玉

    2001-01-01

    1995年3月~1997年7月,在长沙动物园对虎皮鹦鹉的人工繁殖习性进行了观察.结果表明,虎皮鹦鹉的繁殖期为3月中旬~6月中旬;年产2窝,窝产卵数为4~7枚;雌鸟担任孵化,孵卵期为(19±2)d,孵化率为86.8%;育雏期(30±5)d,育成率为92.3%.

  6. Parazité papoušků.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancigerová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work deals about the most common parasitic disease of parrots in captivity or the wildlife. Individual parasites are taxonomically classified. By the each species, there is stated which kind of parrot is most often occurred by it, then a brief description of its body, the pathogenic effects and diagnosis. This is a summary of scientific knowledge information. The most common grown species of parrots are budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, that have the single most parasite s...

  7. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Pet Parrots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Tian, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupa...

  8. The Skull Development of Parrots with Special Reference to the Emergence of a Morphologically Unique Cranio-Facial Hinge

    OpenAIRE

    Tokita, Masayoshi

    2003-01-01

    The order Psittaciformes (parrots) has unique morphological features in the head that are evolutionarily novel. To better understand the unique evolution of the head in parrots, the developmental pattern of the skull of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) was initially described on the basis of transparent skeletal specimens. Although the fundamental pattern of the skull development of birds is conserved in parrots, some differences were observed between parrots and other groups of birds...

  9. CATARRHAL PROVENTRICULITIS ASSOCIATED WITH A FILAMENTOUS ORGANISM IN PET BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    TSAI, Shinn-Shyong; Park, Jae-Hak; Hirai, Katsuya; ITAKURA, Chitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Catarrhal proventriculitis due to infection by an unidentified organism was diagnosed in 79 of 534 pet birds examined histologically. It was more prevalent in domestic birds (70 cases) than in imported ones (9 cases). A high incidence of the disease was encountered in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and it was occasionally found in finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis), Amazona parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and cockatiels (Nymphicus holland...

  10. Giardia psittaci and Eimeria dunsingi in budgerigar colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgisunar, Necmettin Sarp; Şahinduran, Şima; Adanır, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    Severe diarrhea, ruffled feathers and lack of appetite were diagnosed in a budgerigar flock and totally 35 birds had died within last 2 weeks. Birds were captived in two rooms and there was a corridor separating them. Fresh faeces samples collected from both of sections. Native method and zinc sulphate flotation methods were used to diagnose Giardia sp. and Eimeria sp., respectively. After examination, Giardia psittaci was diagnosed in 8 of 10 samples from one section and Eimeria dunsingi was...

  11. Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allow...

  12. Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

    2014-11-01

    Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allowing cones to discriminate UV-rich signals, such as bird plumage colours, against UV-poor natural backgrounds. PMID:25376799

  13. Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Kerber, C E; Kasai, N; Pena, H F; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Gennari, S M

    2001-12-01

    Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums were characterized based on biological and morphological criteria. Sporocysts from intestinal scrapings of 1 Didelphis marsupialis and 8 Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil, were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Budgerigars fed sporocysts from all 9 isolates became ill and S. falcatula-like schizonts were identified in sections of their lungs by immunohistochemical staining. Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms were cultured from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from D. marsupialis and from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from 3 of 8 D. albiventris. The 33/54 locus amplified by polymerase chain reaction from culture-derived merozoites contained both a HinfI endonuclease recognition site previously suggested to diagnose S. falcatula and a DraI site thought to diagnosed S. neurona. Development of the isolate from D. marsupialis was studied in cell culture; its schizonts divided by endopolygeny, leaving a residual body. Morphological and genetic variation differentiated this Sarcocystis isolate originating in D. marsupialis from the Cornell I isolate of S. falcatula. This is the first report of a S. falcatula infection in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis. PMID:11780836

  14. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-07-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  15. Mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium genavense in six pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoop, R K; Böttger, E C; Ossent, P; Salfinger, M

    1993-04-01

    Six cases of mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium genavense in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), one orange-winged amazon (Amazona amazonica), one flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana), and one zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) are discussed. Gross lesions associated with the infection included a high degree of muscular wasting (five cases), hepatomegaly (four cases), and thickening of the wall of the small intestine (four cases). Granulomas were found in the lung (one case) and the subcutis (one case). Acid-fast bacilli were detected in the liver of all six birds. Only the use of acidic BACTEC mediums consistently led to growth, whereas the egg-based medium failed. These findings point to a possible role of the environment as a reservoir for M. genavense. PMID:8463407

  16. Didelphis aurita (Marsupialia: Didelphidae): a new host for Sarcocystis lindsayi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Stabenow, Cristiane; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Nine opossums, Didelphis aurita , were captured in the city of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and examined for species of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were observed in the mucosal scrapings of the small intestine from 3 opossums. Five budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus , were infected with sporocysts from each of these infected opossums and 5 budgerigars were used as controls. Of the 15 sporocyst-treated budgerigars, 5 birds that received sporocysts from 1 of the infected opossums developed tissue parasites. Meronts in the vascular endothelium of the lung venous capillaries and cysts in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cells were observed in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The microscopic cysts, which were predominantly in the tongue and leg muscles, ranged from 65.3 to 118.1 μm in length and 14.0 to 29.4 μm in width and from 0.9 to 1.9 μm in thickness of the cystic wall. Sections examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cyst wall contained numerous slender and jagged-shaped protrusions, each with a finger-like formation at the end. The morphology, especially of the cyst wall, and the morphometry of the tissue cysts indicate that the parasite is Sarcocystis lindsayi and, therefore, the opossum, D. aurita , is now considered a definitive host for this species in Brazil. PMID:22571294

  17. Asymmetrical mate preference in recently adapted White Sands and black lava populations of Sceloporus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. HARDWICK1, Jeanne M. ROBERTSON, Erica Bree ROSENBLUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation can proceed rapidly when natural and sexual selection act in concert. For example speciation can be accelerated when traits that confer a selective advantage in a particular habitat also influence mate preference. Studying parallel but evolutionarily independent instances of ecological divergence can illuminate the interaction between natural and sexual selection during speciation. Locally adapted populations of the eastern fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus have recently evolved in three different habitats in the Chihuahuan desert: blanched color morphs occur on the gypsum dunes of White Sands, melanic color morphs occur on the Carrizozo lava flow, and brown color morphs occur in the surrounding desert scrubland. In addition to differences in cryptic dorsal coloration, populations also differ in the size and color of ventral patches used for social signaling. This system therefore provides an opportunity to investigate the interplay of natural and sexual selection during rapid ecological speciation. We used mate preference experiments to determine whether locally adapted populations may exhibit the early stages of behavioral reproductive isolation. We observed an asymmetrical mate preference in this system; White Sands males preferentially courted local females, while males from dark soils and black lava populations did not exhibit a preference for local mates. We also found that female behavior and ventral patch phenotype were associated with male courtship. Our results suggest that the observed preference for local mates evolved at White Sands, and we discuss the possible link between local adaptation and traits involved in mate preference in this system [Current Zoology 59 (1: 20–30, 2013].

  18. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, Lovebirds (Agapornis sp., Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria, and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fecal samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311 and 0.64% (2/311 by ELISA and Sheather’s sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  19. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Eda-Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  20. Study on detection of viral DNA of the agents causing psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease in different psittacine species

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Beate

    2009-01-01

    In this study, certain aspects of psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease were investigated to gather information about the distribution and the clinical manifestation of the diseases in patients of the “Klinik für Vögel der LMU München”. Furthermore different organ samples were compared for their reliability of routine post mortem PCR-diagnoses of peracute PBFD in young african grey parrots. Regarding intra vitam detection of the aetiological agents of both di...

  1. Joomɨ fíivo gaaja kaatɨi aame - La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. Cuarta parte: Kɨɨñu “Gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniceto Nejedeka (Numeyɨ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Texto bilingüe muinane-español sobre el ave kɨɨñu, “gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus, elaborado por Aniceto Nejedeka a partir del conocimiento de los mayores de la etnia muinane. Este texto es la cuarta parte de un libro que hemos venido publicando por fascículos, titulado La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. El muinane es una lengua de la familia lingüística bora.

  2. Joomɨ fíivo gaaja kaatɨi aame - La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. Cuarta parte: Kɨɨñu “Gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Aniceto Nejedeka

    2014-01-01

    Texto bilingüe muinane-español sobre el ave kɨɨñu, “gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus), elaborado por Aniceto Nejedeka a partir del conocimiento de los mayores de la etnia muinane. Este texto es la cuarta parte de un libro que hemos venido publicando por fascículos, titulado La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. El muinane es una lengua de la familia lingüística bora.

  3. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and non-learners (quail and ring dove reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eMatsunaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and a non-learner (quail and ring dove. The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. 

  4. Intensity discrimination as a function of level and frequency in three species of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Amanda M.; Poling, Kirsten; Dooling, Robert J.

    2003-04-01

    Many studies have examined frequency discrimination in birds, but there has not been as complete a description of avian intensity discrimination abilities. Birds appear to be slightly less sensitive to changes in intensity than humans and other mammals; however, few studies have systematically looked at the effects of both frequency and presentation level on intensity discrimination in birds. Here we describe intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level in two small songbird species, the canary (Serinus canarius), the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and a nonsongbird species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Intensity difference limens (DLIs) for pure tones were obtained from birds using standard operant conditioning procedures and the Method of Constant Stimuli. DLIs ranged from approximately 2-6 dB, which are slightly larger than the DLIs reported in mammals. For all three species, DLIs become smaller with increasing presentation level, but show little effect across frequency for a given level. These results are consistent with previous reports in other species. [Work supported by NIH DC01372 to RJD and DC05450 to AML.

  5. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  6. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri. PMID:26303093

  7. Ultraviolet signals in birds are special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Franziska; Arnold, Kathryn E; Marshall, N Justin; Owens, Ian P F

    2003-01-01

    Recent behavioural experiments have shown that birds use ultraviolet (UV)-reflective and fluorescent plumage as cues in mate choice. It remains controversial, however, whether such UV signals play a special role in sexual communication, or whether they are part of general plumage coloration. We use a comparative approach to test for a general association between sexual signalling and either UV-reflective or fluorescent plumage. Among the species surveyed, 72% have UV colours and there is a significant positive association between UV reflectance and courtship displays. Among parrots (Psittaciformes), 68% of surveyed species have fluorescent plumage, and again there is a strong positive association between courtship displays and fluorescence. These associations are not artefacts of the plumage used in courtship displays, being generally more 'colourful' because there is no association between display and colours lacking UV reflectance or fluorescence. Equally, these associations are not phylogenetic artefacts because all results remain unchanged when families or genera, rather than species, are used as independent data points. We also find that, in parrots, fluorescent plumage is usually found adjacent to UV-reflective plumage. Using a simple visual model to examine one parrot, the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus, we show that the juxtaposition of UV-reflective and fluorescent plumage leads to a 25-fold increase in chromatic contrast to the budgerigar's visual system. Taken together, these results suggest that signals based on UV contrast are of special importance in the context of active sexual displays. We review briefly six hypotheses on why this may be the case: suitability for short-range signalling; high contrast with backgrounds; invisibility to predators; exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases; advertisement of feather structure; and amplification of behavioural signals. PMID:12590772

  8. 波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)的胚胎发育及初孵仔鱼的形态观察%Embryonic Development and Morphologic Observations of Newly-Hatched Cheilinus undulatus Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈猛猛; 骆剑; 陈国华; 文鑫; 吴光灿; 李文深; 韩玉龙

    2015-01-01

    波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)是世界著名的濒危礁栖鱼类,具有特殊的生物学特性和较高的经济价值。本研究对波纹唇鱼的胚胎发育及初孵仔鱼的形态进行了观察,将其全过程划分为胚盘形成、卵裂、囊胚、原肠-神经胚、器官发生和孵化6个阶段,共26个发育时期。波纹唇鱼的受精卵为无色透明的浮性卵,圆球形,卵径为(635.6±50.0)μm,具油球1个,其卵径显著小于多数海水鱼类。在水温27.7–29.0℃、盐度30的条件下,受精卵历时15 h 30 min孵出仔鱼。初孵仔鱼全长为(1305.5±50.0)µm,卵黄囊前部长于仔鱼头部,且油球位于卵黄囊的最前端。结果显示,波纹唇鱼卵子较小,胚胎发育较快,其较快的胚胎发育与较小的初孵仔鱼可能是导致胚后发育阶段死亡率较高的重要原因。%Thehumphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, is one of the most famous endangered reef fish in the world. As a social hermaphroditic fish, it has special biological characteristics and high economic value. In this study, we observed the embryonic development ofC. undulatusandanalyzed its features under a microscopy. Six periods, including zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula-neural, organogenesis, and hatching, were divided during the embryonic development ofC. undulatus. These 6 periods include 26 stages, including zygote, blastoderm formation, multi-cell, morula, and tail bud stageetc. The results showed thatC. undulatus had a float, transparent, spherical egg with a big oil globule. The diameter (635.6±50.0)μm of the egg was obviously shorter than eggs of many marine fishes. The neural plate appeared in the mid to late gastrula stage, and the embryonic development ofC. undulatus was remarkably quicker than other fishes under the same condition. The fertilized eggs were hatched after 15.5 h at water temperature of 27.7−29.0℃and salinity of 30. The total length of newly-hatched larvae were (1305.5

  9. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  10. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV).

  11. 波纹唇鱼血细胞显微结构和血液生化指标%Microstructure of Peripheral Blood Cell and Serum Biochemical Indices of Cheilinus undulatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖光勇; 区又君; 李加儿

    2011-01-01

    以Wright's和Giemsa双重染色法对波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)外周血细胞的形态进行显微观察研究并计数,同时测定各类血细胞的大小及血液的生化指标.血涂片观察发现:波纹唇鱼的外周血细胞可区分出红细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞等五种血细胞,未观察到嗜碱性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞.在外周血液中还观察到核影、正在分裂的红细胞、幼稚红细胞和降解的红细胞.各类血细胞胞体由大到小的次序依次为单核细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、红细胞、大淋巴细胞、血栓细胞、小淋巴细胞.血浆中红细胞为(3.15±0.79)×1012/L,白细胞为(1.42±0.71)×1010/L,红细胞数远远多于白细胞.血液生化指标与其他鱼类相比有一定差异,表明鱼类血液的生化成分因种和生活环境而异.%The microscopic observation and count are conducted for the peripheral blood cells of C. Undula-tus by means of the Wright's and Giemsa double dye method. The serum biochemical indices of C. Undula-tus , the sizes of the various blood cells are determined. From the stained smears, five blood cell types I. E. Erythrocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and thrombocyte are detected. Neither eosinophilic granu-locyten nor basophilic granulocyte is found but, some nuclear shadow of erythrocytes, immature erythro-cytes, direct dividing or dissolving erythrocytes. Among these cells, the sizes are put into an order from large to small as follows monocyte, neutrophil, erythrocyte, large lymphocyte, thrombocyte and small lymphlcyte. The erythrocyte and leucocyte concentrations in the blood are (3. 15 ±0. 79) × 1012/L and (1. 42 + 0. 71) × 1010/L respectively. The number of erythrocyte is much more than the leucocyte in the blood. The serum biochemical indices are different from other fish species. Therefore it is indicated that the serum biochemical indices for various fishes depend upon their species and

  12. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales, birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast with mammals and birds, tooth loss in turtles occurred in the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 Ma, providing an extended time window for tooth gene degradation in this clade. The release of the painted turtle and Chinese softshell turtle genomes provides an opportunity to recover the decayed remains of tooth-specific genes in Testudines. Results We queried available genomes of Testudines (Chrysemys picta [painted turtle], Pelodiscus sinensis [Chinese softshell turtle], Aves (Anas platyrhynchos [duck], Gallus gallus [chicken], Meleagris gallopavo [turkey], Melopsittacus undulatus [budgerigar], Taeniopygia guttata [zebra finch], and enamelless mammals (Orycteropus afer [aardvark], Choloepus hoffmanni [Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth], Dasypus novemcinctus [nine-banded armadillo] for remnants of three enamel matrix protein (EMP genes with putative enamel-specific functions. Remnants of the AMBN and ENAM genes were recovered in Chrysemys and retain their original synteny. Remnants of AMEL were recovered in both testudines, although there are no shared frameshifts. We also show that there are inactivated copies of AMBN, AMEL and ENAM in representatives of divergent avian lineages including Galloanserae, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes, and that there are shared frameshift mutations in all three genes that predate the basal split in Neognathae. Among enamelless mammals, all three EMP genes exhibit inactivating mutations in Orycteropus and Choloepus. Conclusions Our results

  13. Dicty_cDB: CFH620 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pt*wfhgcqw*ww*rsklstklfrwsratsri cst*i*rlwfrcsstxqssk*rlcstr Homology vs CSM-cDNA...ce. 62 4e-11 2 U40704 |U40704.1 Candida albicans catalase (Cat) gene, complete cds. 72 7e-09 1 AV405682 |AV4...alase ... 308 5e-83 ( O93662 ) RecName: Full=Catalase; EC=1.11.1.6; &AJ00593... 196 3e-49 CP000300_4...42059 |pid:none) Melopsittacus undulatus catalase (... 184 6e-46 (Q9PWF7) RecName: Full=Cat...type. 70 3e-15 2 AR375090 |AR375090.1 Sequence 96 from patent US 6605709. 70 3e-15 2 AB064338 |AB064338.1 Ca

  14. Can the same species of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) infect both mammalian and avian hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, H A; Mati, V L T; Melo, A L

    2016-05-01

    The importance of platynosomiasis has increased in feline veterinary practice, but aspects related to the specificity of Platynosomum spp. in definitive hosts requires further study. Although morphological traits suggest that the same species, P. illiciens, may infect both birds and mammals, the synonymies previously proposed have not been widely accepted, likely because host specificity is assumed. In addition, the name P. fastosum has frequently been used for parasites recovered from mammals. In the present study, metacercariae (n= 100/animal) of P. illiciens recovered from lizards (Hemidactylus mabouia) in Brazil were fed to Australian parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and mice. Two parasites were recovered from the liver of one M. undulatus specimen during a necropsy that was performed 105 days after infection, and all mice were found to be infected with 37 ± 12 (18-48) parasites. The morphology of the P. illiciens obtained from the parakeet was similar to that of parasites obtained from mice and those described previously from naturally infected birds and mammals. Non-specificity of P. illiciens in hosts is discussed briefly, based on the parasitological and morphological results obtained during the avian experimental platynosomiasis and the epidemiology and geographical distribution of this parasite. PMID:25781630

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 gb|AAT90237.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90243.1| melanocortin... 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90267.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporu...s undulatus] gb|AAT90269.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] AAT90237.1 1e-123 72% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 gb|AAT90233.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90234.1| melanocortin... 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90238.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporu...s undulatus] gb|AAT90239.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90241.1| melanocortin 1 rec...eptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90245.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus u...ndulatus] gb|AAT90247.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90248.1| melanocortin 1 recept

  17. The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Rolf S; de Kloet, Siwo R

    2005-09-01

    The Psittaciformes (parrots, parakeets) are among the most widely held captive birds. Yet, their evolution and their phylogenetic relationships have been relatively little studied. This paper describes the phylogenetic relationships between a number of Psittaciformes as derived from the sequences of the third intron of the Z-chromosomal and W-chromosomal spindlin genes. The Z-chromosomal sequences of the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), the kea (Nestor notabilis), and the kaka (Nestor meridionalis) from New Zealand form a cluster which is the sister group to all other Psittaciformes. The results show further that the Z-chromosomal sequences of the other species can be divided into two groups based on the occurrence of a sequence element ACCCT. The group with the insert (A) is mainly from species with an Australasian geographical distribution and includes such species as the Lories (Lorius, etc.), the budgerigar (Melospittacus undulatus), and the rosellas (Platycercus). It also includes the African lovebirds (Agapornidae), which are the only representative of group A outside Australasia. Group B, without the insert, includes the neotropical parrots and parakeets such as the amazons (Amazona, etc.), the macaws (Ara, etc.), and the conures (Aratinga, etc.), the Australian Cacatuini and the African species such as the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) as well as Coracopsis vasa from Madagascar and Psittrichas fulgidus from New Guinea. The W-chromosomal sequence data show that another division of the Psittacidae is found in the replacement of a pyrimidine-rich segment occurring in many non-psittacines as well as the kakapo (S. habroptilus), the kea (N. notabilis), the kaka (N. meridionalis), and the Cacatuini by a microsatellite consisting of a variable number of TATTA monomers in the other Psittaciformes. The results support a Gondwanan origin of the Psittaciformes and the suggestion that paleogeographic events were a major force in psittacine divergence. PMID

  18. [Cortisol and corticosterone plasma levels in different Psittaciformes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochleithner, M; Nowotny, P

    1992-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and corticosterone levels were measured in macaws, African Grey Parrots, Amazon Parrots and budgerigars using a RIA after preliminary cleaning. As in other avian species, the plasma contains predominantly corticosterone. PMID:1481215

  19. Does the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship vary among geometrically similar birds of different mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, Matthew W; Hansen, Kacia S; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-03-01

    Based on aerodynamic considerations, the energy use-flight speed relationship of all airborne animals and aircraft should be U-shaped. However, measures of the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship in birds have been available since Tucker's pioneering experiments with budgerigars nearly forty years ago, but this classic work remains the only study to have found a clearly U-shaped metabolic power curve. The available data suggests that the energetic requirements for flight within this species are unique, yet the metabolic power curve of the budgerigar is widely considered representative of birds in general. Given these conflicting results and the observation that the budgerigar's mass is less than 50% of the next smallest species to have been studied, we asked whether large and small birds have metabolic power curves of different shapes. To address this question we measured the rates of oxygen uptake and wingbeat kinematics in budgerigars and cockatiels flying within a variable-speed wind tunnel. These species are close phylogenetic relatives, have similar flight styles, wingbeat kinematics, and are geometrically similar but have body masses that differ by a factor of two. In contrast to our expectations, we found the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of both species to be acutely U-shaped. We also found that neither budgerigars nor cockatiels used their normal intermittent flight style while wearing a respirometric mask. We conclude that species size differences alone do not explain the previously unique metabolic power curve of the budgerigar; however, due to the absence of comparable data we cannot evaluate whether the mask-related kinematic response we document influences the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of these parrots, or whether the energetics of flight differ between this and other avian clades. PMID:17337719

  20. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  1. Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe;

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the...... vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely...

  2. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  3. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mukta Chakraborty; Solveig Walløe; Signe Nedergaard; Fridel, Emma E.; Torben Dabelsteen; Bente Pakkenberg; Bertelsen, Mads F; Gerry M Dorrestein; Brauth, Steven E.; Sarah E Durand; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found ...

  4. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Eda-Fujiwara; Ryohei Satoh; Yuka Hata; Marika Yamasaki; Aiko Watanabe; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Yasuharu Okamoto; Takenori Miyamoto; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2016-01-01

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the ...

  5. Type studies in Coprinus subsection Lanatuli

    OpenAIRE

    Uljé, C.B.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    As a prelude to a monograph of the genus Coprinus, types were studied of a number of species said to belong to Coprinus subsection Lanatuli (Coprinus alnivorus. C. alutaceivelatus, C. ammophilae, C. arachnoideus, C. asterophoroides, C. brunneistragulatus, C. bubalinus, C. citrinovelatus, C. colosseus, C. jonesii, C. lagopides, C. marcidus, C. pachydermus, C. palmeranus, C. roseistipitatus, C. scobicola, C. spadiceisporus, C. sylvicola, C. tectisporus, C. undulatus and C. xerophilus). As a res...

  6. Genetically different clonal isolates of Trichomonas gallinae, obtained from the same bird, can vary in their drug susceptibility, an in vitro evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimre-Grabensteiner, Elvira; Arshad, Najma; Amin, Aziza; Hess, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoon which parasitizes in the upper digestive tract of different birds, especially columbiformes (doves and pigeons) and falconiformes. The parasite is also a common inhabitant of the crop of psittacine birds and is frequently detected in budgerigars. The lesions associated with T. gallinae infection of the upper digestive tract range from mild inflammation of the mucosa to large caseous lesions that block the lumen of the oesophagus. Nitroimidazoles are considered to be the drugs of choice for the treatment of trichomonosis. However, only a few studies report the existence of resistant strains of T. gallinae to these drugs. Thus, in the present investigation cloned cultures of T. gallinae obtained from budgerigars and pigeons were analysed for the first time for their in vitro susceptibilities against four 5´-nitroimidazole derivates, including metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole and ornidazole. Significantly different minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) were observed for them against all four drugs. The lowest MLCs revealed the Trichomonas isolates obtained from two budgerigars, ranging from 2.0 ± 0.3 to 3.0 ± 0.7 μg/ml for metronidazole and dimetridazole, and from 2.0 ± 0.6 to 6.7 ± 1.7 μg/ml for ornidazole and ronidazole. Contrary to this, the highest MLCs were recorded for one Trichomonas isolate obtained from a pigeon, ranging from 83.3 ± 6.7 (for dimetridazole and ronidazole) to 103.3 ± 3.3 μg/ml (for metronidazole and ornidazole). The data obtained for the resistance testing were further compared with already available genetic data of the small subunit rRNA gene sequences and ITS-1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences, indicating a certain correlation between in vitro results and strain relationships. PMID:21345378

  7. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  8. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. SAVIOLA, David CHISZAR, Stephen P. MACKESSY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake. Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake takes different prey at different life stages, and neonates typically prey on ectotherms, while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms. We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed, and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age. To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred, we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate, 20 subadult, and 20 adult (average SVL = 280.9, 552, 789.5 mm, respectively wild-caught C. v. viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, and house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, two endotherms (deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse, Mus musculus, and water controls were used. Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey, S. undulatus, than to all other chemical cues; however, the response to this lizard’s chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes. Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S. undulatus and P. maniculatus than to all other treatments, and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P. maniculatus than to all other chemical cues. In addition, all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M. musculus and H. frenatus. This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C. v. viridis diet. Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition, we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid

  9. Factors determining δ13C and δ18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining δ 13C and δ 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the δ 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between δ 13C- carbonate-δ 13C water (δ 13C) and temperature: δ 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between δ 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (α) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln α = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the δ 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the δ 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  10. Espécies de Ganoderma P. Karst (Ganodermataceae) e Phellinus Quél. (Hymenochaetaceae) na Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, Pará, Brasil Species of Ganoderma P. Karst (Ganodermataceae) and Phellinus Quél. (Hymenochaetaceae) from Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alcindo da Silva Martins Júnior; Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni; Helen Maria Pontes Sotão

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho foi baseado em coleções realizadas pelos autores e em material depositado no herbário João Murça Pires (MG), procedentes da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna (ECFPn, 1°38' - 1°48S; 51°20' - 51°36'W). Ganoderma esta representado por três espécies: G. australe, G. multiplicatum e G. stipitatum, e Phellinus por sete: P. baccharidis, P. calcitratus, P. extensus, P. fastuosus, P. gilvus, P. shaferi e P. undulatus.This work is based on collections undertaken by the authors and on mate...

  11. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.

  12. Effect of temperature on feeding period of larval blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on eastern fence lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00949-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 69_1( FJ800569 |pid:none) Larimichthys crocea Cyp2x (Cyp2x) ... 95 5e-18 AM439953_1( AM439953 |pid:none) Vit...none) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA,... 97 1e-18 AL161541_12( AL161541 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chro...73090_1( EU673090 |pid:none) Micropogonias undulatus 21-hydroxy... 94 8e-18 AM437324_1( AM437324 |pid:none) ...19233 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, ... 94 1e-17 ( O04773 ) RecName: Full=Flavonoid 3',5'-hydro...m3b: 0.00 m_ : 0.00 48.0 %: nuclear 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretor

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01573-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m clone... 54 2e-19 FJ800569_1( FJ800569 |pid:none) Larimichthys crocea Cyp2x (Cyp2x) .... 56 3e-19 AB008425_1( AB008425 |pid:none) Rattus norvegicus mRNA for CYP2D4,... 66 3e-19 DQ786405_1( DQ786405 |pid:none) Micro...habditis elegans cosmid F41B... 65 1e-14 AB220967_1( AB220967 |pid:none) Corvus macror..._1( EU673090 |pid:none) Micropogonias undulatus 21-hydroxy... 70 2e-19 BX322665_12( BX322665 |pid:none) Zebrafish DNA sequence fro... 59 3e-15 BC089651_1( BC089651 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis cytochrome P450... 59 3e-15 DQ786404_1( DQ786404 |pid:none) Micro

  15. Species tree discordance traces to phylogeographic clade boundaries in North American fence lizards (Sceloporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D

    2009-12-01

    I investigated the impacts of phylogeographic sampling decisions on species tree estimation in the Sceloporus undulatus species group, a recent radiation of small, insectivorous lizards connected by parapatric and peripatric distribution across North America, using a variety of species tree inference methods (Bayesian estimation of species trees, Bayesian untangling of concordance knots, and minimize deep coalescences). Phylogenetic analyses of 16 specimens representing 4 putative species within S. "undulatus" using complete (8 loci, >5.5 kb) and incomplete (29 loci, >23.6 kb) nuclear data sets result in species trees that share features with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genealogy at the phylogeographic level but provide new insights into the evolutionary history of the species group. The concatenated nuclear data and mtDNA data both recover 4 major clades connecting populations across North America; however, instances of discordance are localized at the contact zones between adjacent phylogeographic groups. A random sub-sampling experiment designed to vary the phylogeographic samples included across hundreds of replicate species tree inferences suggests that inaccurate species assignments can result in inferred phylogenetic relationships that are dependent upon which particular populations are used as exemplars to represent species and can lead to increased estimates of effective population size. For the phylogeographic data presented here, reassigning specimens with introgressed mtDNA genomes to their prospective species, or excluding them from the analysis altogether, produces species tree topologies that are distinctly different from analyses that utilize mtDNA-based species assignments. Evolutionary biologists working at the interface of phylogeography and phylogenetics are likely to encounter multiple processes influencing gene trees congruence, which increases the relevance of estimating species trees with multilocus nuclear data and models that accommodate

  16. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  17. Prevalence of Endoparasites in Captive Psittacine Birds Belonging to Pet Shops and Private Residences In and Around Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prathipa1*, Jayathangaraj MG2, Gomathinayagam S3 and Thangavelu A4

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to identify the common endoparasites that affect the captive Psittacine birds reared as pets in and around Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India. A total of 250 samples from dropping of captive Psittacine birds were collected from different companion birds like Budgerigars (150 samples, African Love Birds (50 samples and Cockatiels (50 samples that belonged to various pet shops and private residences. The samples were stored in small containers filled with 10% formalin. The samples were examined for the evidence of endoparasitism by both centrifugal sedimentation and floatation techniques as suggested by Soulsby (1982. Our examination revealed the presence of endoparasites such as Ascaridia sp. (11.20%, Capillaria sp. (20.0%, Strongyloides sp. (2.0%, Strongyle (1.60%, oocyst of Eimeria sp (10.40% and mixed infections (11.60%. Based on our study, we identify the major causes for endoparasitism and we suggest important managemental measures to prevent endoparasites and promote the health of birds that are reared as pets.

  18. Parrot Interpreter: Representation, Extinction and the Electronic Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans, it seems, can’t get enough of parrots. Ethnography, folklore, psychology, and, of course, imaginative literature all offer copious evidence of our fantasy of living with, communicating with and even being parrots. The natural history of parrots and the cultural history of parrots present something of a conundrum: on the one hand, a massive destructiveness (illegal bird and feather trade, environment destruction, scientific collections; on the other, an often erotically inflected sympathetic identification leading to the production of new forms. It’s strange to realise that Europe is infested with a shadow population of captive and inbred budgerigars, whose numbers far exceed those remaining in the wild and who can never return to their origins. If, as our privileged other, our uncanny mimic and double, the parrot still fails to survive, what does this tell us about our economy of desire? It seems that to know is to consume and destroy; and that the apparent contrast between the operations of the rainforest loggers and bird-trappers and the sentimental representations and transformations parrot suffers in human society is overdrawn. How is this contradiction to be explained?

  19. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Hata, Yuka; Yamasaki, Marika; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Miyamoto, Takenori; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2016-01-01

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the pairing period. In males, but not females, mate calls evoked significantly fewer vocal responses than unfamiliar calls at one month after separation. Furthermore, in females, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls compared to silence in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), a higher-order auditory region, in both brain hemispheres. In males, we found right-sided dominance of molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls in the CMM. This is the first evidence suggesting sex differences in functional asymmetry of brain regions related to recognition of learned vocalisation in birds. Thus, sex differences related to recognition of learned vocalisations may be found at the behavioural and neural levels in avian vocal learners as it is in humans. PMID:26725947

  20. Observations on the significance of diagnostic findings in egg-binding of Psittaciformes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical examination of 2192 psittacine birds of both sexes revealed a prevalence of 2.74 per cent (60 birds) of egg-binding. Domesticated species easily bred in captivity were the most commonly affected; the prevalence in cockatiels (15.75 per cent), and in budgerigars (5.73 per cent). An accurate diagnosis was possible in all cases by means of an evaluation of the case history, a visual examination, palpation and radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations. The case history alone was typical in 60 per cent of the cases, and reliable diagnosis was reached with the help of a visual examination in 70 per cent of the cases. Radiographic examination provided a definitive diagnosis in 30 per cent of the cases, especially in those with shelled eggs. Medullary bone proved to be a radiographic indication of laminated and thin-shelled eggs. However, laminated and thin-shelled eggs could only be differentiated definitively from abdominal masses, salpingitis and cystic degeneration by means of ultrasonography

  1. Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold-Torres, Cassandra; Owens, Elaine; Chowdhary, Renuka; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Tizard, Ian; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes. PMID:26894300

  2. Comparative cytogenetics of six Indo-Pacific moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) by chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, E; Deidda, F; Cannas, R; Lobina, C; Cuccu, D; Deiana, A M; Salvadori, S

    2015-09-01

    A comparative cytogenetic analysis, using both conventional staining techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization, of six Indo-Pacific moray eels from three different genera (Gymnothorax fimbriatus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax undulatus, Echidna nebulosa and Gymnomuraena zebra), was carried out to investigate the chromosomal differentiation in the family Muraenidae. Four species displayed a diploid chromosome number 2n = 42, which is common among the Muraenidae. Two other species, G. javanicus and G. flavimarginatus, were characterized by different chromosome numbers (2n = 40 and 2n = 36). For most species, a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin was detected in the chromosomes, with species-specific C-banding patterns that enabled pairing of the homologous chromosomes. In all species, the major ribosomal genes were localized in the guanine-cytosine-rich region of one chromosome pair, but in different chromosomal locations. The (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences were mapped onto chromosomal ends in all muraenid species studied. The comparison of the results derived from this study with those available in the literature confirms a substantial conservation of the diploid chromosome number in the Muraenidae and supports the hypothesis that rearrangements have occurred that have diversified their karyotypes. Furthermore, the finding of two species with different diploid chromosome numbers suggests that additional chromosomal rearrangements, such as Robertsonian fusions, have occurred in the karyotype evolution of the Muraenidae. PMID:26242690

  3. Structure and mechanical behavior of bird beaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasuaki

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were examined. The structure of Toco toucan and Wreathed hornbill beak was found to be a sandwich composite with an exterior of keratin and a fibrous bony network of closed cells made of trabeculae. A distinctive feature of the hornbill beak is its casque formed from cornified keratin layers. The casque is believed to have an acoustic function due to the complex internal structure. The toucan and hornbill beaks have a hollow region that extends from proximal to mid-section. The rhamphotheca is comprised of super-posed polygonal scales (45 mum diameter and 1 mum thickness) fixed by some organic adhesive. The branched intermediate filaments embedded in keratin matrix were discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diameter of intermediate laments was ~10 nm. The orientation of intermediate filaments was examined with TEM tomography and the branched filaments were homogeneously distributed. The closed-cell foam is comprised of the fibrous structure of bony struts with an edge connectivity of three or four and the cells are sealed off by the thin membranes. The volumetric structure of bird beak foam was reproduced by computed tomography for finite element modeling.

  4. Seasonal activity and host associations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    1999-11-01

    Based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, extended from October through May in southeastern Missouri. Adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in November followed by a lower peak in February. The activity of immature I. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the Northeast where Lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (July) peaking after that of nymphs (May and June). Vertebrates varied in their importance as hosts of I. scapularis. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginanus (Zimmerman), and coyotes, Canis latrans Say, were the primary hosts of adult I. scapularis. Broad-headed skinks, Eumeces laticeps (Schneider), and eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille), were the primary hosts of nymphal I. scapularis. The broad-headed skink, 5-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus (L.), and Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham), were the primary hosts of larval I. scapularis. Homeotherms were important hosts of immature I. scapularis, accounting for 30% of nymphs and 39% of larvae collected. The eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), may play an important role in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in Missouri. Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner were made from ticks recovered from rabbits, making the cottontail rabbit a key species for further study of the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Missouri. PMID:10593072

  5. Pelagic to demersal transition in a coral-reef fish, the orbicular batfish Platax orbicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, J M; Hay, A C; Sasal, P; Hicks, A S; Galzin, R

    2013-09-01

    Behavioural and ecological observations were made on young, reared Platax orbicularis in Opunohu Bay, Moorea, French Polynesia, during their transition from the pelagic, dispersive stage to the reef-orientated demersal stage. Seventy-two young P. orbicularis (17-75 mm standard length, LS ) were released in the pelagic zone and 20 (40-70 mm LS ) adjacent to the reefs. Swimming speed was slow (mean 5·2 cm s(-1) ) and independent of size. An ontogenetic descent was observed: the smallest P. orbicularis swam at the surface, medium-sized P. orbicularis swam in midwater (mean 5-13 m) and the largest P. orbicularis swam to the bottom, where many lay on their sides. Platax orbicularis swam southerly on average, away from the ocean and into the bay. Smaller P. orbicularis were more likely to swim directionally than larger individuals. Young P. orbicularis released near reef edges swam at similar, but more variable speeds (mean 6·6 cm s(-1) ). About half of those released near reefs swam away, but fewer swam away from an inshore fringing reef than from a patch reef near the bay mouth. Many P. orbicularis swam up the slope onto the reef top, but the little settlement observed was near the reef base. Average, near-reef swimming direction was also southerly. Some reef residents, in particular the triggerfish Balistapus undulatus, harassed young P. orbicularis. PMID:23991868

  6. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for the reptiles sampled and we detected a distinct habitat gradient ranging from sites with greater litter depth and percent canopy cover to more open sites with greater woody, herbaceous, and coarse woody debris (CWD coverage, and CWD volume. Little brown skinks Scincella lateralis and eastern worm snakes Carphophis a. amoenus were associated with sites with greater litter depth and canopy cover, whereas eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus, copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix, and gray ratsnakes Pantherophis spiloides were associated with sites possessing greater CWD coverage and volume. We found that disturbances due to the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis were likely important for influencing reptile distributions through the creation of canopy gaps and fallen coarse woody debris. Compared to other studies, our modified drift-fence trap technique was successful for sampling larger snake species (66 snakes in 564 trap nights. We have also provided detailed schematics for constructing drift fence array and box traps used in this study [Current Zoology 56 (4: 411–420, 2010].

  7. Individual variability in life-history traits drives population size stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ned A. DOCHTERMANN; C. M. GIENGER

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how population sizes vary over time is a key aspect of ecological research.Unfortunately,our understanding of population dynamics has historically been based on an assumption that individuals are identical with homogenous life-history properties.This assumption is certainly false for most natural systems,raising the question of what role individual variation plays in the dynamics of populations.While there has been an increase of interest regarding the effects of within populatien variation on the dynamics of single populations,there has been little study of the effects of differences in within population variation on patterns observed across populations.We found that life-history differences (clutch size) among individuals explained the majority of the variation observed in the degree to which population sizes of eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus fluctuated.This finding suggests that differences across populations cannot be understood without an examination of differences at the level of a system rather than at the level of the individual [Current Zoology 58 (2):358-362,2012].

  8. Individual variability in life-history traits drives population size stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned A. DOCHTERMANN, C. M. GIENGER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how population sizes vary over time is a key aspect of ecological research. Unfortunately, our understanding of population dynamics has historically been based on an assumption that individuals are identical with homogenous life-history properties. This assumption is certainly false for most natural systems, raising the question of what role individual variation plays in the dynamics of populations. While there has been an increase of interest regarding the effects of within population variation on the dynamics of single populations, there has been little study of the effects of differences in within population variation on patterns observed across populations. We found that life-history differences (clutch size among individuals explained the majority of the variation observed in the degree to which population sizes of eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus fluctuated. This finding suggests that differences across populations cannot be understood without an examination of differences at the level of a system rather than at the level of the individual [Current Zoology 58 (2: 358-362, 2012].

  9. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features. PMID:24141055

  10. Towards an ecosystem approach to small island fisheries: A preliminary study of a balanced fishery in Kotania Bay (Seram Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Hutubessy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF is a holistic one as EAF considers all species as important elements within the eco-system. An EAF requires that community and ecosystem structure should be maintained by harvesting fish communities in proportion to their natural productivity, thereby sustaining the balance of species and sizes in a community. This article draws from research on the reef fish community and catch in Kotania Bay on Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, an area of approximately 6000 ha. Based on the trophic guild (ie the aggregation of species utilizing similar food resources on the reef, the biomass of predator fish currently being captured now represents 40.4% of the total catch biomass. Members of the grouper family, the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and trevally (Caranx melampygus in particular, have become targeted for sale in fish markets. If these predators are selectively targeted and exploited, the overall reef fishery and the human populations that depend on it may become imperilled, given these species’ significant roles in controlling those lower in the food chain. This study thereby emphasizes the need for balanced fisheries informed by the EAF model in small island fisheries management in order to sustain food security in such regions.

  11. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots. PMID:25209153

  12. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita N Lavides

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay. We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, African pompano (Alectis ciliaris, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large

  13. Sensory development and its relation to habitat change in three species of sciaenids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, K R; Fuiman, L A

    1998-01-01

    Visual and mechanosensory development of three sciaenid species was investigated to examine possible correlations between sensory morphology and patterns of habitat use. Although the three species have different migration patterns as early larvae, few differences in sensory morphology occurred between species until late in the larval period. Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus, were distinguished by enhancements of visual morphology (large eyes, abundant photoreceptors, and best summation of the three species). Croaker arrive inshore later in the larval period and, after settlement, appear to use deeper water habitats than do the other two species. Spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, had the fewest enhancements of visual morphology but had more free neuromasts than the other two species late in the larval period. After settlement, seatrout are primarily associated with seagrass habitats. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, did not have pronounced specialization of one sensory system, as did the other two species. For part of the larval period, neuromast numbers were higher in red drum than in the other two species. Later, enhancements of visual morphology did occur, but only eye and lens size were the same as those of Atlantic croaker. Red drum larvae appear to use a wider variety of habitats than do the other two species. In none of the species examined did sensory changes correlate with offshore to inshore movements, and only initial rod formation occurred prior to settlement. Distinct sensory changes did not occur concurrent with habitat changes, probably due to constructional and phylogenetic constraints. Rather, sensory differences are related to the environmental conditions in the predominant inshore habitat occupied by each species after settlement, when morphological limitations are less severe. PMID:9807012

  14. Mesophotic depths as refuge areas for fishery-targeted species on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfield, Steven J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Halford, Andrew R.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are subjected to unprecedented levels of disturbance with population growth and climate change combining to reduce standing coral cover and stocks of reef fishes. Most of the damage is concentrated in shallow waters (humans can comfortably operate and where physical disturbances are most disruptive to marine organisms. Yet coral reefs can extend to depths exceeding 100 m, potentially offering refuge from the threats facing shallower reefs. We deployed baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs) at depths of 10-90 m around the southern Mariana Islands to investigate whether fish species targeted by fishing in the shallows may be accruing benefits from being at depth. We show that biomass, abundance and species richness of fishery-targeted species increased from shallow reef areas to a depth of 60 m, whereas at greater depths, a lack of live coral habitat corresponded to lower numbers of fish. The majority of targeted species were found to have distributions that ranged from shallow depths (10 m) to depths of at least 70 m, emphasising that habitat, not depth, is the limiting factor in their vertical distribution. While the gradient of abundance and biomass versus depth was steepest for predatory species, the first species usually targeted by fishing, we also found that fishery-targeted herbivores prevailed in similar biomass and species richness to 60 m. Compared to shallow marine protected areas, there was clearly greater biomass of fishery-targeted species accrued in mesophotic depths. Particularly some species typically harvested by depth-limited fishing methods (e.g., spearfishing), such as the endangered humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus, were found in greater abundance on deeper reefs. We conclude that mesophotic depths provide essential fish habitat and refuge for fishery-targeted species, representing crucial zones for fishery management and research into the resilience of disturbed coral reef ecosystems.

  15. Dynamics of Necrophagous Insect and Tissue Bacteria for Postmortem Interval Estimation During the Warm Season in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Lavinia; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Purcarea, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is affected by several factors including the cause of death, the place where the body lay after death, and the weather conditions during decomposition. Given the climatic differences among biogeographic locations, the understanding of necrophagous insect species biology and ecology is required when estimating PMI. The current experimental model was developed in Romania during the warm season in an outdoor location. The aim of the study was to identify the necrophagous insect species diversity and dynamics, and to detect the bacterial species present during decomposition in order to determine if their presence or incidence timing could be useful to estimate PMI. The decomposition process of domestic swine carcasses was monitored throughout a 14-wk period (10 July-10 October 2013), along with a daily record of meteorological parameters. The chronological succession of necrophagous entomofauna comprised nine Diptera species, with the dominant presence of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) (Calliphoridae), while only two Coleoptera species were identified, Dermestes undulatus (L. 1758) and Creophilus maxillosus Brahm 1970. The bacterial diversity and dynamics from the mouth and rectum tissues, and third-instar dipteran larvae were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments. Throughout the decomposition process, two main bacterial chronological groups were differentiated, represented by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Twenty-six taxa from the rectal cavity and 22 from the mouth cavity were identified, with the dominant phylum in both these cavities corresponding to Firmicutes. The present data strengthen the postmortem entomological and microbial information for the warm season in this temperate-continental area, as well as the role of microbes in carcass decomposition. PMID:26487246

  16. Ecological and physiological aspects of reproductive strategies in two lizards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derickson, W.K.

    Two lizard species, the northern prairie lizard (Sceloporus undulatus garmani) from Reno County, Kansas, and the northern sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus) from Washington County, Utah, were used to test four hypotheses and one assumption related to the theory of r- and K-selection. The northern prairie lizard is short-lived, matures early, and has a high reproductive effort (r-strategist) while the northern sagebrush lizard is long-lived, has delayed maturity, and a low reproductive effort (K-strategist). One of the assumptions of the r- and K-selection theory is that competition for food is more intense for K-strategists than for r-strategists. Given this assumption, greater food availability for the prairie lizard was hypothesized to result in (1) a higher level of body lipids, (2) a higher rate of lipid utilization, (3) a lower percentage of ingested energy available for metabolism, and (4) an expenditure of less energy per offspring than in the sagebrush lizard. Total lipid levels in the two species collected before and after hibernation indicated that prairie lizards had significantly higher lipid levels than sagebrush lizards during both collection periods. Sagebrush lizards apparently are better adapted physiologically to lower food levels since they had lower rates of lipid utilization during starvation studies and they extracted more energy usable for metabolism from ingested food than prairie lizards. Prairie lizards produced more offspring per clutch and therefore expended less energy per offspring. Prairie lizards produced as many as three clutches per season as compared to two clutches per season for sagebrush lizards. Higher precipitation levels (indicating greater insect biomass) occurred at the prairie lizard collection site and this species had a smaller mouthgape index, indicating greater specialization in utilization of prey sites. (auth)

  17. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers’ Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Aileen C.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers’ recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers’ reports of typical good days’ catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers’ knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet

  18. Coexistence of low coral cover and high fish biomass at Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available We report a reef ecosystem where corals may have lost their role as major reef engineering species but fish biomass and assemblage structure is comparable to unfished reefs elsewhere around the world. This scenario is based on an extensive assessment of the coral reefs of Farquhar Atoll, the most southern of the Seychelles Islands. Coral cover and overall benthic community condition at Farquhar was poor, likely due to a combination of limited habitat, localized upwelling, past coral bleaching, and cyclones. Farquhar Atoll harbors a relatively intact reef fish assemblage with very large biomass (3.2 t ha(-1 reflecting natural ecological processes that are not influenced by fishing or other local anthropogenic factors. The most striking feature of the reef fish assemblage is the dominance by large groupers, snappers, and jacks with large (>1 m potato cod (Epinephelus tukula and marbled grouper (E. polyphekadion, commonly observed at many locations. Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum are listed as endangered and vulnerable, respectively, but were frequently encountered at Farquhar. The high abundance and large sizes of parrotfishes at Farquhar also appears to regulate macroalgal abundance and enhance the dominance of crustose corallines, which are a necessary condition for maintenance of healthy reef communities. Overall fish biomass and biomass of large predators at Farquhar are substantially higher than other areas within the Seychelles, and are some of the highest recorded in the Indian Ocean. Remote islands like Farquhar Atoll with low human populations and limited fishing pressure offer ideal opportunities for understanding whether reefs can be resilient from global threats if local threats are minimized.

  19. Depth refuge and the impacts of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Lindfield

    Full Text Available In recent decades, spearfishing with SCUBA has emerged as an efficient method for targeting reef fish in deeper waters. However, deeper waters are increasingly recognised as a potential source of refuge that may help sustain fishery resources. We used a combination of historical catch data over a 20-year time period and fishery-independent surveys to investigate the effects of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fish populations in the southern Mariana Islands. Two jurisdictions were studied; Guam, where SCUBA spearfishing is practiced, and the nearby Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, where SCUBA spearfishing has been banned since 2003. Fishery-independent data were collected using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs stratified by depth, marine protected area status and jurisdiction. Herbivores (primary consumers dominated spearfishing catches, with parrotfish (scarines and surgeonfish/unicornfish (acanthurids the main groups harvested. However, the large, endangered humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus was the main species by weight landed by SCUBA spearfishers. SCUBA spearfishing was associated with declining size of scarines over time and catches shifting from a dominance of large parrotfishes to a mixed assemblage with increasing proportions of acanthurids. Comparisons between Guam and the nearby CNMI revealed differences in the assemblage of fished species and also greater size of scarines and acanthurids in deep water where SCUBA fishing is banned. These results suggest that SCUBA spearfishing impacts reef fish populations and that the restriction of this fishing method will ensure refuge for fish populations in deeper waters. We recommend a ban on SCUBA spearfishing to preserve or aid the recovery of large, functionally important coral reef species and to improve the sustainability of coral reef fisheries.

  20. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  1. Optimization of PCR conditions to amplify microsatellite loci in the bunchgrass lizard (Sceloporus slevini genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Orgeix Christian A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, also called Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs, repetitions of nucleotide motifs of 1-5 bases, are currently the markers of choice due to their abundant distribution in the genomes, and suitability for high-throughput analysis. A total of five different primer pairs were optimized for polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify microsatellite loci in total genomic DNA of bunchgrass lizards (Sceloporus slevini collected from three sites in southeastern Arizona; the Sonoita Plain, Chiricahua Mountains and Huachuca Mountains. Findings The primers used for current investigation were originally designed for the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus. Five primer pairs were selected based on annealing temperatures for optimizing the PCR conditions to amplify with bunchgrass lizards. Different concentrations of DNA and annealing temperature were optimized. While keeping other reagents constant, a DNA concentration, 37.5 ng in the final reaction volume and PCR conditions of an initial denaturation of 94°C for five minutes, an annealing temperature of 55°C and final extension of 72°C for four minutes gave the best amplification for all the primer pairs. Conclusions Modifying the standard protocol for annealing temperatures and final extension time increases the success of cross amplification of specific microsatellite loci in the bunchgrass lizard. A loading volume of 5 ul DNA at a concentration of 10 ng/ul and a 2% agarose for gel electrophoresis were observed the best for cross amplification of selected five primer pairs on bunch grass lizard. Trial Registration The research was conducted with Arizona Game and Fish Department scientific collecting permits SP565256, SP657407 & SP749119 to Dr. Christian A d'Orgeix.

  2. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR (DRD4 GENE SEQUENCE WITHIN AND AMONG NON MAMMALIAN SPECIES

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    Shikha Khandelwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of polymorphic tandem repeats in human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 have been identified in the exons, including a 12-bp repeat in the first exon and a 48-bp repeat in exon III located in the third cytoplasmic loop. However, to determine whether the tandem repeats is specific to humans or not, we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 Exon III tandem repeats in public available nucleotide sequences from 13 different non mammalian species. We found that the tandem repeat was composed of 21-bp modules in sequences from the Mycobacterium smegmatis str. MC2 155, Salinibacter ruber DSM 13855, Danio rerio, Parus major, Corvus macrorhynchos, and Coturnix japonica. A tandem repeat consisting of 30-bp modules was identified in sequence from Melopsittacus undulates while in the Phalacrocorax capillatus and Numida meleagris we identified tandem repeats composed of 3-bp modules. Tandem repeats could not be identified in sequences from Carassius auratus, Phasianus colchicus and Gallus gallus. To understand the evolutionary history of the Exon I region of DRD4—which in humans contains a polymorphic 12bp tandem duplication, a polymorphic 13bp deletion, and other rare variants—we examined the homologous exon in these different species. There was a low degree of similarity between the sequences of bacterial species and those from members of the piscean and avian and with human sequence. We identified transmembrane domain of DRD4 gene and signature of G-protein coupled receptors in the amino acid sequences. The number of transmembrane segments varied pronouncedly between species from 0 to 7 and signature of G-protein coupled receptors was found only in piscean species and was also identified in one avian species (parus major. These findings suggest that an association between Drd4 gene polymorphisms and animal personality variation predates the divergence of the non mammalian and mammalian lineages. Furthermore, the analysis of

  3. Evolution of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor and its ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, which was first identified in the Japanese quail hypothalamus. GnIH peptides share a C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif in most vertebrates. The receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) is the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147) that inhibits cAMP production. GPR147 is also named neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor 1 (NPFFR1), because it also binds NPFF that has a C-terminal PQRFamide motif. To understand the evolutionary history of the GnIH system in the animal kingdom, we searched for receptors structurally similar to GnIHR in the genome of six mammals (human, mouse, rat, cattle, cat, and rabbit), five birds (pigeon, chicken, turkey, budgerigar, and zebra finch), one reptile (green anole), one amphibian (Western clawed flog), six fishes (zebrafish, Nile tilapia, Fugu, coelacanth, spotted gar, and lamprey), one hemichordate (acorn worm), one echinoderm (purple sea urchin), one mollusk (California sea hare), seven insects (pea aphid, African malaria mosquito, honey bee, buff-tailed bumblebee, fruit fly, jewel wasp, and red flour beetle), one cnidarian (hydra), and constructed phylogenetic trees by neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. A multiple sequence alignment of the receptors showed highly conserved seven-transmembrane domains as well as disulfide bridge sites between the first and second extracellular loops, including the receptor of hydra. Both NJ and ML analyses grouped the receptors of vertebrates into NPFFR1 and NPFFR2 (GPR74), and the receptors of insects into the receptor for SIFamide peptides that share a C-terminal YRKPPFNGSIFamide motif. Although human, quail and zebrafish GnIHR (NPFFR1) were most structurally similar to SIFamide receptor of fruit fly in the Famide peptide (FMRFamide, neuropeptide F, short neuropeptide F, drosulfakinin, myosuppressin, SIFamide) receptor families, the amino acid sequences and the peptide coding

  4. Can birds perceive rhythmic patterns? A review and experiments on a songbird and a parrot species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eSpierings

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1 recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2 the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However

  5. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  6. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  7. The development of a rapid SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR for detection of Duck circovirus

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    Peng Chunxiang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction assay based on SYBR Green I for detection of a broad range of duck circovirus (DuCV. Align with all DuCV complete genome sequences and other Genus Circovirus download from the GenBank (such as goose circovirus, pigeon circovirus, the primers targets to the replicate gene of DuCV were designed. The detection assay was linear in the range of 1.31 × 102-1.31 × 107 copies/μL. The reaction efficiency of the assay using the slope (the slope was -3.349 and the Y-intercept was 37.01 from the linear equation was estimated to be 0.99 and the correlation coefficient (R2 was 0.993. A series of experiments were carried out to assess the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the assay, following by the low intra-assay and inter-assay CVs for CT values obtained with the standard plasmids. The intra-assay CVs were equal or less than 1.89% and the inter-assay CVs were equal or less than 1.26%. There was no cross-reaction occurred with nucleic acids extracted from RA (Riemerella anatipestifer, E. coli (Escherichia coli, Duck Cholera (Pasteurella multocida, Avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, Duck reovirus, Duck hepatitis A virus as control templates. The nucleic acids extracted from samples of healthy ducks were used as negative controls. The assay was specific and reproducible. The established real time PCR was used to detect 45 DuCV-negative samples, which were tested using conventional PCR under the developed optimal conditions, each 15 for embryonated eggs, non-embryonated budgerigar eggs, newly hatched duck, the mixture of the lung, liver, spleen which were analysis for the presence of DuCV DNA, to conform that whether the DuCV can be transmitted vertically. Meanwhile, no positive result was shown by the real-time PCR method. The SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR can therefore be practically used as an alternative diagnostic tool and

  8. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role

  9. 动物园鹦鹉科鸟类H5 N1禽流感疫苗免疫后效果监测%Immune Effect Monitoring of H5N1 Type Avian Influenza for Some Species of Captive Psittacid Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 吴秀山; 张成林; 张金国

    2012-01-01

    Over the years,captive birds of Beijing Zoo were given the AIV vaccine immunization in strict accordance with government mandate.But the immune effects of different bird species after vaccination have not been studied.The purpose of this study was to explore the immune effects of commercial avian influenza vaccine in birds and the immune response of different species to the vaccines.Species of captive psittacid birds were selected for study.Birds were immunized with avian influenza H5N1 subtype vaccine.We then used the test of hemagglutinin(HA)and hemagglutination inhibition(HI)to monitor antibody levels and to assess immune effects.Birds immunized only one time generally showed low immune response,i.e.the immune effect was not ideal.Based on this result,we chose Budgerigar(Melopsittacus undulatus)for further study in which we adjusted the immunization procedure to gain better immune effects.This provided a scientific basis for developing immunization procedures for other species of wild birds.%多年来动物园虽然严格按照国家强制要求对园内饲养的野生鸟类进行禽流感疫苗的免疫接种工作,但是对于接种后各种鸟类免疫效果的问题仍未有研究。本次研究主要目的为探究圈养鸟类免疫商品化禽流感疫苗后的免疫效果如何,以及各个物种对疫苗的免疫应答水平是否相同。实验中选取动物园几种圈养小型鹦鹉科鸟类为实验对象,对其进行禽流感H5N1亚型疫苗免疫接种后,利用血凝(HA)及血凝抑制(HI)实验监测禽流感抗体水平变化规律,评估免疫效果。从初步的实验结果发现,鹦鹉科鸟类仅接种一次商品化禽流感疫苗,其免疫应答水平普遍偏低,免疫效果不理想。根据实验结果,尝试性地以虎皮鹦鹉为实验对象,尝试调整免疫程序后再次进行禽流感疫苗的免疫接种,通过多次尝试找出较好的免疫程序,使得虎皮鹦鹉的禽流感疫苗免疫效果得到

  10. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

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    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of