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Sample records for budgerigars melopsittacus undulatus

  1. Edge detection in landing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

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    Partha Bhagavatula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

  2. Sex Differences in Rhythmic Preferences in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): A Comparative Study with Humans

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    Hoeschele, Marisa; Bowling, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of parrot species have recently gained attention as members of a small group of non-human animals that are capable of coordinating their movements in time with a rhythmic pulse. This capacity is highly developed in humans, who display unparalleled sensitivity to musical beats and appear to prefer rhythmically organized sounds in their music. Do parrots also exhibit a preference for rhythmic over arrhythmic sounds? Here, we presented humans and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) – a small parrot species that have been shown to be able to align movements with a beat – with rhythmic and arrhythmic sound patterns in an acoustic place preference paradigm. Both species were allowed to explore an environment for 5 min. We quantified how much time they spent in proximity to rhythmic vs. arrhythmic stimuli. The results show that humans spent more time with rhythmic stimuli, and also preferred rhythmic stimuli when directly asked in a post-test survey. Budgerigars did not show any such overall preferences. However, further examination of the budgerigar results showed an effect of sex, such that male budgerigars spent more time with arrthymic stimuli, and female budgerigars spent more time with rhythmic stimuli. Our results support the idea that rhythmic information is interesting to budgerigars. We suggest that future investigations into the temporal characteristics of naturalistic social behaviors in budgerigars, such as courtship vocalizations and head-bobbing displays, may help explain the sex difference we observed. PMID:27757099

  3. Luminance-dependence of spatial vision in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii).

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    Lind, Olle; Sunesson, Tony; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) are closely related birds with different activity patterns. Budgerigars are strictly diurnal while Bourke's parrots are active in dim twilight. Earlier studies show that the intensity threshold of colour vision is similar in both species while Bourke's parrots have larger eyes with a higher density of rods than budgerigars. In this study, we investigate whether this could be an adaptation for better spatial vision in dim light. We used two alternative forced-choice experiments to determine the spatial acuity of both species at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 73 cd/m(2). We also determined the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for bright light in Bourke's parrots and compare it to existing data for budgerigars. The spatial acuity of Bourke's parrots was found to be similar to that of budgerigars at all light levels. Also the CSF of Bourke's parrots is similar to that of budgerigars with a sensitivity peak located between 2.1 and 2.6 cycles/degree. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Bourke's parrots have superior spatial acuity in dim light compared to budgerigars and the adaptive value of the relatively rod-rich and large eyes of Bourke's parrots remains unclear.

  4. ANESTHETICS EFFECTS OF INTRANASAL OR INTRAMUSCULAR ASSOCIATION OF MIDAZOLAM AND RACEMIC OR S+ KETAMINE IN BUDGERIGARS (Melopsittacus undulatus)

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    Gustavo Aléssio Trevisan; Everton Leonardi da Silva; Anderson Luiz de Carvalho; Rafael Messias Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal anesthesia in birds is considered a safe, simple and efficient technique. The aim of this study was compare the anesthetic effects of midazolam (5 mg.kg-1) with racemic (R) or S+ (S) ketamine (15 mg.kg-1), administered intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Eight budgerigars were used in a crossover design with four treatments: INR, INS, IMR and IMS. Onset time, dorsal recumbency time duration, total anesthesia time, total recovery time,...

  5. Methionine enkephalin immunoreactivity in the brain of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): similarities and differences with respect to oscine songbirds.

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    Durand, S E; Liang, W; Brauth, S E

    1998-04-01

    The brain of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a small parrot that acquires new vocalizations throughout life, was examined for immunoreactivity to the opioid peptide methionine enkephalin (mENK). mENK is a highly prominent feature of the chemical architecture of the forebrain vocal system of oscine songbirds. Forebrain vocal control nuclei are believed to have evolved independently in parrots and songbirds (Streidter [1994] J. Comp. Neurol. 343:35-56); however, recent studies have found similarities in the neural organization of vocal control pathways in budgerigars and songbirds (Durand et al. [1997] J. Comp. Neurol. 377:179-206). Among the similarities are the existence of recursive pathways interconnecting vocal control neurons in the archistriatum, basal ganglia (i.e., lobus parolfactorius), and dorsal thalamus. In the present study, we found that all vocal control nuclei within the budgerigar forebrain exhibit prominent mENK-like immunoreactivity (ELI) in fibers and somata. We also found striking similarities between the morphology of ELI elements in budgerigar vocal control nuclei and that described previously in songbird vocal nuclei. Despite these similarities, the budgerigar dorsal striatopallidum (lobus parolfactorius, paleostriatum augmentatum, and paleostriatum primitivum) and somatomotor (anterior) archistriatum exhibit unique patterns of ELI. The dorsal striatopallidum contained far less ELI, whereas the archistriatum contained far more than would be expected on the basis of previous studies of opioid peptides in other avian species, including pigeons, chickens, and songbirds. These differences may reflect neural specializations unique to the budgerigar that contribute to the extraordinary flexibility of the vocal motor system of this species to acquire socially significant stimuli throughout life.

  6. Vocal area-related expression of the androgen receptor in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain.

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    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2008-05-01

    The androgen receptor is a steroid hormone receptor widely expressed in the vocal control nuclei in songbirds. Here, we analysed androgen receptor expression in the brains of juvenile and adult budgerigars. With a species-specific probe for budgerigar androgen receptor mRNA, we found that the androgen receptor was expressed in the vocal areas, such as the central nucleus of the lateral nidopallium, the anterior arcopallium, the oval nucleus of the mesopallium, the oval nucleus of the anterior nidopallium and the tracheosyringeal hypoglossal nucleus. With the present data, together with previous reports, it turned out that the androgen receptor expression in telencephalic vocal control areas is similar amongst three groups of vocal learners--songbirds, hummingbirds and parrots, suggesting the possibility that the androgen receptor might play a role in vocal development and that the molecular mechanism regulating the androgen receptor expression in the vocal areas might be important in the evolution of vocal learning.

  7. Observing real-time social interaction via telecommunication methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

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    Ikkatai, Yuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Humans communicate with one another not only face-to-face but also via modern telecommunication methods such as television and video conferencing. We readily detect the difference between people actively communicating with us and people merely acting via a broadcasting system. We developed an animal model of this novel communication method seen in humans to determine whether animals also make this distinction. We built a system for two animals to interact via audio-visual equipment in real-time, to compare behavioral differences between two conditions, an "interactive two-way condition" and a "non-interactive (one-way) condition." We measured birds' responses to stimuli which appeared in these two conditions. We used budgerigars, which are small, gregarious birds, and found that the frequency of vocal interaction with other individuals did not differ between the two conditions. However, body synchrony between the two birds was observed more often in the interactive condition, suggesting budgerigars recognized the difference between these interactive and non-interactive conditions on some level.

  8. Observing real-time social interaction via telecommunication methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

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    Ikkatai, Yuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Humans communicate with one another not only face-to-face but also via modern telecommunication methods such as television and video conferencing. We readily detect the difference between people actively communicating with us and people merely acting via a broadcasting system. We developed an animal model of this novel communication method seen in humans to determine whether animals also make this distinction. We built a system for two animals to interact via audio-visual equipment in real-time, to compare behavioral differences between two conditions, an "interactive two-way condition" and a "non-interactive (one-way) condition." We measured birds' responses to stimuli which appeared in these two conditions. We used budgerigars, which are small, gregarious birds, and found that the frequency of vocal interaction with other individuals did not differ between the two conditions. However, body synchrony between the two birds was observed more often in the interactive condition, suggesting budgerigars recognized the difference between these interactive and non-interactive conditions on some level. PMID:27040864

  9. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

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    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

  10. Contact call-driven zenk mRNA expression in the brain of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

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    Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Ye-Zhong; Liang, Wenru; Roberts, Todd F

    2003-09-10

    Contact call-driven zenk (zif268, egr1, NGF1A, Krox 24) mRNA expression was mapped with in situ hybridization histochemistry in a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (M. undulatus). Relative to controls, call stimulation induced high zenk mRNA expression in all auditory areas including those closely associated with the vocal system within the anterior forebrain (Brauth et al. (2001) J. Comp. Neurol. 432, 481; (2002) Learn. Memory 9, 76). Thus there is a high correspondence between the distributions of neurons exhibiting contact call-driven zenk protein and mRNA expression in budgerigars. Field L2a, an area reported previously to express only perinucleolar zenk protein localization (Brauth et al. (2002) Learn. Memory 9, 76) also showed zenk mRNA expression.

  11. EFEITOS ANESTÉSICOS DA ADMINISTRAÇÃO INTRANASAL OU INTRAMUSCULAR DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DE MIDAZOLAM E CETAMINA RACÊMICA OU S+ EM PERIQUITO AUSTRALIANO (Melopsittacus undulatus)

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    Gustavo Aléssio Trevisan; Everton Leonardi da Silva; Anderson Luiz de Carvalho; Rafael Messias Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal anesthesia in birds is considered a safe, simple and efficient technique. The aim of this study was compare the anesthetic effects of midazolam (5 mg.kg-1) with racemic (R) or S+ (S) ketamine (15 mg.kg-1), administered intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Eight budgerigars were used in a crossover design with four treatments: INR, INS, IMR and IMS. Onset time, dorsal recumbency time duration, total anesthesia time, total recovery time,...

  12. TOPOGRAPHY AND VISCERAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805 TOPOGRAFIA E MORFOLOGIA DAS VÍSCERAS DO PERIQUITO-AUSTRALIANO (Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805

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    Fabiana S. Matsumoto

    2009-12-01

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    The aim of this research was to study the topography and morphology of Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus viscera. Ten Australian parakeet were used (5 males and 5 females. The animals were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, through perfusion in the musculature and visceral cavity. Macroscopically, the Australian parakeet viscera did not show expressive differences when compared to other domestic birds’ species. Microscopically, the main difference was the presence of mechanoreceptors (Corpuscles of Pacini in the tongue, found for the first time in this psittaciform  species.

    KEY WORDS: Melopsittacus undulatus, morphology, topography, viscera.

    Em virtude da escassez de dados referentes à morfologia e topografia das aves em geral, o presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a topografia e morfologia das vísceras do periquito-australiano (Melopsittacus undulatus, para assim proporcionar um conhecimento mais amplo sobre características específicas dessa espécie. Para a descrição da morfologia e topografia das vísceras foram utilizados dez periquitos, sendo cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Os animais foram fixados com solução de formaldeído 10%, através de perfusão na musculatura e cavidade visceral. Macroscopicamente, as vísceras do periquito não apresentaram muitas diferenças comparadas a outras espécies de aves domésticas. Microscopicamente, a principal diferença estava na presença de mecanorreceptores (corpúsculos de Pacini na língua, encontrados pela primeira vez nesta espécie de psitaciforme. 

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Melopsittacus undulatus, morfologia, topografia, vísceras.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.

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    Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193 bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%. PMID:24660934

  14. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

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    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  15. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

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    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning.

  16. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

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    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  17. Phonological perception by birds: budgerigars can perceive lexical stress.

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    Hoeschele, Marisa; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-05-01

    Metrical phonology is the perceptual "strength" in language of some syllables relative to others. The ability to perceive lexical stress is important, as it can help a listener segment speech and distinguish the meaning of words and sentences. Despite this importance, there has been little comparative work on the perception of lexical stress across species. We used a go/no-go operant paradigm to train human participants and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to distinguish trochaic (stress-initial) from iambic (stress-final) two-syllable nonsense words. Once participants learned the task, we presented both novel nonsense words, and familiar nonsense words that had certain cues removed (e.g., pitch, duration, loudness, or vowel quality) to determine which cues were most important in stress perception. Members of both species learned the task and were then able to generalize to novel exemplars, showing categorical learning rather than rote memorization. Tests using reduced stimuli showed that humans could identify stress patterns with amplitude and pitch alone, but not with only duration or vowel quality. Budgerigars required more than one cue to be present and had trouble if vowel quality or amplitude were missing as cues. The results suggest that stress patterns in human speech can be decoded by other species. Further comparative stress-perception research with more species could help to determine what species characteristics predict this ability. In addition, tests with a variety of stimuli could help to determine how much this ability depends on general pattern learning processes versus vocalization-specific cues. PMID:26914456

  18. Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.

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    Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-04-15

    Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt.

  19. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

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    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on

  20. Parasite found in parakeets - Study on 167 birds

    OpenAIRE

    Vili-Robert Voichitoiu; Viorel Herman; Narcisa Mederle

    2014-01-01

    The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small, long-tailed, seed-eating parrot. Parakeets are the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, and are found wild throughout the drier parts of Australia where this species has survived harsh inland conditions for the last five million years. The researches were conducted in two counties, Timis and Mehedinti throughout nine months, including 167 birds which were parasitologicaly controlled. The results that were analyzed to Faculty ...

  1. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

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    Xiao-Xuan Zhang; Nian-Zhang Zhang; Guang-Hui Zhao; Quan Zhao; Xing-Quan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked...

  2. Megabacteriosis Occurrence in Budgerigars, Canaries and Lovebirds in Ribeirao Preto region - Sao Paulo State - Brazil Ocorrência de Megabacteriose em Periquitos Autralianos, Canários e Agapornis na Região de Ribeirão Preto- Estado de São Paulo - Brasil

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    K Werther

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of an megabacterium-like organism at small birds from the Northeast area of São Paulo State - Brazil. The results presented herein were obtained from 64 necropsy along four years (1994-1997. Sixty four birds (4 budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, 12 lovebirds Agapornis spp and 48 canaries Serinus canaria were studied. At 56% of the examined birds showed at the proventricular mucus smear a presence of rod-shaped (similar to a toothpick organisms, Gram positive and acidophilic in Giemsa staining, called megabacteria. Different kind of culture media was testes to replicated these organism in vitro. Also the dimension (large and width of the fresh microorganism from the proventricular mucus and from the first culture was compared. The macroscopic alterations observed at the necropsies was also listed.Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de um agente etiológico, denominado na Europa, Australia e EUA como "megabactéria", observado em estômago de pequenas aves (canários belgas, agapornis e periquitos australianos, provenientes da região de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo/SP. As necropsias de 64 aves silvestres (4 periquitos australianos, 12 agapornis e 48 canários, realizadas no perído de 1994 a 1997, foram analisadas, constatando-se em 56% dos casos a presença de estruturas filiformes, acidofílicas sob coloração Giemsa, gram positivas, existentes no muco do proventrículo, descritas na literatura como "megabactérias". Foram testados diversos tipos de meios de cultura para reprodução in vitro deste microrganismo. Foram ainda comparadas as dimensões (comprimento e largura dessa bactéria obtida apartir do esfregaço fresco de muco proventricular e da "megabactéria" proveniente de cultivo in vitro. Também foram listados os principais achados macroscópicos do animais portadores desta bactéria.

  3. Breeding of Melopsittacus undulatus in Captivity%虎皮鹦鹉人工繁殖的研究

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    钟福生; 曾元根; 莫小林; 马再玉

    2001-01-01

    1995年3月~1997年7月,在长沙动物园对虎皮鹦鹉的人工繁殖习性进行了观察.结果表明,虎皮鹦鹉的繁殖期为3月中旬~6月中旬;年产2窝,窝产卵数为4~7枚;雌鸟担任孵化,孵卵期为(19±2)d,孵化率为86.8%;育雏期(30±5)d,育成率为92.3%.

  4. Parazité papoušků.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancigerová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work deals about the most common parasitic disease of parrots in captivity or the wildlife. Individual parasites are taxonomically classified. By the each species, there is stated which kind of parrot is most often occurred by it, then a brief description of its body, the pathogenic effects and diagnosis. This is a summary of scientific knowledge information. The most common grown species of parrots are budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus, that have the single most parasite s...

  5. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Pet Parrots in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Tian, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupa...

  6. The Skull Development of Parrots with Special Reference to the Emergence of a Morphologically Unique Cranio-Facial Hinge

    OpenAIRE

    Tokita, Masayoshi

    2003-01-01

    The order Psittaciformes (parrots) has unique morphological features in the head that are evolutionarily novel. To better understand the unique evolution of the head in parrots, the developmental pattern of the skull of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) was initially described on the basis of transparent skeletal specimens. Although the fundamental pattern of the skull development of birds is conserved in parrots, some differences were observed between parrots and other groups of birds...

  7. CATARRHAL PROVENTRICULITIS ASSOCIATED WITH A FILAMENTOUS ORGANISM IN PET BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    TSAI, Shinn-Shyong; Park, Jae-Hak; Hirai, Katsuya; ITAKURA, Chitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Catarrhal proventriculitis due to infection by an unidentified organism was diagnosed in 79 of 534 pet birds examined histologically. It was more prevalent in domestic birds (70 cases) than in imported ones (9 cases). A high incidence of the disease was encountered in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and it was occasionally found in finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis), Amazona parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and cockatiels (Nymphicus holland...

  8. Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allow...

  9. 从虎皮鹦鹉粪便中分离产细菌素菌株及其细菌素特性分析%Characteristics of Bacteriocin and Bacteriocin-producing Bacteria Isolated from Melopsittacus undulates' Excrement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新练; 陈仪本

    2010-01-01

    从虎皮鹦鹉(Melopsittacus undulatus)的粪便中分离得到一株产广谱细菌素的菌株,其细菌素产物时革兰氏阳性和阴性细菌均有较强抑制作用.经形态学、生理生化反应和16S rDNA分子方法鉴定,该菌株初步鉴定为干酪乳杆菌.用硫酸铵分级沉淀得到的细菌素粗提物,作温度、pH值、蛋白酶的敏感性测定,结果显示该细菌素经100℃处理10 min抑菌活性不变,当pH4.0时,对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌率分别达到99.06%和86.14%,并且对多种蛋白酶表现出敏感性.与Nisin标准品的抑菌效价对比,得到粗提物的效价为204.87 IU/mL.

  10. Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

    2014-11-01

    Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allowing cones to discriminate UV-rich signals, such as bird plumage colours, against UV-poor natural backgrounds. PMID:25376799

  11. Developmental origins of species differences in telencephalon and tectum size: morphometric comparisons between a parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a quail (Colinus virgianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedter, Georg F; Charvet, Christine J

    2008-04-10

    Parrots, including parakeets, evolved significantly larger brains than other birds, relative to their body size, and they possess a proportionately larger telencephalon. For example, the telencephalon occupies approximately 68% of the brain in parakeets but only 52% in bobwhite quail. The present study was designed to determine when and how this difference in brain region proportions arises during development. To that end, we present volumetric data on the major brain regions in parakeets and bobwhite quail at several stages of embryogenesis, at hatching and, for the parakeets, 1 week after hatching. We also report on the proportional sizes of each region's proliferative and postproliferative zones. One major finding is that parakeets develop a proportionately larger telencephalon relatively late in development and that this late increase correlates with a delay in telencephalic neurogenesis. The most prominent aspect of this delayed telencephalic development is a tremendous expansion of the proliferative subventricular zone in the telencephalon of late embryonic and posthatching parakeets. The second major finding is that the tectum is much smaller in parakeets than in quail at all developmental stages examined, suggesting that the tectum's reduced size is due to an evolutionary change in how much tissue was allocated to become tectum at the time of brain regionalization. Collectively these findings indicate that evolutionary changes in brain region proportions are caused not by a single type of change but by several distinct developmental mechanisms, including changes in brain regionalization and neurogenesis timing.

  12. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 5 Strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/TI/75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Matsuno, Keita; Tuchiya, Kotaro; Lin, Zhifeng; Okamatsu, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 5 strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/TI/75, which was determined using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The determined sequence shares 97% homology and similar genetic features with the previously known genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus serotype 5 strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/Kunitachi/74. PMID:27660785

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 5 Strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/TI/75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Matsuno, Keita; Tuchiya, Kotaro; Lin, Zhifeng; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 5 strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/TI/75, which was determined using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The determined sequence shares 97% homology and similar genetic features with the previously known genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus serotype 5 strain APMV-5/budgerigar/Japan/Kunitachi/74. PMID:27660785

  15. Parasite found in parakeets - Study on 167 birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vili-Robert Voichitoiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus is a small, long-tailed, seed-eating parrot. Parakeets are the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, and are found wild throughout the drier parts of Australia where this species has survived harsh inland conditions for the last five million years. The researches were conducted in two counties, Timis and Mehedinti throughout nine months, including 167 birds which were parasitologicaly controlled. The results that were analyzed to Faculty of Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara revealed: 18,56 % (31 birds for Eimeria spp., next were the feathers lice, 16,16% (27 birds, scaly leg mites 8,38% (14 birds and at the fine ascaridiasis (1%.

  16. Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Kerber, C E; Kasai, N; Pena, H F; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Gennari, S M

    2001-12-01

    Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums were characterized based on biological and morphological criteria. Sporocysts from intestinal scrapings of 1 Didelphis marsupialis and 8 Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil, were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Budgerigars fed sporocysts from all 9 isolates became ill and S. falcatula-like schizonts were identified in sections of their lungs by immunohistochemical staining. Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms were cultured from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from D. marsupialis and from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from 3 of 8 D. albiventris. The 33/54 locus amplified by polymerase chain reaction from culture-derived merozoites contained both a HinfI endonuclease recognition site previously suggested to diagnose S. falcatula and a DraI site thought to diagnosed S. neurona. Development of the isolate from D. marsupialis was studied in cell culture; its schizonts divided by endopolygeny, leaving a residual body. Morphological and genetic variation differentiated this Sarcocystis isolate originating in D. marsupialis from the Cornell I isolate of S. falcatula. This is the first report of a S. falcatula infection in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis. PMID:11780836

  17. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  18. Budgerigars and zebra finches differ in how they generalize in an artificial grammar learning experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Michelle J; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-07-01

    The ability to abstract a regularity that underlies strings of sounds is a core mechanism of the language faculty but might not be specific to language learning or even to humans. It is unclear whether and to what extent nonhuman animals possess the ability to abstract regularities defining the relation among arbitrary auditory items in a string and to generalize this abstraction to strings of acoustically novel items. In this study we tested these abilities in a songbird (zebra finch) and a parrot species (budgerigar). Subjects were trained in a go/no-go design to discriminate between two sets of sound strings arranged in an XYX or an XXY structure. After this discrimination was acquired, each subject was tested with test strings that were structurally identical to the training strings but consisted of either new combinations of known elements or of novel elements belonging to other element categories. Both species learned to discriminate between the two stimulus sets. However, their responses to the test strings were strikingly different. Zebra finches categorized test stimuli with previously heard elements by the ordinal position that these elements occupied in the training strings, independent of string structure. In contrast, the budgerigars categorized both novel combinations of familiar elements as well as strings consisting of novel element types by their underlying structure. They thus abstracted the relation among items in the XYX and XXY structures, an ability similar to that shown by human infants and indicating a level of abstraction comparable to analogical reasoning. PMID:27325756

  19. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Four Species of Parrots in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Wei-Peng Tian, Ying-Tian Xu and Xing-Quan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibodies against avian Hepatitis E Virus (avian HEV were detected in 6.43% of examined serum samples (n=311 from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, lovebirds (Agapornis sp., cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria by indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in different parrot species varied from 0 to 7.92%. Statistical analysis of the origins of parrots demonstrated that parrots from Weifang city had a higher avian HEV seropositivity (7.84% compared with parrots from Beijing city (5.06%. The seroprevalence in parrots of different age groups varied from 4 to 7.62%. The avian HEV seroprevalence in parrots examined in spring and summer was 7.19 and 5.81%, respectively. This is the first report of avian HEV seroprevalence in four species of parrots in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of HEV infection in parrots in China.

  20. Molecular mapping of brain areas involved in parrot vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, E D; Mello, C V

    2000-03-27

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

  1. Didelphis aurita (Marsupialia: Didelphidae): a new host for Sarcocystis lindsayi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Stabenow, Cristiane; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Nine opossums, Didelphis aurita , were captured in the city of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and examined for species of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were observed in the mucosal scrapings of the small intestine from 3 opossums. Five budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus , were infected with sporocysts from each of these infected opossums and 5 budgerigars were used as controls. Of the 15 sporocyst-treated budgerigars, 5 birds that received sporocysts from 1 of the infected opossums developed tissue parasites. Meronts in the vascular endothelium of the lung venous capillaries and cysts in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cells were observed in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The microscopic cysts, which were predominantly in the tongue and leg muscles, ranged from 65.3 to 118.1 μm in length and 14.0 to 29.4 μm in width and from 0.9 to 1.9 μm in thickness of the cystic wall. Sections examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cyst wall contained numerous slender and jagged-shaped protrusions, each with a finger-like formation at the end. The morphology, especially of the cyst wall, and the morphometry of the tissue cysts indicate that the parasite is Sarcocystis lindsayi and, therefore, the opossum, D. aurita , is now considered a definitive host for this species in Brazil. PMID:22571294

  2. Asymmetrical mate preference in recently adapted White Sands and black lava populations of Sceloporus undulatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kayla M.HARDWICK; Jeanne M.ROBERTSON; Erica Bree ROSENBLUM

    2013-01-01

    Speciation can proceed rapidly when natural and sexual selection act in concert.For example speciation can be accelerated when traits that confer a selective advantage in a particular habitat also influence mate preference.Studying parallel but evolutionarily independent instances of ecological divergence can illuminate the interaction between natural and sexual selection during speciation.Locally adapted populations of the eastern fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus have recently evolved in three different habitats in the Chihuahuan desert:blanched color morphs occur on the gypsum dunes of White Sands,melanic color morphs occur on the Carrizozo lava flow,and brown color morphs occur in the surrounding desert scrubland.In addition to differences in cryptic dorsal coloration,populations also differ in the size and color of ventral patches used for social signaling.This system therefore provides an opportunity to investigate the interplay of natural and sexual selection during rapid ecological speciation.We used mate preference experiments to determine whether locally adapted populations may exhibit the early stages of behavioral reproductive isolation.We observed an asymmetrical mate preference in this system; White Sands males preferentially courted local females,while males from dark soils and black lava populations did not exhibit a preference for local mates.We also found that female behavior and ventral patch phenotype were associated with male courtship.Our results suggest that the observed preference for local mates evolved at White Sands,and we discuss the possible link between local adaptation and traits involved in mate preference in this system [Current Zoology 59 (1):20-30,2013].

  3. Hot or not: the effects of exogenous testosterone on female attractiveness to male conspecifics in the budgerigar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work.

  4. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, Lovebirds (Agapornis sp., Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria, and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fecal samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311 and 0.64% (2/311 by ELISA and Sheather’s sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  5. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311) and 0.64% (2/311) by ELISA and Sheather's sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  6. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Eda-Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  7. Vocal control area-related expression of neuropilin-1, plexin-A4, and the ligand semaphorin-3A has implications for the evolution of the avian vocal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The avian vocal system is a good model for exploring the molecular basis of neural circuit evolution related to behavioral diversity. Previously, we conducted a comparative gene expression analysis among two different families of vocal learner, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica), a songbird, and the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot; and a non-learner, the quail (Coturnix coturnix), to identify various axon guidance molecules such as cadherin and neuropilin-1 as vocal control area-related genes. Here, we continue with this study and examine the expression of neuropilin and related genes in these species in more detail. We found that neuropilin-1 and its coreceptor, plexin-A4, were expressed in several vocal control areas in both Bengalese finch and budgerigar brains. In addition, semaphorin-3A, the ligand of neuropilin-1, expression was not detected in vocal control areas in both species. Furthermore, there was some similar gene expression in the quail brain. These results suggest the possibility that a change in the expression of a combination of semaphorin/neuropilin/plexin was involved in the acquisition of vocal learning ability during evolution.

  8. Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Imagawa, Takuya; Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of acetogenins and styryl lactones isolated from Goniothalamus undulatus Ridl. root extracts against a lung cancer cell line (COR-L23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantithanaporn, S; Wattanapiromsakul, C; Itharat, A; Keawpradub, N

    2011-04-15

    An investigation of the chemical constituents in a dichloromethnae extract of Goniothalamus undulatus root led to the isolation of three known styryl lactones (5-acetoxyisogoniothalamin oxide, O-acetylaltholactone and altholactone), and four known annonaceous acetogenins (annonacin, cis-annonacin, goniothalamicin and cis-goniothalamicin). These compounds were subjected to a sulphorhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay against human large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23), and normal human fetal fibroblast (MRC-5), cell lines. The isolated acetogenins showed higher cytotoxic activity against COR-L23 compared to the styryl lactones, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 0.5-1.7 μM and 7.4-15.4 μM, respectively. A similar pattern of cytotoxicity was also observed against the other cell line (MRC-5); acetogenins IC₅₀ values were in the range of 11.8-31.4 μM, and those for styryl lactones were in the range of 48.7-102.8 μM. This is the first report of a bioassay-guided isolation of chemical constituents from G. undulatus and on cytotoxic studies of the isolated compounds using these particular lung cancer cell lines. PMID:21112751

  10. Study on detection of viral DNA of the agents causing psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease in different psittacine species

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Beate

    2009-01-01

    In this study, certain aspects of psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease were investigated to gather information about the distribution and the clinical manifestation of the diseases in patients of the “Klinik für Vögel der LMU München”. Furthermore different organ samples were compared for their reliability of routine post mortem PCR-diagnoses of peracute PBFD in young african grey parrots. Regarding intra vitam detection of the aetiological agents of both di...

  11. Joomɨ fíivo gaaja kaatɨi aame - La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. Cuarta parte: Kɨɨñu “Gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniceto Nejedeka (Numeyɨ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Texto bilingüe muinane-español sobre el ave kɨɨñu, “gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus, elaborado por Aniceto Nejedeka a partir del conocimiento de los mayores de la etnia muinane. Este texto es la cuarta parte de un libro que hemos venido publicando por fascículos, titulado La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. El muinane es una lengua de la familia lingüística bora.

  12. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and non-learners (quail and ring dove reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eMatsunaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and a non-learner (quail and ring dove. The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. 

  13. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  14. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 infection in Neopsephotus, Cyanoramphus, and Neophema species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Grund, Christian; Müller, Inge; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-09-01

    An outbreak of avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 (APMV-3) infection occurred in a private bird collection consisting mainly of Neophema species. Two Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) and one red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) were examined after developing torticollis and circling. The 3 birds were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. Brain and liver samples from the 3 birds were homogenized and inoculated into the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old embryonated specific-pathogen-free chicken eggs. An APMV-3 isolate replicated but did not induce embryonic mortality after up to 5 consecutive passages. Allantoic fluid from the second passage was used in hemagglutination testing performed on chicken erythrocytes, which resulted in a titer of 64 hemagglutinating units. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 was identified in the allantoic fluid, and a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction verified the isolate as APMV-3/parakeet. An eventual mortality rate of 70% occurred in the Neophema species, but a group of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and parrotlets (Forpus species) kept in the same facility showed no clinical signs during the outbreak.

  15. Effects of syllable-final segment duration on the identification of synthetic speech continua by birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Thomas E; Sawusch, James R; Dent, Micheal L

    2009-11-01

    In an attempt to test whether experience with or knowledge of language is necessary to show typical speaking rate effects in the perception of speech, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans categorized stimuli from the synthetic continua /ba/-/wa/ and /bas/-/was/, with both short and long syllable-final phonemes. This comparative approach aims to shed some light on whether knowledge of language has a role in rate normalization effects, such as using duration information as an indicator of speaking rate in human speech perception. Syllable-final phoneme durations were varied, and were either temporally adjacent to the initial target (CV series) or were nonadjacent (CVC series). The birds were always influenced by syllable-final duration variation in the present experiments and displayed greater boundary shifts than humans. In humans, there was a significant boundary shift observed in the CV series, but there were no effects of duration variation in the final segment in the CVC series. The results from the birds suggest that specialized speech-based principles may not be necessary for explaining findings of grouping speech or speechlike elements in perception. PMID:19894853

  16. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  17. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri. PMID:26303093

  18. 波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)的胚胎发育及初孵仔鱼的形态观察%Embryonic Development and Morphologic Observations of Newly-Hatched Cheilinus undulatus Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈猛猛; 骆剑; 陈国华; 文鑫; 吴光灿; 李文深; 韩玉龙

    2015-01-01

    波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)是世界著名的濒危礁栖鱼类,具有特殊的生物学特性和较高的经济价值。本研究对波纹唇鱼的胚胎发育及初孵仔鱼的形态进行了观察,将其全过程划分为胚盘形成、卵裂、囊胚、原肠-神经胚、器官发生和孵化6个阶段,共26个发育时期。波纹唇鱼的受精卵为无色透明的浮性卵,圆球形,卵径为(635.6±50.0)μm,具油球1个,其卵径显著小于多数海水鱼类。在水温27.7–29.0℃、盐度30的条件下,受精卵历时15 h 30 min孵出仔鱼。初孵仔鱼全长为(1305.5±50.0)µm,卵黄囊前部长于仔鱼头部,且油球位于卵黄囊的最前端。结果显示,波纹唇鱼卵子较小,胚胎发育较快,其较快的胚胎发育与较小的初孵仔鱼可能是导致胚后发育阶段死亡率较高的重要原因。%Thehumphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, is one of the most famous endangered reef fish in the world. As a social hermaphroditic fish, it has special biological characteristics and high economic value. In this study, we observed the embryonic development ofC. undulatusandanalyzed its features under a microscopy. Six periods, including zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula-neural, organogenesis, and hatching, were divided during the embryonic development ofC. undulatus. These 6 periods include 26 stages, including zygote, blastoderm formation, multi-cell, morula, and tail bud stageetc. The results showed thatC. undulatus had a float, transparent, spherical egg with a big oil globule. The diameter (635.6±50.0)μm of the egg was obviously shorter than eggs of many marine fishes. The neural plate appeared in the mid to late gastrula stage, and the embryonic development ofC. undulatus was remarkably quicker than other fishes under the same condition. The fertilized eggs were hatched after 15.5 h at water temperature of 27.7−29.0℃and salinity of 30. The total length of newly-hatched larvae were (1305.5

  19. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  20. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV).

  1. Distribution of iron in the parrot brain: conserved (pallidal) and derived (nigral) labeling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T F; Brauth, S E; Hall, W S

    2001-12-01

    The distribution of iron in the brain of a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), was examined using iron histochemistry. In mammals, iron is a highly specific stain for the dorsal and ventral pallidal subdivision as well as specific cell groups in the brainstem, including the substantia nigra pars reticulata [Neuroscience 11 (1984) 595-603]. The purpose of this study was to compare the distribution of iron in the mammalian and avian brain focusing on pallidal and nigral cell groups. The results show that in the avian brain, iron stains oligodendrocytes, neurons and the neuropil. Cell staining changes dramatically along the rostrocaudal axis, with neuronal labeling confined to regions caudal to the thalamus and oligodendrocyte labeling denser in regions rostral to the dorsal thalamus. Many sensory forebrain regions contain appreciable iron labeling, including telencephalic vocal control nuclei. The dorsal and ventral subdivision of the avian pallidum, along with the basal ganglia component of the vocal control circuit, the magnicellular nucleus of the lobus parolfactorius, stain heavily for iron. Several brainstem regions, including nucleus rotundus, the medial spiriform nucleus (SpM), the principle nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, nucleus laminaris and scattered cell groups throughout the isthmus and pontine reticular formation stain intensely for iron. Within SpM neuronal labeling is more intense in the medial division while oligodendrocyte labeling is more intense in the lateral division. surprisingly no nigral iron staining was observed. Our results imply that iron is a conserved marker for the pallidum in birds and mammals, but that patterns of nigral staining have diverged in birds and mammals. Differences in iron staining patterns between birds and mammals may also reflect the relatively greater importance of the collothalamic visual pathways, pretectal-cerebellar pathways and specialized vocal learning circuitry in avian sensory

  2. 波纹唇鱼血细胞显微结构和血液生化指标%Microstructure of Peripheral Blood Cell and Serum Biochemical Indices of Cheilinus undulatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖光勇; 区又君; 李加儿

    2011-01-01

    以Wright's和Giemsa双重染色法对波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)外周血细胞的形态进行显微观察研究并计数,同时测定各类血细胞的大小及血液的生化指标.血涂片观察发现:波纹唇鱼的外周血细胞可区分出红细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞等五种血细胞,未观察到嗜碱性粒细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞.在外周血液中还观察到核影、正在分裂的红细胞、幼稚红细胞和降解的红细胞.各类血细胞胞体由大到小的次序依次为单核细胞、嗜中性粒细胞、红细胞、大淋巴细胞、血栓细胞、小淋巴细胞.血浆中红细胞为(3.15±0.79)×1012/L,白细胞为(1.42±0.71)×1010/L,红细胞数远远多于白细胞.血液生化指标与其他鱼类相比有一定差异,表明鱼类血液的生化成分因种和生活环境而异.%The microscopic observation and count are conducted for the peripheral blood cells of C. Undula-tus by means of the Wright's and Giemsa double dye method. The serum biochemical indices of C. Undula-tus , the sizes of the various blood cells are determined. From the stained smears, five blood cell types I. E. Erythrocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and thrombocyte are detected. Neither eosinophilic granu-locyten nor basophilic granulocyte is found but, some nuclear shadow of erythrocytes, immature erythro-cytes, direct dividing or dissolving erythrocytes. Among these cells, the sizes are put into an order from large to small as follows monocyte, neutrophil, erythrocyte, large lymphocyte, thrombocyte and small lymphlcyte. The erythrocyte and leucocyte concentrations in the blood are (3. 15 ±0. 79) × 1012/L and (1. 42 + 0. 71) × 1010/L respectively. The number of erythrocyte is much more than the leucocyte in the blood. The serum biochemical indices are different from other fish species. Therefore it is indicated that the serum biochemical indices for various fishes depend upon their species and

  3. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales, birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast with mammals and birds, tooth loss in turtles occurred in the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 Ma, providing an extended time window for tooth gene degradation in this clade. The release of the painted turtle and Chinese softshell turtle genomes provides an opportunity to recover the decayed remains of tooth-specific genes in Testudines. Results We queried available genomes of Testudines (Chrysemys picta [painted turtle], Pelodiscus sinensis [Chinese softshell turtle], Aves (Anas platyrhynchos [duck], Gallus gallus [chicken], Meleagris gallopavo [turkey], Melopsittacus undulatus [budgerigar], Taeniopygia guttata [zebra finch], and enamelless mammals (Orycteropus afer [aardvark], Choloepus hoffmanni [Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth], Dasypus novemcinctus [nine-banded armadillo] for remnants of three enamel matrix protein (EMP genes with putative enamel-specific functions. Remnants of the AMBN and ENAM genes were recovered in Chrysemys and retain their original synteny. Remnants of AMEL were recovered in both testudines, although there are no shared frameshifts. We also show that there are inactivated copies of AMBN, AMEL and ENAM in representatives of divergent avian lineages including Galloanserae, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes, and that there are shared frameshift mutations in all three genes that predate the basal split in Neognathae. Among enamelless mammals, all three EMP genes exhibit inactivating mutations in Orycteropus and Choloepus. Conclusions Our results

  4. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Tian, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in the cities of Beijing and Weifang in north China were tested using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-six (8.36%) out of 311 serum samples were positive for T. gondii at the cutoff of 1:5. Among the four species, a higher seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in Cockatiels (13.64%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-27.98), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.61). Seropositivity rates against T. gondii in male parrots (10.43%, 95% CI 5.74-15.12) were not statistically different from that in female parrots (6.08%, 95% CI 2.23-9.93, p=0.17). The seropositivity of T. gondii in parrots from Weifang and Beijing was 11.11% (95% CI 6.13-16.09) and 5.70% (95% CI 2.08-9.31), respectively. The seroprevalence varied in parrots of different age groups, ranging from 5.71% (95% CI 1.27-10.15) to 13.00% (95% CI 6.41-19.69), however, the difference among age groups was not statistically significant (p=0.12). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in parrots in summer (11.63%, 95% CI 6.84-16.42) was significantly higher than in spring (4.32%, 95% CI 0.94-7.70, p=0.02). The results of the present survey indicated that parrots in China are exposed to T. gondii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in parrots in China.

  5. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canário, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo doméstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infecção experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.S. Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infecção e doença por Macrorhabdus

  6. Species differences in early patterning of the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Luke; Kuo, Eric; Martin, Arnaud; Monuki, Edwin S; Striedter, Georg

    2011-03-01

    The telencephalon is proportionately larger in parrots than in galliformes (chicken-like birds), whereas the midbrain tectum is proportionately smaller. We here test the hypothesis that the adult species difference in midbrain proportion is due to an evolutionary change in early brain patterning. In particular, we compare the size of the early embryonic midbrain between parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and bobwhite quail (Colinus virgianus) by examining the expression domains of transcription factors Pax6 and Gbx2, which are expressed in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Because these expression domains form rostral and caudal borders with the presumptive midbrain when this region is specified (Hamburger-Hamilton stages 9-11), they allow us to measure and compare the sizes of a molecularly defined presumptive midbrain in the two species. Based on published data from older embryos, we predicted that the molecularly defined midbrain territory is significantly larger in quail than parakeets. Indeed, our data show that normalized midbrain length is 33% greater in quail and that the midbrain to forebrain ratio is 28% greater. This is strong evidence of a significant species difference in early brain patterning.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 gb|AAT90237.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90243.1| melanocortin... 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90267.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporu...s undulatus] gb|AAT90269.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] AAT90237.1 1e-123 72% ...

  8. Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar

    OpenAIRE

    Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Marcel Eens; Darras, Veerle M; Rianne Pinxten

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study,...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0066 gb|AAT90233.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90234.1| melanocortin... 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90238.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporu...s undulatus] gb|AAT90239.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90241.1| melanocortin 1 rec...eptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90245.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus u...ndulatus] gb|AAT90247.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Sceloporus undulatus] gb|AAT90248.1| melanocortin 1 recept

  10. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Zoo Wild¬life and Pet Birds in Fujian, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng CHEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is caused by Toxo­plasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wild animals is of great importance to understand the transmission of the parasite in the environ­ment. However, little is known about T. gondii prevalence in wild animals and birds in China.Methods: We conducted the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolated from Zoo Wild Animals and Pet Birds in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. Heart tissues were collected from 45 zoo animals and 140 pet birds. After identified using B1 gene, the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates were typed at 11 genetic markers, including SAG1,5’ and3’-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3.Results: Seven of 45 zoo animals and 3 of 140 pet birds were positive by PCR amplifi­cation using T. gondii B1 gene specific primers. Of these positive isolates, 3 isolates from Black-capped (Cebus apella, Peacock (Peafowl and Budgerigar (Melopsitta­cus undulatus were successfully genotyped at 11 genetic loci, and grouped to three distinct genotypes: ToxoDB Genotype #9, #2 and #10, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolated from zoo wild animals and pet birds in Fujian, China. There is a potential risk for the transmission of this parasite through zoo wild animals and pet birds in this region.

  11. 50 CFR 665.421 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Muraenidae (Moray eels) yellowmargin moray eel Gymnothorax flavimarginatus. giant moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Octopodidae (Octopus) gamsun octopus Octopus...

  12. 50 CFR 665.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Muraenidae (Moray eels) puhi paka yellowmargin moray eel Gymnothorax flavimarginatus. Puhi giant moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. puhi laumilo undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Puhi dragon eel...

  13. Lack of seasonality in phytoplankton standing stock (chlorophyll a) and production in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Gerson, V.J.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    . Planktoniella sol Noct luca miliari Actinoptychus undulatus sp. Asteromphalus sp. C.bu ephalum Aulacodiscus sp. Corethron sp. Lauderia annulata C.lineatum Shroederella sp. Leptocylindrus danicus C.m croceros Rhizosolenia sp*. Gonyaulax sp. R...

  14. Does the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship vary among geometrically similar birds of different mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundle, Matthew W; Hansen, Kacia S; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-03-01

    Based on aerodynamic considerations, the energy use-flight speed relationship of all airborne animals and aircraft should be U-shaped. However, measures of the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship in birds have been available since Tucker's pioneering experiments with budgerigars nearly forty years ago, but this classic work remains the only study to have found a clearly U-shaped metabolic power curve. The available data suggests that the energetic requirements for flight within this species are unique, yet the metabolic power curve of the budgerigar is widely considered representative of birds in general. Given these conflicting results and the observation that the budgerigar's mass is less than 50% of the next smallest species to have been studied, we asked whether large and small birds have metabolic power curves of different shapes. To address this question we measured the rates of oxygen uptake and wingbeat kinematics in budgerigars and cockatiels flying within a variable-speed wind tunnel. These species are close phylogenetic relatives, have similar flight styles, wingbeat kinematics, and are geometrically similar but have body masses that differ by a factor of two. In contrast to our expectations, we found the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of both species to be acutely U-shaped. We also found that neither budgerigars nor cockatiels used their normal intermittent flight style while wearing a respirometric mask. We conclude that species size differences alone do not explain the previously unique metabolic power curve of the budgerigar; however, due to the absence of comparable data we cannot evaluate whether the mask-related kinematic response we document influences the metabolic rate-flight speed relationship of these parrots, or whether the energetics of flight differ between this and other avian clades. PMID:17337719

  15. Erythema nodosum in psittacosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharakaram S

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman developed erythema nodosum on her lower legs, two weeks after a respiratory infection manifesting with generalised bodyache, rhinorrhoea, sore throat, cough and sputum. Her pet budgerigar had been unwell two weeks previously. CFT for psittacosis showed a high titre. Oral tetracycline 4 gm a day for 3 weeks was effective.

  16. Four new species of the subfamily Psilodercinae (Araneae: Ochyroceratidae) from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxia; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of the family Ochyroceratidae are described from Southwest China: Althepus christae sp. nov., Lecler- cera undulatus sp. nov., Psiloderces incomptus sp. nov. from Yunnan; and P. exilis sp. nov. from Guangxi. The four spe- cies belong to the subfamily Psilodercinae.

  17. 50 CFR 665.121 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mullet Crenimugil crenilabis. moi, poi false mullet Neomyxus leuciscus. Muraenidae (Moray eels) Pusi yellowmargin moray eel Gymnothorax flavimarginatus. maoa'e giant moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. pusi-pulepule undulated moray eel Gymnothorax undulatus. Octopodidae (Octopus) fe'e fe'e octopus octopus Octopus...

  18. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  19. Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe;

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences...... in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely...

  20. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  1. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mukta Chakraborty; Solveig Walløe; Signe Nedergaard; Fridel, Emma E.; Torben Dabelsteen; Bente Pakkenberg; Bertelsen, Mads F; Gerry M Dorrestein; Brauth, Steven E.; Sarah E Durand; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found ...

  2. Type studies in Coprinus subsection Lanatuli

    OpenAIRE

    Uljé, C.B.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    As a prelude to a monograph of the genus Coprinus, types were studied of a number of species said to belong to Coprinus subsection Lanatuli (Coprinus alnivorus. C. alutaceivelatus, C. ammophilae, C. arachnoideus, C. asterophoroides, C. brunneistragulatus, C. bubalinus, C. citrinovelatus, C. colosseus, C. jonesii, C. lagopides, C. marcidus, C. pachydermus, C. palmeranus, C. roseistipitatus, C. scobicola, C. spadiceisporus, C. sylvicola, C. tectisporus, C. undulatus and C. xerophilus). As a res...

  3. Genetically different clonal isolates of Trichomonas gallinae, obtained from the same bird, can vary in their drug susceptibility, an in vitro evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimre-Grabensteiner, Elvira; Arshad, Najma; Amin, Aziza; Hess, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoon which parasitizes in the upper digestive tract of different birds, especially columbiformes (doves and pigeons) and falconiformes. The parasite is also a common inhabitant of the crop of psittacine birds and is frequently detected in budgerigars. The lesions associated with T. gallinae infection of the upper digestive tract range from mild inflammation of the mucosa to large caseous lesions that block the lumen of the oesophagus. Nitroimidazoles are considered to be the drugs of choice for the treatment of trichomonosis. However, only a few studies report the existence of resistant strains of T. gallinae to these drugs. Thus, in the present investigation cloned cultures of T. gallinae obtained from budgerigars and pigeons were analysed for the first time for their in vitro susceptibilities against four 5´-nitroimidazole derivates, including metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole and ornidazole. Significantly different minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) were observed for them against all four drugs. The lowest MLCs revealed the Trichomonas isolates obtained from two budgerigars, ranging from 2.0 ± 0.3 to 3.0 ± 0.7 μg/ml for metronidazole and dimetridazole, and from 2.0 ± 0.6 to 6.7 ± 1.7 μg/ml for ornidazole and ronidazole. Contrary to this, the highest MLCs were recorded for one Trichomonas isolate obtained from a pigeon, ranging from 83.3 ± 6.7 (for dimetridazole and ronidazole) to 103.3 ± 3.3 μg/ml (for metronidazole and ornidazole). The data obtained for the resistance testing were further compared with already available genetic data of the small subunit rRNA gene sequences and ITS-1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences, indicating a certain correlation between in vitro results and strain relationships. PMID:21345378

  4. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  5. Factors determining δ13C and δ18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining δ 13C and δ 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the δ 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between δ 13C- carbonate-δ 13C water (δ 13C) and temperature: δ 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between δ 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (α) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln α = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the δ 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the δ 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  6. Espécies de Ganoderma P. Karst (Ganodermataceae) e Phellinus Quél. (Hymenochaetaceae) na Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, Pará, Brasil Species of Ganoderma P. Karst (Ganodermataceae) and Phellinus Quél. (Hymenochaetaceae) from Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alcindo da Silva Martins Júnior; Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni; Helen Maria Pontes Sotão

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho foi baseado em coleções realizadas pelos autores e em material depositado no herbário João Murça Pires (MG), procedentes da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna (ECFPn, 1°38' - 1°48S; 51°20' - 51°36'W). Ganoderma esta representado por três espécies: G. australe, G. multiplicatum e G. stipitatum, e Phellinus por sete: P. baccharidis, P. calcitratus, P. extensus, P. fastuosus, P. gilvus, P. shaferi e P. undulatus.This work is based on collections undertaken by the authors and on mate...

  7. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.

  8. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Brauth, Steven E; Durand, Sarah E; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.

  9. Estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenidae (Reptilia: Squamata de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Vidal, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenia del Uruguay, basado en el índice propuesto por Reca et al. (1994, y se aplican las categorías propuestas por Ávila et al. (2000. Se analizaron en total 17 especies, de las cuales se destacan como vulnerables (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus y Stenocercus azureus, representando el 23,5% de los taxones investigados. La limitación principal detectada en la utilización del índice de Reca es que, dada la carencia de información básica sobre algunas especies, los resultados deben ser re-evaluados de forma constante ante la generación de nuevos conocimientos. Based on the index proposed by Reca et al. (1994, and the categories proposed by Ávila et al. (2000, the conservation status for Sauria and Amphisbaenia from Uruguay is evaluated. Seventeen species were analized, four of them stood out as vulnerable (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus and Stenocercus azureus, representing the 23.5% of the taxa. The most important constraint detected using Reca's Index, is that due to the lack of basic information about some of the species, the results should be revisited any time new knowledge arises.

  10. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J.SAVIOLA; David CHISZAR; Stephen P.MACKESSY

    2012-01-01

    Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake.Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake) takes different prey at different life stages,and neonates typically prey on ectotherms,while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms.We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed,and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age.To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred,we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate,20 subadult,and 20 adult (average SVL=280.9,552,789.5 mm,respectively) wild-caught C.v.viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard,Sceloporus undulatus,and house gecko,Hemidactylusfrenatus),two endotherms (deer mouse,Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse,Mus musculus),and water controls were used.Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey,S.undulatus,than to all other chemical cues; however,the response to this lizard's chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes.Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S.undulatus and P.maniculatus than to all other treatments,and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P.maniculatus than to all other chemical cues.In addition,all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M.musculus and H.frenatus).This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C.v.viridis diet.Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition,we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid snakes.

  11. Hand rearing of pet birds--feeds, techniques and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P; Kamphues, J

    2003-04-01

    The comparison of the contents of nutrients determined in commercial hand rearing diets with the nutrient requirements of growing budgerigars and lovebirds estimated by the factorial method revealed satisfactory protein, lysine and arginine concentrations. Regarding sulphur amino acids, a number of products showed marginal methionine and cystine contents. Mineral contents generally met all requirements and were even excessive in some cases. Ultimately, the results gained in this study demonstrate that nestlings' substantial requirements for sulphur amino acids for plumage development are often underestimated, while their calcium requirements in connection with bone mineralization are frequently overestimated. The primary obstacle to successful hand rearing, however, probably lies not so much in energy and nutrient contents, but rather--as revealed by first results of feeding trials with lovebirds--in the passage of the suspended diet through the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. crop disorders) and/or errors regarding feed quantities and feeding frequency. PMID:14511137

  12. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC): Zoonotic risks associated with psittacine pet birds in home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia-Di Chiacchio, R M; Cunha, M P V; Sturn, R M; Moreno, L Z; Moreno, A M; Pereira, C B P; Martins, F H; Franzolin, M R; Piazza, R M F; Knöbl, T

    2016-02-29

    Psittacidae are frequently bred as pets worldwide, but little is known about the zoonotic risks of these animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the feces of psittacine birds housed as pets. A total of 171 fecal samples (67 cockatiels, 59 budgerigars, and 45 agapornis) were cultured. Forty-two (E. coli) strains were identified, and the presence of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes was determined using PCR. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the STEC strains were determined using the disk diffusion method and phylogenetic analysis according to the new Clermont phylotyping method. Using these methods, 19.4% (8/42) of the STEC strains were determined to be positive for the eae and stx2 genes. The results revealed a STEC frequency of 4.6% in the birds (8/171), with a percentage of 8.47% in budgerigars (5/59), 4.47% in cockatiels (3/67), and 0% in agapornis (0/45). None of the STEC isolates belonged to the O157 serogroup. Most of the strains were classified as sensitive to the 18 antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited a multiresistance profile. In the phylogenetic analysis, two strains were classified as non-typeable, three were classified as B2, two were classified as F, and one was classified as Clade I. Seven of the eight STEC strains showed a clonal profile using AFLP. E. coli strains that are stx2(+) plus eae(+) are usually associated with severe human diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The STEC-positive results indicate the zoonotic risk of breeding psittacidae in home environments.

  13. Mesophotic depths as refuge areas for fishery-targeted species on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfield, Steven J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Halford, Andrew R.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are subjected to unprecedented levels of disturbance with population growth and climate change combining to reduce standing coral cover and stocks of reef fishes. Most of the damage is concentrated in shallow waters (herbivores prevailed in similar biomass and species richness to 60 m. Compared to shallow marine protected areas, there was clearly greater biomass of fishery-targeted species accrued in mesophotic depths. Particularly some species typically harvested by depth-limited fishing methods (e.g., spearfishing), such as the endangered humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus, were found in greater abundance on deeper reefs. We conclude that mesophotic depths provide essential fish habitat and refuge for fishery-targeted species, representing crucial zones for fishery management and research into the resilience of disturbed coral reef ecosystems.

  14. Effect of temperature on feeding period of larval blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on eastern fence lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.

  15. [Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-Ying; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man-made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people's efforts, the plague was effectively controlled.

  16. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  17. Species tree discordance traces to phylogeographic clade boundaries in North American fence lizards (Sceloporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D

    2009-12-01

    I investigated the impacts of phylogeographic sampling decisions on species tree estimation in the Sceloporus undulatus species group, a recent radiation of small, insectivorous lizards connected by parapatric and peripatric distribution across North America, using a variety of species tree inference methods (Bayesian estimation of species trees, Bayesian untangling of concordance knots, and minimize deep coalescences). Phylogenetic analyses of 16 specimens representing 4 putative species within S. "undulatus" using complete (8 loci, >5.5 kb) and incomplete (29 loci, >23.6 kb) nuclear data sets result in species trees that share features with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genealogy at the phylogeographic level but provide new insights into the evolutionary history of the species group. The concatenated nuclear data and mtDNA data both recover 4 major clades connecting populations across North America; however, instances of discordance are localized at the contact zones between adjacent phylogeographic groups. A random sub-sampling experiment designed to vary the phylogeographic samples included across hundreds of replicate species tree inferences suggests that inaccurate species assignments can result in inferred phylogenetic relationships that are dependent upon which particular populations are used as exemplars to represent species and can lead to increased estimates of effective population size. For the phylogeographic data presented here, reassigning specimens with introgressed mtDNA genomes to their prospective species, or excluding them from the analysis altogether, produces species tree topologies that are distinctly different from analyses that utilize mtDNA-based species assignments. Evolutionary biologists working at the interface of phylogeography and phylogenetics are likely to encounter multiple processes influencing gene trees congruence, which increases the relevance of estimating species trees with multilocus nuclear data and models that accommodate

  18. The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Manuel; Seehausen, Ole; Güntert, Marcel; Hertwig, Stefan T

    2010-03-01

    Vicariance is thought to have played a major role in the evolution of modern parrots. However, as the relationships especially of the African taxa remained mostly unresolved, it has been difficult to draw firm conclusions about the roles of dispersal and vicariance. Our analyses using the broadest taxon sampling of old world parrots ever based on 3219bp of three nuclear genes revealed well-resolved and congruent phylogenetic hypotheses. Agapornis of Africa and Madagascar was found to be the sister group to Loriculus of Australasia and Indo-Malayasia and together they clustered with the Australasian Loriinae, Cyclopsittacini and Melopsittacus. Poicephalus and Psittacus from mainland Africa formed the sister group of the Neotropical Arini and Coracopsis from Madagascar and adjacent islands may be the closest relative of Psittrichas from New Guinea. These biogeographic relationships are best explained by independent colonization of the African continent via trans-oceanic dispersal from Australasia and Antarctica in the Paleogene following what may have been vicariance events in the late Cretaceous and/or early Paleogene. Our data support a taxon pulse model for the diversification of parrots whereby trans-oceanic dispersal played a more important role than previously thought and was the prerequisite for range expansion into new continents.

  19. A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized.

  20. Parrot Interpreter: Representation, Extinction and the Electronic Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans, it seems, can’t get enough of parrots. Ethnography, folklore, psychology, and, of course, imaginative literature all offer copious evidence of our fantasy of living with, communicating with and even being parrots. The natural history of parrots and the cultural history of parrots present something of a conundrum: on the one hand, a massive destructiveness (illegal bird and feather trade, environment destruction, scientific collections; on the other, an often erotically inflected sympathetic identification leading to the production of new forms. It’s strange to realise that Europe is infested with a shadow population of captive and inbred budgerigars, whose numbers far exceed those remaining in the wild and who can never return to their origins. If, as our privileged other, our uncanny mimic and double, the parrot still fails to survive, what does this tell us about our economy of desire? It seems that to know is to consume and destroy; and that the apparent contrast between the operations of the rainforest loggers and bird-trappers and the sentimental representations and transformations parrot suffers in human society is overdrawn. How is this contradiction to be explained?

  1. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Hata, Yuka; Yamasaki, Marika; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Miyamoto, Takenori; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2016-01-04

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the pairing period. In males, but not females, mate calls evoked significantly fewer vocal responses than unfamiliar calls at one month after separation. Furthermore, in females, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls compared to silence in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), a higher-order auditory region, in both brain hemispheres. In males, we found right-sided dominance of molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls in the CMM. This is the first evidence suggesting sex differences in functional asymmetry of brain regions related to recognition of learned vocalisation in birds. Thus, sex differences related to recognition of learned vocalisations may be found at the behavioural and neural levels in avian vocal learners as it is in humans.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  3. Sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Hata, Yuka; Yamasaki, Marika; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Miyamoto, Takenori; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2016-01-01

    Vocalisation in songbirds and parrots has become a prominent model system for speech and language in humans. We investigated possible sex differences in behavioural and neural responsiveness to mate calls in the budgerigar, a vocally-learning parrot. Males and females were paired for 5 weeks and then separated, after which we measured vocal responsiveness to playback calls (a call of their mate versus a call of an unfamiliar conspecific). Both sexes learned to recognise mate calls during the pairing period. In males, but not females, mate calls evoked significantly fewer vocal responses than unfamiliar calls at one month after separation. Furthermore, in females, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls compared to silence in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), a higher-order auditory region, in both brain hemispheres. In males, we found right-sided dominance of molecular neuronal activation in response to mate calls in the CMM. This is the first evidence suggesting sex differences in functional asymmetry of brain regions related to recognition of learned vocalisation in birds. Thus, sex differences related to recognition of learned vocalisations may be found at the behavioural and neural levels in avian vocal learners as it is in humans. PMID:26725947

  4. New Curculionoidea records from New Brunswick, Canada with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Reginald P.; Anderson, Robert S.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents 27 new records of Curculionoidea for the province of New Brunswick, Canada, including three species new to Canada, and 12 adventive species, as follows: Eusphryrus walshii LeConte, Choragus harrisii LeConte (newly recorded for Canada), Choragus zimmermanni LeConte (newly recorded for Canada) (Anthribidae); Cimberis pallipennis (Blatchley) (Nemonychidae); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze) (Brentidae); Procas lecontei Bedel (Brachyceridae); Anthonomus pusillus LeConte (newly recorded for Canada), Anthonomus (Cnemocyllus) pictus Blatchley, Archarius salicivorus (Paykull), Dorytomus hirtus LeConte, Ellescus bipunctatus (Linnaeus), Mecinus janthinus (Germar), Myrmex chevrolatii (Horn), Madarellus undulatus (Say), Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal), Pelenomus waltoni (Boheman), Rhinoncus bruchoides (Herbst), Rhinoncus perpendicularis (Reich), Cossonus impressifrons Boheman, Cossonus pacificus Van Dyke, Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher), Eubulus bisignatus (Say), Polydrusus cervinus (Linnaeus), Magdalis piceae Buchanan, Procryphalus mucronatus (LeConte), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), and Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford). Recent name changes in the genus Rhinoncus are applied to species known from New Brunswick. In addition, Orchestes alni (Linnaeus) is newly recorded from Nova Scotia. PMID:27110173

  5. Structure and mechanical behavior of bird beaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasuaki

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were examined. The structure of Toco toucan and Wreathed hornbill beak was found to be a sandwich composite with an exterior of keratin and a fibrous bony network of closed cells made of trabeculae. A distinctive feature of the hornbill beak is its casque formed from cornified keratin layers. The casque is believed to have an acoustic function due to the complex internal structure. The toucan and hornbill beaks have a hollow region that extends from proximal to mid-section. The rhamphotheca is comprised of super-posed polygonal scales (45 mum diameter and 1 mum thickness) fixed by some organic adhesive. The branched intermediate filaments embedded in keratin matrix were discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diameter of intermediate laments was ~10 nm. The orientation of intermediate filaments was examined with TEM tomography and the branched filaments were homogeneously distributed. The closed-cell foam is comprised of the fibrous structure of bony struts with an edge connectivity of three or four and the cells are sealed off by the thin membranes. The volumetric structure of bird beak foam was reproduced by computed tomography for finite element modeling.

  6. Seasonal activity and host associations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    1999-11-01

    Based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, extended from October through May in southeastern Missouri. Adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in November followed by a lower peak in February. The activity of immature I. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the Northeast where Lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (July) peaking after that of nymphs (May and June). Vertebrates varied in their importance as hosts of I. scapularis. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginanus (Zimmerman), and coyotes, Canis latrans Say, were the primary hosts of adult I. scapularis. Broad-headed skinks, Eumeces laticeps (Schneider), and eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille), were the primary hosts of nymphal I. scapularis. The broad-headed skink, 5-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus (L.), and Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham), were the primary hosts of larval I. scapularis. Homeotherms were important hosts of immature I. scapularis, accounting for 30% of nymphs and 39% of larvae collected. The eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), may play an important role in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in Missouri. Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner were made from ticks recovered from rabbits, making the cottontail rabbit a key species for further study of the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Missouri. PMID:10593072

  7. Variation in fatty acid composition among nine forage species from a southeastern US estuarine and nearshore coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recks, Melissa A; Seaborn, Gloria T

    2008-09-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of nine potentially important forage species was determined (n = 330): red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), star drum (Stellifer lanceolatus), striped anchovy (Anchoa hepsetus), and brief squid (Lolliguncula brevis). Samples were collected from estuarine and nearshore coastal waters around Charleston, South Carolina, USA, from March 2002-February 2003. Twenty-nine of 125 identified FAs were included in multivariate analyses of FA profiles. Despite existing intraspecific variation, the PRIMER routine analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated each species was distinct, and discriminant function analysis correctly classified 99.5% of the training data set samples (n = 221) and 98.2% of the validation samples (n = 109). Most species could be characterized by distinctive levels of a suite of FAs. Our results indicated FA profiles can be used to reliably distinguish even closely related forage species in this southeastern US estuarine ecosystem. The information gained from this study not only provides insight into the biochemical composition of these important species but also provides fundamental information to support studies on the feeding ecology of local higher-level predators.

  8. Comparative cytogenetics of six Indo-Pacific moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) by chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, E; Deidda, F; Cannas, R; Lobina, C; Cuccu, D; Deiana, A M; Salvadori, S

    2015-09-01

    A comparative cytogenetic analysis, using both conventional staining techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization, of six Indo-Pacific moray eels from three different genera (Gymnothorax fimbriatus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax undulatus, Echidna nebulosa and Gymnomuraena zebra), was carried out to investigate the chromosomal differentiation in the family Muraenidae. Four species displayed a diploid chromosome number 2n = 42, which is common among the Muraenidae. Two other species, G. javanicus and G. flavimarginatus, were characterized by different chromosome numbers (2n = 40 and 2n = 36). For most species, a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin was detected in the chromosomes, with species-specific C-banding patterns that enabled pairing of the homologous chromosomes. In all species, the major ribosomal genes were localized in the guanine-cytosine-rich region of one chromosome pair, but in different chromosomal locations. The (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences were mapped onto chromosomal ends in all muraenid species studied. The comparison of the results derived from this study with those available in the literature confirms a substantial conservation of the diploid chromosome number in the Muraenidae and supports the hypothesis that rearrangements have occurred that have diversified their karyotypes. Furthermore, the finding of two species with different diploid chromosome numbers suggests that additional chromosomal rearrangements, such as Robertsonian fusions, have occurred in the karyotype evolution of the Muraenidae.

  9. Individual variability in life-history traits drives population size stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned A. DOCHTERMANN, C. M. GIENGER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how population sizes vary over time is a key aspect of ecological research. Unfortunately, our understanding of population dynamics has historically been based on an assumption that individuals are identical with homogenous life-history properties. This assumption is certainly false for most natural systems, raising the question of what role individual variation plays in the dynamics of populations. While there has been an increase of interest regarding the effects of within population variation on the dynamics of single populations, there has been little study of the effects of differences in within population variation on patterns observed across populations. We found that life-history differences (clutch size among individuals explained the majority of the variation observed in the degree to which population sizes of eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus fluctuated. This finding suggests that differences across populations cannot be understood without an examination of differences at the level of a system rather than at the level of the individual [Current Zoology 58 (2: 358-362, 2012].

  10. Individual variability in life-history traits drives population size stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ned A. DOCHTERMANN; C. M. GIENGER

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how population sizes vary over time is a key aspect of ecological research.Unfortunately,our understanding of population dynamics has historically been based on an assumption that individuals are identical with homogenous life-history properties.This assumption is certainly false for most natural systems,raising the question of what role individual variation plays in the dynamics of populations.While there has been an increase of interest regarding the effects of within populatien variation on the dynamics of single populations,there has been little study of the effects of differences in within population variation on patterns observed across populations.We found that life-history differences (clutch size) among individuals explained the majority of the variation observed in the degree to which population sizes of eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus fluctuated.This finding suggests that differences across populations cannot be understood without an examination of differences at the level of a system rather than at the level of the individual [Current Zoology 58 (2):358-362,2012].

  11. Towards an ecosystem approach to small island fisheries: A preliminary study of a balanced fishery in Kotania Bay (Seram Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Hutubessy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF is a holistic one as EAF considers all species as important elements within the eco-system. An EAF requires that community and ecosystem structure should be maintained by harvesting fish communities in proportion to their natural productivity, thereby sustaining the balance of species and sizes in a community. This article draws from research on the reef fish community and catch in Kotania Bay on Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, an area of approximately 6000 ha. Based on the trophic guild (ie the aggregation of species utilizing similar food resources on the reef, the biomass of predator fish currently being captured now represents 40.4% of the total catch biomass. Members of the grouper family, the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and trevally (Caranx melampygus in particular, have become targeted for sale in fish markets. If these predators are selectively targeted and exploited, the overall reef fishery and the human populations that depend on it may become imperilled, given these species’ significant roles in controlling those lower in the food chain. This study thereby emphasizes the need for balanced fisheries informed by the EAF model in small island fisheries management in order to sustain food security in such regions.

  12. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for the reptiles sampled and we detected a distinct habitat gradient ranging from sites with greater litter depth and percent canopy cover to more open sites with greater woody, herbaceous, and coarse woody debris (CWD coverage, and CWD volume. Little brown skinks Scincella lateralis and eastern worm snakes Carphophis a. amoenus were associated with sites with greater litter depth and canopy cover, whereas eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus, copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix, and gray ratsnakes Pantherophis spiloides were associated with sites possessing greater CWD coverage and volume. We found that disturbances due to the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis were likely important for influencing reptile distributions through the creation of canopy gaps and fallen coarse woody debris. Compared to other studies, our modified drift-fence trap technique was successful for sampling larger snake species (66 snakes in 564 trap nights. We have also provided detailed schematics for constructing drift fence array and box traps used in this study [Current Zoology 56 (4: 411–420, 2010].

  13. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots.

  14. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots. PMID:25209153

  15. Dynamics of Necrophagous Insect and Tissue Bacteria for Postmortem Interval Estimation During the Warm Season in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Lavinia; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Purcarea, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is affected by several factors including the cause of death, the place where the body lay after death, and the weather conditions during decomposition. Given the climatic differences among biogeographic locations, the understanding of necrophagous insect species biology and ecology is required when estimating PMI. The current experimental model was developed in Romania during the warm season in an outdoor location. The aim of the study was to identify the necrophagous insect species diversity and dynamics, and to detect the bacterial species present during decomposition in order to determine if their presence or incidence timing could be useful to estimate PMI. The decomposition process of domestic swine carcasses was monitored throughout a 14-wk period (10 July-10 October 2013), along with a daily record of meteorological parameters. The chronological succession of necrophagous entomofauna comprised nine Diptera species, with the dominant presence of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) (Calliphoridae), while only two Coleoptera species were identified, Dermestes undulatus (L. 1758) and Creophilus maxillosus Brahm 1970. The bacterial diversity and dynamics from the mouth and rectum tissues, and third-instar dipteran larvae were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments. Throughout the decomposition process, two main bacterial chronological groups were differentiated, represented by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Twenty-six taxa from the rectal cavity and 22 from the mouth cavity were identified, with the dominant phylum in both these cavities corresponding to Firmicutes. The present data strengthen the postmortem entomological and microbial information for the warm season in this temperate-continental area, as well as the role of microbes in carcass decomposition. PMID:26487246

  16. Changes in homologous and heterologous gap junction contacts during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolamba, D.; Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous (granulosa cell-granulosa cell) gap junction (GJ) contacts increase in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) during the early (first) stage of maturation, but their profile during the second stage [i.e., during maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-mediated meiotic resumption] is unknown. The profile of homologous GJ contacts during the second stage of maturation in croaker follicles was examined in this study and compared to that of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) GJ, for which changes have been previously documented. Follicles were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin to induce maturational competence (first stage), and then with MIH to induce meiotic resumption. The follicles were collected for examination immediately before and after different durations of MIH exposure until the oocyte had reached the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; index of meiotic resumption). Ultrathin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and homologous and heterologous GJ contacts were quantified along a 100-??m segment of granulosa cell-zona radiata complex per follicle (three follicles/time/fish, n=3 fish). Relatively high numbers of both types of GJ were observed before and after the first few hours of MIH exposure (up to the stage of oil droplet coalescence). GJ numbers declined during partial yolk globule coalescence (at or near GVBD) and were just under 50% of starting values after the completion of GVBD (Pobservations that GVBD temporally correlates with declining heterologous GJ contacts, and for the first time in teleosts show that there is a parallel decline in homologous GJ. The significance of the changes in homologous and heterologous GJ is uncertain and deserves further study. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  18. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita N Lavides

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay. We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, African pompano (Alectis ciliaris, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large

  19. Classification of Whole Sky Infrared Cloud Image Based on the LBP Operator%基于LBP算法的全天空红外云图的分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学金; 刘磊; 高太长; 赵世军

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification method of sky-condition based on whole sky infrared cloud image, where the Local Binary Patterns(LBP) operator and the contrast of local cloud image tex-ture(VAR signal) are used to classify sky conditions. The correspondence relationship between tradi-tional cloud classes and instrument-measured cloud classes is suggested;and the LBP spectra and VAR characteristics for the five classes of stratus, cumulus, undulatus, cirrus clouds and clear sky are ana-lyzed. The classification correct rates for the above five classes in the class-recognition of 274 cloud im-age samples are 100. 0%, 84. 2%, 70. 3%, 64. 7%, and 99.0%, respectively, with an average of 87.2%.%利用局部二值模式(Local Binary Patterns,LBP),结合局部云图的方差信息(VAR),对全天空红外测云系统获得的红外云图进行了分类研究.首先建立了器测云状分类与传统分类的对应关系,其次分析了层状云、积状云、波状云、卷云和晴空5种类型天空的LBP谱和VAR特征,最后对274个样本进行了分类识别,并与人工观测结果比较,结果表明,层状云、积状云、波状云、卷云和晴空的识别正确率分别为100.0%、84.2%、70.3%、64.7%、99.0%,平均正确率达到87.2%.

  20. Depth refuge and the impacts of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Lindfield

    Full Text Available In recent decades, spearfishing with SCUBA has emerged as an efficient method for targeting reef fish in deeper waters. However, deeper waters are increasingly recognised as a potential source of refuge that may help sustain fishery resources. We used a combination of historical catch data over a 20-year time period and fishery-independent surveys to investigate the effects of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fish populations in the southern Mariana Islands. Two jurisdictions were studied; Guam, where SCUBA spearfishing is practiced, and the nearby Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, where SCUBA spearfishing has been banned since 2003. Fishery-independent data were collected using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs stratified by depth, marine protected area status and jurisdiction. Herbivores (primary consumers dominated spearfishing catches, with parrotfish (scarines and surgeonfish/unicornfish (acanthurids the main groups harvested. However, the large, endangered humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus was the main species by weight landed by SCUBA spearfishers. SCUBA spearfishing was associated with declining size of scarines over time and catches shifting from a dominance of large parrotfishes to a mixed assemblage with increasing proportions of acanthurids. Comparisons between Guam and the nearby CNMI revealed differences in the assemblage of fished species and also greater size of scarines and acanthurids in deep water where SCUBA fishing is banned. These results suggest that SCUBA spearfishing impacts reef fish populations and that the restriction of this fishing method will ensure refuge for fish populations in deeper waters. We recommend a ban on SCUBA spearfishing to preserve or aid the recovery of large, functionally important coral reef species and to improve the sustainability of coral reef fisheries.

  1. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers’ Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Aileen C.; Rushton, Stephen P.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers’ recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers’ reports of typical good days’ catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers’ knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet

  2. Sensory development and its relation to habitat change in three species of sciaenids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, K R; Fuiman, L A

    1998-01-01

    Visual and mechanosensory development of three sciaenid species was investigated to examine possible correlations between sensory morphology and patterns of habitat use. Although the three species have different migration patterns as early larvae, few differences in sensory morphology occurred between species until late in the larval period. Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus, were distinguished by enhancements of visual morphology (large eyes, abundant photoreceptors, and best summation of the three species). Croaker arrive inshore later in the larval period and, after settlement, appear to use deeper water habitats than do the other two species. Spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, had the fewest enhancements of visual morphology but had more free neuromasts than the other two species late in the larval period. After settlement, seatrout are primarily associated with seagrass habitats. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, did not have pronounced specialization of one sensory system, as did the other two species. For part of the larval period, neuromast numbers were higher in red drum than in the other two species. Later, enhancements of visual morphology did occur, but only eye and lens size were the same as those of Atlantic croaker. Red drum larvae appear to use a wider variety of habitats than do the other two species. In none of the species examined did sensory changes correlate with offshore to inshore movements, and only initial rod formation occurred prior to settlement. Distinct sensory changes did not occur concurrent with habitat changes, probably due to constructional and phylogenetic constraints. Rather, sensory differences are related to the environmental conditions in the predominant inshore habitat occupied by each species after settlement, when morphological limitations are less severe. PMID:9807012

  3. Optimization of PCR conditions to amplify microsatellite loci in the bunchgrass lizard (Sceloporus slevini genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Orgeix Christian A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, also called Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs, repetitions of nucleotide motifs of 1-5 bases, are currently the markers of choice due to their abundant distribution in the genomes, and suitability for high-throughput analysis. A total of five different primer pairs were optimized for polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify microsatellite loci in total genomic DNA of bunchgrass lizards (Sceloporus slevini collected from three sites in southeastern Arizona; the Sonoita Plain, Chiricahua Mountains and Huachuca Mountains. Findings The primers used for current investigation were originally designed for the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus. Five primer pairs were selected based on annealing temperatures for optimizing the PCR conditions to amplify with bunchgrass lizards. Different concentrations of DNA and annealing temperature were optimized. While keeping other reagents constant, a DNA concentration, 37.5 ng in the final reaction volume and PCR conditions of an initial denaturation of 94°C for five minutes, an annealing temperature of 55°C and final extension of 72°C for four minutes gave the best amplification for all the primer pairs. Conclusions Modifying the standard protocol for annealing temperatures and final extension time increases the success of cross amplification of specific microsatellite loci in the bunchgrass lizard. A loading volume of 5 ul DNA at a concentration of 10 ng/ul and a 2% agarose for gel electrophoresis were observed the best for cross amplification of selected five primer pairs on bunch grass lizard. Trial Registration The research was conducted with Arizona Game and Fish Department scientific collecting permits SP565256, SP657407 & SP749119 to Dr. Christian A d'Orgeix.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR (DRD4 GENE SEQUENCE WITHIN AND AMONG NON MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Khandelwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of polymorphic tandem repeats in human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 have been identified in the exons, including a 12-bp repeat in the first exon and a 48-bp repeat in exon III located in the third cytoplasmic loop. However, to determine whether the tandem repeats is specific to humans or not, we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 Exon III tandem repeats in public available nucleotide sequences from 13 different non mammalian species. We found that the tandem repeat was composed of 21-bp modules in sequences from the Mycobacterium smegmatis str. MC2 155, Salinibacter ruber DSM 13855, Danio rerio, Parus major, Corvus macrorhynchos, and Coturnix japonica. A tandem repeat consisting of 30-bp modules was identified in sequence from Melopsittacus undulates while in the Phalacrocorax capillatus and Numida meleagris we identified tandem repeats composed of 3-bp modules. Tandem repeats could not be identified in sequences from Carassius auratus, Phasianus colchicus and Gallus gallus. To understand the evolutionary history of the Exon I region of DRD4—which in humans contains a polymorphic 12bp tandem duplication, a polymorphic 13bp deletion, and other rare variants—we examined the homologous exon in these different species. There was a low degree of similarity between the sequences of bacterial species and those from members of the piscean and avian and with human sequence. We identified transmembrane domain of DRD4 gene and signature of G-protein coupled receptors in the amino acid sequences. The number of transmembrane segments varied pronouncedly between species from 0 to 7 and signature of G-protein coupled receptors was found only in piscean species and was also identified in one avian species (parus major. These findings suggest that an association between Drd4 gene polymorphisms and animal personality variation predates the divergence of the non mammalian and mammalian lineages. Furthermore, the analysis of

  5. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  6. Can birds perceive rhythmic patterns? A review and experiments on a songbird and a parrot species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eSpierings

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1 recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2 the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However

  7. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  8. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  9. Seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of finfish and selected invertebrates in coastal lagoons of northeastern Florida, 2002-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtora, Michael; Schotman, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a survey of juvenile fisheries resources, in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and Volusia County, to establish baseline data on spatial and temporal distribution patterns of estuarine fish. The survey was conducted from November 2001 to March 2005 and the baseline data established for the survey in the Northern Coastal Basins were collected from January 2002 to December 2004. The study area included the bar-built estuaries ranging from just north of St. Augustine, Florida, south to Ponce de Leon Inlet. Sampling protocols developed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute for their statewide Fisheries Independent Monitoring (FIM) program were replicated to allow for comparability with FIM program results. Samples were collected monthly from randomly selected stations based on a geographically stratified design. Finfish and selected invertebrates were collected using a 21.3-meter center-bag seine with a 3-millimeter mesh, and a 6.1-meter otter trawl with a 3-millimeter mesh liner. Total estimated fish and selected invertebrate densities were similar to estimates from FIM projects in adjacent areas and were characterized by similar dominant species. Preliminary analysis indicates that observed species distribution patterns were mainly a function of proximity to the three inlets within the study area. The two regions encompassing the northern Tolomato River and the Tomoka River and Basin are farthest from inlets and appear to function as oligohaline nursery areas. Those two areas had the greatest estimated densities of shellfish and juvenile sciaenid (drum) species associated with oligohaline waters (for example, Micropogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus and Cynoscion nebulosus). Samples near inlets, and between the two northern inlets, had greater estimated densities of species limited to euhaline waters, including juvenile clupeids collected at relatively high abundance and species of

  10. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role

  11. 人为因素与哈尔滨第三次鼠疫大流行%Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金东英; 李志平

    2011-01-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man - made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people' s efforts, the plague was effectively controlled.%哈尔滨第三次鼠疫流行始发于1946年,终止于1954年.与前两次由外来传入不同,第三次鼠疫流行是当地原发与外地传人兼有.其中,当地原发是由人为因素造成的.日军在哈尔滨市平房区建立细菌武器研制中心后,强占土地,设立禁区,致使自然环境发生变化,为黄鼠种群数量的稳定创造了条件.1945年,日军投降前夕,为掩盖其罪行,将设在哈尔滨平房区的"731部队"细菌工厂炸毁,致使大批染疫鼠蚤扩散,传染了平房及其周围地区的鼠类,最终导致人为鼠疫疫源地的形成.哈尔滨市第三次鼠疫流行期间,各级防疫部门采取了一系列措施,在广大人民群众多年的努力下,人间鼠疫和鼠间鼠疫得到有效控制,但哈尔滨市鼠疫疫源地并未根除.

  12. 动物园鹦鹉科鸟类H5 N1禽流感疫苗免疫后效果监测%Immune Effect Monitoring of H5N1 Type Avian Influenza for Some Species of Captive Psittacid Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 吴秀山; 张成林; 张金国

    2012-01-01

    Over the years,captive birds of Beijing Zoo were given the AIV vaccine immunization in strict accordance with government mandate.But the immune effects of different bird species after vaccination have not been studied.The purpose of this study was to explore the immune effects of commercial avian influenza vaccine in birds and the immune response of different species to the vaccines.Species of captive psittacid birds were selected for study.Birds were immunized with avian influenza H5N1 subtype vaccine.We then used the test of hemagglutinin(HA)and hemagglutination inhibition(HI)to monitor antibody levels and to assess immune effects.Birds immunized only one time generally showed low immune response,i.e.the immune effect was not ideal.Based on this result,we chose Budgerigar(Melopsittacus undulatus)for further study in which we adjusted the immunization procedure to gain better immune effects.This provided a scientific basis for developing immunization procedures for other species of wild birds.%多年来动物园虽然严格按照国家强制要求对园内饲养的野生鸟类进行禽流感疫苗的免疫接种工作,但是对于接种后各种鸟类免疫效果的问题仍未有研究。本次研究主要目的为探究圈养鸟类免疫商品化禽流感疫苗后的免疫效果如何,以及各个物种对疫苗的免疫应答水平是否相同。实验中选取动物园几种圈养小型鹦鹉科鸟类为实验对象,对其进行禽流感H5N1亚型疫苗免疫接种后,利用血凝(HA)及血凝抑制(HI)实验监测禽流感抗体水平变化规律,评估免疫效果。从初步的实验结果发现,鹦鹉科鸟类仅接种一次商品化禽流感疫苗,其免疫应答水平普遍偏低,免疫效果不理想。根据实验结果,尝试性地以虎皮鹦鹉为实验对象,尝试调整免疫程序后再次进行禽流感疫苗的免疫接种,通过多次尝试找出较好的免疫程序,使得虎皮鹦鹉的禽流感疫苗免疫效果得到

  13. THE PROGRESS OF FORECAST RESEARCH ON IMPENDING VIOLENT EARTHQUAKES%大地震临震预测的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任振球; 李均之; 曾小苹

    2001-01-01

    Short-term and impending earthquake predictions are still well known hard challenges in the world. This paper summarizes the study progress on the impending earthquake prediction by Chinese scientists from the method of multi-subject intersection and the internal and external factors coupling. Depending on very hard work during recent years, they get some important signals of predicting impending earthquakes, including the anomalies of infrasonic sound wave, crustal stress, behavior of budgerigars, general geoelectric, geomagnetic, satellite heat infrared and high frequency gravity pulsation. The authors have discovered an important triggering factor of a violent earthquakes—the abnormal superimposition of tide-generating force resonance from typical analysis and compared all astronomical and geophysical factors. Based on these, the examinational immediate prediction has been carried out by combining the tide-generating force resonance with the impending signals for last six years.The results show that the successful ratio of three basic elements of earthquake prediction accounts for 40% . At last, the authors give some views on the impending violent earthquake problem.%短临地震预报尤其是临震预报,是当今国内外公认的世界性科学难点。文章综述了中国科学家从多学科交叉和内外因耦合的科学途径,已在大地震临震信号方面获得了次声波异常、地应力突跳、虎皮鹦鹉跳跃异常、地电和地磁异常、卫星红外异常、重力高频脉冲等临震预测的手段。笔者通过典型分析和普查对比各种地球物理因子和各种天文因子可能影响的整体研究,找到了大地震临震的主要触发因子——以月亮为主的非经典引潮力共振的异常叠加。在此基础上,采取内外因耦合的途径和方法,在6 a多来联合进行的临震预测内部试验表明,地震三要素均基本正确的成功率已达40%。最后,还对临震预报问题提出了一些看法。

  14. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of