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Sample records for buddhism

  1. Buddhism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism.......Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism....

  2. THE OUTSTANDING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUDDHISM

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    Vimala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The outstanding characteristics of Buddhism are the fundamental features of Buddhism to understand clearly what Buddhism is. There is no secret doctrine in Buddhism. Everything Buddha taught is open to the public for investigation or for understanding. Buddhism allows not only freedom of thought but also tolerance. Buddhism is self-reliance and self-responsibility without relying on any other. There is no caste system and distinction in enlightenment between men and women in Buddhism.

  3. Two Buddhisms, Three Buddhisms, and Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Wakoh Shannon Hickey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, observers of American Buddhism have created numerous typologies to describe different categories of Buddhists in the United States. These taxonomies use different criteria to categorize groups: style of practice, degree of institutional stability, mode of transmission to the U.S., ethnicity, etc. Each reveals some features of American Buddhism and obscures others. None accounts adequately for hybrids or for long-term changes within categories. Most include a div...

  4. THE OUTSTANDING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUDDHISM

    OpenAIRE

    Vimala

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding characteristics of Buddhism are the fundamental features of Buddhism to understand clearly what Buddhism is. There is no secret doctrine in Buddhism. Everything Buddha taught is open to the public for investigation or for understanding. Buddhism allows not only freedom of thought but also tolerance. Buddhism is self-reliance and self-responsibility without relying on any other. There is no caste system and distinction in enlightenment between men and wo...

  5. Buddhism and Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Padmal

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the relevance of the principles and practices of Buddhism to the field of counseling. As Buddhism espouses the notion of a productive and healthy life, it offers ways of dealing with problems and difficulties, and of improving psychological well-being. Cites examples of relevant Buddhist techniques and their application. (JPS)

  6. Two Buddhisms, Three Buddhisms, and Racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakoh Shannon Hickey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, observers of American Buddhism have created numerous typologies to describe different categories of Buddhists in the United States. These taxonomies use different criteria to categorize groups: style of practice, degree of institutional stability, mode of transmission to the U.S., ethnicity, etc. Each reveals some features of American Buddhism and obscures others. None accounts adequately for hybrids or for long-term changes within categories. Most include a divide between convert Buddhists, characterized as predominantly Caucasian, and “heritage” or “ethnic” Buddhists, characterized as Asian immigrants and refugees, as well as their descendants. This article examines several typologies, and considers two dynamics: the effects of white racism on the development of American Buddhist communities; and the effects of unconscious white privilege in scholarly discourse about these communities. It critiques “ethnic” categories and proposes other ways to conceptualize the diverse forms of Buddhism outside Asia.

  7. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    Zen Buddhist ideas and practices in many ways are unique within the study of religion, and artists, poets and Buddhists practitioners worldwide have found inspiration from this tradition. Until recent years, representations of Zen Buddhism have focussed almost entirely on philosophical, historical...... religiosity and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity...

  8. Buddhism in Muslim Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Steenbrink

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various ways in which Buddhists and Muslims have lived together in Indonesia since the arrival of Islam about 1200. It tells how Buddhism has slowly disappeared and become a religion for mainly the Chinese who, until the late 19th century, have often converted to Islam. This article analyzes the role of three key figures in the recent government–supported revival of Buddhism. These figures are the Chinese–Indonesian monk Ashin Jinarakkhita, the Balin...

  9. Spread of Buddhism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The spread of Buddhism to China began at the beginning of the first century, when Indian Buddhism spread inland along the Silk Road to Xinjiang. Centered in Chang’an (present-day Xi’an) and Luoyang, Buddhism slowly spread across the country, eventually taking root in

  10. A Secular Buddhism

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    Stephen Batchelor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the possibility of a complete secular redefinition of Buddhism. It argues that such a secular re-formation would go beyond modifying a traditional Buddhist school, practice or ideology to make it more compatible with modernity, but would involve rethinking the core ideas on which the very notion of “Buddhism” is based. Starting with a critical reading of the four noble truths, as presented in the Buddha’s first discourse, the author proposes that instead of thinking of awakening in terms of “truths” to be understood one thinks of it in terms of “tasks” to be accomplished. Such a pragmatic approach may open up the possibility of going beyond the belief-based metaphysics of classical Indian soteriology (Buddhism 1.0 to a praxis-based, post-metaphysical vision of the dharma (Buddhism 2.0.

  11. Introduction to Zen Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Virginia

    A lesson plan, divided into four learning activities, introduces the topic of Zen Buddhism by presenting one of many possible approaches to the academic study of religion in a secondary setting. The lesson plan is designed for integration into world history, global studies, or sociology classes in secondary schools. Learning activity one focuses…

  12. KING ASHOKA AND BUDDHISM

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    SURAJ KUMAR SUMAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Ashoka (304-232 BCE was the third king of the Maurya Dynasty. Heruled a truly massive kingdom that stretched from the Hindu Kush to the Bay of Bengal.It was India's first great empire. It is not just that Ashoka ably ruled this huge empire butthe quality of social justice that he brought to his already strong administration.Remorseful after his bloody campaign and conquest of Kalinga, Ashokaembraced Buddhism. Thereafter reverence for life, tolerance, compassion and peacefulco-existence were the cornerstones of his administration. Under him the earliest knowbans on slavery and capital punishment as well as environmental regulations came intoplace.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHISM IN KANCHIPURAM

    OpenAIRE

    G. INDIRAJITH

    2012-01-01

    Kanchipuram was the home of the various religious movements of India. In south India Buddhism and Jainism reached their zenith here, Saivism and Vaishnavism had their beginnings at Kanchi. There are relics of every religious movement, which reached South India, Buddhist stupas and statues, Jaina shrines, Saivite and Vaishnavite temples. The various cultural streams met here-Aryan and Dravidian, Vedic and nonVedic, Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. This paper portrays on development of Buddhism in Kac...

  14. Buddhism In Salinger's Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文铁; 郝利群

    2004-01-01

    Salinger was strongly influenced by Buddhism, so in his works the philosophy of Buddhism was clearly seen everywhere. His characters are all his spokesmen of his Buddhist philosophy, and the following essay exemplifies his philoeophical thinking through his representative works.

  15. Buddhism: A Brief Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jerry

    The annotated bibliography lists 48 articles, atlases, dictionaries, bibliographies, and general and subject indexes on Buddhism. The bibliography is intended to provide college students with an introduction to the more complex literature of Buddhism and to stimulate further research and study. Topics include the history of Buddhism; the practice…

  16. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  17. Buddhism in the West: Phases, Orders and the Creation of an Integrative Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Following Heinz Bechert's proposal to distinguish Buddhist history by periods into a canonical, traditional and modern Buddhism, the paper focuses on the form and characteristics Buddhism has started to take in the incipient period of post-modernity. As one prominent feature of post-modern or global Buddhism, approaches are found particularly in the modern contexts of Western, industrialized societies. Part One of the paper sketches the chronological and geographical dissesmination of Buddhis...

  18. Pain Perception in Buddhism Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikakul, Waraporn; Waikakul, Saranatra

    2016-08-01

    Dhamma, which Lord Buddha has presented to people after his enlightenment, analyzes every phenomenon and objects into their ultimate elements. The explanation of sensory system is also found in a part of Dhamma named Abhidhammapitaka, the Book of the Higher Doctrine in Buddhism. To find out the relationship between explanation of pain in the present neuroscience and the explanation of pain in Abhidhamma, the study was carried out by the use of a comprehensive review. The comparisons were in terms of peripheral stimulation, signal transmission, modulation, perception, suffering, determination and decision making for the responding to pain. We found that details of the explanation on pain mechanism and perception in Abhidhamma could associate well with our present scientific knowledge. Furthermore, more refinement information about the process and its function in particular aspects of pain perception were provided in Abhidhammapitaka. PMID:26112611

  19. Buddhism as Orientalism on American Cultural Landscape: The Cinematic Orientalization of Tibetan (Tantric Buddhism

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    Che-ming Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will just cite two American movies—Little Buddha and Music and Lyrics—to illustrate how (Tibetan Buddhism (or Dharma has long been misrepresented and Orientalized on American cultural landscape. Since its spread to the West in the 19thcentury, Buddhism has long been a target or source in the Westerners’ creation of Orientalism in the arts or even mass media. In mass media, Buddhism (especially Tibetan Buddhism has long been a source for commercial films (e.g. The Little Buddha, directed by Bertrolucci in 1993. Some of them may have been an attempt to present Buddhism as some Oriental spiritual practice or an Oriental mysticism that looks appealing to the American/Western audience and thus satisfies the Westerners’ exotic taste. Reasons of the Americanization or secularization of Buddhism may be caused by Buddhist diasporas that lead to the alienation and contestation of Dharma in a Christian context. Hence, misinterpretation is the way of understanding/interpreting a new culture. On the other hand, the misrepresentation is an inevitable phenomenon when an idea or object is translated into a foreign culture in which there is no equivalent to the idea/object. Since cinema is a main medium for public entertainment and commercial profit in the contemporary postmodern world, it could easily reflect the mass consensus of some cultural phenomenon. Hence, the misinterpretations or stereotypes of Buddhism revealed on the American cinema at least highlight the emerging need and popularity of the Dharma/Buddhism in western spiritual practice as well as its decline.

  20. The Art of Buddhism. A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Krista; Benskin, Elizabeth

    While the art of Buddhism has an enduring tradition throughout Asia, this teaching guide focuses on the cultures of three countries in which the Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler Galleries' collections are particularly strong: India, China, and Japan. The guide identifies grade level appropriateness for some lessons and activities. It contains 15…

  1. The Adulthood of Buddhahood: Buddhism, Lifelong Learning and the Education of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Buddhism as a philosophy of education is examined through discussion of the three trainings: ethics, meditative stabilization, and special wisdom. Tantric Buddhism and Protestant Christianity are compared. (SK)

  2. SOCIO - POLITICAL IDEOLOGY IN THERAVADA BUDDHISM

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    A Shin Sobita Dhama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The socio-political ideology in Buddhism is the vital ethics which lead to co-existence in peace with mutual understanding and respect and fundamental philosophy to realize the reason of reality and existence, to solve the problems in any society. It has played an important role in shaping the spiritual, philosophical, and social modes of in the eastern world. Many social laws, cultures, and traditions in the east have been dominated by the Buddha’s doctrine. Buddha is a vast source of inspiration in the arts and sciences in education.

  3. Buddhism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Manchuria

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    James Carter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to characterize Tanxu’s experiences in Manchuria and north China between 1920 and 1945, focusing especially on the war years. Tanxu’s actions during this time have been seen, broadly, in three different ways. First, as examples of Chinese nationalism, or "cultural patriotism," and thus resistance to Japanese encroachment; second, as accommodation of, if not collaboration with, the Japanese; and third—what Tanxu himself proclaimed—as apolitical actions intended to promote Buddhism. I attempt to reconcile these views in order to understand how Tanxu’s Buddhist activism can contribute to our understanding of the complex and controversial categories of resistance and collaboration.

  4. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

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    Tadayoshi Murakami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional—from Myanmar to Thailand— and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid border crossing of people, goods, and information in spite of rigid border control by the Thai government. In the religious sphere, the Thai government has been institutionalizing and standardizing “Thai Buddhism” since the early twentieth century. The government’s efforts seem to have succeeded, resulting in the unified organization of “State Sangha” and a systematized curriculum for monastic education. In the process, local Sanghas (Buddhist monastic communities in the kingdom have been integrated into the State Sangha of Thailand. However, Shan Buddhism in the border area has not been totally assimilated into Thai Buddhism and maintains its unique seasonal festivals, religious rites of passage, practices using Shan manuscripts, and temple architecture. By focusing on the movement of people in the border area, where strong state control and a porous border coexist, this paper analyzes the important role of border migration in the continuation and development of Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand.

  5. A Brief Introduction to the Tibetan Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Despite the rolling of high plateau and stunning Himalayas, Tibet has a nickname of “Holy Land” with its ancient history and colorful culture. Refered as Shangri-La, the roof of the world and many more, the mysterious kingdom remained closed to others, exerting a strong hold on the imagination of the world. For centuries, it has fascinated mankind in various ways. Its religion is one of astonishing one. Here we have questions! What is Tibetan Buddhism about? How many sects it has? What about each one's doctrine? Have you ever known its architectures, its religious arts, as well as its incarnation of Living Buddha? People feel curious about its powerful inspiration and cohesive strength,

  6. A Visual Narration of Hells in Buddhism and Islam

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    Ary Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of the Hell’s Tortures both in Buddhism and in Islam is exactly similar. However, their kind of ‘theological’ tendencies may result different outcome. By comparing the visual narration of the Buddhism and Islamic comic books dealing with hell illustrations, I made an‘imaginary’ dialogue between the concept and visuality of hells tortures that exist in both traditions, and see the impact on how far a sincere dialogue could be achieved in these two religious people. During this comparison, I found that both Buddhism and Islam in Java had ever made such an interesting dialogue.Keywords: Hell tortures, Islam-Buddhism comparison, encounter of Java-IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i1.995

  7. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

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    Anna Halafoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008 posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in recent years, a comprehensive analysis of Buddhism in Australia, and particularly its impact on Australian life and culture, is yet to be conducted. This paper argues that such a study is both timely and necessary, given that Buddhism is the second largest religion in Australia, and we appear to be entering an "Asian century."

  8. Dr. Ambedkar's Dhamma and the Untouchables' Conversion to Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The starting point of this thesis is the mass conversion to Buddhism, in Nagpur in October 1956. The people who converted were all untouchables, and most of them were Maharashtrian Mahars, the caste to which Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956) belonged. Ambedkar was the undisputed leader of the conversion movement, and it was due him his followers chose Buddhism. In 1935, he said he would leave Hinduism. I try to understand how Ambedkar provided legitimacy and support for the conversion to...

  9. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Halafoff; Ruth Fitzpatrick; Kim Lam

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008) posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in re...

  10. Buddhism in the United States: an Ethnographic Study

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    Jaeyeon Choe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Buddhism in America, an neglected area of inquiry in anthropological study. There is a need for modern ethnographic studies to shed light on historical issues, paradigms for comparative inquiry, and thus, explore the impact of Buddhism on modern American society (Glazier, 1997. The enormous growth of Buddhism in the last quarter century (Smith, 2002 makes this an especially pertinent topic in American anthropology. We utilize Glazier’s model to add Buddhism as a topic in the area of modernity studies. This is a preliminary study of the nature of Buddhism in America. We conducted participant observation with a Buddhist meditation group in a north eastern state in the US for four months in the spring of 2010. Based on our preliminary ethnographic data, we believe that a unique perspectives of Buddhism in America can be identified: non-religious and therapeutic involvement or use of Buddhism. Also, new forms of practice become evident, for example, ‘walking meditation’ and ‘bowing to other Buddhists,’ are identified as characteristics of Buddhism in America. It is interesting to note that at the end of meditation sessions, participants not only bow to the Buddha statue, but also bow to each other. This is a unique ritual dynamic which appears to be consistent with the worldview of American people - being equal and individual. The meditation group also practiced ‘walking meditation’ which is easy to do in everyday life. Additionally, we observed that American meditation rooms provide additional cushions to sit on which are a further element, along with walking meditation, which help American beginners to meditate more easily. These study observations shed light on the current situation by providing new lenses from which to understand and focus on different ritual performances/interpretations of Buddhism, and their meanings and functions in society. The most important reflection is that religious change is not an

  11. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

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    Vegard Skirbekk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of religion on demographic behaviors has been extensively studied mainly for Abrahamic religions. Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively little research attention. Objective: This paper draws upon a variety of data sources in different countries in Asia in order to test our hypothesis that Buddhism is related to low fertility. Methods: Religious differentials in terms of period fertility in three nations (India, Cambodia and Nepal and cohort fertility in three case studies (Mongolia, Thailand and Japan are analyzed. The analyses are divided into two parts: descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results: Our results suggest that Buddhist affiliation tends to be negatively or not associated with childbearing outcomes, controlling for education, region of residence, age and marital status. Although the results vary between the highly diverse contextual and institutional settings investigated, we find evidence that Buddhist affiliation or devotion is not related to elevated fertility across these very different cultural settings. Conclusions: Across the highly diverse cultural and developmental contexts under which the different strains of Buddhism dominate, the effect of Buddhism is consistently negatively or insignificantly related to fertility. These findings stand in contrast to studies of Abrahamic religions that tend to identify a positive link between religiosity and fertility.

  12. The Coming of Secular Buddhism: a Synoptic View

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    Winton Higgins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Secular Buddhism is coalescing today in response to two main factors. First, it rejects the incoherence of Buddhist modernism, a protean formation that accommodates elements as far afield as ancestral Buddhism and psychotherapies claiming the Buddhist brand. Second, it absorbs the cultural influence of modern secularity in the West. Historically understood, secularity has constituted a centuries-long religious development, not a victory of "science" over "religion." Today's secularity marks a further stage in the cultural decline of "enchanted" truth-claims and the intellectual eclipse of metaphysics, especially under the aegis of phenomenology. In Buddhism as in Christianity, secularity brings forth a new humanistic approach to ethical-spiritual life and creative this-worldly practices.

  13. Interpreting the Diamond Way: Contemporary Convert Buddhism in Transition

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    Burkhard Scherer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the broader issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. It looks at the Diamond Way, a contemporary Karma bKa' brgyud lay movement founded by the Danish lay teacher Ole Nydahl. The paper aims to open this area of study by employing a balanced approach between a hermeneutics of suspicion and a hermeneutics of trust, and by adding the historical-critical approach of Tibetan Buddhist Studies to the perspectives of sociology and cultural anthropology. Acknowledging Nydahl as both a charismatic and controversial figure within contemporary Buddhism, the discussion focuses on notions of lay and yogi Buddhism in the Diamond Way and on the question of westernization in Diamond Way practices. The paper concludes by raising questions about the future, continuity and change of Nydahl's heritage after his death.

  14. Building More Solid Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugamura, Genji; Haruki, Yutaka; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2007-01-01

    Introducing the ways of cultivating mental balance, B. A. Wallace and S. L. Shapiro attempted to build bridges between Buddhism and psychology. Their systematic categorization of Buddhist teachings and extensive review of empirical support from Western psychology are valuable for future study. However, it remains a matter of concern that some more…

  15. Non-Buddhist Buddhism and non-Christian Christianity in Japan

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    Harry Thomsen

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Religions in Japan, is in disguise a real renascence of Buddhism. That, for one thing, it forces Buddhism into accommodating and streamlining for the new age at a much more rapid pace than would otherwise have been possible, and that, for another, the New Religions themselves in reality represent Buddhism with its fantastic ability to change. It may to some extent be said that Buddhism is a religious idea in constant movement more than a religion as such—and some observers might be tempted to say that Buddhism, as represented by the New Religions, has moved so far that it has been cut off from its roots and no more is master of its development. The Buddhist will probably answer that this is exactly the main pride of Buddhism, that it always accommodates, that it thrives on syncretism and religious cocktails, that it is always in evergreen renascence, modern to all times.

  16. Japanese psychoanalysis and Buddhism: the making of a relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Christopher

    2014-05-19

    This article explores the making of a relationship between Japanese psychoanalysis and Buddhism, in the life and work of Kosawa Heisaku. Kosawa did not work out the compatibility of psychoanalysis with Buddhism in abstract, theoretical terms; rather, he understood them as two different articulations of the same practical approach to living well. He saw this approach in action in the lives of Freud and Shinran, the latter a thirteenth-century Japanese Buddhist reformer. For Kosawa, both individuals exemplified the 'true religious state of mind', at the achievement of which Kosawa understood psychoanalytic psychotherapy as ideally aiming. This article uses newly available documentary and interview material to examine the historical dynamics both of Kosawa's work in this area and of the broader 'religion-psy dialogue' of which it is an early example. PMID:24840215

  17. THE DEPENDENT ORIGINATION IN THEREVÂDA BUDDHISM

    OpenAIRE

    Janaka; C. Balu

    2014-01-01

    The doctrine of paticcasamuppada [dependent origination] taught by the Buddha is profound; consequently, majority of people cannot understand the law of dependent origination. Nonetheless, it is as valid today as it was when the Buddha explained the doctrine to Ven. Ananda some 2500 years ago. The doctrine of dependent origination, the core of Buddhism, is so difficult to comprehend that people commit serious errors in understanding it, and thereby distort the Buddha Dhamma.

  18. What buddhism taught cognitive science about self, mind and brain

    OpenAIRE

    Federman, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    In the past twenty years, new optimism about the relevance of Buddhism to cognitive science has been expressed by a number of established researchers. In this article I ask what are the conceptual roots of this optimism, and which forms of development it inspired, with particular focus on selfhood, embodiment and meditation. The latter contains three distinct points of contact that are also reviewed: the introduction of first person methods, neuroscientific research of meditation, and using m...

  19. ROLE OF BUDDHISM IN EMANCIPATION OF WOMEN IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kranti Gawali

    2014-01-01

    The understanding about status of women in India and their empowerment needs to also take into account the contribution of Buddhism towards their emancipation.This paper traces the changes in the status of women in India from the pre-buddhist times to the current .Social reformers and constitution maker were influnced by the Buddhist ideology of equality and spiritual development of women ,which reveals through their social reform activities aimed at women's empowerment.Resear...

  20. Buddhism among Tamils in Tamilakam and Īlam : Part 3 - Extension and Conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This book is the result of a conference in Bangkok in January 2012 mainly financed by Vetenskapsrådet in Stockholm (426-2011-1299). In Bangkok, not only pre-colonial Buddhism among Tamils was discussed but also Buddhism during the colonial and post-colonial period, like the Buddhism of Pēriyar, of the Ambedkar movement inYālppāṇam (Jaffna) in the 1950s, and the expansion of siṃhala budusamayam (Siṃhala Buddhism) into areas of Tamil speakers. The field of Buddhist Studies—in Europe and the Ame...

  1. Between Buddhism and Science, Between Mind and Body

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    Geoffrey Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism has been seen, at least since the Theravāda reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as particularly compatible with Western science. The recent explosion of Mindfulness therapies have strengthened this perception. However, the 'Buddhism' which is being brought into relation with science in the context of the Mindfulness movement has already undergone extensive rewriting under modernist influences, and many of the more critical aspects of Buddhist thought and practice are dismissed or ignored. The Mind and Life Institute encounters, under the patronage of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, present a different kind of dialogue, in which a Tibetan Buddhism which is only beginning to undergo modernist rewriting confronts Western scientists and scholars on more equal terms. However, is the highly sophisticated but radically other world of Tantric thought really compatible with contemporary science? In this article I look at problem areas within the dialogue, and suggest that genuine progress is most likely to come if we recognise the differences between Buddhist thought and contemporary science, and take them as an opportunity to rethink scientific assumptions.

  2. Conceptions and Misconceptions about "Western Buddhism": Issues and Approaches for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkwitz, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    This article responds to the exponential growth in academic textbooks on Western or American Buddhism by arguing that popular trade books written by Buddhist teachers in the West make more effective tools for teaching and learning about the growth of Buddhism in western societies. The use of such texts in the classroom provides students with…

  3. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

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    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of Buddhism's Contextualisation to the English RE Classroom

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    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    In a preliminary study, 20 "migrant" Buddhist parents and children from England participated in semi-structured interviews to compare their home nurture with classroom presentation of Buddhism. In the home Buddhism received more time allocation and was presented mainly by the mother and monks--the content being that of "perpetuating structures",…

  5. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

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    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  6. Buddhism in Čampā Le Bouddhisme au Champa

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    Anne-Valérie Schweyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Čampā is a Far East country, whose Māhāyana Buddhism is known from 7th to 14th century. In fact, Sanskrit and Cam Inscriptions mostly attested Tantric practices, belonging to the Vajrāyana Buddhism, mixing Śaiva and Buddhist believes. More precisely, side by side Śiva and the three Buddha’ emanations, Śākyamuni, Amitābha and Vairocana, are honoured in Čampā, alone with the Goddess Prajñāpāramitā, the true substance of the Doctrine, and, secondary, with Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara and Vajrasattva. The confrontation of the epigraphic testimonies with the archaeological remains is very useful to understand the Buddhism of Čampā, crossroads of trade roads between India and China. Therefore, epigraphic and artistic evidences are used to propose a chronological presentation, with a special development on the revival of the 10th century, and especially, the esoteric way.Le Čampā, pays du centre Vietnam, connut un bouddhisme Māhāyana du xe au xive siècle. Les inscriptions en sanskrit et en cam montrent que ce bouddhisme était essentiellement tantrique, relevant du bouddhisme Vajrāyana, mêlant pratiques Śivaïtes et bouddhiques. Plus précisément, le bouddhisme cam montre qu’aux côtés de Śiva sont honorées les trois émanations du Bouddha, Śākyamuni, Amitābha et Vairocana, avec la déesse Prajñāpāramitā, la Vraie Substance de la Connaissance ; on trouve également Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara et Vajrasattva. La confrontation des témoignages épigraphiques et archéologiques permet de mieux appréhender le bouddhisme cam, à la croisée des routes commerciales entre l’Inde et la Chine. Cet article exploite ces témoignages dans une perspective chronologique, avec un développement particulier pour le Bouddhisme ésotérique au xe siècle.

  7. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

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    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  8. THE CONCEPT OF KARMA AND SURVIVAL IN BUDDHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttamasara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to this Buddhist doctrine of re-becoming, there could be continuity of individuality in various planes of existence. Such survival, as the Kathāvatthu explains, is either in the gross material world (kāma-loka, the subtle world (rūpa-loka, or the immaterial world (arūpa-loka. There is no intermediate existence (antarābhava apart from existence in one of these three planes of becoming. Since human existence is a mixture of good and evil, the usual pattern as the texts make out is to survive as a discarnate spirit and come back to a human existence. The practice of Buddhism by the cultivation of faith (saddhā, virtue (sīla, learning (suta, selflessness (cāga and wisdom (pañña makes it possible for a person to determine his future birth on the human or celestial planes.

  9. Macho Buddhism: Gender and Sexualities in the Diamond Way

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    Burkhard Scherer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Western Tibetan Buddhist movements have been described as bourgeois and puritanical in previous scholarship. In contrast, Ole Nydahl’s convert lay Karma Kagyu Buddhist movement, the Diamond Way, has drawn attention for its apparently hedonistic style. Focussing on the interpretation of Nydahl’s approach to gender and sexualities, this paper addresses the wider issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. Nydahl’s pre-modern gender stereotyping, the hetero-machismo of the Diamond Way and the mildly homophobic tone and content of Nydahl’s teaching are interpreted on the background of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist sexual ethics and traditional Tibetan cultural attitudes on sexualities. By excavating the emic genealogy of Nydahl’s teachings, the paper suggests that Nydahl’s and the Diamond Way’s view on and performance of gender and sexualities are consistent with his propagation of convert Buddhist neo-orthodoxy.

  10. Aloha Buddha-the secularization of ethnic Japanese-American Buddhism

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    Jørn Borup

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The relations between religion, migration, transnationalism, pluralism, and ethnicity have gained increasing focus in religious, cultural, sociological, and anthropological studies. With its manifold transfigurations across time and location, Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues. Hawaii, with its long migration history and religious pluralism, is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion and ethnicity. By analyzing contemporary religious life and the historical context of two Japanese American Zen temples in Maui, it is argued that the ethnic and cultural divide related to spirituality follow a general tendency by which the secularization of Japanese Americans' communal Sangha Buddhism is counterbalanced by a different group's spiritualization of Buddhism

  11. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong; Wisanee Siltragool; Anchalee Chantapo

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve...

  12. Analysis of Scholarly Communication Activities in Buddhism and Buddhist Studies

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    Edoardo Magnone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge regarding the exchange of academic information on religious contexts. The objective of this informational study was to perform an overall analysis of all Buddhism-related communications collected in the Web of Science (WoS from 1993 to 2011. The studied informational parameters include the growth in number of the scholarly communications, as well as the language-, document-, subject category-, source-, country-, and organization-wise distribution of the communications. A total of 5407 scholarly communications in this field of study were published in the selected time range. The most preferred WoS subject category was Asian Studies with 1773 communications (22.81%, followed by Religion with 1425 communications (18.33% and Philosophy with 680 communications (8.75%. The journal with the highest mean number of citations is Numen: International Review for the History of Religions—with 2.09 citations in average per communication. The United States was the top productive country with 2159 communications (50%, where Harvard University topped the list of organization with 85 communications (12%.

  13. Liang Shu-min and Buddhism%梁漱溟与佛学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文儒

    2001-01-01

    Liang Shu-min was a celebrated figure in modern Chine se history,famous for his life principle “upright and independent, honest and frank". Speaking from his academic thought, he considered the essence of his thought was Confucianism and Buddhism. From the reasons why he believed in Buddhism, his contributions to Buddhism in India and his comparisons between the Buddhism and Confucianism, one can see that Liang Shu-min's Buddhism thought was not only an ideology he accepted but also the essential motive that he practiced all his life.%梁漱溟是中国现代史上一位著名人物。他以“特立独行、一代直声”饮誉后世。在学术思想上,他自认思想的根本是儒家和佛家。从他为什么会信佛和他对印度佛学研究的贡献及对于儒佛异同的比较等几个方面,可以看出梁漱溟佛学思想不只是他终身服膺的一种思想学说,也是他一生践履的根本动力。

  14. How Is Buddhism Relevant to Career Counseling in an International High School in Hong Kong? A Counsellor's Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vinci; Yuen, Mantak

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the relevance of Buddhism to counselling in general and to career counseling in particular by discussing a program implemented at an international school in Hong Kong. The authors provide an analysis of the pertinent literature related to relevant concepts within Buddhism. This topic has not yet been adequately researched…

  15. A Study of Gelug pa sect with comparison to Nyingma pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vijay Kumsr

    2002-01-01

    Short synopsis and layout of Chapters of the thesis entitled, “A study of Gelugpa sect with comparison to Nyingma Pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet”Around 2500 years ago, a prince of Sākya clan rose against the anguish of life & death and determined to find out the way through which these torments end. That prince was Siddhartha; and whole world came to know him by his enlightened name; Buddha; his path became famous after his name Buddhism. Centuries gone, millennium changed its numbers; still th...

  16. Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in "Negative Capability" in Light of Buddhism and Levinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to "negative capability" and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering…

  17. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  18. The Ethics of the "Real" In Levinas, Lacan, and Buddhism: Pedagogical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unstated ethics that exist in the silent space between teacher and students, highlighting Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Buddhism. The paper uses the juxtaposition of west and east to help illuminate ethical pedagogy, and it argues that there is an unknowable dimension which raises the question of ethics in human relations that…

  19. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  20. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  1. 杜甫与大乘佛法%Du Fu and Mahayana Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶男

    2014-01-01

    More than forty Du Fu’ s poems which are definitely related to Buddhism and Zen indicated his satisfaction on being a virtuous man , apprehension of the actual emptiness of existence and seeking Buddhism .we can feel that he studied more thoroughly on the Buddhism theory, seeking on the First Dogma, searching the Unsticking Minds thus showing his spiritual requirements and at the same time consciously and unconsciously carried on Returning Life theory Mahayana Buddhism has been advocating .%杜甫早年即修习禅宗法门,晚年亦“不落旁门小乘”。杜甫的生命意识与人性关怀,深契大乘义学度己度人、悲智双修的精神主张。中国大乘佛法所确立的积极人生的落脚点,转身回向的实践精神,与根植在杜甫头脑中的“民胞物与”的儒家思想不谋而合。综观杜甫一生,始终以一个精神探索者的身份,汲取佛禅智慧,一为“己”求心灵慰藉;一为“群”寻救世良方。

  2. Zen Buddhism and the Psychotherapy of Milton Erickson: A Transcendence of Theory and Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susan Kelly; Forman, Bruce D.

    1989-01-01

    Compares Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy of Milton Erickson. Explores their similarities with respect to theory, change relationship between teacher/student and therapist/client, and acceptance of nature. Compares Ericksonian psychotherapy with Zen-based Morita therapy to concretize philosophical underpinnings of both systems. (Author/ABL)

  3. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  4. The Wild Irish Girl and the "dalai lama of little Thibet": the long encounter between Ireland and Asian Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Laurence; Griffin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Ireland lies on the margins of the Buddhist world, far from its homeland in northern India and Nepal and the traditionally Buddhist parts of Asia. It is also in various ways "peripheral" to core capitalist societies, and Irish encounters with Buddhism are structured by both facts. Buddhism, for its part, has been a central feature of major Eurasian societies for over two millennia. During this period, Irish people and Asian Buddhists have repeatedly encountered or heard about each other, in w...

  5. Feminist Debate in Taiwan's Buddhism: The Issue of the Eight Garudhammas

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    Chiung Hwang Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules, regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas and situates the debate within Taiwan's cultural terrain as well as the worldwide Buddhist feminist movement. I argue that while Zhaohui's call resulted in the abolishment of the rules neither at home nor abroad, it profoundly affected nuns' position in Buddhism and contributed to broader discussions on women and religion. In making this argument, I revisit the impact of Western feminism (and Western Buddhist feminists on Eastern religions and reconsider the tensions this relationship encompasses.

  6. Down-to-Earth Zen: Zen Buddhism in Japanese Manga and Movies

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    Elisabetta Porcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some examples of the interconnections between Zen Buddhism and popular culture, notably manga and movies. In particular, it explores the recent manga Bōzu days (2007–2011 and the movies Fancy Dance (1989 and Abraxas matsuri (2010. In these works, Zen’s everyday and down-to-earth character comes to the fore, while zazen meditation occupies a relatively small place. As amply explored by scholarly works over the last few decades, the former aspect is usually overlooked in Zen presentations in the West while the latter is in line with a view of this religious tradition that has been adapted for its dissemination outside of Japan. My analysis aims to shed light on how aspects of popular culture employ Zen Buddhist features to create commercial products that are meant to reach a wide audience, and how Zen Buddhism is represented in these products.

  7. Filial piety in Chinese Buddhism = Zhongguo fo jiao de xiao dao guan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ho-ming; 鄭可萌

    2014-01-01

    Filial piety is regarded the most fundamental values of the Chinese culture, and the root of all good virtues. When Buddhism first came to China, it faced the criticisms from Chinese scholars, especially from the Confucianism, the dominant ideology of Chinese society, on ethical grounds. Confucian scholars criticized the life of Buddhist monks, who were required to leave their homes and families, shave their heads, and live in celibacy, was incompatible with the Confucian practice of filial pi...

  8. Feminist Debate in Taiwan's Buddhism: The Issue of the Eight Garudhammas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiung Hwang Chen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules), regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas an...

  9. On the Fusion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in Chinese Cognitive Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Jiawei Geng; H. J. Cai

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in China is phenomenal through world cultural history, which was explained by putting emphasis on the particularity or complementarity of those three doctrines. We proposed that, Chinese long-term self-assertiveness demands and their evolution lead to enduring competitions among them and eventual fusion of them, within Chinese Cognitive Membrane. It is emphasized that Chinese Cognitive Membrane needs further fusion with spirits of modern sc...

  10. THE PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHAAND BUDDHISM: A RELOOK IN THE DOCTRINAL EXTENSION

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    R. MUTHAMIL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the core teachings of Buddha and the extension of his teachings through his followers in different lines over successive times. Buddhist philosophy is the elaboration and explanation of the delivered teachings of the Buddha as found in the Tripitaka and Agama. Its main concern is with explicating the dharmas constituting reality. A recurrent theme is the reification of concepts, and the subsequent return to the Buddhist middle way. Early Buddhism avoided speculative thought on metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology, but was based instead on empirical evidence gained by the ayatana. Nevertheless, Buddhist scholars have addressed ontological and metaphysical issues subsequently. Particular points of Buddhist philosophy have often been the subject of disputes between different schools of Buddhism. These elaborations and disputes gave rise to various schools in early Buddhism of Abhidhamma, and to the Mahayana traditions and schools of the prajnaparamita, Madhyamaka, Buddha-nature and Yogacara. Above all, the four noble truths and the eightfold path remain the authentic foundation.

  11. Limited Engagements: Revisiting the Non-encounter between American Buddhism and the Shin Tradition

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    Galen Amstutz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent discrepancy exists between (on one hand recent interests among non-Asian American Buddhists (that is, persons of European extraction, hereafter referred to as NAABs in inventing a democratic, egalitarian form of the Buddhism and (on the other hand the simultaneous, continuing disinterest regarding conversation with the large Shin Buddhist tradition in Japan. The discrepancy is not best explained by "Asian ethnicity" in the familiar sense. A better analysis considers the peculiar minority position of any relatively "communalist" religion in the USA. The sector of Americans who are currently communalist are Judeo-Christian and are not "shopping" for Buddhism; on the other hand the NAAB sector, which is looking for non-Christian alternatives, may express a surface interest in egalitarianism but at the same time favors individualistic, non-communalistic forms of religious practice. In the absence of deeper cultural shifts, the pattern suggests that social or "engaged Buddhism" in the USA will remain quite limited in scope.

  12. Chen Yingning and Buddhism%陈撄宁与佛教

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭武

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As an advocate of the xianxue (theory of Celestial Beings)in Republican China,Chen Yingning had a close relationship with Buddhism.In his early years he had read the Buddhist sutra extensively and had promoted the integration of Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism.After 1936 he began to work for the independence of the xianxue.In the 1940s,Chen reconsidered his early theory about xianxue,and turned to Buddhism once again.Chen's reasons for advocating the independence of the xianxue and even urging its separation from Buddhism consist in his disappointment with traditional Taoism and his dissatisfaction with the criticism from Buddhism,as well as in the impact of the �New Cultural Movement�upon Chinese traditional religions.As for his later reduced discussions on xianxue and reflection on his early opinion,three matters may suffice to explain the effect of the generosity and tolerance of Monk Taixu,the impact of the death of Chen's wife,and his complex feelings to traditional Taoism.%民国时期“仙学”代表人物陈撄宁曾与佛教有着密切的关系。他早年曾遍览佛藏,主张“三教一贯”,后则倡导“仙学独立”。二十世纪四十年代,陈撄宁曾对其早期倡导的“仙学”有所反思,再度亲近佛教。陈撄宁之所以极力主张“仙学独立”乃至“仙佛判决”,除起因于对传统道教的失望以及对佛教批评的不满,可能还有二十世纪初传统宗教遭受“新文化运动”冲击的缘故;至于后来陈撄宁减少有关“仙学”的议论并对“仙学独立”有所反思,则一方面是“感于”佛教太虚法师的“洪度雅量”,另一方面也可能受其夫人吴彝珠患病离世的影响,同时还与他对于传统道教的“纠结”情结有关。

  13. The Analysis of Confucian Followers Understanding of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiato Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-culture, and multi-faith country. This piece of land combines a lot of ethnic elements into one. For example, Confucianism in Indonesia is combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism characteristic in many ways. Aim of this paper is to find out the features of Confucianism as a religion or a belief for its followers in Bangka. In addition, this paper also focuses on finding out the followers view towards their Gods in their perspectives. In this article, classification of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism is presented based on direct social observation. In this paper, analysis of Confucian followers understanding towards Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island Indonesia is presented respectively. In conclusion, characteristics of these three religions have blended perfectly and there is no more distinction in Confucius, Buddhist or Taoism Gods in Confucian followers community in Bangka Island.

  14. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksa Antariksa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This study will discuss the philosophy and architectural aspects of the Zen monastery arrangement plan. Zen Buddhism is syncretism from Taoism and Confucianism.The layout plan of the Zen monastery temple principally was placed on a single axis and facing south. The typical layout plan was borrowed from the architecture of the Chinese monastery.

  15. Zhang Hu and Buddhism and Taoism%张祜与佛道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佩德

    2011-01-01

    As a scholar from the lower class in the late Tang characteristics of people in the Tang Dynasty-to ease the depression which is also the tree value of the poet. Dynasty, Zhang Hu still embodies the of the mind with the Buddhism and the common Taoism.%作为中晚唐时期的下层文人,在张祜的身上仍然体现着整个唐代的共同特性:以佛道来缓解心灵的压抑。而这种共同性,也正是诗人的真正价值所在。

  16. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  17. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

    OpenAIRE

    Antariksa Antariksa

    2002-01-01

    Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This ...

  18. Disentangling the neural mechanisms involved in Hinduism- and Buddhism-related meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Chiesa, Alberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-10-01

    The most diffuse forms of meditation derive from Hinduism and Buddhism spiritual traditions. Different cognitive processes are set in place to reach these meditation states. According to an historical-philological hypothesis (Wynne, 2009) the two forms of meditation could be disentangled. While mindfulness is the focus of Buddhist meditation reached by focusing sustained attention on the body, on breathing and on the content of the thoughts, reaching an ineffable state of nothigness accompanied by a loss of sense of self and duality (Samadhi) is the main focus of Hinduism-inspired meditation. It is possible that these different practices activate separate brain networks. We tested this hypothesis by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The network related to Buddhism-inspired meditation (16 experiments, 263 subjects, and 96 activation foci) included activations in some frontal lobe structures associated with executive attention, possibly confirming the fundamental role of mindfulness shared by many Buddhist meditations. By contrast, the network related to Hinduism-inspired meditation (8 experiments, 54 activation foci and 66 subjects) triggered a left lateralized network of areas including the postcentral gyrus, the superior parietal lobe, the hippocampus and the right middle cingulate cortex. The dissociation between anterior and posterior networks support the notion that different meditation styles and traditions are characterized by different patterns of neural activation. PMID:24975229

  19. Indigenizing or Adapting? Importing Buddhism into a Settler-colonial Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally McAra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I problematize the phrase "indigenization of Buddhism" (Spuler 2003, cf. Baumann 1997 through an investigation of a Buddhist project in a settler-colonial society. An international organization called the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT is constructing a forty-five-meter high stupa in rural Australia with the intention "to provide a refuge of peace and serenity for all." In 2003, a woman of Aboriginal descent met with the stupa developers to express her concern about the project. While her complaint does not represent local Aboriginal views about the stupa (other Aboriginal groups expressed support for it, it illustrates how in settler-colonial societies, Buddhist cultural imports that mark the land can have unexpected implications for indigenous people. This paper offers a glimpse of the multi-layered power relations that form the often invisible backdrop to the establishment of Buddhism in settler-colonial societies and suggests that we need to find terms other than "indigenization" when analyzing this.

  20. Skeptic Spirituality or the Accidental Buddhism of Machado de Assis's O Segredo do Bonzo

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    Dilip Loundo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to support the idea that Machado de Assis’ work conforms well to what may be called a non-religious spirituality. For that, the article’s main focus is the analysis of the short story “O Segredo do Bonzo: Capítulo Inédito de Fernão Mendes Pinto”, published in 1882’s collection titled Papéis Avulsos, where the main principles of that spirituality, which is spread all over his work,  are given in a nutshell. In a first moment, we analise the intertextuality between Machado’s short story “O Segredo do Bonzo” and Portuguese Renaissance writer’s travelogue Peregrinação and the Machado’s nineteen century critique of the west’s main universalizing proposals: Christianity, scientificity and Enlightenment. In a second moment, we analise the philosophical implications of the primacy given to ‘opinion’ as an existential foundation and as a constitutive element of reality, in a context of close proximity with the soteriological traditions of ancient Greek skepticism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other. A critic of religion, specially of Christian religion, Machado’s  ‘accidental’ association with Buddhism is symptomatic of a very peculiar form of non-religious spirituality.

  1. 佛教的生命健康观刍议%Humble Opinion on Buddhism Life and Health Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯小林

    2013-01-01

    Thinking about life and birth and death is the important reason of the origin of religion and Buddhism. Buddhism makes up its life and health view on the base of doctrinairism and origin theory round the thought of life and birth and death. Buddhism's life can be divided into macroscopical and microcosmic life and health view. The two kinds of views become one of Buddhism's life and health views, which show certain social and effective worth today.%对生命和生死的思考是宗教起源的重要原因,同样也是佛教产生的重要原因.佛教围绕着生命和生死的思考,在其“空论”和“缘起论”的核心主张基础上建构了自己的生命健康观,可以分为大生命健康观和小生命健康观.两种生命健康观彼此依存共成一体,在当前社会具有较大的价值和功用.

  2. “The First Buddhist Priest on the Baltic Coast”: Karlis Tennison and the Introduction of Buddhism in Estonia

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    Mait Talts

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Karlis Tennison(s is an essential, although controversial figure inthe history of Buddhism in Estonia and Latvia. He was, without doubt, the first to disseminate Buddhism in the Baltic countries and also one of the earliest disseminators of Buddhism in Eastern Europe. Karl August Tõnisson, born in 1883 near Põltsamaa, Estonia, later repeatedly changed his biography (for example, transformed from an Estonian to a Latvian and simultaneously became ten years older. The article focuses on the development of his ideas. All his books and other publications, which are modest in volume and usually self-published, were issued between 1909–1916 and 1925–1930. The development of his views can be divided into three main periods: the pre-Buddhist period (before 1911; the ‘theosophical Buddhist’ period (1911–1916 and the period of ego-Buddhism or neopaganism (1925–1930. Around 1910–1911 Tennison ultimately converts to Buddhism. As he did not identify with any particular school, we may call him an ‘abstract’ Buddhist. In 1925 Tennison published a book in Latvian and from 1928 to 1930 three books in Estonian. In the publications of this period, Tennison retreats from the principles of Buddhism and allots more space to the glorification of his own personality and to criticism of Christianity, which was typical of neopaganism popular in Europe at the period. One of the most peculiar ideas in Tennison’s books is that of the Pan-Baltonian Empire. In that period Tennison also began to disseminate his view that Estonians’, Latvians’ and Lithuanians’ pre-Christian beliefs were somewhat similar to the religious and philosophical systems of India in the Vedic period, which, in the present-day world, are represented in their purest form in Buddhism.In 1930, Tennison, accompanied by Friedrich V. Lustig, left the Baltics and a year later also Europe, settling for the period 1932–1949 in the Kingdom of Siam. After leaving the Baltics, Tennison

  3. THE ADOPTION OF BUDDHISM'S PRINCIPLES AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING PHYSICIANS' WORK WITH TERMINALLY ILL PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The medical approach as summarized by Leibowitz--"We must treat the person, not just the disease"--highlights the importance of treating the sick person and not only the illness' pathology. This approach calls for healing not only the physical side, but also--and mainly--the mental aspect of the patient. One of the goals of this article is to turn physicians' attention towards the compassion necessary in treating a person with a severe or chronic illness, or a person who is dying--precisely because sometimes there is no medical cure for the physical state of such a patient. Therefore, physicians' attention does need to be directed to providing emotional assistance to such a patient. Sometimes, the emotional strength the patient draws from the medical team that is treating him can change his view of, and approach to, the illness, and can enable his body to muster the emotional strength necessary to deal with his situation. Buddhism's approach enables the sick patient to experience his illness in a different way, by making peace with one's situation and, sometimes, even viewing the situation differently--viewing the illness as a type of renewal. Buddhism, therefore, enables a sick person to choose a different point of view when his energy is exhausted and he loses hope, providing quality of life to patients. In such a situation, a sick person finds emotional strength in the knowledge that the end of his life is actually a renewal somewhere else. The limited life expectancy of the terminally ill patient demands that he be able to spend his time with minimal concerns and worries, and does not leave much time for treating the emotional side--the patient's fear. In light of this fact, the patient's ability to look ahead and grasp at hope is the most important issue. As much as possible, this is accomplished in an atmosphere of acceptance and with the absence, or reduction, of fear. The freedom to decide for oneself how to behave, according to one's own approach, is what

  4. The practice of mindfulness: from Buddhism to secular mainstream in a post-secular society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Frisk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the practice of mindfulness, which has migrated from being part of a religion, Buddhism, to being an integral part of Western psychology. Mindfulness is especially used in cognitive behavioural therapy, but also in, e.g., dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT. In Sweden several doctors, psychologists and psychiatrists use and recommend mindfulness for therapeutic purposes. Mindfulness is used today in many segments of mainstream medical and therapeutic care. Mindfulness is also used outside the mainstream medical and therapeutic sector, in the area of personal development or spirituality, as well as in more traditional Buddhist groups and innovative Buddhist groups such as vipassana groups. This paper investigates the migration of mindfulness from a religious to a secular sphere, and discusses whether mindfulness is a religious practice or not.

  5. Good feelings in christianity and buddhism: religious differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Miao, Felicity F; Seppala, Emma

    2007-03-01

    Affect valuation theory (AVT) predicts cultural variation in the affective states that people ideally want to feel (i.e., "ideal affect"). National and ethnic comparisons support this prediction: For instance, European Americans (EA) value high arousal positive (HAP) states (e.g., excitement) more and low arousal positive (LAP) states (e.g., calm) less than Hong Kong Chinese. In this article, the authors examine whether religions differ in the ideal affective states they endorse. The authors predicted that Christianity values HAP more and LAP less than Buddhism. In Study 1, they compared Christian and Buddhist practitioners' ideal affect. In Studies 2 and 3, they compared the endorsement of HAP and LAP in Christian and Buddhist classical texts (e.g., Gospels, Lotus Sutra) and contemporary self-help books (e.g., Your Best Life Now, Art of Happiness). Findings supported predictions, suggesting that AVT applies to religious and to national and ethnic cultures. PMID:17312321

  6. Religion and suicide: Buddhism, Native American and African religions, Atheism, and Agnosticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, D; Gearing, R E

    2010-09-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. A clear understanding of the influence of religion on suicidality is required to more fully assess for the risk of suicide. The databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE were used to search peer-reviewed journals prior to 2008 focusing on religion and suicide. Articles focusing on suicidality across Buddhism, Native American and African religions, as well as on the relationship among Atheism, Agnosticism, and suicide were utilized for this review. Practice recommendations are offered for conducting accurate assessment of religiosity as it relates to suicidality in these populations. Given the influence of religious beliefs on suicide, it is important to examine each major religious group for its unique conceptualization and position on suicide to accurately identify a client's suicide risk. PMID:19347586

  7. Buddhism and Ancient Chinese Novel%佛教与中国古代小说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艺桦

    2013-01-01

    "Fiction"appeared in the "zhuangzi"at the first time and reached peak in the dynasties of Ming and Qing .Ancient Chinese novels have a history of thousands of years .During this time,we can feel a mysterious force which has been always throughout this period of history.It's the fantastic force that Buddhism affacted Chinese novel .The religion transmitted from foreign countries was accepted because of its own mysterious character .This paper will discuss that ancient Chinese novel was affacted by Buddhism at the three aspect of character shaping , plot and artistic expression.%从《庄子?外物》中首先提出“小说”这个名称,到明清时期的长篇小说的顶峰成就,中国古代小说经历了上千年的发展历史。在这幅历史长卷中,我们可以感受到一股神秘的力量一直贯穿着这段历史的始终,这股带有奇幻色彩的力量就是佛教对中国小说的影响。这个由外域传入的宗教,因其自身的神异特点而被人们接受,小说就从这里开始受到它的作用。本文从小说的人物塑造、情节内容和艺术表现三个方面谈谈佛教对中国古代小说的影响。

  8. Freedom of Religion in Islam and Buddhism: A Comparison Study of the Barriers That Determines the Freedom of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Mutsalim Khareng; Jaffary Awang; Zaizul Ab. Rahman; Rohanee Machae; Khaidzir Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Freedom of religion is the human right that supports the individual to choose and practice a religion or belief. In the context of a multiracial society, freedom of religion should be debated openly to avoid any misunderstanding that distracts from harmonious social living. This research is a comparative study that focuses on the principles that determine the barriers of freedom of religion between Islam and Buddhism. For means of accuracy and relevancy of information, the researcher adopts t...

  9. Buddhism and the formation of the religious body: a Foucauldian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Voyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poststructuralist debates around the body have demonstrated how our knowledge of the body is constituted in specific cultural and historical circumstances and in the context of particular relations of power. This article develops this approach to the body in Buddhism and thus attempts to show how the body has been represented within different discourses in Buddhist texts. Implicit in this account is the remedying of the failure in some Buddhist scholarship to recognise different types of bodies (negative and positive and to show how these aspects of the body, as enumerated by texts, operate together to constitute forms of identities capable of being constituted within different historical moments out of the pressure of new social and material changes. At the same time the body is seen as being capable of self modification in terms of that discourse. The term ‘body’ is used here in the sense that it implies not only a physical aspect (flesh, bones, liquids etc., but that it is connected to various cognitive and emotional capacities as outlined in the khandhas (see below explanation of the human constitution. The author's concern in his treatment of the body is to avoid the problems of psychological analysis, as this form of analysis often implies the existence of a psyche or soul along with the ideas of complete individual self-determination.

  10. Research of the Social Function on Ethical Moral of Buddhism%佛教伦理道德的社会功能及当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建锋

    2012-01-01

    The ethical moral of Buddhism guides people to the moral action which is used to deal with something and the moral relation in practice.The ethical moral of Buddhism include five dots.These root in many ideas.The ethical moral of Buddhism has the especial social functions.%佛教伦理道德是指佛教伦理指导处理人与人之间在实践中所应有的道德行为和人们之间的道德关系。佛教伦理道德包含的内容十分丰富。佛教伦理道德与其它宗教伦理道德社会功能相比,既有特殊性也有共性。在和谐社会中,佛教伦理道德具有很强的当代价值。

  11. 南朝祭祀与佛教%The Sacrifice in the Southern Dynasties and Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德美

    2012-01-01

    Buddhistic vegetarianism has influence of Buddhistic vegetarianism, some c far-reaching influence on traditional Chinese culture. Under the hanges took place in traditional Chinese sacrifice during the period of the Southern Dynasties. People started to offer vegetarian sacrifices at funerals and national ancestral temples. These changes have some influence on the later generations, but don' t last long in terms of large scope. And this just reflects the leading position of Confucian rituals changes are recorded in the historical tive stands. materials and books of Buddhism, in traditional Chinese society. These and these records reflect their respective stands.%佛教素食对中国传统文化影响深远,表现之一就是南朝时期在佛教素食观的影响下,中国传统的祭祀曾发生过一些变化,在丧礼和国家宗庙天地祭祀中都出现了用蔬食祭祀的现象。这些变化对后世有一定影响,但从大的范围看,并没有持续太长的时间,这恰好反映了儒家礼制在中国传统社会的主导地位。佛教方面的史料和正史对这些变化都有一定的记载,这些记载反映了各自不同的立场。

  12. Buddhist Philosophy: A Study of Buddha Images for Perpetuating Buddhism in Isan Society

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    Thidarat Duangsin

    2011-01-01

    the usefulness of Buddhist Philosophy for daily life and perpetuation of Buddhism in Isan society (Northeast society of Thailand.

  13. "All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha": Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA) began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that ther...

  14. The Analysis of Confucian Followers Understanding of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island - Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiato Lim

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-culture, and multi-faith country. This piece of land combines a lot of ethnic elements into one. For example, Confucianism in Indonesia is combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism characteristic in many ways. Aim of this paper is to find out the features of Confucianism as a religion or a belief for its followers in Bangka. In addition, this paper also focuses on finding out the followers view towards their Gods in their perspectives. In this articl...

  15. Buddhist Contribution to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953

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    Xue Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by Chinese Buddhists, especially the so-called "progressive Buddhists," in the socialist transformation of the sangha at the early stage of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. I concentrate on the case of Ven. Juzan (1908–1984. While the focus on one individual does not reveal the whole story about Chinese Buddhists’ involvement in the Chinese Communist Party’s project of reshaping the sangha, the career of Juzan does provide a window on the issue. By exploring various sources, including Modern Buddhist Studies (Xiandai foxue and government documents, I investigate how Juzan urged his fellow Buddhists to work with the Communist leadership, and how he justified government policies on Buddhism by reinterpreting Buddhist doctrines. In so doing, this study intends to show that Chinese Buddhists’ collaboration with the Communist regime was a significant dimension of the socialist transformation of the Chinese sangha, a process that laid the foundation for full-scale persecution of Buddhism during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976.

  16. "All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha": Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that there are three factors in particular—institutional, historical, and theological elements of American Shin Buddhism—that must be attended to as contributing reasons why ministers were supportive of same-sex marriage.

  17. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  18. 《牟子理惑论》中所见的老子∗%Lao Tze Presented in Mou Zi's Understanding of Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启发

    2015-01-01

    《弘明集》首篇《牟子理惑论》中出现的老子,有三种形式,一是称引《老子》中的话语,二是称述老子名氏和著述以代表其学说,三是讲到老子的外在形象。在称引《老子》话语的内容上,其中有关于老子“道”、“无为”思想的借用,来解说佛教存在的价值;还有从道家生命哲学及生死观的角度,说明佛老的相通及其与道教养生术的差别。从《牟子理惑论》本身来看,道家老子的学说在其中就成为既值得继续弘扬,又可以与外来传入的佛教共存,当然也还有儒家孔子所代表的思想学说,三教共存乃至三教合一就成为其突出的主题思想。%Lao Tze presented in MouZi's Understanding of Buddhism,the first part of Hung-ming Ji,saw its appearance in three different forms,including the quotations from Lao-zi,statement about the name and the works of Lao Tze on his doctrine,and finally,the image of Lao Tze .The idea of"Taoism"and"inaction"quoted from Lao-zi effectively demonstrates the value of Buddhism.From the perspective of life philosophy and the view of life and death in Taoism ,there explains the common themes between Buddhism and Taoism by Lao Tze ,as well the difference between those two and Taoism health.In terms of Mou Zi's Understanding of Buddhism,the theory of Lao Tze is such a great doctrine that it coexists with Buddhism and Confucianism,which has been energetically carried forward.Thus,the coexistence,even the combination of these three religions turns out to be the main thought of Mou Zi's Understanding of Buddhism.

  19. 甘孜州藏传佛教文化与旅游%On the Tibetan Buddhism Culture and Tourism in Garze Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建萍

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Buddhism , as a main religious culture in Garze prefecture , has many sects or schools with abundant cultural accumulation .The tourism resources in that area , including the natural scenes, ethnic customs , tourism aesthetics , and tourism subjects are closely related to the Tibetan Bud-dhism culture .Therefore , the development of tourism industry and tourism products in Garze prefecture should take the Tibetan Buddhism culture into consideration , and make it serve to the tourism industry . This method will be much significance to the culture connotations and the design of creative products .%甘孜州宗教文化以藏传佛教为主体,历史悠久,教派众多,文化积淀丰厚。藏传佛教与甘孜旅游相辅相成,与自然景观、民族风情、旅游审美、旅游主体追求紧密相连。甘孜旅游经济发展、旅游产品开发过程中深入挖掘藏传佛教中相关因素,使其服务于旅游,对于增强甘孜旅游的文化内涵,形成文化旅游创意产品具有十分重要的意义。

  20. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  1. Evolution of the Five-Buddha Images in Esoteric Buddhism with Chinese Characteristics at Dunhuang and Thoughts on Dharmakaya%敦煌显密五方佛图像的转变与法身思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷光明

    2014-01-01

    敦煌佛教一直以汉传体系的佛教为主流,随着唐密的兴起,密教逐渐将一些显教的神祇及其功能移植到密教经典中,开始吸收或利用显教的图像内容和构图形式。密教中央法身大日如来化现四方佛的义理与华严毗卢遮那佛化现“十方三世诸如来”的法身思想有一致性,密教五方佛是以大乘经典和图像为基础组织起来的神祇系统,敦煌石窟为我们展示了这一图像发展、演化过程。说明显密结合、显体密用是敦煌密教发展的主流,而敦煌显密五方佛图像的转变就是显体密用的一个典型例证。%Buddhism with Han Chinese characteristics has always constituted the mainstream of Dunhuang Buddhism. With the rise of the Tang Tantra, a few gods of exoteric Buddhism, together with the content and compositions, were absorbed into esoteric Buddhism. The doctrine of the Esoteric Buddhism is that the Buddhas in the four directions are direct emanations from Mahavairocana at the center, consistent with the Huayan sect doctrine, which says that the Buddhas in the ten directions and of the three ages are direct emanations from Mahavairocana. The five-Buddha image in esoteric Buddhism is based on Mahayana scripture and images. Its development has been exhibited in the Dunhuang caves, and this demonstrates that the main trend of esoteric Buddhist art at Dunhuang was the combination of exoteric and esoteric Buddhism as well as the absorption of exoteric Buddhist elements into esoteric Buddhism, well exemplified by the evolution of the five-Buddha image in esoteric Buddhism with Han Chinese characteristics.

  2. 从身心观之异看佛教对中国传统医学的影响%Buddhism Affecting the Development of Chinese Medicine from the Difference between Physical and Mental

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁华; 王欢

    2013-01-01

    中国本土文化把“身心合一”的人体小宇宙融入“天人合一”的大宇宙,从正面论证了以气、心、神为核心的身心融合观念.佛教以“缘起论”为理论基础,以“空”、“苦”等为基本的世界观和人生观,通过“四大”、“五蕴”从反面论证了身心的空幻性和过程性.佛教传入后,对中医学的发展产生了深远影响.%The small universe of the body and mind harmonization was reintegrated into the universe of the harmony between nature and human in Chinese traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture explained the concept of the harmony between physical and mental which was interpreted with the gas, heart and spirit. The law of Dependent Origination is the basic principle of Buddhism. The outlook on world and life of Buddhism is explained with "Emptiness", "Suffering". Buddhism interpreted the void and formative life with "Four Great" and "Five aggregates" from the negative side. After the introduction of Buddhism to China, the idea of the Buddhism influenced the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  3. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1 to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences, (2 to investigate the current situations of the assimilation of culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences and (3 to determine a suitable assimilation model of culture beliefs and rite concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for peace of Thai society in Bangkok and circumferences. Approach: A qualitative research was used for this research. Research areas were these: (1 Yannawa Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (2 Lum Charoen Satta Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (3 Brahma House at the Erawan Hotel, Lum Phini sub district, Pathumwan district , Bangkok, (4 Phai Lom Temple, Phra Pathom Chedi, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province, (5 Sisa Thong Temple, Sisa Thong sub district, Nakhon Chaisi, Nakhon Pathom Province, (6 Phra Sri Maha Uma Thewi Temple, Silom sub district, Bangkok district, Bangkok, (7 Visanu temple, Thung Wat Don sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (8 Thep Nimit Temple, Khok Phaed sub district, Nong Chok district, Bangkok, (9 Brahman Temple, Sao Chingcha sub district, Phra Nakhon district, Bangkok and (10 Ganesha House at Ratchada crossroads, Huay Khwang district, Bangkok. Deity worships have been held at these areas for a long time and a lot of people have participated in these worships. A population was the people who lived in 9 districts. A sample

  4. 试论汉化佛教对新罗乡歌产生的影响%Analysis of Impact of Sinicization of Buddhism on the Shilla Ballad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨雪; 雷霆

    2014-01-01

    新罗乡歌是学界公认的韩国最早的国语文学体裁。收录在《三国遗事》中的十四首是保留较为完整的。三国时期是朝鲜民族文化从原始的神文过渡到人文的文化转型时期。一种文学体裁的萌芽,首先就要有孕育她的土壤,而在孕育乡歌的这片土壤中不得不提到的元素就是佛教。佛教起源于印度,最早在中国汉明帝永平11年(公元68年)传入中国。由于地缘因素以及当时中国文化的扩散,高句丽、百济、新罗三国无论从社会、政治、经济方面还是文化教育、文学创作等诸多领域都深受中国的影响。4世纪佛教经中国传入朝鲜半岛,新罗统治阶层把佛教定为国教,佛教的影响力由此可见一斑。基于此史实可以推定,当时传入朝鲜的佛教是经过汉化了的中国佛教。在此大的思想背景下,本文从原始佛教汉化的过程出发试论当时对乡歌产生的影响。首先分析新罗的社会背景,由此阐述乡歌出现的必然性,进而从乡歌的创作阶层与社会功能上管窥当时汉化佛教对其产生的影响。%Ballad is a universally acknowledged type of literary genre by the field of education in the South Korea .The fourteen pieces of Ballad preserved in the book SanguoYishi are regarded as a complete one .It is during the period of Three Kingdoms that Korea national culture changed from primitive ’ s divinity culture to a human one .Buddhism descends from India , which is intro-duced into China in the year of Yongping 11th of the Han Dynasty in China (68A.D).Kokuli, Paekche and Shilla are all influ-enced by Chinese culture both in the political , economic education and the literature creation .In the 4th-century, Buddhism was introduced into the Korean peninsula .The ruling classes of Shilla appointed the Buddhism as the national religion .Based on the historical facts , it is concluded that the Buddhism which was introduced into

  5. Analysis of the influence of Internet to the spread of Buddhism%简析互联网对佛教传播的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟涛

    2012-01-01

      互联网对佛教传播既有着积极的推动作用,又有着消极的负面影响。一方面,互联网有利于佛法的传播,有利于增进社会的和谐。另一方面,歪理邪说也借助互联网得以迅速地传播并流毒甚广,这不仅影响了佛教的声誉,而且还在某种程度上不利于社会的稳定。因此,需要尽量减少互联网对佛教传播的不利影响。对策是:政府要优化环境;政府要完善法律体系;强化对互联网的监管;寺院要加强网站建设。%  there are positive roles and negative impact on the spread of Buddhism of the Internet, on one hand, internet is helpful for Dharma transmission and can promote social harmony. On the other hand, fallacies also using the Internet to spread rapidly and pernicious influence far and wide, This not only affects the Buddhism's reputation, but also do not conducive to social stability to some extent. So we should minimize the adverse effects of the Internet on the spread of Buddhism.

  6. 《佛教文化与国际交流》课程建设初探--以钦州学院为例%Course Construction of Buddhism Culture and International Communication---A Case Study of Qinzhou University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳

    2016-01-01

    中国佛教文化是中华文化的重要组成部分,佛教入华是世界文化交流史上的一件大事,当今世界,国际交流日益频繁,佛教文化在国际交流中的地位是不容小觑的。广西沿海地区是我国“海上丝绸之路”的重要口岸,早在两千年前佛教已通过海陆两条通道传入中国。广西是佛教在我国传播较早的地方之一,至今还有很多佛教文物古迹遗存,所以在钦州学院开设《佛教文化与国际交流》课程有天然的优势与现实意义。%Chinese Buddhism culture is an important part of Chinese culture.The introduction of Buddhism into China is al-so an important event in the history of world culture communication.Nowadays, Buddhism still plays a crucial role in international communication.Being a key harbor of the maritime silk road, Guangxi costal area was one of the areas where Buddhism was first-ly spread when introduced into China two thousand years ago.There are still many Buddhism cultural relics remained in Guangxi. Therefore, it’s of great significance to open the course of Buddhism Culture and International Communication in Qinzhou Universi-ty.

  7. THE HUMOUR OF CHAN BUDDHISM AND SU SHI HUMOUOUS RELEGATING POEM%禅宗的幽默与苏轼谐谑贬谪诗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁梅

    2012-01-01

    Chan Buddhism was developed with an unprecedented scale in Song dynasty and at that time the scholar contact with it closely. Chan Buddhism not only influence SuShi' life attitude but also blend in the writing idea unconsciously with its humour and way of thinking in manifestation mode and image feature which influeneed SuShi'humouous relegation poem greatly.%禅宗在宋代空前发展,文人与它的联系颇为紧密。禅宗不仅深入影响到了苏轼的生活态度,它的幽默特色及思维方式都潜移默化地融入到诗人的创作理念中。从表现方式。意象特色上对苏轼诗歌尤其是贬谪诗的谐谑特色产生了极大影响。

  8. 明初高丽僧人满空与泰山佛教的复兴%The Great Gaoli Monk Mankong and the Revival of Mountain Tai Buddhism During Early Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋铁生

    2011-01-01

    自唐中叶以来,佛教在中国由盛而衰,类似隋唐频繁的中外佛教交往已鲜见于史。几百年之后,在中华文化根深蒂固的泰山,一位来自高丽的僧人满空,通过重建竹林寺,复兴普照寺,在泰山兴佛取得了成功。这是泰山佛教历史的盛事,也是中韩两国在文化交往史上的佳话。%Since the middle of Tang Dynasty, Buddhism began to decline in China, and such international Buddhism communication as that of Sui and Tang Dynasties was witnessing its rarity. Several hundred years later, at the foot of Mountain Tai which is ingrained with Chinese culture, a great monk Mankong from Gaoli, recovered Puzhao Temple, a decayed Chinese temple. It is a grand event in the history of Mountain Tai Buddhism, and also a significant occasion in the history of cultural communication between China and Korea. The paper probes into the abrupt but non - accidental event with Mountain Tai historical inscriptions, local chronicles and the evolution of Chinese Buddhism.

  9. 藏传佛教寺院诵经音乐初论%Elementary Theory for the chanting music in Tibetan Buddhism temples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才让措

    2012-01-01

      In the music o f Tibetan Buddhism,the tone of Buddhists chanting sutras is the very produc-tion filled with Tibetan culture accumulation . Of course,its coming into being must have follo wed certain foundation and laws . T he tone o f chanting sutras in Tibetan Buddhism shares the feature of recitative, closely near to the tone o f languages . When coming to the tone of chanting sutras in Tibetan Buddhism, we will find that the most representative part is brought scribes . T hey would lead the Lamas to recite and chant the scriptures together . T he brought scribes often adopt the way of subw oofer chanting to make themselves heard by thousand of people wherever in the hall . In this way they should pronounce loudly, but the pitch of voice must be low and deep,to express a feeling of solemn and respectful,dignified and holy .%  在藏传佛教音乐里寺院僧人诵经的音调是极赋有藏族文化积淀的产物,它的产生必定有其遵循的基础和规律。藏传佛教音乐诵经音调具有宣叙性,接近于语言的音调,最具代表性的当属寺院的领经师由他带领众喇嘛集体吟诵、唱诵相关的经文。领诵经文的经师常采用超低音的唱法,声调发音宏亮、低沉、穿透力强,并能产生一种肃穆、庄严浓厚、神圣的感觉,坐满几千人的大经堂每个角落都能清楚地听到领经师的声音。

  10. Buddhism and medical futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tuck Wai; Hegney, Desley

    2012-12-01

    Religious faith and medicine combine harmoniously in Buddhist views, each in its own way helping Buddhists enjoy a more fruitful existence. Health care providers need to understand the spiritual needs of patients in order to provide better care, especially for the terminally ill. Using a recently reported case to guide the reader, this paper examines the issue of medical futility from a Buddhist perspective. Important concepts discussed include compassion, suffering, and the significance of the mind. Compassion from a health professional is essential, and if medical treatment can decrease suffering without altering the clarity of the mind, then a treatment should not be considered futile. Suffering from illness and death, moreover, is considered by Buddhists a normal part of life and is ever-changing. Sickness, old age, birth, and death are integral parts of human life. Suffering is experienced due to the lack of a harmonious state of body, speech, and mind. Buddhists do not believe that the mind is located in the brain, and, for Buddhists, there are ways suffering can be overcome through the control of one's mind. PMID:23188402

  11. Research on Datong“Buddhism Capital”Tourism Cultural Brand Construction%大同佛都旅游文化品牌建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彪; 江海旭

    2014-01-01

    大同旅游资源丰富,多为历史文化价值极高的佛教旅游资源。针对当前大同存在城市形象模糊、旅游品牌不鲜明等问题,研究大同佛都旅游文化品牌建设具有重要的现实意义。大同文化特色在北魏辽金,精华在佛教,重点在古都,因此大同可定位于“魏辽佛教文化旅游之都”,以云冈石窟为主体,构筑平城文化体系,以古都为载体,打造大同佛都旅游胜境。%Datong is rich in tourist resources, many of which are Buddhist tourist resources of high historical and cultural value. For the city's image is fuzzy and the tourist brand is not distinguishable, there is much practical significance to study Datong“Bud-dhism Capital” tourism cultural brand construction. Based on the definition of Buddhism tourism culture and tourism cultural brand, this is the first time to study Datong “Buddhism Capital” tourism cultural brand construction, for which we will propose the evi-dences, position the image, establish the slogan, and finally put forward the construction strategies. We wish that this research could be referred by Datong tourism planning.

  12. Eski Uygurca Metinlere Göre Budizmin Manihaizme Etkisi The Effect Of Buddhism On Manichaeism In Old Uighur Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer TOKYÜREK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mani's Buddhism, Zurvanizm, Christianity and Manichaeism which was formed by his own thoughts has created a strong followers group in the east and west. These teachings spread rapidly as a result of being adopted especially by Soğds and Tochars in the east, and then by Chinese and Uighurs. But this teaching, which has spread rapidly, faced with other religions or teachings in its regions. Thus, Manichaeism which lived together with many religions or teachings, hasbeen affected by them and later disappeared for various reasons. AmongUighurs, it is known that Bögü's Manichaeism was declared as theofficial state religion in 762/3 for political reasons.Along with defending this religion, Uighurs have demonstratedmany religious works but not as much as the Buddhist works focusingon this faith. In this context, when we compare the texts of BuddhistUighurs and Manihaist Uighurs we can see that many terms arecommon. In the texts of Buddhist Uighurs and Manihaist Uighurs someterms which are fundamental in both doctrine such as Buddhas, theteachings of Buddha and Mani, the world of the Gods, the world of theliving, morality, agony, fate and the idea of time show resemblance orare in common. These terms are compared in both teachings and theirmeanings are given. Thus, it has been identified that these twoteachings show similarities and the terms are used not entirely butapproximately in the same way. Mani’nin Budizm, Zurvanizm, Hristiyanlık ve kendi düşüncelerinden oluşturduğu Manihaizm, doğuda ve batıda güçlü bir taraftar kitlesi yaratmıştır. Doğuda özellikle Soğud ve Toharların ve daha sonra da Çin ve Uygurların bu öğretiyi sahiplenmeleri sonucunda bu öğreti hızla yayılmıştır. Fakat bu hızlı bir yayılma alanına sahip olan öğreti gittiği, yerlerde de başka dinlerle ya da öğretilerle karşılaşmıştır. Böylece pek çok din ya da öğretilerle yan yana yaşayan Manihaizm, çeşitli nedenlerden dolay

  13. 无我:佛教中自我观的心理学分析%No-self:the Psychological Analysis of Self-view in Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彦琴; 江波; 杨宪敏

    2011-01-01

    "No-self", the core of Buddhist psychology, gives distinctive opinions on the nature of self: 1) the subtle manas is the root of self; 2) eastern Zen-meditation is the method of self-researching; 3) self is the illusion gathered by five skandha; and 4) "no-self" is the unity of unreal self and real self. Buddhist psychology reveals the truth of self by "no-self', which is a supplement and transcendence to the self research-paradigm in westem psychology.Different from the western self-psychology which takes self as one's consciousness and cognition, Buddhist psychology takes a deeper level analysis on self. It argues that self originates from the mamas which is subtle and can't be realized by human beings. Most importantly. manas is one of the citta that persists alaya-vijnana and regards it as "self". That's why we human beings are different from the "Buddha". Alaya is a concept about the internal structure of the mind beyond the subconscious in modern psychology. Moreover, the "seed", which is storied in alaya, can regencrate, and it is a path that is never ended- one's behavior can be converted into new seeds and be storied in alaya. However, in western self-psychology, libido (subconscious) and collective subconsciousness can only be obtained through genetic, which seems a " bottom - up " process from generation to generation in western psychology.Then, we'll see how "self" originates from manas in Buddhist psychology in the first part of this paper.Empirical Research Methods prevents western psychology analyzing "self" on a deeper level while Buddhism can make it benefiting from a kind of mental experience- Zen-meditation. First of all.Zen-meditation is the unity of subjective and objective in contrast to western dualism. Dualism can be used in Natural objects-researching, but we will find problems when it is used in subjective world. For instance, when we use Dualism to research "self ", we're just using "self " to research "self", and this can't succeed

  14. 佛家养生思想对现代体育养生观的启示%Enlightenment of Health Preserving Concepts of Buddhism to Modern Sports Health Preserving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓奎; 宋海燕; 黄诚

    2014-01-01

    By literature materials,it explained the health preserving concepts of Buddhism and the results show that the Buddhism concept and the healthy idea the modern humans pursuing have a lot in common.The Buddhism advocated nourishing heart and preserving the body and maintaining mental tranquility while modern sports advocates self-adjustment mentally and physically and living with nature and universe with moderate amount of physical exercise.The two avocations are actually consistent.The Bud-dhism typical concept should be absorbed in a critical way and applied in modern sports health preserving practices which is of re-alistic significance in developing life science and improving both the quality of individuals and comprehensive qualities of our na-tional people.%采用文献资料法就佛家养生思想关于人体健康的观点进行了解读,结果表明:佛家先哲的养生思想与现代人追寻的健康理念有很多相同点,它主张的养心、养形、养气与现代体育主张的自我身心调节、和谐自然、适度体育运动相一致。将佛家特有养生思想批判地吸收到现代体育养生实践中对我国生命科学的发展、公民的个体素质提高和国民综合素质的提升有着重要的现实意义。

  15. On LanRe' s Traditional Meaning and Zen Buddhism Connotation in "Quan Tang Shi"%《全唐诗》中“兰若”的传统内涵及佛禅意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娜

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of Buddhism is a major event on the Chinese intellectual history and the history of literature. Culturally, combination of Buddhism and traditional culture, scholars in literary creation of citation and Buddhism in the Buddha allusion, lan- guage, such as image, this kind of phenomenon also is very common in the Tang Dynasty, " LanRe" that is as an example. But with the ordinary Buddhist allusions it is different, both in Buddhist meaning, and traditional culture connotation, thus has the particularity.%佛教的传入是中国思想史、文学史上的重大事件。文化上,佛教文化与传统文化相融合,文人在诗文创作中大量引用与佛教有关的佛语、典故、意象等,这种现象在唐诗中也极为常见,“兰若”即为一例。但它与普通的佛教典故不同,既有佛教的意蕴,又有传统的文化内涵,因而具有特殊性。

  16. A Summary on Buddhism and the History and Culture of Chaoshan%佛教与潮汕历史文化综论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑群辉

    2013-01-01

      佛教从南朝刘宋年间传入潮汕,1500多年来历朝历代的基本面貌虽有不同,但对潮汕文化的塑造产生了巨大的影响。佛教传入潮汕后,逐渐适应本地的自然、人文环境,并积极参与到社会文化的发展进程中,与社会经济、道德、习俗等相互渗透、相互作用、相互构筑,从一个重要的侧面塑造了特质鲜明的潮汕文化。从潜藏的思想观念到触目可见的文化事相,潮汕文化无不透露出众多的佛教元素,诸如饮食文化中的素食、建筑文化中的寺塔建筑、方言文化中的佛教俗语、民间艺术中的潮州佛乐、礼仪文化中的佛化葬俗、节俗文化中的佛教节日以及组织文化的善堂等,就是其中荦荦大者。%Buddhism was introduced into Chaoshan Area during the Liu Song years of Southern Dynasty and had an important role in shaping the Chaoshan culture over the past 1500 years, during which China wit-nessed changes with different dynasties. After its arrival, Buddhism gradually adapted to the local natural and human environment, and participated actively in the development process of social culture, and thus created the distinctive characteristics of Chaoshan culture from an important side through mutual penetration, interac-tion, mutual construction with social economic, moral, custom. Whether from its hidden concepts or from some visible cultural events and phenomena, Chaoshan culture always reveals plenty of Buddhist elements, of which most essential points include vegetarian in Chaoshan’s food culture, the temple constructions in architectural culture, the Buddhist proverbs in the dialect culture, the Chaozhou Buddhist music in folk arts, the Buddhist fu-neral custom in etiquette culture, Buddhist festivals in festival culture and the almhouses in organizational cul-ture.

  17. On The Integration of Shintoism and Buddhism of Nara Period In Japan%论日本奈良时期的神佛习合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海燕

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Shintoism is a kind of local faith in nature in Japan.From Nara period,after being spread to Japan in Sixth century,Buddhism began the integration process with Shintoism.How could the two religions integrate with each other when one originated from nature worship but the other publicized a belief in a kind of life and world outlook? When we trace it to its causes,we finnd that common ground between the two religions is the most important internal cause though external causes from the whole society can not be ignored.By way of analysis and argumentation,we come to the conclusion that Shintoism and Buddhism have much in common,such as Polytheism and Dharmapala(Dharma Protector),which became the solid foundation of their integration and made their integration possible in Nara Period,and finally created a lasting and profound effect to the development of both religions.%神道是日本本土的自然信仰。佛教于六世纪传到日本后,自奈良时期开始了与神道习合的过程。一方是产生于自然崇拜的原始信仰,一方是宣扬一种人生观、世界观的信仰,两者为何能够习合?究其原因,社会外部原因虽不可忽视,但两者之间存在着的共通之处才是习合发生的最重要内因。通过分析论证,可发现神佛两教在多神及护法善神思想等方面均存在着相通之处,这些共通点使得奈良时期日本神道教和佛教的习合成为可能。

  18. 论鉴真东渡对日本佛教的影响%On the Influence of Jianzhen Crosses the Ocean to Japan to Japanese Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓璐

    2012-01-01

    鉴真大师是著名的东渡弘法高僧。他不畏艰险曲折,前后经历六次东渡,期间不幸双目失明,最后终于到达日本。鉴真到日本后不仅传授戒律,弘扬佛法,建造了日本历史上第一座律宗寺院——唐招提寺,而且为日本人民传医送药,将唐朝先进的文明带到日本。他为建立、完善日本授戒制度,开创日本律宗作出重大贡献。%Master Jianzhen was the famous monk who crossed the ocean to Japan to promote Buddhism.He twists and turns through thick and thin,and before and after the experience of six east,during the unfortunate blind,and finally arrived in Japan.Jianzhen to Japan not only teach the precepts,and spread the Dharma,the construction of Japanese history a Ritsu temple-Toshodai Temple,and the Japanese people pass medical,drug delivery to the Tang Dynasty advanced civilization to Japan.He established,perfect Japanese Shoujie system,creating the Japanese Ritsu to make a significant contribution.

  19. Bactria and the Hellenistic Buddhism --centered with theMilinda-pa ha%巴克特里亚与希腊化的佛教--以《那先比丘经》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许潇

    2014-01-01

    佛教之所以能够在希腊化的巴克特里亚流行,原因在于其一定程度上的希腊化,或者说是传播方式上一定程度的希腊化。《那先比丘经》的流传即反映了这一情况。作为巴克特里亚希腊人的沾弥利望群和弥兰王并不是因为那先比丘的回答具有多么高明的佛教智慧而心悦诚服,而是因为那先比丘的回答方式和回答内容与古希腊哲学有着密切的关系。弥兰王所接受的佛教带有浓厚的希腊哲学色彩,反映出了希腊文化与印度文化、佛教文化在巴克特里亚所出现的一种多重向度、错综复杂的融合情况。%Buddhism was popular in the Hellenistic Bactria, its reason depends on the extent of the Hellenistic, or its spread on the degree of the hellenistic.Milinda-pa ha responded to this situation, just as what Bactria Greek with Mili hope group and Milinda belived not because of Nagasena replied with a clever Buddhist wisdom and expressed a heartfelt admiration, on the contrary, because Nagasena replied and inherited the thought of Aristotle’s Philosophy. Milinda accepted Buddhism with a strong color of the Greek philosophy. This reflects the Greek culture and India culture, Buddhism culture in Bactria in a multiple dimension and perplexing fusion.

  20. 20世纪以来白族佛教密宗阿吒力教派研究综述%Research Review of Bai Esoteric Buddhism Azhali Religion Since 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    During Nanzhao Kingdom period, esoteric Buddhism was introduced into Dali area of Yunnan. Struggling with and adapting to the local indigenous religious, absorbing different cultural nutrients from Confucianism, Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Chinese Buddhism etc., Azhali Religion was formed. Nowadays, being a unique esoteric sect, Azhali Religion has a history of over 1000 years. It had a greater impact on the provincial politics, economy, culture and other aspects. Since 20th century, domestic and foreign scholars were widely attracted by Azhali Religion, and many research results appeared. The paper gives an overview of the research progress of Azhali Religion.%  南诏时期佛教密宗传入云南大理地区,与当地的土著宗教从斗争到适应,并吸收融合了儒学、道教、藏传佛教、汉传佛教等多种文化养分,形成了密宗新教派——阿吒力教。阿吒力教作为一个独具特色的密宗教派,至今已有一千多年的历史,它对云南政治、经济、文化等方面产生了较大影响。20世纪以来引起了国内外学者的广泛关注,研究成果颇多。对阿吒力教研究动态进行综述,以便大家更全面地认识阿吒力教研究现状,并开创性地搞好今后的研究工作。

  1. 傣族地区南传上座部佛教的旅游文化建设探讨%Discuss the cultural construction of tourism in Dai region Theravada Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧雁

    2014-01-01

    傣族地区具有优美的自然风景,丰富的民族、宗教文化资源,是云南旅游的热点地区之一。要打造有特色,高品质的旅游业,南传上座部佛教旅游文化是值得深入研究、策划的内容。立足于建设云南省“桥头堡”战略的大背景下,从宗教学的角度,初步探讨了在转型中,傣族地区佛教旅游的现状,并对当前出现的问题和如何开发利用方面提出了一些想法和建议。%Dai region has beautiful natural scenery ,rich ethnic ,religious and cultural resources ,is one of the hot spots of tourism in Yunnan ,to create unique ,high-quality tourism ,travel Theravada Buddhism culture is worthy of further re-search ,planning content .T his article is based on the construction of Yunnan Province under the“bridgehead” strategic background ,from the perspective of religious studies ,discuss some current problems of Dai Buddhism travel to face some situation in society transformation ,and how to develop these resources put forward some ideas and suggestions .

  2. 河南省佛教文化旅游资源的深度开发研究%Study on the deep development of Buddhism cultural tourism resources in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楠

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, along with the"religious tourism"national popular, Buddhist culture becomes a kind of development of tourism resources in particular from its deep cultural heritage. This article first elaborated the Henan province tourism culture resources analysis of the development of Buddhism, Buddhism cultural tourism, then puts forward some rationalization proposals, in order to further develop the tourism resources of Buddhist culture plays a certain reference role to better promote Henan tourism development.%近些年,随着“宗教旅游业”的全国盛行,佛教文化以其深厚的文化底蕴成为一种特殊的旅游资源发展开来。本文首先详细阐述了河南省佛教旅游文化资源,分析了发展佛教文化旅游的优势,继而提出一些合理化的建议,以期对佛教文化旅游资源的深度开发起到一定的借鉴作用,促使河南旅游业更好发展。

  3. On Emperor Liang Wu abandoning Taoism to Buddhism Three-religions Debate in the Tang Dynasty%梁武舍道事佛与唐代三教论衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林魁

    2015-01-01

    It is a great mystery in the history of medieval culture that Emperor Liang Wu adandoned Taoism, which, however, became a special concern in early Tang Dynasty. The article proposes that, rather than commenting on whether the event was true or false, a better way of working out the mystery is to investigate its happenings and functions in the religious and cultural context of Tang Dynasty. Judging from the existing literature, emperors and ministers connected Liang Wu’s Buddhism worship with the national subjugation, which was taken advantage by Taoists who propagated that Buddhism resulted in the subjugation. However, the event itself of Liang Wu’s abandoning Taoism to Buddhism has not been paid any attention to by either Confucianists or Taoists. In early Tang Dynasty, Buddhists responded in a different way to both Confucianist and Taoist criticisms, believing that the event itself was undertaking the mission of attacking Taoism. But influenced by the practice that Confucianism and Taoism collaborated in criticizing Buddhism, the event also functioned in glorifying Buddhism, suppressing Confucianism and diminishing Taoism. The Buddhists’ narration of the event in Tang Dynasty highlighted the adversial relations among the three religions at the time, and the event was a response from Taoists like Fuyi.%梁武帝舍道事佛是中古思想文化史上的一大疑案,但此一说法真正被关注是在唐代。与其斤斤计较此说的真伪,不如从唐代宗教文化环境中考察其发生与功能。从现存文献来看,唐代帝王史臣在反思南北朝政教关系的潮流中,将梁武帝崇奉佛教与萧梁亡国联系起来,道教徒也乘势将此提升为佛教亡国论,但梁武帝舍道事佛并未被儒、道二教关注。唐初佛徒对儒家、道教的批判采取了不同的回应方式,梁武帝舍道事佛主要承担起了抨击道教的使命,但受儒、道联合批评佛教惯例的影响,此事同时具有了

  4. How to Treat Buddhism:the Confucian Doctrine and National Control of Religion%家可出否:儒家伦理与国家宗教管控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶

    2015-01-01

    Since the Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty took “Confucianism as the dominant ideology”,the Confucianism has been respected as the orthodox ideology for subsequent dynasties and various Confucian doc-trines have been integrated into national laws either directly or indirectly.For a long time in history,external and internal religious ideologies have also developed and handed down such as Buddhism and Taoism,among which Buddhism ia the most important external religion in China yet has involved conflicts with Confucianism, particularly for the latter’s criticism on the former’s “destruction of humane principle”.Since national laws have been subject to Confucianism,rules pertinent to control of religion have undoubtedly restricted (but rath-er than forbidden)Buddhism wherever there are conflicts.For instance,there are three articles regulated in the Qing Code concerning “defining monks and female monks”,“privately setting up temples and privately undertaking tonsure”,and “monks being obedient to parents”with a constant change of contexts from Tang to Qing Dynasty but the legislative purpose to restrain Buddhism had never altered.The principle of “restricting rather than forbidding”Buddhism has evolved with the national policy on control of religion.%自汉武帝“独尊儒术”之后,儒家一直被尊为历代王朝的正统思想,并有众多儒家之伦理被逐渐直接或间接纳入国家法典之中。但在漫长的历史过程中,儒家之外尚有释、道等外来或本土的思想流派也在这片土地上发扬、流传。以外来宗教中影响最大的佛教为例,其与儒学曾发生一些冲突,其中较为显著的是后者对前者“毁人伦”的批评。作为被“儒家化”的历代王朝法典,深受儒家伦理的影响,在与宗教管控有关的部分,自然也表现出与儒佛冲突相对应的一些对佛教的限制(而非禁止)。如《大清律例》中,这样的律文主要有“

  5. 民族融合进程与辽代佛教繁荣%The Process of National Integration and Prosperity of Buddhism in Liao Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅

    2015-01-01

    辽代作为一个典型的多民族政权,其主体民族从数量上看在国家内部也是居于少数民族地位。辽代统治者对民族问题却处理得比较成功。有辽一代二百年,大部分时间里各民族都能够和谐共处,民族矛盾始终居于次要地位。这一方面归功于其成功的“因俗而治”的民族政策,没有实行激烈的民族压迫政策,顺应了各民族的传统习俗和政治要求,因而得到各民族的响应和拥护;另一方面,宗教特别是佛教在辽代各民族间的广泛传播,在相当程度上成为民族政策的润滑剂,共同的宗教信仰成为维系各民族团结的精神家园。%As a typical multi-national regime, the main subject of the country of Liao, and even in the country, is also in the position of minority nationality. The rulers of the ethnic problems are generally very successful. Liao Dynasty for 200 years, most of the time in which the ethnic groups are able to live in harmony, ethnic conflict has always been in a secondary position. On one hand, it is due to the success of"rule by Morals"of national policy, and did not execute the intense national policy of oppression, it is complied with the nation's traditional customs and political demands, so it has been the nation's response and support. on the other hand, religion, especially Buddhism spread in all ethnic groups Liao, to a considerable extent become lubricant to the national policy of the Empire, the common religious faith has become to maintain the national unity and the spirit of their homes.

  6. 台灣佛教數位典藏資料庫之建置 Digital Archives for the Study of Taiwanese Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jou Hung

    2011-09-01

    culture. As part of this program a number of digital archives specifically concerning the history and development of Buddhism in Taiwan have been created. Supported at various stages by the Taiwan eLearning and Digital Archives Project, the Haoran Foundation and the National Science council these archives preserve a wide range of texts and images pertaining to Buddhism in Taiwan from its inception in the 17th century to the present day. This paper describes the creation principles and scope of these digital collections.

  7. 魏晋南北朝时期佛道关系两点论%Two Aspects on the Relationship of Buddhism and Taoism in Wei-Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路高丹; 梁周敏

    2011-01-01

    Buddhism and Taoism began to prosper in the early period of Wei-jing Southern and Northern Dynasties,a period when the two religions,Buddhist and Taoism,competed with and rejected each other,at the same time absorbed and mixed with each other.This paper analyzes the relationship between Buddhist and Taoism by addressing several controversial issues between Buddhist and Taoism as well as the similarities between the two religions.%魏晋南北朝是佛教初传与道教初兴时期,这一时期佛道二教相互竞争、排斥而又相互吸收、融合。本文主要针对这一时期佛教与道教争论的几个问题及二者的相通之处来研究二者关系。

  8. 内道外佛:许地山的文学世界%The Literature World of Xu Dishan. Taoism on the Inside and Buddhism on the Outside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿宝强

    2012-01-01

    许地山的文学世界诸教杂糅,佛教色彩最为明显,这只是表面。道家思想才是许地山作品的内核,他笔下的女性形象昭示着道家的理想人格模式和道家的人生哲学模式。%The literature world of Xu Dishan is a mixture of religions, with Buddhism appearing the most obvious. Actually, Daoism is the root of his literary works. The female images of his works re- veal the ideal personality model and philosophy of life of the Taoism.

  9. 密教传播与宋元泉州石造多宝塔%Research on the Communication of Esoteric Buddhism and Quanzhou Stone Duobao Pagoda in Song and Yuan Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫爱宾

    2012-01-01

    As an important town of the Sea Silk Road, Quanzhou was famous for its brilliant maritime transport history and abundant multieuhural. Quanzhou was influenced by overseas cultural, including the Indian culture and Esoteric Buddhism. The 13th century invasion of the islamic in India made exodus of large numbers of tantra monks, corresponds to the frequent transportation between China and India during this period, lots of monks im- migrated to Quanzhou. They made significant impact on esotericism in Quanzhou. There are a large number of architectural monuments influenced by Es- oteric Buddhism, including Buddhist sculptures, Sanskrit seed figure, Quanzhou Kaiyuan temple, etc. Esoteric Buddhism especially influenced the stone Building of Song and Yuan dynasty, including Baoqieyin Pagoda, Duobao Pagoda and stone pillar column. In the Song and Yuan period the impact of Es- oteric Buddhism showed a trend of more intense effect and greater number of remains as time goes by. These trends were synchronous with the Quanzhou overseas transport development and prosperity gradually. This paper, taking the Duobao Pagoda in Song and Yuan dynasty as example, reveals these trends by systematic fieldwork and site investigation.%地处海上交通要道的泉州历来受到海外文化影响.亦包括印度文化及密教的渗透;13世纪伊斯兰世界对印度的入侵使大量密教僧人外逃,与这一时期中印海上交通频繁相对应,对泉州的影响也更为明显。泉州传统建筑遗迹中,有大量受到密教的影响,除在造像、梵文种子图及开元寺大殿等木构建筑中有所体现外,更多表现在宋元时期的石建筑中,如宝箧印塔、多宝塔、石经幢等;其时间段集中在宋元时期,且随着时间推移呈现出影响更浓厚、遗迹数量更多的趋势;这一趋势表现出与泉州海外交通发展渐趋繁荣的同步性。本文通过较系统的现场调研,以宋元泉州石造多宝塔为例

  10. 从《近思录》看宋儒对佛老之学的批判%Neo-Confucianism's Critique of Buddhism and Taoism in Reflections on Things at Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世亮

    2011-01-01

    《近思录》首标《异端之学》一目,主要摘录二程和张载对于佛、老之学的批判性文字论述。基于“异端之学”的极大危害性以及维护儒家道统的需要,宋儒尤其是程朱一派对于佛、老之学展开了多角度和多层面地批判。这为儒学新形态的形成与发展扫清了障碍,并对后世中国古代、近代社会三教关系格局产生了极其重大的意义和影响。%Heresy of the Study, the first standard of Reflections on Things at Hand, mainly extracted the dissertation on Cheng Yi, Cheng Hao and Zhang Zai' s critique of Buddhism and Taoism. Based on the extreme hazard of heresy of the Study and the needs to maintain Confucian orthodoxy, Neo-Confucianism, especially the Neo-faction launched the multi-angle and multi-level criticism of Buddhism and Taoism. It clears the way for the formation and development of the new form of Confucianism, and later has very great significance and impact on the relations of the three religions in ancient China and modem society.

  11. 中国俄罗斯侨民文学中儒释道文化研究%Study on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Culture in Chinese Russian Immigrant Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 苗慧

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学是伴随着俄罗斯侨民在中国的定居而产生的。顾名思义,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是俄罗斯的作家以中国社会环境为背景而创作出来的文学作品。泱泱五千年的中华文明史,将博大精深的儒释道文化融于一身,形成了具有独特意蕴的中国传统文化。它不仅影响着整个中华民族的意识形态,同时也对生活在中国半个世纪之久的俄侨作家产生了一定的影响。文章以文本分析形式解读、梳理中国俄侨作品中的中国儒释道文化。%Russian immigrant literature came into being with the settlement of exiled Russians in China. Thus, the so - called Russian immigrant literature in China refers to the literary works written by Russian writers set in the Chinese society. Based on the immemion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism culture, China with 5,000 years of civilization has developed its own peeullar and profound traditional culture, which not only affects the ideology of the whole Chinese nation, but makes a certain impact on the Russian writers living in China for more than half a century. The paper delves into the Confueianism t Buddhism, and Tanism euhure in the Russian immigrant literary works in China by using text analysis techniques.

  12. 真佛山宗教文化旅游资源开发策略探析%Research on Strategy for Developing Tourism Resources of Religion in True Buddhism Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀松; 罗昌印

    2014-01-01

    The Dehua Temple in the True Buddhism Mountain is an important group of Temples in Northeast Sichuan, which was constructed or destroyed in the past 200 years,but now becomes a considerable scale and local characteristics of temple buildings.The architectural layout,religious principles,supernatural belief,folk custom activity and heritages of landscape makes up special religious culture of True Buddhism Mountain scenic spot.The development of its tourism resources should be based on obj ective understanding and comprehensive arrangement,follow the rules of using history cultural landscape and religious culture,face the problems and shortcomings of the developing process,highlight charac-teristics of religion cultural,and take reasonable measures to protect and develop.%真佛山德化寺是川东北地区重要的宗教寺庙群,经200多年创建宏法、兴衰存毁,至今已形成了颇具规模和地方特色的庙群建筑,其建筑布局、宗教义理、神灵信仰、民俗活动以及大量的艺术景观遗存构成了真佛山景区独特的宗教文化资源。对真佛山宗教文化资源的旅游开发应建立在客观认识和全面整理的基础上,遵循历史人文景观和宗教文化的利用规律,正视开发过程中的问题和弊病,突出宗教文化特色,并采取规范合理的手段进行保护和开发。

  13. 禅武合一对少林寺体育旅游可持续发展的支持研究%Research on Combining Buddhism With Wushu to Support Sustainable Development of Shaolin Temple Sports Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨木森

    2015-01-01

    The greatest characteristic of the Shaolin Wushu is Buddhism combined with Wushu.This combination plays a tremendous boost role of the Shaolin Temple sports tourism culture.However,there exist some problems with Shaolin Temple sports tourism,such as little experience with sport on the part of the tourists and a lack of fea-ture of sports tourism products etc.A sustainable development of Shaolin Temple sports tourism can be realized by way of carrying out religious research tourism,highlighting the cultural connotation of Buddhism and Wushu,rea-sonably controlling the flow of tourists,improving the sports tourism environment,displaying fully the cultural at-mosphere of Zen and upgrading the quality of the cultural products.%少林武术最大的特点是禅武合一。禅武合一对少林寺体育旅游文化具有很大的助推作用。少林寺体育旅游存在游客体验性低、体育旅游产品特色不突出等问题。开展宗教修学旅游,彰显禅武文化内涵;合理控制游客流量,改善体育旅游环境;彰显禅宗文化氛围,提升文化旅游品位,是实现少林寺体育旅游可持续发展的重要途径。

  14. The Diary in Rehe and the Rites Controversy between Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism---A Historical Anthropological Study on a Multi-ethnic Mixed Imperial Feast%《热河日记》与“儒藏礼仪之争”--一场多民族帝国盛宴的历史人类学考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Diary in Rehe is one of the most important literatures about the relationship of Confucianism and Buddhism during Qianlong years in Qing Dynasty. With the reanalysis about the interactions of Confucianism, Buddhism and the emperor recorded by Pak Chi-Won’s , this paper aims to explain Hevia’s misunderstanding of the ritual space and order in Chengde, which was supposed to be ritual conflicts between the emperor and the inner Asian Buddhism world. The author of this paper argues that the conflicts were brought by Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism. The transforma-tion of Yi-Xia concept and the complexity of the intellectuals’ attitude are the origin of these conflicts in Qing Dynasty.%《热河日记》是清代乾隆年间关于儒佛关系的最重要的文献之一,通过对朴趾源所记录的儒佛与皇帝互动的种种细节的分析,来说明美国历史学家何伟亚关于皇帝与内亚佛教世界的礼仪冲突的看法是对乾隆年间承德的礼仪空间与秩序的误读,认为真正的礼仪冲突产生于儒家与藏传佛教之间,而冲突的根源则在于清代夷夏观念的变革和知识分子心态的复杂性。

  15. Positive Interaction in Political Life between Tantric Buddhism and Bai Ancestors in Nan Zhao and Dali Kingdom Period%南诏大理国时期佛教密宗与白族先民政治生活的积极互动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊华; 雷信来; 赵金元

    2011-01-01

    Tantric Buddhism has reconstructed the concept of ethnic identity and played a role in the integration of the Bai culture to form the ancient Bai community after it was introduced into the Erhai lake region. It is an important social cultural force for ethnic groups in Erhai region to leap from pre-country period to country period and it remains a positive interactive tool among countries and ethnic groups in Nan Zhao period. Tantric Buddhism in Dali area has combined the political authority, the local culture and the secular society with the corresponding monks and the monk organization. The mutual grafting, absorbing and fusing of Buddhism, Confucianism and Bai culture produce Confucianism Buddhism. The different social roles of Confucianism Buddhist, Confucian Entrepreneurs and squire in different historical periods, shed much light on their own values and functions in the Bai ethnic community.%佛教密宗在洱海地区的传入,重新建构了洱海地区各部族的民族认同观念,为白族先民共同体的形成发挥了文化凝聚的功能,是洱海地区各部族从前国家社会跃进到国家的重要文化力量,成为南诏时期国家与民族之间实现积极互动的工具。佛教密宗在大理地区形成了与政治权威结合、与本土文化融合、与世俗社会结构对应的僧侣和僧团组织;释儒阶层的产生是佛教、儒教与白族本土文化相互嫁接、吸收、融合的产物,从释儒到儒商,再到乡绅,其在不同历史时期演化为不同的社会角色,在白族社会彰显自身价值和作用。

  16. The possibility and limit of the assimilation of learning of mind- heart with Buddhism examined by "neither good nor evil"%从“无善无恶”看心学与佛学交融的可能与限度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚晓康

    2011-01-01

    王阳明的“无善无恶”之说在后世引起了极大争论,批评者讥其“源于佛老”。本文通过分析王阳明“无善无恶”学说的提出及其思想内涵,并与佛教特别是禅学的“无善无恶”说进行比较,指出王阳明之“无善无恶”论与佛学确有共通之处,二者均认同本体界无善无恶,现象界有善有恶,均强调形上虚寂本体与形下现实生命的贯通。然心学之“无善无恶”论的理论依据为儒学传统之体用论,与佛教之缘起论迥然有异。就阳明心学的思想实质来看,是援释入儒而以儒为宗,心学与佛学是在保持各自差异基础上的交融。%Wang Yangming' s theory of "neither good nor evil" arouse great controversy. Some critics satirized it as originated from Buddhism and Taoism. Through analysis of the proposition and the connotation of Wang' s theory of "neither good nor evil" and comparison it with the theory of "neither good nor evil" of Buddhism, esp. of Chan school, this essay points out the similarities between Wang and Chan. They both hold that "neither good nor evil" exist in noumenon world whereas "good and evil" exist in phenomenon world. They both emphasize the mutual penetration between the empty and quiet metaphysical noumenon and the physical actual life. However, theory of "neither good nor evil" in learning of mindheart is based on Confucian traditional entity -function theory, which is totally different from Buddhist theory of interdependent origination. Yangrning' s theory is, in fact, Confucianism - oriented absorption of Buddhism into Confucianism, blending the learning of mind - heart with Buddhism keeping each one's characteristic independence.

  17. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  18. THE CONCEPT OF MINDFULNESS IN BUDDHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the far-and deep-reaching significance of the Buddha's 'Way of Mindfulness', and to give initial guidance to an understanding of these teachings and their practical application. The teachings of the Buddha offer a great variety of methods of mental training and subject of meditation, suited to the various individual needs, temperaments and capacities. This ancient Way of Mindfulness is as practicable to-day as it was 2500 years ago. It is as applicable in the lands of the West as in the East; in the midst of life's turmoil as well as in the peace of the monk's cell.

  19. Buddhism and the Perils of Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Reader

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article raises problems with the use of advocacy in Buddhist Studies, and critiques those who bring their Buddhist beliefs into the classroom and into their research. It argues that the foundations of the academic discipline (Religious Studies within which Buddhist Studies is located are grounded in the search for an objective, non-confessional approach to the study of religion, one that distinguishes Religious Studies from Theology, and that this perspective is what gives the field its integrity. It cites examples of the problems that occur in teaching and research when such objectivity is replaced by confessional approaches, and provides an example from another field (the study of new religious movements in which immense problems have occurred because some scholars have become advocates rather than analysts, to warn of the problems that can arise when confessional approaches become a dominant field paradigm.

  20. PLURALISTIC WORLDVIEW OF BUDDHISM TOWARDS COEXISTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    M. George JOSEPH

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to conceive a pluralistic, non-centric, auto-regulated, dialectical and dynamic world view that can accommodate diversity or difference and establish a ground for mutual recognition and coexistence. Universe is a common name for the plurality of auto constructing and destructing continuity of existences in dependence. There is neither uniform purpose nor unity among them. Auto constructing and destructing activities of individual units towards the attainment of their ends are...

  1. On the Core Values of the Charitable Theory of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism --Focus on the Confucius, Lao Zi and Hui Neng%儒道佛慈善论的核心价值——以孔老惠为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟永生

    2012-01-01

    There are rich charitable theories in Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism respectively re- presented by Confucius, Lao Zi and Hui Neng. With common nature on love, kindness, goodness, harmony, righteousness, sincerity and brave, each religion has its respective core values on the charitable theory. The benevolence of the Confucianism is the show of the humanism, subjectivity and universality. The softness of the Taoism is the show of unification, freedom and inclusiveness. The mercy of the Buddhism is the show of secularity, simplicity and equality.%作为中华传统文化的主体内容,以孔子、老子和惠能为代表的儒道佛三教均具有丰富的慈善论,表现出爱、慈、善、和、义、诚、勇等共通性特征。然三教慈善论又各有其内在核心价值,这就是慈仁之善、慈柔之善和慈悲之善。慈仁之善表现出儒学慈善论的人本性、主体性和普世性特质,慈柔之善表现出道家一体性、自在性和包容性特质,慈悲之善则表现出佛禅人间性、简易性和平等性特质。

  2. “大道和生”与佛教“缘起论”--评钱耕森教授的“大道和生学”%Tao's Harmony Giving Birth to the New Things Theory and the Origin of Buddhism--Qian Geng-sen’sTao's Harmony Giving Birth to the New Things Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2015-01-01

    Professor Qian Gengsen’s philosophical thought regressed to the origin of Chinese philosophy. Through illustrating Shibo’s “harmony actually fosters new things”, he proposed hisTao’s harmony giving birth to the new things theory”, whose theory was regarded as the “new life” in Chinese philosophy history. He observed his theory by putting it in the scope of the origin of the universe. He thought that the world was constituted by different elements not the same ones, and only all the different elements were in a harmonious situation, could things be fostered eventually, which could be illustrated as the theory of the origin of Buddhism, for the origin of Buddhism emphasized that all the laws of the world combined for the harmony of the all the lots. Moreover, there was an equal relation among the lots which was the base of the origin of lot. Not only professor Qian’sTao’s harmony giving birth to the new things theory but also the theory of the origin of Buddhism have guiding significance in building a harmonious society and promoting the peace of the world.%钱耕森教授回归中国哲学的原初意境,通过解读史伯“和实生物”的观点而提出了“大道和生学”,自创新说,堪称当代中国哲学研究之老树发新芽。钱先生将“大道和生学”放在宇宙生成论的范畴来加以考察,指出世界不是由相同的元素而是由不同的元素构成的,而且各种不同的元素只有在和谐平等的状态下才能最终生成万物,这可与佛教的“缘起”论相互诠释相互发明,因为佛教的缘起论强调世界万法皆是众缘和合而成,而且参与缘起的缘与缘之间互相平等,唯其平等,才能缘起。无论是钱先生的“大道和生学”还是佛教的“缘起”论,都对我们今天建设和谐社会和促进世界和平具有指导意义。

  3. An Amphibious Goddess of Both Buddhism and Taoism A Research of the Legend of Cihang Goddess%仙释圆融佛道双栖——慈航真人观世音仙话传说的文化观照

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳

    2012-01-01

    道教神仙谱系中的慈航真人是一位深受民间崇奉的女仙。慈航真人信仰的形成与佛教的观音菩萨信仰有非常密切的联系。慈航真人观世音这种佛道双栖的现象是中国古代三教合一特别是仙释圆融宗教文化的产物。慈航真人仙话传说中的性别困惑既体现了古代社会性别意识的特殊取向,也反映出观音形象不断演变的历史信息。%As a famous goddess of Taoism, Cihang is astonishingly similar to the Guanyin Bodhisattva. The religion of Cihang has dccp contact with the Guanyin Bodhisattva of Buddhism. This phenomenon is a result of the fusing of the Three Religions in ancient China. There is a special sex puzzlement in those legends about Cihang goddess. It embodies the message of the evolution of Cihang's image in Chinese ancient religious culture.

  4. 礼物交换与佛教经济学--一个西藏“寺院-村落”共同体的互惠与团结%Gifts Exchange and the Buddhism Economics---The Reciprocity and Unity of a Tibetan“Temple-Village”Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    This article will use the Gifts Exchange theory and the Interpretivism approach for the Economics of Religion to argue that the reciproc-ity between temples and villages is the common relationship among the small scale of societies in Tibet. And this reciprocity system is not only the ethics of Buddhism economics but also offering an abundant knowledge resource for the ways to understand different economics ethics in religious study.%本文借用莫斯的礼物交换理论以及宗教经济学范式的阐释主义视角,通过对日喀则南木林县牛寺与牛村的互惠共生关系,来说明在藏区社会中,寺院-村落社会形成的彼此依赖的互惠共生关系一r以来是村落社会得以整合和团结的机制。而这种互惠共生的关系机制,既是佛教经济学的价值伦理,也为人类学通过阐释主义视角来理解不同宗教的经济伦理提供了宝贵的知识资源。

  5. On the Secularization of Religion:Taking the Secularization of Buddhism in Dai Villages in Yunnan as an Example%宗教世俗化现象探析--以云南傣族村社佛教世俗化变迁为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勉

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of secularization of religion seems to appear frequently in our daily life in re-cent years.Secularization of religion refers to the weakening of religious ideas and feelings,which results in the gradually narrowing religious activities,the weakening of religious influence and the loss of reli-gious value.Taking the secularization of South-Shangzuo Buddhism in Dai communities in Yunnan as an example,based on the background and connotation,this paper presents the manifestation of the seculari-zation as follows:the social management model changes from unification of the politics and the religion to separation of religion from politics;the basic beliefs transform from godhood to humanity;social religion changes to individual's organizationally;the focus is shifted from that world to this world.The growing trend of secularization theories is likely to be divided into three categories of pessimism,optimism and in-between.%近年来,宗教世俗化的趋势开始越来越频繁地走入人们视野。宗教世俗化是指由于人们对宗教观念和感情的逐步淡化,使得宗教活动范围减小、宗教的社会影响削弱以及宗教价值观念失落等的现象和发展趋势。作者以云南傣族社会南传上座部佛教的世俗化为例,梳理宗教世俗化的出现背景、内涵表现,提出当前世俗化的表现为:“政教合一”的社会管理模式向“政教分离”的社会管理模式转变,基本信念由“神性”中心向“人性”中心转换,组织观念由社会的宗教转变为个人的宗教,关注重点由“彼岸”转向“此世”。世俗化条件下宗教的未来发展趋势目前可以分为悲观论派、乐观论派和中间派等三个理论派别。

  6. Crossing the Divide between Self and Other --Concurrence of The Country of the Pointed Firs and Buddhism%打破人我关——浅析《尖尖的枞树之乡》与佛教思想之暗合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖

    2012-01-01

    萨拉·奥恩·朱厄特长期被定位于美国新英格兰乡土作家、区域作家,后又受到关注人与自然关系的女权主义的赞赏,之后,又有评论家从文化政治的角度为她贴上各种标签。朱厄特的作品,特别是代表作《尖尖的枞树之乡》,虽取材于新英格兰,具有鲜明的地域特征,但她所描述的或隔绝、或融合的人类生存境遇却是普遍的,与佛教思想有暗合之处,其主题具有普世性。这也是此书得以传世,并吸引异域读者的原因所在。%Sarah Orne Jewett has long been regarded by critics as a writer of New England local color. With the rise of Feminism, Jewett' s works are highly praised by those feminist critics who are concerned with the relationship between humans and nature. In the recent 20 years, some critics have read various isms into her texts, mainly from the perspective of cultural politics. Though Jewett draws her materials of The Country of the Pointed Firs from New England, and the work is closely related to her age, the human state--secluded or connected--depicted in the no- vel, and the theme of the novel has universal significance. That is why her work may arouse interest in other regions and other ages. The essay analyses the concurrence of The Country of the Pointed Firs and Buddhism, so as to prove the universal significance of Jewett' s most famous work.

  7. The Holy Land of Buddhism%佛门圣地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李显福

    2005-01-01

    @@ 威镇涪江一大佛 那里有一个仅次于乐山大佛的大佛,很值得一看.上世界七十年代初,我和三个朋友在采访途中去游览了乐山大佛寺,对凿壁而成面江而立威镇河神遏制洪水的巨灵神般的大佛感叹不已.

  8. Santi Asoke Buddhism and the Occupation of Bangkok International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Heikkilä-Horn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced dramatic political turmoil from February 2006 to November 2008 culminating in the occupation of the Bangkok International Airport. The demonstrations against then Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his political allies were organised by the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD. One of the PAD leaders, Major-General Chamlong Srimuang, is an active member of the Buddhist Santi Asoke group. The group is controversial as it is not under the state Buddhist authorities and has implicitly criticised the Thai state Buddhist monks for moral corruption. Known as the ‘Dharma Army’, hundreds of Santi Asoke monks, nuns and lay people participated in PAD demonstrations. This paper analyses what the Santi Asoke Buddhist group represents, what the ‘Dharma Army’ is, how its reality differs from media images, what the ideological reasons for Asoke to initially support Thaksin were, and why the group finally turned against him. The paper argues that the group cannot be viewed as a monolithic community. Instead, it should be considered as an amalgamation of monks and nuns, urban and rural temple residents, lay followers of Asoke monks, practitioners of organic agriculture in Asoke village communities, students and former students of Asoke schools, and supporters of Major-General Chamlong Srimuang. Representatives of all these networks participated in the demonstrations albeit with different intensity. ----- Zwischen Februar 2006 und November 2008 stand Thailand unter dem Zeichen tiefgehender politischer Unruhen, die in der Besetzung des internationalen Flughafens ihren Höhepunkt fanden. Organisiert wurden diese Demonstrationen, die sich gegen den damaligen Premierminister Thaksin Shinawatra und seine politischen Verbündeten richteten, von der Volksallianz für Demokratie (PAD. Einer ihrer Anführer, Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang, ist aktives Mitglied der buddhistischen Santi Asoke Gruppe. Da sich Santi Asoke nicht der staatlich kontrollierten buddhistischen Ordnung beugt und solche Mönche implizit der moralischen Verdorbenheit beschuldigt, hängt ihr ein kontroverser Ruf an. Unter der Bezeichnung „Dharma Armee“ nahmen hunderte Anhänger von Santi Asoke, darunter Mönche, Nonnen und Laien an den PAD- Demonstrationen teil. Inhalt dieses Artikels ist daher die Analyse der Hintergründe und Ziele der Santi Asoke Gruppe und der „Dharma Armee“, Unterschiede zwischen medialer Darstellung und vorgefundener Realität sowie die Motive der anfänglichen Unterstützung Thaksins durch Santi Asoke und ihre spätere Abkehr von ihm. Dabei wird argumentiert, dass die Gruppe nicht als monolithischer Block verstanden werden kann, sondern in ihrer Vielfalt, zusammengesetzt aus Mönchen, Nonnen, EinwohnerInnen städtischer und ländlicher Tempel, Laien, AnhängerInnen biologischer Landwirtschaft in Asoke-Dörfern sowie UnterstützerInnen von Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang begriffen werden muss. RepräsentantInnen all dieser Netzwerke nahmen, wenn auch in unterschiedlicher Intensität, an den Demonstrationen teil.

  9. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Spencer A.

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  10. The Concept of Self in Buddhism and Brahmanism: Some Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I contrast briefly the Buddhist concept of Self as a process and a conditional reality with the concept of the substantial metaphysical concept of Self in Brahmanism and Hinduism. I present the criticism of the Buddhist thinkers, such as Nāgārjuna, who criticize any idea of the metaphysical Self. They deny the idea of the Self as its own being or as a possessor of its mental acts. However, they do not reject all sense of Self; they allow a pure process of knowledge (first of all, Self-knowledge without a fixed subject or “owner” of knowledge. This idea is in a deep accord with some Chan stories and paradoxes of the Self and knowledge.

  11. Buddhism, Copying, and the Art of the Imagination in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Taylor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article theorizes new urban religio-scapes in metropolitan Bangkok, a city space of contradictory modernities. Here, I look at two contrasting Buddhist monastic spaces of sanctity from periods of fieldwork between 1998 and 2002. Firstly, as found in the modern semblance of order and discipline at the radically neo-conservative Dhammakaya Movement (lit. “Body of Dhamma”. Secondly, the chaotic, disordered flamboyant and kitsch space of the Sanam Chan Monastery on the outskirts of the ever-expanding Thai post-metropolis, which has similarities with the consumerist contemporary “Buddhist” feature art of the arcades and shopping centres. I argue that Wat (Monastery Sanam Chan is a postmodern representation of sanctity; it is a response to modernity, while Dhammakaya, aside from its immense spectacle, reflects more the essentialist conditions inherent in modernity. Nevertheless, it is clear that both spaces of sanctity challenge the established religious hierarchy, its perceived orthodoxy, legitimation and the ethical bases of civic religion in Thailand.

  12. Buddhism, Copying, and the Art of the Imagination in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Taylor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorizes new urban religio-scapes in metropolitan Bangkok, a city space of contradictory modernities. Here, I look at two contrasting Buddhist monastic spaces of sanctity from periods of fieldwork between 1998 and 2002. Firstly, as found in the modern semblance of order and discipline at the radically neo-conservative Dhammakaya Movement (lit. “Body of Dhamma”). Secondly, the chaotic, disordered flamboyant and kitsch space of the Sanam Chan Monastery on the outskirts of the ever...

  13. Buddhism in Sarnath: An Account of Two Chinese Travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Anuradha Singh

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to draw the religious life in Sarnath (and Varanasi) as accounted by the Chinese travellers—Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang. The accounts not only talk about the stupas, pillars, statues built by King Ashoka; vihars and monks (bhikshus) living in those vihars but also contain the first preachings of Lord Buddha, establishment of Sangha and the story of Mrigajataka that remain significant. With the increased popularity of Buddha dharma in China, the Chinese were attracted towards trave...

  14. The Concept of the Buddha in Early Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, X; 廣興

    2002-01-01

    Some scholars of Buddhist studies consider the Buddha as a mythological figure. This is especially true at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Later on, rational Buddhist scholars argue that the Buddha is a historical personage and the miraculous stories are actually later additions. In this paper, the author has reexamined the identity of the Buddha by using the earliest Buddhist scripture, namely the Pāli Nikāyas and the Chinese Āgamas. An analysis of th...

  15. Buddhism in Sarnath: An Account of Two Chinese Travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Anuradha Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw the religious life in Sarnath (and Varanasi as accounted by the Chinese travellers—Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang. The accounts not only talk about the stupas, pillars, statues built by King Ashoka; vihars and monks (bhikshus living in those vihars but also contain the first preachings of Lord Buddha, establishment of Sangha and the story of Mrigajataka that remain significant. With the increased popularity of Buddha dharma in China, the Chinese were attracted towards travelling to India. They came to India mainly with the intentions to visit the places related to the fond memories of Lord Buddha, to study the Buddha religion and philosophy and carry the copies of the Buddhist compositions. Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang occupy significant places among these Chinese travellers. These accounts can be associated with ancient history as well as with historical geography, religion and philosophy. While Fa-hien in his journey details had described about the Buddha Empire, Hiuen-tsang highlighted the civilisation of India and its cultural landscape, albeit it has been often accepted by the historians that these accounts of their journeys should be considered as significant only when they are backed by historical evidences. They opine that these travellers were mainly influenced by the Buddha dharma and therefore, their accounts are liable to containing exaggerated journey details. It is true that the journey details contain few imaginary instances; nevertheless, these accounts have been validated by the remnants, stupas and vihars at the sites.

  16. HEIDEGGER AND BUDDHISM. ON NON-NIHILISTIC EXPERIENCE OF GROUNDLESSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Wozniak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human existence is temporal. In a wider, over-individual dimension, we use the term ‘history’. We usually think about history in the context of historical events, wars, or scientificdiscoveries that have a strong impact both on the life of societies and the existence of individuals. We try to think over history, to point out what makes one fragment different from another, and to distinguish periods which we can define by emphasising their typical features. The aim of such procedures is to understand history. There can be different perspectives on such an understanding. According to Martin Heidegger, the widest, most fundamentaldimension of history seems to be the history of being, i.e. the history of the very understanding of the word ‘is’.The past brings pre-formed concepts and meanings, through which we understand ourselves and the world. These shapes of thought last in time – alone, subject to interpretations, or in new forms. By understanding this history, we can comprehend the present time,and this seems to be of some importance. As hermeneutics teaches, being and its understanding belong to each other; “understanding is the original character of the being of human life itself”1. If we exist, understanding is always a part of our existence, and we alwayssomehow understand the world and ourselves.What can be said about the contemporary situation of human beings, about their understanding of themselves, about how they understand the world today? How can we understand our present time, while also taking into consideration the historical aspect of thisunderstanding? If we accept the thesis on the occidentalisation and globalisation of the contemporary world, these questions become even more universal.

  17. Investigating the universality of primary metaphors: a perspective from Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tay Zhiming

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I conduct a conceptual metaphor analysis of the “Wheel of Life”, a pictorial representation of Buddhist philosophical concepts. Abstract concepts that define our everyday realities (e.g. states, causation are claimed by some to be metaphorically structured, and reducible to a universal set of primary metaphors (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1999, while argued by others to be structured by non-metaphorical cultural understandings instead (QUINN, 1991. Recognizing the need for empirical testing of the universalist claim, I analyze Buddhist conceptualizations of states-of-being, rebirth and event structure for their reducibility to primary metaphors. I show that while some concepts are reducible to universal primary metaphors, others might be constituted by culture-specific understandings instead. I also question the concept of primary metaphor itself, suggesting that supposedly universal primary metaphors already carry culturally-biased preconceptions, and urge the Lakoffian school to justify the assumed universality of subjective experiences which give rise to primary metaphors.

  18. Investigating the universality of primary metaphors: a perspective from Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Tay Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I conduct a conceptual metaphor analysis of the “Wheel of Life”, a pictorial representation of Buddhist philosophical concepts. Abstract concepts that define our everyday realities (e.g. states, causation) are claimed by some to be metaphorically structured, and reducible to a universal set of primary metaphors (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1999), while argued by others to be structured by non-metaphorical cultural understandings instead (QUINN, 1991). Recognizing the need for empirical te...

  19. Women in Song Dynasty and Buddhism%论宋代妇女与佛教

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建锋

    2012-01-01

    On the background of the common customs of Buddish in Song Dynasty,the women believed in Buddish in different class. They had many ways to carry out, such as doing Buddhist nuns, participateing in the feast days of Buddish, building temples, making the figures of Buddha,bringing up the monks and nuns, burn- ing joss sticks and praying to Buddha, writing the sutras, burying temples and cremating, researching the sutras and being well up in the theory; These had some reasons, suah as ailment and death of oneself and folks, the in- fluencement of family, the induction of the monks and nuns, underestimating the fate, women guarding the moral integrity, pursuing the son and riches and honour. The women believing in Buddish had the important influencement of oneself, the around people and the society,%在佛教世俗化的背景下,宋代各阶层有很多信仰佛教的妇女。她们信仰佛教的实践方式多种多样,有出家为尼,虔诚参与各类佛教节日活动,营建佛寺、捐钱造像、饭养僧尼,烧香念佛、刻写经书,死后葬于佛寺、火葬,研佛书、通佛理等。这些佛教实践的原因有自己或至亲疾病和死亡、受家庭影响、弘法僧尼的引导、看破红尘、妇女守节、求子和求富贵等。她们信仰佛教给自身、周边人和社会带来了许多重要影响。

  20. Black Ants and Buddhism: Second Graders Use Classroom Conflict to Explore World Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowhey, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Human nature draws people to conflict. They become curious about the overheard argument at the next table in a restaurant, or a conflict between parent and child in the supermarket. Too often textbooks and other teacher-proof curriculum for young children provide a pat and happy presentation, devoid of conflict. Not surprisingly, these materials…

  1. Blending Buddhism, Shinto, and the Secular: Japanese Conceptualizations of the Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Bruce, Jessica L.; Salmon, Ptamonie Y.; Eich, R. Tony; Brandewie, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interview study investigated Japanese understandings of spirituality, religion, and The Divine. Thirteen native Japanese living in central Ohio (6 male, 7 female) answered open-ended questions about spiritual or religious activities they engaged in, motivations for engaging in them, what constitutes sacredness, why humanity and…

  2. THE CONCEPT OF SOUL IN THERAVĀDA BUDDHISM-A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ven Nyarnavara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha countered all Soul-theory and soul-speculation with his Anatta doctrine. Anatta is translated under various labels: No-Soul, No-Self, egoless less, and soullessness. To understand the Anatta doctrine, one must understand that the eternal soul theory- 'I have a soul'- and the material theory- 'I have no soul'- are both obstacles to self-realization or salvation. They arise from the misconception 'I am'. Hence, to understand the Anatta doctrine, one must no cling to any opinion or view on soul-theory; rather, one must try to see things objectively as they are and without any mental projection.

  3. Buddhist Philosophy: A Study of Buddha Images for Perpetuating Buddhism in Isan Society

    OpenAIRE

    Thidarat Duangsin; Songkoon Chantachon; Khosit Paengsoi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Buddha image is a symbol which built for representing the Buddha. At present, the majority of people always misinterpret and misevaluate the real value of Buddha image. As a matter of fact, Buddha image enhances social solidarity and social networks of Northeast-Thai people. Appreciating value of Buddha image is necessary for next generation so a study of Buddhist Philosophy towards Buddha images and current problems concerning interpretation and evaluation is a serious stu...

  4. 佛教在印度衰落的原因%Why Buddhism Declined in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓阳

    2008-01-01

    关于佛教在印度衰落的原因,中印西方学者已提出种种意见.此外,佛教在印度从未成为一统天下的宗教,在与婆罗门教互争雄长的过程中从未获得过压倒性的优势,这是佛教最终在印度衰落的原因之一;佛教虽然是作为反婆罗门教的"异端"出现,但其主要教义却出自婆罗门教的思想,后在发展过程中为争夺信众又吸收了婆罗门教的许多东西,这更成为佛教在印度衰落的重要原因.

  5. Broadening the Scope of Ethical Consumer Behaviour: A Study on Five Precepts of Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Dushan Chaminda; Nilanthi Ratnayake

    2013-01-01

    Consumption is an essential everyday process. By very nature, it is a means of expressing our moral identities and an outlet for ethical obligations. In more recent years, ethical aspects of consumption have come under greater scrutiny with the emergence of ethical consumption discourses, and are currently associated with a range of consumer behaviours and responsible business practices. To this end, religion is an undeniably powerful and concurrently the most successful marketing force that ...

  6. The Enactment and Perception of Mathematics Pedagogical Values in an Elementary Classroom: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Yuh-Chyn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate the values demonstrated by an elementary school teacher in her mathematics teaching and what values her students perceived. This research adopted the valuing theory (Raths, Harmin & Simon, 1987) and used classroom observations and interviews to document the teacher's mathematics pedagogical values…

  7. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  8. Theory on Dependent Origination and Life View of Buddhism%缘起论与佛教的生命观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴传江

    2010-01-01

    @@ 缘起论是佛教理论的基础和核心,它阐述了佛教对于生命的构成和本质的看法,由此,佛教建立了消除我、法二执而回归生命本原的解脱之道.在佛教历史上,缘起论经历了业感缘起、性空缘起、阿赖耶识缘起、佛性缘起、世法缘起等阶段,表现了佛教的生命解脱观在不同维度的展开.

  9. A Discussion on the Spread and Influence of Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism on Each Other in Tibetan and Han Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junzhe

    2014-01-01

    1 .The Basis , Path and Form of the spread of Confucianism into Tibetan Areas There is a specific historical background and intrinsic necessity regarding the spread of Confu-cianism into Tibetan areas .1 ) During the Tubo period (7th century to 877), the military and po-litical power of the Tubo were very strong .Howev-er , the development of their ideology and scientific culture was relatively weak;2 ) The extensive and profound ideological and cultural system contained in Confucianism was very attractive to the Tibet-ans;3 ) The similarities found in both Confucian-ism and Tibetan ideology was the basis for the a-doption of Confucianism by Tibetans .

  10. "I" in Buddhism and in Jean-Paul Sartre's Thought%佛教之"我"与萨特之"我"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫春梅

    2009-01-01

    佛教所说的"我"有"人我"、"法我"两个含义,这与现代人通常所讲的"我"以及存在主义哲学家萨特的"我"是有所不同的.本文拟从本体论、论识论、价值观、实践观的角度对佛教之"我"与萨特之"我"略作剖析.

  11. Sixty Years of Tibetan Buddhist Studies in China%中国藏传佛教研究60年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈卫荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ Tibetan Buddhism is not only one of the two branches of Mahayana Buddhism, but also one of the two most important and evolving traditions of the contemporary Buddhism world.It has inherited and further developed all the traditions of Indian Buddhism.

  12. Aloha Buddha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    , Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues, just as Hawaii with its long migration history and religious pluralism is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion...... Buddhism is counterbalanced by a different group’s spiritualization of Buddhism....

  13. Podstawy abhidharmicznej koncepcji umysłu. Pojęcie świadomości ( The Concepts of Mind and Consciousness in Abhidharma Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szymański

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Abhidharma thinkers mind is a set of many mental elements (dharmas. All these elements were regarded as impermanent. The basic dimension of the diachronically considered mind was believed to be a continuous succession of consciousness (citta elements. They were believed to lie at the foundation of any psychical activity. They were to be accompanied by other mental elements (called caitasika to determine the nature of cognitive, emotional and volitional activity of the mind at any given moment. Among them they recognised dharmas unavoidably accompanying citta elements (feelings, elements of attention, conceptual identifications, volitions etc.. The mind was apparently treated as an integral whole which is signified by the conviction that every mental dharma is adjusted to the character of the other simultaneous mental elements. Such a combination of mental dharmas was believed to determine the content of the mind in the succeeding moment (i.e. to bring about the new set of mental elements before it ceases, which is effected with such participating factors as karmic compensation and the influence of the environment.

  14. 藏传佛教寺院里的"运动员"--陀陀巴%Tuotuoba--Sportsman in Temples of Buddhism Passed on by Tibetan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强

    2006-01-01

    "陀陀巴对抗赛"就是在藏传佛教寺院内部进行的体育活动.它的参加者都是各个寺院的陀陀巴,陀陀巴是原藏区特有的,它的存在体现着在佛教思想的禁锢下藏族体育发展的艰辛,同时也证明了其顽强的生命力."陀陀巴对抗赛"俨然就是现在的运动会."陀陀巴"就相当于运动员,他们有着自己独特的比赛项目和比赛方法.研究"陀陀巴对抗赛",虽是藏族体育发展过程中之一隅,离开了它将导致研究的不完整.

  15. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. Payne

    2015-01-01

    This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakenin...

  16. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Study of Nuns of Tibetan Buddhism Nuns constitute a part of members of Tibetan Buddhism. Recent years have seen more girls and women apply to be nuns. Studying the why and the female body of the members of Tibetan Buddhism is therefore of practical significance. Authored by Degyi Zholma, the book provides a panoramic description of nuns, including history and status quo. To write

  17. Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

  18. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  19. 佛教中国化对马克思主义中国化的现实启示%The Localization of Buddhism as a Source of Inspiration for the Localization of Marxism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立斌

    2011-01-01

    佛教中国化最成功的宗派--禅宗从"不立文字"到"不离文字"而由盛转衰的事实启示我们,马克思主义中国化的主要发展方式不是解释学的而是实践的;佛教中国化进程中诸宗争鸣推动佛教发展的事实启示我们,在确保马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位的前提下,应形成一些具有区域特色的马克思主义中国化派别,使马克思主义创新的活力在政治精英、学术精英和民间精英中国时激发;禅宗创立者慧能宣扬"佛性即无南北"并尊称听众为"善知识"的事实启示我们,马克思主义中国化必须歌颂大众、发动大众并尊重大众的首创精神;佛教普度众生的多重法门启示我们,推进马克思主义中国化,必须加快推进以改善民生为重点的社会建设,把对人的精神关怀建立在现实的社会制度关怀和物质生活关怀的基础之上.

  20. On Communication of Buddhism Culture from Perspective of New Media——Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou as an Example%佛教文化的新媒体传播——以杭州灵隐寺为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 罗京

    2015-01-01

    新媒体时代的到来为佛教文化传播带来发展的东风.以杭州灵隐寺为代表的传统庙宇在新媒体传播中,以弘扬佛教教义为精神旨归,精心建构传播文本,契合现实社会语境与受众心理期待,逐渐探索出新的传播模式与路径.

  1. 秦始皇时代佛教已传入中国考%A new discussion on the introduction of Buddhism into China which should be traced back to the Qin Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2009-01-01

    佛教传入中国的时间,学术界多数认为是在汉明帝时,但是这种说法是不对的.有"禁不得祠"的记载, "不得"当为佛陀之音译,佛祠者即佛寺.始皇下令禁止,足见佛教在当时社会的普及.因此,我们应把佛教传入的时间修正为秦始皇时代.考古资料也证明,秦成阳、汉长安地区与印、欧存在"先丝路"的交往,使佛教在秦始皇时代传入中国成为可能.

  2. 早期禅宗史上的变革:从《楞伽经》到《金刚经》%The reformation of Zen Buddhism in early history:from Lankavatara Sutra to Vajracchedika Sutra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭洁

    2012-01-01

    达摩以《楞伽经》传授心要,而弘忍改易以《金刚经》相授。这种变革,主观上说明了弘忍的独立思考能力,客观上则与修禅主体、禅学内容、禅修方法、持经效果等有关,从中亦可看出南北两宗分化的历史根源。%Bodhidharma used Lankavatara Sutra to spread the essentials of the mind,but Hong Ren replaced it with Vajracchedika Sutra.The information indicates the personal ability of independence of Hong Ren subjectively.And it relates to the meditating body、the theory of Zen、the method of meditation、the effect of sutra holding objectively.It also provides the historical reason why Zen divided into the south Zen and the north Zen.

  3. 禅宗文化的性别倾向及其对男性文学创作的影响%A Study of Influence of Gender Bias in Zen Buddhism Culture on Contemporary Male Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满; 陈韩兴

    2010-01-01

    禅宗文化就其总的性别倾向来说,具有女性性别倾向,但其自身内部亦存在着阴阳互补关系.而恰恰是这种阴阳两性倾向兼有的性质,使得男女两性在解悟和接受禅宗文化时各有所取,侧重不同.当代男性文学创作较为鲜明地体现了禅宗文化阳刚的一面.

  4. 禅宗文化的性别倾向对当代女性文学创作的影响%A Study of Influence of Gender Bias in Zen Buddhism Culture on Contemporary Female Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满

    2010-01-01

    禅宗文化就其总的性别倾向来说,具有女性性别倾向,但其自身内部亦存在着阴阳互补关系.而恰恰是这种阴阳两性倾向兼有的性质,使得男女两性在解悟和接受禅宗文化时各有所取,侧重不同.当代女性文学创作较为鲜明地体现了禅宗文化阴柔的一面.

  5. Secularity, Philistinism and the Issues in the Development of Contemporary Chinese Buddhism%世俗化、庸俗化与当代中国佛教发展中的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫星

    2007-01-01

    当代佛教在发展过程中,出现了一些令人忧虑的问题.以史为鉴,可以看出,如果坚持佛教的基本精神和核心理念,佛教可以通过世俗化的方式得到广泛弘传.但是,世俗化决不等同于庸俗化.佛教出现庸俗化的倾向,意味着偏离了佛教的基本精神和核心理念.要解决佛教在发展中出现的诸多问题,必须重视佛教理论的继承与创新,加强僧众的学习与教育,践行和发扬佛教精神,健全佛教组织与制度.

  6. 藏传佛教《时轮经》中的伊斯兰教表述%The Islamic Factors of the Abridged Kalachakra Tantra of Tibetan Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传斌; 胡美娟

    2013-01-01

    《时轮经》全称《时轮金刚大根本续经》,是藏传佛教中地位非常重要的一部经典.相传,该经系释迦牟尼佛为以香巴拉法王月贤为首暨北方迦婆罗萨化身的九十六法王和其无量数的清净眷属所讲说的.《时轮经》的独特之处在于其不仅提到了伊斯兰教兴起后对香巴拉的入侵,还记载了一种独特的伊斯兰教先知谱系.

  7. "谪仙"意象与佛道精神——李商隐女冠诗探解%Image of "Relegated Immortal" and Chinese Buddhism and Taoism in Li Shangyin's Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小芬; 李锐

    2011-01-01

    李商隐"谪仙"意象是寄寓的、他称的,强调的是"谪".这一迥乎以往的不以张扬面貌自称自是,而是以俯就的姿态向内回溯心灵、向外诉求神意的在世有罪的担负,以及俯身承托的在世的同情,绝不可能是一维精神的产物.道教在他这里是思考世界的出发点与全部审美的本源,佛教思维的植入才使他的性灵之目洞明而极具穿透力.这是形成他诗歌独特风貌的重要原因.

  8. 佛教视野下丰子恺的酒肉观与护生观%Feng Zikai’s Views on the Consumption of Alcohol and Meat and the Protection of Beings from the Perspective of Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭战涛

    2015-01-01

    除了归依三宝之后的几年时间以及生病以外,丰子恺终生都嗜酒与食肉,嗜酒的内在动机是对艺术家兴味与嗜好的坚持,食肉则出于对三净肉的认同。过于宽松的护生观、闲情逸致的文化取向和特殊时期的特殊情绪,是丰子恺的护生言行出现偏差的三种原因,三种原因可以归结为一种原因,即丰子恺在修持方面的不足——不能精严持戒。酒肉及护生方面的观念与行为,展现了丰子恺精神世界的复杂性。%Except a few years after Feng zikai became a Buddhist and when he was ill, he was fond of drinking and eating meat throughout his entire life. His intrinsic motivation of drinking is his adherence to an artist’s interest and hobby, and eating meat is out of his approval of Sanjingrou (the meat of an animal that the follower did not see, hear or doubt it is killed for him). Feng zikai’s excessively lenient view of protection of beings, his leisurely and carefree living style and his special sentiment in a special period have his statements and actions deviated, and those three reasons above can actually come down to one:Feng Zikai has weakness in his practice--he can’t follow the precepts rigorously. Feng Zikai’s views and conducts on the consumption of alcohol and meat and the protection of beings reveal the complexity of his spiritual world.

  9. De Lubac, Christ and the Buddha

    OpenAIRE

    Grumett, David

    2008-01-01

    Cardinal Henri de Lubac (1896–1991) considered Buddhism to be, after Christianity, the greatest spiritual fact of history. His groundbreaking studies of it have nevertheless received little previous scholarly attention. De Lubac focuses on Amidism, also known as Pure Land Buddhism, because he regards it as the form of Buddhism possessing greatest affinity with Christian faith, particularly in its conceptions of charity and divine personality. Religion cannot be considered in isolation from cu...

  10. Ugress er også blomster Akseptering sett fra et Zen buddhistisk perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Grotle, Erling Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this theoretical paper is to present some principles based on Zen Buddhism and to ask whether these principles can be of relevance to psychotherapy. The presentation of Zen Buddhism is mainly based on Barry Magids books. This thesis discusses whether Zen Buddhism and its emphasis on acceptance, especially of impermanence, no-self, and suffering, can be of value within a psychotherapy practice. Furthermore, it is discussed if meditation can be of therapeutic value within a psychoth...

  11. MEDITATION AS THE NON-MEDIATED PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Petrenko, Victor; Kucherenko, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Authors discuss notable philosophical and psychological aspects of Buddhism and Hinduism, as well as different features of meditation techniques in their relations to psychological study of consciousness.

  12. Training vs. Education in Forming Won Buddhist "Kyomus" in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokin

    2006-01-01

    An historically familiar tension in East Asian Buddhism between meditation and cultivation in broad learning has appeared in discussions and planning for preparing ministerial students in Won Buddhism. This paper reviews the history of preparation in this order, which was founded in 1916. While the alternatives of training based on practice and…

  13. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  14. Elder Gongga 貢噶老人 (1903-1997) between China, Tibet and Taiwan : Assessing Life, Mission and Mummification of a Buddhist Woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Elder Gongga (1903-1997), a Chinese Buddhist woman native of Beiping, played a crucial role in the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in China and Taiwan, bridged Dharma traditions, and merged Buddhist and cultural identities; she also became an eminent nun in the history of female Buddhism for life a

  15. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  16. Jigten Gönpo on meat and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism.......A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism....

  17. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  18. Diversification in the Buddhist Churches of America: Demographic Trends and Their Implications for the Future Study of U.S. Buddhist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C. Spencer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of U.S Buddhism often divide Buddhist groups into categories using a system called "Two Buddhisms." These groups are "Heritage," founded by immigrants, and "Convert," founded by Americans of European descent. As cultural pressures force U.S. Buddhist groups to adapt, the resulting changes challenge our existing categorization systems. This paper uses 2011 survey data to show that the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA is becoming demographically more diverse and its practices more Americanized. With these adaptations, the BCA no longer fits easily into either Heritage or Convert categories, suggesting that the Two Buddhisms system in its current form is inadequate for evaluating U.S. Buddhist groups. To aid the future study of U.S. Buddhism, I use the data from the BCA to provide an alternative, more nuanced, rubric for assessing the adaptation of Buddhist groups which will enhance the existing Two Buddhisms system.

  19. Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassanā meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongseok Joo, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassanā meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa Sŏn practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity. PMID:22145173

  20. “太虚”与“涅槃”:《列子注》融庄佛之人生境界%"Void" and "Nirvana":"the Liezi Note" integrated Zhuangzi and Buddhism into the Realm of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞鲁晓

    2011-01-01

    Zhang Zhan noted the "Lie Zi" and established the "void" theory that took "empty" as the noumenon,in order to establish one kind of ontology for the famous litterateur in Eastern Jin Dynasty who can pursuit an ideal personality and the spirit of freedom.T%张湛注《列子》,建立了以"虚"为本体的"至虚"理论,其目的在于为东晋名士建立一种本体的体系,以便于追求一种理想的人格和自由的精神境界。这个精神境界被张湛规定为"太虚"之境,既有着庄子"逍遥游"的心灵维度,又与佛教的"涅槃"之境界有着异曲同工之妙。张湛赋予"太虚"宗主的地位,以此参悟死亡的真切含义,从终极关怀的意义上摆脱生与死的困惑,最终实现既符合本能的欲望,又不背离自然之道,达到形与神的和谐,成就人生的最高境界。

  1. Origins of Religiousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    of religiousness, and to inclusion of country fixed effects, income, education, demographics, religious denominations, and other climatic and geographic features. The results hold within Christianity, Islam and Buddhism, and across continents. To eliminate bias from omitted variables and selection (perhaps...

  2. Religion in Human Culture: An Elective Social Studies Course about World Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee H.; Bodin, Wesley J.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines a course which utilizes rational processes to teach high school students about religious diversity. Topics covered are Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and religious issues in contemporary society. (Author/DB)

  3. Contemporary Tibetan's View of Tulkus(sprul-sku)%当代藏族人的活佛观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘎·达哇才仁

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction This article relies on a combination of questionnaires and interviews in an attempt to understand contemporary Tibetans' basic opinions of and attitudes towards incarnate lamas.The incarnate lama is the highest religious practitioner in Tibetan Buddhism.

  4. Legendární životopisy Gautamy Buddhy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Jiří

    Praha : DharmaGaia, 2007 - (Holba, J.), s. 345-387 ISBN 978-80-86685-75-5. - (Prameny buddhismu) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. ChinaEthical Challenges for Church and Society in a Globalised World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChristophStuckelberger

    2004-01-01

    China with its very long history and profound culture has a highly developed moral basis in its society. This culture is influenced by different,impressive value systems,especially Confucianism,but also Buddhism,

  6. Lin-ťi a čchan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Jiří

    Brno : Nakladatelství Masarykovy univerzity, 2009 - (Lomová, O.), s. 71-84 ISBN 978-80-210-4942-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Cchan Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. 06 現代韓国における儒教の「死」の意識と葬送儀礼― 朴孝秀巨儒に見る事例を中心として ―

    OpenAIRE

    曺, 起虎; Cho, KiHo

    2012-01-01

    Korea is a multireligious country where funerals and ancestral rites are not connected with one particulartraditional religion. But in Japan such ceremonies involve Buddhist rituals that have not changed during thecountry’s history. This is a significant difference between the two countries.The most drastic change in ancestral rites on the Korean Peninsula is associated with the concept of deathand funerals based on the syncretism of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. To be precise, Buddhism ...

  8. СИНТО-БУДДИЙСКИЙ СИНКРЕТИЗМ

    OpenAIRE

    Багаева, О.

    2004-01-01

    As every religion is based on perinatal or transpersonal kind of religious experience, problem of Shinto-buddhistic syncretism should be examined from psychological point of view. When Buddhism was introduced, public consciousness started its transformation: individualization of Japanese society demanded appropriate changes from Sinto, but traditional religion established on collective stratum of unconsciousness couldn't modify itself so fast. So Buddhism with its individual unconsciousness b...

  9. 面接場面における気づきの研究 : 心理的気づきから宗教的気づきへ

    OpenAIRE

    友久, 久雄

    2010-01-01

    This paper compared the treatment of suffering as found in religion and counseling through the case of a mother of a "school refusal". Although both Buddhism and counseling attempt to address a mind-based view of human suffering, it must not be forgotten that Buddhism does so within an explicitly religious framework. Buddhist suffering is framed within the total existential situation of life-death. The goal of Buddhists is to attain enlightenment and become a buddha, as expressed in the phras...

  10. Mindfulness i vesten

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Maria; Sekamane, Ida; Olsen, Lizette; Jensen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    This study project investigates Buddhist meditation in comparison to isolated mindfulness. The first part of the paper will explain Buddhism and Buddhist values, along with the subject terms. This part is mainly based on Buddhist Sutras and interpretations of same. The project will furthermore introduce the theory “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction”, addressing the development of Buddhism into modern Western culture. This argument is discussed based on selected articles and theoretical books...

  11. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bingenheimer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  12. The Problem of the Inefficacy of Knowledge in Early Buddhist Soteriology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Showler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Early Buddhism has been described as a “gnostic soteriology” in that itsees the chief cause of life’s unsatisfactoriness to be ignorance of certain metaphysical truths, and that once this ignorance is eliminated through awareness of the true nature of reality, the suffering that is rooted in ignorance goes away with it. In what follows, I will describe a significant problem that early Buddhism faces, as does any gnostic soteriology, and propose a solution to the problem. This is a quasi-analytic study of early Buddhist epistemology in that it applies some of the standard ideas about knowledge that have guided analytic epistemology for some time to a specific problem that confronts the early Buddhist attempt to claim that knowing some truths about reality will transform us in some significant way. When speaking of “early Buddhism” in what follows, I intend those teachings contained in thePali canon, which the Theravada tradition has sought to preserve. Historically Buddhism quickly moves away from the Theravada focus on nirvana and into the various schools of the “Great Vehicle” of the Mahayana Tradition. My characterization of Buddhism as a gnostic soteriology refers only to a form of Buddhism that may be limited to the earliest part of the movement and the conservative wing (Theravada that has sought to preserve its earliest form ever since.

  13. From Buddhist Hippies to Buddhist Geeks: The Emergence of Buddhist Postmodernism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Gleig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on discourse analysis and ethnography, this paper will critically examine the effects of generational differences emerging in North American Buddhism through an analysis of the Buddhist Geeks network. Buddhist Geeks is an online Buddhist media company and community that launched in 2007. It consists of a weekly audio podcast and a digital magazine component and since 2011, has hosted an annual conference. I will discuss the main characteristics and concerns of the Buddhist Geeks community and explore how it can be situated both in relationship to traditional Buddhism and Buddhist modernism. In conclusion, I reflect on whether Buddhist Geeks signals the emergence of a new, distinctly postmodern stage in the wider assimilation of Buddhism in America.

  14. Buddhist Revival under State Watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laliberté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party has shown tolerance, if not direct support, for the growth of Buddhism over the last few decades. Three explanations for this lenient attitude are explored in this article. The flourishing of Buddhism is encouraged by the state less for its propaganda value in foreign affairs than for its potential to lure tourists who will, in turn, represent a source of revenue for local governments. Buddhist institutions are also establishing their track record in the management of philanthropic activities in impoverished area where local governments lack the resources to offer specific social services. Finally, the development of such activities has contributed to enhance cooperation between China and Taiwan, whose governments have a vested interest in the improvement of relations across the Strait. The article concludes that the growth of Buddhism in China results from the initiatives of Buddhists themselves, and the government supports this growth because it serves local politics well.

  15. Main Contents Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor and Symbol: Religious Connotations and its Spread of LaoZi's Illustrations of the Eighty-one Conversions HU Chuntao [Abstract] LaoZi's illustrations of the eighty-one conversions has some kinds of connection with LaoZiHuaHU Oing, thus it suffered disputes under the argument between Buddhism and Taoism. In twenty years after its first appearance, the set of illustration developed rapidly, but it once disappeared under the attack of Buddhism and governor in Yuan dynasty. Over a century later, it came back in the first half of the 15th century and spreaded widely in the 16th century. The set of illustration and its process of spreading filled with metaphorical atmosphere. [Key words]LaoZi's illustrations of the eighty-one conversions; relationship between Buddhism and Taoism; spread

  16. 『新仏教』にみる仏教界の教養化

    OpenAIRE

    手戸, 聖伸

    2001-01-01

    This paper has two primary objectives. The first is to interpret the wider significance of the shin-bukkyo undo, or New Buddhism Movement, beyond the established definitions of "Buddhism" and "religion," in Meiji- and Taisho-era Japan. The second is to demonstrate that this movement influenced and was influenced by one of the trends of this period, Kyoyo (known commonly by the German term Bildung, or self-cultivation). I will begin with an introductory examination of studies that have been ma...

  17. Quranic Miracles in the Book of "Syafiah" written by Abdul Qaher Jurjaani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuslina Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight points of convergency and dissimilarities in the teachings of Buddhism and Sufism in the aspect of spirituality. It describes the path of a wayfarer in his spiritual journey to attain fana’, the highest achievement and the final state of spiritual experiences in the teachings of Islamic Mysticism, and also Buddhist paths to attain Nirwana, the ultimate goal of Buddhist life. The practices and the strict code of ethics in the process of self-purification or purification of the soul, in the spiritual path to attain the ultimate goal in the teachings of both Sufism and Buddhism are also discussed.

  18. One or many Buddhas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga).......According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga)....

  19. Easternization of the East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Zen Buddhism has for decades fascinated the West, and the former elitist tradition has in contemporary times become part of a broader popular culture. Zen is for Buddhists, but it is also part of a general “Easternization” and alleged “spiritual revolution” narrative. In Japan both Zen and...... domains are separate and that such a division is based on general differences in culturally constrained narratives (Western/Japanese, Zen/spirituality). Besides focusing on a concrete Japanese context, the article thus also contributes to research on global and transnational (Zen) Buddhism as well as to...

  20. モンゴル時代の「道仏論争」の実像:クビライの中国支配への道

    OpenAIRE

    中村淳

    1994-01-01

    The disputes between one sect of Taoism Quan-zhen-jiao (全真教) and the Zen sect (禅宗) of Buddhism arose three times in the reign of the Emperor Möngke. According to the Zhi-yuan-bian-wei-lu (至元辯偽録) compiled by a Buddhist monk which have been regarded as the only relevant literature, it is reported that these disputes ended in a victory for Buddhism. As the result of examining relevant parts of a report of mission composed by William of Rubruck and a Tibetan chronicle Hu-lan-deb-ther, we have fou...

  1. A CRITICAL THOUGHT ON WESTERN CIVILIZATION AND BHDDHISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kawthanla; K. Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    The highest ideal of the western traditional has been the concern to restructure our societies so that they are more socially just.The most important goal for Buddhism is to awaken and realize one’s true nature, which puts an end to dukkha- especially that associated with the delusion of a separate self. To the Buddhism and Western, Paticcasamuppada, which I will discuss in this article, are not only the foundation but also the highest state.Today it has been come more ...

  2. Ethnicité et bouddhisme au Cambodge

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou, Anne Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    "Ethnicity and Buddhism in Cambodia"This paper examines the relationship between ethnicity and theravadin Buddhism in Cambodia. Three perspectives have been chosen. First, religion is seen as a perception of the world and as “being-in-the-world”. From this point of view, the paper analyzes the influence of the karma theory, the role of the offerings and the role of the transfer of merits from living persons to the dead (bangskol). The second chapter sees religion as a part of the individual's...

  3. 独树一帜的藏传佛教觉域派尼僧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    德吉卓玛

    2005-01-01

    The Joyul tradition, which was founded in the 11th century; was one of the most important sects of Tibetan Buddhism. This tradition may trace its origins back to Pha Dampa Sangye, a well-known monk who was a native of South India, and was founded by Macik Labdron(ma-cig lab-sgron), a famous Tibetan Yogini (a female practitioner of the Yogachara schooD. It was the only sect founded by a female in the history of Tibetan Buddhism, and this is also rarely seen in the world history of world religions.

  4. Livsforståelsen i buddhismen - med særlig vekt på situasjonen i Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Arild

    2013-01-01

    Buddhismen ble grunnlagt av Siddhartha Gautama, den historiske Buddha (en tittel som betyr ”den som har våknet opp”). Han døde mellom år 400 og 486 f.Kr. og ble født i det nåværende Nepal, åtti år tidligere. Den eneste retning av den eldre buddhisme som eksisterer i dag er theravada buddhismen, og for enkelthets skyld vil jeg kalle all eldre buddhisme for theravada, i denne avhandlingen. Deres skrift samling kalles ”Tripitaka”, og de fire edle sannheter finnes her. Pali sk...

  5. Meeting of The Minds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China’s first Buddhist gathering attracts worldwide participation China hosts its first major international forum on Buddhism this month as part of the ongoing drive toward the government’s call to build a "harmonious society." The theme of the forum, "a harmonious world begins in the mind," draws attention to the belief that people from all walks of life can

  6. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  7. What happens after realisation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this article the questions is raised whether spiritual accomplishment has consequences for ethicals. In particular it is investigated whether the realisation of the illusionary nature of all phenomena may lead in certain forms of Tibetan Buddhism to a neglect of ethical conduct....

  8. 怒江:多种宗教共存和谐相处

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海波

    2014-01-01

    One of the outstanding characteristics of Nujiang is the harmony among four major religious beliefs,all signifi cantly present.The historical freedom of religion in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture means that Christianity,Catholicism,Buddhism and Taoism are here.For historical and practical reasons as well as the policy on equality of nationality,the religions peacefully coexist.

  9. Religious Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The main religions of ancient China were Buddhism,Taoism and Islam, of which Buddhism was the most widespread. As a result, Buddhist temples and towers are found all over China, and have become important components of the country's ancient architecture.

  10. Thoughts on History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGYI

    2003-01-01

    The Yarlung River Valley inShannan was the birthplace ofthe Tibetan race. When the Tubo Kingdom was founded,Songtsam Gambo moved its capital topresent-day Lhasa. With Lang Darmamaking efforts to suppress Buddhism,the regime fell and in the ensuing 400years, the region suffered heavily from

  11. 日本仏教と平和主義の諸問題(藤村潤一郎教授退任記念号)

    OpenAIRE

    宮田, 幸一

    2004-01-01

    To discuss some of the problems in the relationship between the teaching of nonviolence and Japanese Buddhism, we have to distinguish some levels of nonviolence. At an individual level, some people such as monks and nuns can live without using violence an

  12. The Role of Religion in Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of religion in Korean elite and higher education during the premodern and modern periods with descriptive analysis. The study focuses on the contribution of Buddhism and Confucianism to premodern elite education in Korea, particularly the interaction between Confucianism and Christianity with modern higher education in…

  13. Mindfulness: Reconnecting the Body and Mind in Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W. Jack

    2008-01-01

    Derived from Buddhism, mindfulness is a unique approach for understanding human suffering and happiness that has attracted rapidly growing interest among health care professionals. In this article I describe current thinking about the concept of mindfulness and elaborate on why and how mindfulness-based interventions have potential within the…

  14. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  15. Vocational Discernment among Tibetan Buddhist Monks in Dharamsala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alvin; Kellom, Gar E.

    2009-01-01

    A major historical shift is taking place in Tibetan Buddhism with the relocation of large numbers of monks from Tibet and the establishment of monasteries in Dharamsala, India and other parts of South Asia. This has created a shift in the way that young men are joining these monasteries and leading this age old religious tradition. Fifteen college…

  16. Western Science and Local Thai Wisdom: Using Museum Toys to Develop Bi-Gnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhadilok, Peeranut; Watts, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the intersections of two worldviews: Western modern science and a Buddhism-based way of life in Thailand. It enters the debate on the place and practice of Indigenous forms of knowledge and the clashes with formal science education curricula. Our goal is "balanced bi-gnosis": the possession of, and proficiency in,…

  17. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dung Hue

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  18. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

  19. [A Buddhist view of health and care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Buddhism has an original anthropology without dolorism or sacrifice, based on which a care ethic is deployed. The Buddhist way leads to freeing the spirit of the illusions that lead it astray and considers the body as a precious material support for the spirit. Pain and illness are treated while paying great attention to the person's suffering, whether conscious or not. PMID:26461219

  20. Mindful Teaching: Laying the Dharma Foundations for Buddhist Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted in the first mainstream school in Australia being guided by Buddhist philosophy. It focuses on a group of teachers, examining the impact of Buddhism on their teaching, exploring the challenge for them of bringing together their professional knowledge with Buddhist worldview. The major conclusion is that the…

  1. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  2. Counseling in Thailand: Development from a Buddhist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.; Pokaeo, Soree

    2012-01-01

    The authors present historical and current accounts of the counseling profession in Thailand. In addition to the influences of Buddhism on counselor training and practices, professional issues such as licensure, professional organizations, and the relationship between counselors and other mental health professionals are summarized. The role of…

  3. Religion as a Site of Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of early work on the translation of sacred texts into various languages. Reviews the language use patterns and practices historically characteristic of different religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Quakerism. Describes linguistic effects of missionary activity in several…

  4. Visual Literacy with Picture Books: The Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner Lee

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Silk Routes connecting China to Europe across the rugged mountains and deserts of central Asia are one of the primary examples of transculturation in world history. Traders on these routes dealt not only in goods such as silk and horses but also made possible the spread of art forms as well as two major religions, Buddhism and Islam. …

  5. Meditation and Education: India, Tibet, and Modern America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert A. F.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores Asian traditions of meditation, with particular attention to Buddhism as it was developed in ancient India. It delineates a core curriculum, initially developed in monastic institutions of higher education, that has been most fully preserved in Tibet. It then explores how this curriculum might be adapted so that it can help…

  6. A Brief History of the Current Reemergence of Contemplative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of the current reemergence of a contemplative orientation in education. While referencing an ancient history, it primarily examines the history of contemporary contemplative education through three significant stages, focusing on the third. The first was arguably initiated by the introduction of Buddhism to the…

  7. The Challenge of Access in Indian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Suma

    2000-01-01

    With an ancient tradition of educational exclusion, modern India has set democratic goals for educational access and quality, though discrimination still challenges public policy goals. Highlights: Buddhism's ancient challenges to exclusion; early declines of education; missionary education; colonial higher education; distance from the lives of…

  8. The web of life a new synthesis of mind and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Capra, Fritjof

    1996-01-01

    Capra argues that at the end of the 20th century we are shifting away from the mechanistic world of Descartes and Newton to a holistic, ecological view. He establishes patterns between ideas from such diverse fields as Buddhism and quantum physics.

  9. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  10. Facing the Grand Challenges through Heuristics and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powietrzynska, Malgorzata; Tobin, Kenneth; Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We address the nature of mindfulness and its salience to education generally and to science education specifically. In a context of the historical embeddedness of mindfulness in Buddhism we discuss research in social neuroscience, presenting evidence for neuronal plasticity of the brain and six emotional styles, which are not biologically…

  11. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices and the Reduction of Adolescent Delinquency in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Todd, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transmission of family religion as measured by parent's and adolescent's beliefs and practices in Buddhism, and its relation to delinquent behaviors among early adolescents in Thailand. The data set is from the Thai Family Matters Project 2007, a representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens in…

  13. Buddhist Foundations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted on the impact of Buddhism on teaching, exploring the educational philosophy and approach, the daily practice of teaching, and the challenge of bringing together the mainstream education curriculum with Buddhist worldview in the first school in Australia being guided by Buddhist philosophy. Although there…

  14. Justpeace Prospects for Peace-Building and Worldview Tolerance: A South Asian Movement's Social Construction of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jeremy A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to understand the meta-narratives of justice operating within the "Trailokya Bauddha Mahasangha, Sahayak Gana" (TBMSG), a dalit Buddhist social movement active in Maharashtra, India. The movement, a vestige of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar's 1956 conversion to Buddhism, is actively fighting for dalits rights by exposing…

  15. Religion in Japan and a Look at Cultural Transmission, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit focuses on the periods in Japanese history up to the reign of Prince Shotoku (A.D. 592-622) and his role in the transmission of Chinese culture to Japan. A special focus is made on the joint practice of Buddhism and Shinto in Japan. Each lesson's materials and format are described in detail with specific objectives noted and the…

  16. World Religions, Women and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  17. Festivals Together. A Guide to Multi-cultural Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjohn, Sue; Weston, Minda; Large, Judy

    This is a resource guide for observing and celebrating special days according to the traditions of many cultures. It brings together the experience and activities of persons from many religions--Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and the Sikh religion--and draws on diverse backgrounds from many parts of the world. The context is…

  18. Sunshine Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdrege, Craig; And Others

    Hinduism, yoga, transcendental meditation, traditional American Indian philosophies, far-Eastern philosophies (Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and Zen concepts), macrobiotics, and Judeo-Christian teachings are the topics discussed in this student developed book. Designed for use by both elementary and high school students, it was written with two major…

  19. World Religions for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy Arnett

    This teaching and resource guide contains ideas appropriate for teaching junior and senior high school students about the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Individual sections discuss general approaches to teaching the religious philosophies and rituals, and exemplary…

  20. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); Z. Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommende

  1. A Manual for Teachers of Indochinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phap, Dam Trung

    This is a manual for teachers of Indochinese students. The manual begins with brief cultural, linguistic, and historical descriptions of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodian people. The tenets of animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Christianity, as practiced in Indochina are reviewed. Also discussed are Indochinese attitudes toward learning and…

  2. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  3. Chinese Philosophy. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.3. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.3 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structure of the civilizations of China in the middle ages." Seventh-grade students focus on the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism; agricultural,…

  4. Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kaori; Park, Jeeseon

    2009-01-01

    The field of grief counseling has yet to see an integration of Buddhist psychology. Drawing on Buddhist psychology literature and Western models of grief, this article explores possible integrations of two approaches. To lay the foundation for this discussion, the authors introduced a brief overview of the history of Buddhism as well as a Buddhist…

  5. 评《泰国东北部的佛教和神灵信仰》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗杨

    2012-01-01

    《泰国东北部的佛教和神灵信仰》(Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in North-east Thailand)③是谭拜尔(Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah)于1969年写成的一部关于泰国佛教和非佛教信仰关系的民族志.

  6. Fráňa Drtikol – patriarcha českého buddhismu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Jiří

    Praha : Nakladatelství Svět, 2014, 10-17 ISBN 978-80-87201-08-4. - (Učení Fráni Drtikola. 1) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9021901 Keywords : Frana Drtikol, Spirituality, Mysticism, Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Ikonografie, buddhistická

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipský, Jan

    Brno : Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2009 - (Malina, J.), s. 1649-1650 ISBN 978-80-7204-560-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Buddhism * iconography * symbolism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://is.muni.cz/do/1431/UAntrBiol/el/antropos/index.html

  8. Buddha, buddha, buddhovství, buddhismus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipský, Jan

    Brno : Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2009 - (Malina, J.), s. 536-538-do 545 ISBN 978-80-7204-560-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Buddha * Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://is.muni.cz/do/1431/UAntrBiol/el/antropos/index.html

  9. Kinesisk Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Nielsen, Klaus Bo

    Bogen Kinesisk Religion omhandler kongfuzianisme, daoisme, buddhisme, maoisme, folkereligion og nye religioner i ind- og udland. Den indeholder klassiske myter og magiske ritualer, historiske milepæle og moderne udfordringer, politisk religion og levende folkereligiøsitet. Bogen henvender sig...

  10. A Comparative Study on Religion between Britainand China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩霞

    2012-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Religion in Britain In the UK, Christians constitute about 71% of the population, but Britain is a multi-faith society and all other religions, including; Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam and Sikhism are freely practiced. About 23% of Britons have no particular religion. Religion in China China is a

  11. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  12. The Analects and the Moment in Peking——The influence of a Confucian education system on the personality formation,the way of thinking and the fate of the main characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ 0.Preface China has long been boasting of its colorful and immense culture which comprises of Taoism,Confucianism and Buddhism.The interwoven influence among the religions on Chinese way of thinking,on the nation's behavior in their social life throughout the long history is beyond list.

  13. Keeping The Faith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More young people are turning to Buddhism as the ancient philosophy strives to keep up with the times Yin Xiaotian, 37, is successful, modern and ambitious. In his car, a blessing card hangs from the rearview mirror. On one side of the card is a picture of Mao Zedong.

  14. Ein Meer von Nektar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumgön, Jigten; Jungne, Sherab

    One of the key feature of early Kagyüpa Buddhism in Tibet was the practise of long meditation retreats in the complete solitude of the Himalayan mountains. The author of the Tibetan text, Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön (1143-1217), had himself spent 7 years in a cave in central Tibet. After he established...

  15. THE ART OF STONE CARVINGS AT DOLHA RI KHROD IN MARKHAM COUNTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUGAR

    2007-01-01

    Dolha in Tibetan refers to stone carvings,and Ri Khord is"the meditation place at the mountainside".In accordance with an introduction by staff from the Bureau of Ethnic Groups and Religious Affairs in Markham County,we know that Dolha Ri Khrod was built in 1566 and is currently a nunnery of the Nyima Sect of Tibetan Buddhism.

  16. West Meets East: The Early Civilizations of India and China. Grade 6 Model Lesson for Unit IV. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    This unit for sixth graders focuses on the origins of Chinese civilization, the rise of early Chinese imperial centers, and the breakdown of order by the beginning of the sixth century B.C. Among the topics in the unit are: Early history and geography of India; Buddhism; Early history and geography of China; Confucius; and Culture, politics,…

  17. The Psychology of Zen. (The Role of Zen in Counseling: Intervention Strategy and Preventive Therapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deane, Jr.; Shapiro, Johanna

    This paper explores the values, techniques, and philosophy of the eastern religion of Zen Buddhism. Like other therapeutic systems, Zen techniques are based upon both personality theory (conception of man) and therapeutic goals (conception of who man can become.) The paper first gives a brief overview of Zen's personality theory: who man is; who…

  18. Zen Meditation and Behavioral Self-Control: Some Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deane H., Jr.

    An attempt is made to understand the behaviors involved in two different self-control strategies: Zen meditation and behavioral self-management. The first technique is derived from the Eastern "religious-Philosophical" tradition of Zen Buddhism; the other technique is derived from laboratory and field studies in Western settings. Using tools of…

  19. Zen & the Art of Composition: A Comparison of Teaching Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitt, Philip Jay

    A perceived relationship between the teaching methods of traditional Zen Buddhism and those of process-based English composition is explored. It is noted that the four main processes of Zen teaching (meditation, physical work, personal interviews, and group lectures) focus on process, not product, as in process writing. Characteristics that Zen…

  20. Buddhova nauka o ne-Já (an-átman)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Jiří

    Praha: DharmaGaia, 2007 - (Chlup, R.), s. 285-319. (Svět archaických kultur. 2). ISBN 978-80-86685-82-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Irigaray’s Alternative Buddhist Practices of the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokthan Yeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In lieu of an abstract, here is the opening paragraph of the essay:Luce Irigaray’s critics charge that her attempt to carve out a space for nature and the feminine self through an engagement with Buddhism smacks of Orientalism. Associating Buddhism with a philosophy of nature can lead to feminizing and exoticizing the non-Western other. Because she relies more on lessons learned from yogic teachers than Buddhist texts or scholarship, her work seems to be an appropriation of Buddhist ideas and a critique of Western ideology3 rather than a reflection of Buddhist philosophy. I trace Orientalist readings of Buddhism, including those of Irigaray, back to Hegel’s influence on comparative philosophy. Indeed, her analysis of the feminine self and nature often seem more like a response to Hegel than an examination of Buddhist principles. Some scholars resist Hegel’s reading by arguing that the Buddhist Absolute manifests in the indeterminately disjunctive and alternative versions of reality and self. Others suggest that the meaning of Buddhism can be found in examining its practices rather than its logic.  

  2. Aan duiding van Zen-trekke by Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Steenberg

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The author undertakes his analysis on the basis of his statement that he found it impossible to read Breytenbach without recourse to Zen-Buddhism. He deals briefly with the issue of the topicality of Zen-Buddhism. He analyses certain poems to point out the Zen-Buddhist experiential context and approach to reality before going on to a discussion of what constitutes Zen-Buddhism. The method of Zen-Buddhism, a looking into the self, a meditation, leads ultimately to a strongly ascetic lifestyle, and this spiritual discipline becomes determining for one's experience and life. He gives a diagrammatic representation of the implications of self-analysis in the Zen framework before analysing Breytenbach's poetry to indicate motifs and steps in the process. The analyses involve the theory of knowledge, the way to nirvana, the concepts of time and eternity and mysticism, a true acceptance of reality, the oneness of all things (including the "I", the awareness of mortality, death, the worldly, and in a long final section, the fallibility of language. The final conclusion is that the poetry in the relevant volumes demands a great deal of co-creative activity on the part of the reader. While Biblical and Zennist allusions converge, it emerges that Biblical referencesare merely communicative devices within a framework of over-arching Zen-Buddhist thought.

  3. Play Your City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    The concept of the Botanic garden 1. Five squares of the five monotheistic religions introduced: Christianity, Buddhism, Islam Judaism and Hindu. 2. The two islands contain parts of Greek mythology and Shinto. 3. Nordic mythology is a part of the Crystal Forest. 4. "The writer's path" leads from...

  4. Why Culture Should Be a Key Factor in Studying Marketing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenich, Kathryn

    Three historically significant religions of Japan and the corresponding cultural norms are examined as they affect consumer behaviors and, consequently, marketing in that country. The religions are Buddhism, Shintoism, and Confucianism. The fundamental doctrines, attitudes, and social patterns associated with each religion are outlined and their…

  5. Chrám, buddhistický

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipský, Jan

    Brno : Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2009 - (Malina, J.), s. 1621-1623 ISBN 978-80-7204-560-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Buddhism * ritual * places of worship Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://is.muni.cz/do/1431/UAntrBiol/el/antropos/index.html

  6. 甘肃南部山区藏族早期苯教藏文文献的分类研究%A Study on the Classification of Early Tibetan Documents Found in the Mountain Area in South Gansu Province about the Bon Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊西旺姆; 道吉才让

    2015-01-01

    The Bon religion is the source of the Tibetan civilization. In its thousands of years of history, Bon had been the dominant religion of the ancestors of the Tibetan people for a long period of time. When Buddhism was introduced into Tibet, the Tibetan rulers converted to Buddhism and supported it, so Bonˊs position in Tibet was gradually replaced by Buddhism. Since the period of the Later Prosperity of Buddhism in Tibet, almost all the Ti-betan people have believed in Buddhism, which resulted in the Bon religion could only survive and develop in the remote areas of Tibet. In these areas, a large number of documents about Bon were left, which illustrate the long history of Bon. The documents would make us have a new understanding of Bon.%苯教是藏族文明的源头,在其数千年的发展历程中,苯教在相当长的时间里一直是藏族先民的主导宗教,但自佛教引入西藏后,吐蕃统治者扶植佛教,苯教的地位渐渐被佛教取代.佛教后弘期起,佛教成为藏族人民全民信奉的宗教,而苯教则在边远地区得以生存和发展,就在这些边远地区,留下了大量反映悠远历史的苯教藏文文献,使人们对苯教以全新的认识.

  7. Chinese Buddhist Nuns in the Twentieth Century: A Case Study in Wuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, through working at the intersection of the works on nationalism and women, and the literature on Buddhist nuns during the Republican period, I aim to take up questions of gender relations in the broader studies of Buddhism and Buddhist modernization. I explore the Buddhist nuns' movement by examining the establishment of various academies for female Buddhists. I also analyze the writings by female Buddhists in the twentieth century. In so doing, I argue that the Buddhist nuns' revival movement fitted into the broader women's liberation discourse and the national modernization project during this time. This paper promises to provide insights into the history of women and nationalism from a Buddhist perspective, and shed light on gender-related issues of modern Chinese Buddhism in the course of China's modernization.

  8. Kumārajīva’s Meditative Legacy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhante Dhammadipa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that in China and other Far East countries, where Chinese Buddhism spread at the early stages of Mahāyāna Buddhism, traditional methods of Buddhist practice, as explained in the Āgamas, were in practice, but reinterpreted from the Mahāyānistic understanding. Eventually, in the periods following the decline of the Tang Dynasty those practices were mostly abandoned and replaced by pure Mahāyānistic meditation practices, especially those of the Chan (Zen and Pure Land schools. It can be clearly seen from the meditation treatises discussed in this article, which are attributed to Kumārajīva, the most popular translator of Indian Buddhist literature in China. Actually, as Western researchers show, these treatises are likely to be notes of Kumārajīva’s disciples, introduced into meditation by him.

  9. Investments in Religious Capital: An explorative case study of Australian Buddhists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since Buddhism became Australia’s fastest growing religion in 1996, the number of adherents has continued to increase dramatically. While there is much acceptance of this in Australia’s multicultural milieu, the effects of this growth are unclear. The concept of religious capital is now being used to understand some effects of religious practice, and is developed further as a way of understanding the broader societal effects of a religion. Expressions of Buddhist religious capital in Australia are documented and placed within a framework that identifies different types of religious capital to improve understanding of both the concept of religious capital and the effects of the ongoing growth of Buddhism in Australia.

  10. THE IDEA OF IMMORTALITY IN THE THEOCENTRICAL IDEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND IN A RELIGIOUS WORLDVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Vadimovna Shiryaeva

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses the idea of human immortality, reflected in different ways in different forms of religious outlook, analyzes cultural, historical and individualpersonal traits of the existence of this idea. It is proved that individual- personal characteristics of the subject of religious consciousness have crucial significance for the predominance of soft or rigid forms of retribution beyond the grave. The article makes comparison of Christianity, Islam and Buddhism and Western and Ort...

  11. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; CUPP, PAMELA K.; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; CHOOKHARE, WARUNEE

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A repres...

  12. Peace with the earth: animism and contemplative ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Heesoon

    2015-03-01

    In this paper I problematize the modern everyday ontology that categorically separates the animate from the inanimate, showing that such separation has ethical implications that are environmentally devastating. I propose a turn to an animistic ontology and epistemology. Acknowledging the challenge of such turn, I suggest contemplative practices as a way to aid this turn. I engage a variety of literature and resources from Daoism, Buddhism, Appelbaum's work, neuroscientific findings to support my exploration of the connection between animistic perception and contemplative ways.

  13. Tibetan Buddhist dream yoga and the limits of Western Psychology.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosch, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lucid dream, lucid dreamless sleep, and lucid death practices are an inherent part of advanced Tibetan Buddhist meditation. These practices are also relevant to ordinary people because they serve as pointers to aspects of everyday experience that are troubling but unrecognized in the usual non-lucid frame of mind. Using a Vajrayana approach in which the development of the mind of the practitioner is said to mirror the historical developmental of Buddhism, I show: a) How lucid dreaming can gro...

  14. Music in Korean shaman ritual.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Simon R.S.

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to sum up Korean Shamanism in a few sentences but, in short, it could be described as the traditional syncretic folk religion of Korea. It mixes together ritual practices, beliefs, symbols and myths from Buddhism, Taoism, and folklore and adds elements commonly associated with nature religions and shamanism – including the use of techniques such as divination, trance, and mediumship. As with many other syncretic folk religions around the globe, there is very little in the way o...

  15. Religion and Preferences for Redistributive Policies in an East Asian Country

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chun Chang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of religion in shaping people’s preferences for redistributive policies in an East Asian country, where traditional values mostly stem from the beliefs of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism that influence people’s perceptions about the principles of social justice. Using data from Taiwan Social Change Survey of 2006, the findings from this study provide supportive evidence for the arguments of previous literature and offer some further distinct results. In...

  16. Chinese Buddhist Nuns in the Twentieth Century: A Case Study in Wuhan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, through working at the intersection of the works on nationalism and women, and the literature on Buddhist nuns during the Republican period, I aim to take up questions of gender relations in the broader studies of Buddhism and Buddhist modernization. I explore the Buddhist nuns' movement by examining the establishment of various academies for female Buddhists. I also analyze the writings by female Buddhists in the twentieth century. In so doing, I argue that the Buddhist nuns' ...

  17. Frequencies of the Buddhist Meditative Chant – Om Mani Padme Hum

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Contzen

    2016-01-01

    Om Mani Padme Hum is a six syllable mantra in Tibetian Buddhism associated with the bodhisattva – Avalokitesvara. This mantra as known by the Buddhist generates positive energies within the body through mystical vibrations and frequencies when chanted repeatedly. The mantra has shown enhanced cognitive effects in organisms without auditory apparatus where the interaction is assumed to be taking place at a cellular and biochemical level (Pereira 2015a, b; Pereira 2016a,b). Based on the results...

  18. 韓国近代における元暁認識と日本の「通仏教論」

    OpenAIRE

    孫, 知慧

    2012-01-01

    Wonhyo has been a well-known fi gure in East Asia since the ancient kingdom of Silla; however, with the restrictions placed on Buddhism in favour of Confucian worshipduring the Korean Li Dynasty, Wonhyo’s prestige diminished. The reappraisal of Wonhyo began in the 20th century. At the time, rather than Buddhist doctrine and beliefs, Wonhyo was associated with the existence of the Japanese imperialism and national independence during which time reliefs of Wonhyo were carved. After 1930, howeve...

  19. The Vallipuram Buddha Image "Rediscovered"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalk

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available When, at the end of the 19th century, the Visnu kovil in Vallipuram, in Vatamaracci, in northern Ilam (Lanka was (rebuilt, a Buddha statue was unearthed close to this temple, 50 yardsnortheast of it. It remained in the lumber room of this temple until 1902, when it was set up in Old Park at Yalppanam under a bo-tree. In 1906, the Vallipuram Buddha image was presented by Governor Sir Henry Blake to the King of Siam, who was particularly anxious to have it, as it was supposed to be of an archaic type. This event together with the statue, was forgotten for almost 90 years. All Tamilar and Sinhalese born after 1906 have never seen the Vallipuram Buddha image, provided they have not gone to and found it in Thailand. The study of the religious significance per se, in its historical setting, of the statue is important. The Vallipuram Buddha image is a typical creation of Amaravati art, the spread of which documents the spread of Buddhism to Ilam, where it exercised a decisive influence on the first period of the development of Buddhist art in the Anuratapuram school. We get then a geographical triangle of a cultural encounter between Amaravati, Anuratapuram in its first phase, and Vallipuram. This happened at a time when Buddhism was still not identified as Sinhala Buddhism, but just as Buddhism. The study of the Vallipuram statue is thus a way of transcending or at least suspending for some time polarising ethnic identities, not ethnic identities as such.

  20. Problematika geografie náboženství ve výuce zeměpisu na 2. stupni základní školy

    OpenAIRE

    VLAŽNÁ, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with teaching of the geography of religion in geography lessons at the 2 nd stage elementary school. The main objective of the thesis is to create design of own teaching material focusing on the geography of religion. The first part deals with the characteristics of selected religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam), the inclusion of religion in the context of geography and geography in elementary school curriculum and teaching methods. Another part is a...

  1. National Theatre of China's Romeo and Juliet and Its Rituals

    OpenAIRE

    Benny Lim

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the “Chinese-ness” of this brand new production of Romeo and Juliet by the National Theatre of China, from a ritual perspective. Three main areas were discussed. Firstly, this play has got several religious connotations. The absence of religion in this play’s setting is relevant to China’s current high percentage of atheists. Despite that, several religions, such as Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity, are mentioned in this play. Secondly, the play has also incorporated seve...

  2. Mindfulness: Reconnecting the Body and Mind in Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeski, W. Jack

    2008-01-01

    Derived from Buddhism, mindfulness is a unique approach for understanding human suffering and happiness that has attracted rapidly growing interest among health care professionals. In this article I describe current thinking about the concept of mindfulness and elaborate on why and how mindfulness-based interventions have potential within the context of geriatric medicine and gerontology. Upon reviewing definitions and models of the concept, I give attention to the unique role that the body p...

  3. Reduced Risk for Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance Associated with Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian Behavior in Female Buddhists: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Kun Chiang; Ying-Lung Lin; Chi-Ling Chen; Chung-Mei Ouyang; Ying-Tai Wu; Yu-Chiao Chi; Kuo-Chin Huang; Wei-Shiung Yang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). Methods We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (∼80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital i...

  4. Defining death: organ transplants, tradition and technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, E A

    1988-01-01

    This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern medical dilemmas. PMID:3051424

  5. Bernhard Scheid: Der eine und einzige Weg der Götter. Yoshida Kanetomo und die Erfindung des Shinto

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Pye

    2002-01-01

    Although the Shinto religion is the major indigenous religious tradition of Japan it is remarkable that, compared with Buddhism, there is no very great flood of publications on the subject. The earliest period of Japanese culture, including Shinto, has been addressed with some good studies and translations. Similarly the modern period from the mid-nineteenth century onwards has also attracted top-quality research, partly because of the political relevance. Yet this leaves many centuries of hi...

  6. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    OpenAIRE

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706...

  7. Religion and Ethical Attitudes toward Accepting a Bribe: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robert W. McGee; Serkan Benk; Bahadır Yüzbaşı

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results of an empirical study of ethical attitudes toward bribe taking in six religions—Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, the Baha’i faith, Hinduism, and Judaism. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical and empirical literature on the subject. The empirical part of the study examines attitudes toward accepting bribes in 57 countries from the perspectives of six religions using the data from Wave 6 (2010–2014) of the World Values Survey. The sample population...

  8. Only devils move along a straight line: A guide for Chinese negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Skúli Örn Sigurðsson 1975

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation skills are becoming more desirable in the world market as cross-cultural ventures are getting increasingly pervasive. China is a fast growing consumer market that has become the second-largest economy in the world. The purpose of this study is to shine a light upon the appropriate strategies and techniques to be used when negotiating in China. It follows three different types of teachings, Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism with no complications. Confucianism is a practical philoso...

  9. INTENDING SYMBOLS IN THE ICONOGRAPHY OF GUPTA AGE SCULPTURES OF CENTRAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika (Ramkumar?)

    2014-01-01

    -Iconography is the central theme of all sculptures which depicts the subjects in terms of the content of the image. It becomes more important for those cults where idol worship is a part and parcel of the religion. Among religions of Indian origin; the Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism mudra (specific gesture) is of peculiar grandness. Besides mudra, other features such as aura (radiant light around the head of a divinity), asana (posture of sitting); rituals tools like chhatra,...

  10. Jade Buddha Statues Witness Friendship Ties Between Yangzhou and Yangon of Myanmar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan; Dan

    2013-01-01

    <正>In Myanmar,Buddhism is widely practiced.Despite tens of thousands of public temples,there is a shrine for worship in almost every family home.For average income families,they usually have a painted image of Buddha or a wooden Buddha;rich households,however,have gold,silver or jade Buddha statues.Jade statues are the most difficult to make,but their delicate and lustrous texture,are most precious.

  11. DR.B.R.AMBEDKAR'S INFLUENCE AND NEO-BUDDHIST SETTLEMENTS IN BELGAUM DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVEEN BAGEWADI

    2013-01-01

    Karnataka “The priceless gift of indulgent nature” is a unique blend of a glorious past and a rich present, situated on the lower west coast of south India. Karnataka has its neighbours such as Maharashtra in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the East, Tamilnadu and Kerala in the south and the Arabian Sea on the west. It is the land were various religious faiths like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity, and various philosophies followed and practised. In this st...

  12. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut; Guoqing, Z.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommended behaviours found in the ancient texts are compared with conditions for happiness as observed in present day empirical investigations. Classic Confucianism appears to offer the most apt advice for...

  13. APPLICATION OF BUDDHIST VALUES & PRACTICES IN BUSINEES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Ashtankar

    2015-01-01

    The emerging profit-driven global economy is guided by unbridled development and gigantism. Such an economy is also coming under ever increasing domination of science and technology. Such a development is not only cutting us off from nature and one another but also undermining natural and cultural diversity. One major consequence of this is that our very survival is threatened. Buddhism, with its practical focus on happiness and communal harmony in this lifetime, has a great deal to offer to ...

  14. The Perspective of Psychosomatic Medicine on the Effect of Religion on the Mind–Body Relationship in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2012-01-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is ti...

  15. From the "god and ghost world" to the "human and nature world" : a study of the changes of health care in Yongxing village in China

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The thesis aims at analyzing and explaining the changes that have occurred in health care in Yongxing village, a village located in Yongxing Xiang, Jingshan County, Hubei province in central China. Since its introduction, Western medicine has been widely used in the later half of the 20th century and has become the main form of medical care. It is now well integrated into the local setting. Traditional Chinese medicine, together with other traditional treatment forms (Buddhism and Taoism, Sha...

  16. A STUDY OF BUDDHA'S LIFE STORY AND BUDDHIST MEDITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvanath Reddy Hanamagouda; Vijayakumar .H. Salimani

    2014-01-01

    In this paper “AStudy of Buddha's Life Story and Buddhist meditation”, a variety of texts have been chosen to communicate Buddha's Life Story and a flavour of the early Buddhist attitude towards meditation and to demonstrate the range of genres and approaches associated with it. There are two main doctrines in Buddhism, Mahayana and Hinayana. Mahayana Buddhist believes that the right path of a follower will lead to the redemption of all human beings. The Hinayana belie...

  17. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  18. THE NOTION OF WOMEN ON BUDDHA'S PHILOSOPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Ashin Sumana; P. Krishnasamy

    2014-01-01

    Women's position in Buddhism is unique. The Buddha gave women full freedom to participate in a religious life. The Buddha was the first religious teacher who gave this religious freedom to women. Before the Buddha, women were not even allowed to enter any place of worship or to recite any religious scripture. During the Buddha's time in India, women's position in society was very low. The Buddha was criticized by the prevailing establishment when he gave this freedom to wo...

  19. Buddhānusmṛti between Worship and Meditation: Early currents of the Chinese Ekottarika-āgama

    OpenAIRE

    Legittimo, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Certain forms of devotion to the Buddha existed at the beginnings of Buddhism, centuries before the Common Era, and others subsist till the present day. In tune with the current research on the ideational history of Buddhist devotion and meditation, this paper presents, among other arguments related to Buddha commemoration, recollection and concentration, the results of the first in-depth investigation from the standpoint of the numerical collection from Far East Asia: the Chinese Zengyi ahan...

  20. Folk Beliefs in Vietnam%越南的民间信仰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强

    2005-01-01

    For complicated reasons, there are many religions in Vietnam, like Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.However, it is hard to figure out which is the leading one. In history, Confucianism ever took the main position between Ly and Ly dynasty, but that only lasted three to four hundred years. In Vietnam, the folk beliefs play a great role in its people' s behavior,and have their own characteristics.

  1. Spirituality and business: An interdisciplinary overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolnai, László; Bouckaert, Luk

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives an interdisciplinary overview of the emerging field of spirituality and business. It uses insights from business ethics, theology, neuroscience, psychology, gender studies, and philosophy to economics, management, organizational science, and banking and refers to different religious convictions including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, the Baha'i faith, and the North-American aboriginal worldview. The authors argue that the materialistic managem...

  2. Meditation in an Indian Buddhist Monastic Code

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Jeffrey Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation centers on an attempt to bring questions of a sociological nature to the modern academic conversation on the place of meditation in Indian Buddhism. It also involves a shift away from sutra and commentarial literature to vinaya literature. My primary source for examining the treatment of contemplative practice in the Indian tradition is the Ksudrakavastu, the largest section of the monastic code (S. vinaya) of the Mulasarvastivadins. Narratives found in the Ksudrakavastu can...

  3. Occidental and Japanese Art

    OpenAIRE

    Kevvai, Kadi; Bauer, Liis; Minssieux, Milene; Quist Møller, Felix; Kovalevska, Aleksandra; Harbsmeier, Jesper Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This project aims to investigate the influence of Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock prints on Impressionistic art. The paper is divided into three sections: first a historical background on the most famous artists behind woodblock prints and their appearance in the West. We shall also elaborate on the Impressionists who were strongly influenced by them. The second section will hold comparative analyses that try to identify the Impressionists’ inspiration by Japanese ukiyo-e and Zen Buddhism. The ana...

  4. "Inheritance of Filial Piety, Highness of Buddhist Discipline":On Dunhuang Buddhist Reverence of Filial Piety from the Period of Middle-and-Late Tang and Five Dynasties to Song Dynasty%"孝顺相承,戒行俱高"——论中晚唐五代宋敦煌佛教高张孝道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正宇

    2015-01-01

    佛教本不讲孝道,传入中国后,三国时期开始吸收中国的孝道观念,此后,中国佛教才有了孝道观念.吐蕃占领敦煌后,敦煌人民不忘家国宗祖,将家国之思、宗祖之念融入佛教信行,建家窟以代宗祠家庙,将唐宗及父祖同祀于佛窟.晚唐至北宋,敦煌佛教进一步倡扬孝道,事佛与孝亲共容,进一步入世合俗,实际上突破了释迦摩尼弃世脱俗的教义.%The original Buddhism did not include filial piety, but after its introduciton into China, especially during the period of the Three Kingdoms, Buddhism began to assimilate Chinese filial piety, and whereafter, the Chinese Buddhism contained filial piety. In the ruling of the Tibetan regime, the people of Dunhuang never forgot their country and ancestors and conbined the reminiscence of their country and ancestors with Buddhist discipline so that they built home grottoes substituting for ancestral halls or temples, where they offered sacrifices to the Tang emperors and their forefathers. From the late Tang to north Song dynasty, Dunhuang Buddhism further advocated filial piety and the reverence of Budda and filial piety were in harmony, which virtually broke through Buddha Shakjamuni's discipline of being free from the secular world and vulgarity.

  5. Zen and the Art of Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Heesoon; Cohen, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of Zen storytelling to moral education. First, an understanding of Zen practice, what it is and how it is achieved, is established. Second, the connection between Zen practice and ethics is shown in terms of the former’s ability to cultivate moral emotions and actions. It is shown that Zen practice works at the roots of consciousness where, according to the fundamental tenets of Buddhism, the possibility of human goodness, known as bodhicitta (awakened hea...

  6. "Perception":as a Buddhist Concept%“观”:作为一个佛学概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2014-01-01

    中国文化从作为“群经之首”的《周易》到从印度传来而后中国化了的佛教,都是以“观”而不是“听”为方法来建构的。就佛教而言,观世音菩萨就是“观”这种方法的化身,而中国佛教中的千手千眼观音,其中的“千眼”乃是象征着佛教多种多样的“观”。虽然在佛教中“观”的方法林林总总,但不管是什么样的“观”,最终都要归结到“观心”,也就是天台宗所倡导的“观一念心”。%The Chinese culture ,from the"head of classics"The Book of Changes to the Sinicized Bud-dhism ,is built on perception instead of "listening".As far as Buddhism is concerned ,Goddess Guanyin in the incarnation of "perception",while the Goddess of Thousand Hands and Thousand Eyes symbolizes vari-ous kinds of "perception"in Buddhism .In spite of the diverse ways of "perception"in Buddhism ,it can al-ways fall upon"perceiving the heart",as promoted by the Tiantai sect .

  7. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a...... inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....

  8. Conceptual dimensions of compassion fatigue and vicarious trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Dafos Rodrigo, Wayra Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    Compassion Fatigue and Vicarious Trauma are diagnostic labels sometimes applied to therapists who become traumatized following their work with victims of trauma. Four distinct conceptual frameworks are offered to better understand Compassion Fatigue and Vicarious Trauma: (1) The analysis of the Wounded-Healer metaphor and its connection to the topic of the use of self in therapy, (2) Contextual family therapy (Boszormenyi- Nagy) and the theory of systems, (3) Theravada and Zen Buddhism, with ...

  9. Western economics versus Buddhist economics

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Zsolnai

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative prin...

  10. An Exploration of Tibetan Women's Life in Khams in the Qing Dynasty%清代康区藏族妇女生活探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正刚; 王敏

    2007-01-01

    @@ Tibetans, one of the oldest ethnic minorities in China, are mainly distributed in the vast western regions of modern Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan. Students and scholars of the long history of Tibetan culture, as well as the breadth and profundity of Tibetan Buddhism, have always concentrated their attention on the role of men in this history and largely ignored women. Actually, in the history of the socioeconomic development of various regions, men and women have each played a role.

  11. Tourism in China's Buddhist Temples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In recent years along with the improvement of the livelihoods of Chinese people and the public needs in cultural life, a religious cultural tourism is booming in China. In order to meet the tourist demand, this book is designed as a guide book to introduce 211 famous Buddhist monasteries and temples in various places of China representing different Buddhist sects including Han-Chinese, Tibetan and Southern Buddhism with their rich cultural and historical resources, characteristics of architecture and famous personages.

  12. Translation as Innovation in Literature: the case of a Sanskrit Buddhist poem translated into Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Lettere Laura

    2015-01-01

    As many other religions have done, Buddhism developed and evolved over the centuries in order to fulfil social needs and to adapt to different cultural backgrounds. Following the commercial routes in Central Asia, from around the second century BCE, Buddhist texts first arrived in China, and consequently a new compelling need to translate them for the use of new followers developed. This paper attempts to describe the many difficulties faced by the first Buddhist translators throu...

  13. Comparative Religion: Correspondences Between Jewish Mysticism and Indian Religion - Philosophy. Some Significant Relations to Science

    OpenAIRE

    Randrup, Dr. Axel; Bagchi, Dr. Tista

    2006-01-01

    In the literature we have found correspondence of several significant traits of Jewish mysticism with traits of Buddhism and other systems of Indian religion-philosophy. Among the corresponding traits is the fundamental idea of emptiness or nothingness, shuunyataa in Sanskrit, ayin in Hebrew. Also corresponding are attempts to harmonize the idea and experience of emptiness with fullness, and with the experience of the secular world with its many things and concepts. We list eight significant ...

  14. EVOLUTION OF CREATION BUDDHIST LENT CANDLE OF WORK AWARDED IN UBON RATCHATHANIâS LENT CANDLE CONTESTS 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Sakchai Uttitho

    2012-01-01

    The tradition of Lent candle procession at the Buddhist Lent festival is the grand festival at the national level in Ubon Ratchathani province. From the merit-making tradition concerning Buddhism binding to the way of life of Isan people for the long time, this festival has developed to be a tourist festival at the national level. Later, there have been contests of candle making in continuity. Throughout the past time the contests have promoted creation of candle with different styles contest...

  15. International politics of the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama

    OpenAIRE

    Otgonbayar Sarlagtay, Mashbat

    2007-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Mongolia's strategic options in the event of a Mongol-Chinese confrontation over a clash of interests arising from the potential succession the next Dalai Lama, understood in Mongolia religiously through a process reincarnation. Mongolia would welcome the Dalai Lama's reincarnation in the country since Tibetan Buddhism enjoys the allegiance of many of Mongolia's people and is a part of Mongolia's national identity. Mongolia's democratic government in Ulaanbaatar must ...

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Western adoption of Buddhist tenets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a psychological intervention that has wide clinical applications with emerging empirical support. It is based on Functional Contextualism and is derived as a clinical application of the Relational Frame Theory, a behavioral account of the development of human thought and cognition. The six core ACT therapeutic processes include: Acceptance, Defusion, Present Moment, Self-as-Context, Values, and Committed Action. In addition to its explicit use of the concept of mindfulness, the therapeutic techniques of ACT implicitly incorporate other aspects of Buddhism. This article describes the basic principles and processes of ACT, explores the similarities and differences between ACT processes and some of the common tenets in Buddhism such as the Four Noble Truths and No-Self, and reports on the experience of running a pilot intervention ACT group for the Cambodian community in Toronto in partnership with the community's Buddhist Holy Monk. Based on this preliminary exploration in theory and the reflections of the group experience, ACT appears to be consistent with some of the core tenets of Buddhism in the approach towards alleviating suffering, with notable differences in scope reflecting their different aims and objectives. Further development of integrative therapies that can incorporate psychological and spiritual as well as diverse cultural perspectives may help the continued advancement and evolution of more effective psychotherapies that can benefit diverse populations. PMID:25085722

  17. Analysis of Restrictive Factors of Chinese International Discourse Power for the Tibetan Matter:From a Religious Perspective%我国涉藏问题国际话语权制约因素分析--以宗教为考察维度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓阳; 李冬莲

    2014-01-01

    佛教在印度本土式微后,中国事实上已成为世界佛教的中心。但藏传佛教的复兴不仅未能促进涉藏问题的有利解决,反而成为制约我国涉藏问题国际话语权的战略“负资产”。将这种战略“负资产”转化为“正能量”的一种可行思路是,重视藏传佛教信众的心理认同,加强藏传佛教统战工作,争取宗教文化认同,占领道德制高点。%After Buddhism declining in India, China has become the center of world Buddhists. However, the resurgence of Tibetan Buddhism fails to turn into an advantage to solve the Tibetan matter;instead, it is a constraint to discourse power of Tibetan matter as a kind of"negative asset". Transforming this strategic"negative asset"into"positive energy"can be a feasible way to value Buddhist′s psychology identity, reinforce united front work of Tibetan Buddhism, strive for the religious cultural identity, and occupy the high point of moral .

  18. Communicative practices in talking about death and dying in the context of Thai cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilainuch, Pairote

    2013-01-01

    This article explores communicative practices surrounding how nurses, patients and family members engage when talking about death and dying, based on study conducted in a province in northern Thailand. Data were collected from three environments: a district hospital (nine cases), district public health centres (four cases), and in patients' homes (27 cases). Fourteen nurses, 40 patients and 24 family members gave written consent for participation. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were used for supplementary data collection, and 40 counselling sessions were recorded on video. The raw data were analysed using Conversation Analysis. The study found that Thai counselling is asymmetrical. Nurses initiated the topic of death by referring to the death of a third person--a dead patient--with the use of clues and via list-construction. As most Thai people are oriented to Buddhism, religious support is selected for discussing this sensitive topic, and nurses also use Buddhism and list-construction to help their clients confront uncertain futures. However, Buddhism is not brought into discussion on its own, but combined with other techniques such as the use of euphemisms or concern and care for others. PMID:25233563

  19. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  20. An Unknown Tradition of Han Chinese Conversions to Tibetan Buddhism:Han Chinese Incarnate Lamas and Parishioners of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Amdo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gray Tuttle

    2013-01-01

    AbstrActThis article examines Han Chinese who has historically practiced Tibetan Buddhism in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. The main primary sources were published in the 1990s, based on surveys by Chinese social scientists who were sent around in the 1950s to collect data on Tibetan Buddhist institutions as well as additional independent surveys from the 1980s and my own site visits in 2006. On the basis of these sources, I argue that there are at least 100,000 and probably as many as 200,000 Han Chinese on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu (part of the Amdo cultural region for Tibetans) practicing Tibetan Buddhism, following traditions that seem to have been in place for centuries. I also discuss the sixteen historic cases of Han Chinese reincarnate lamas and the over one hundred monasteries in this region affiliated with Han Chinese. Finally, I note the sectarian affiliations (jiaopai: Nyingma, Geluk, etc.) and religious practices of these Chinese communities practicing Tibetan Buddhism.

  1. The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya: Visual Expressions of a Tibetan Teacher's Path and Lineage in the Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Glowski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the Tibetan diaspora in the late 1950s, Tibetan Buddhism spread to nearly every continent on the globe and has begun transforming western landscapes through the construction of 'stūpas', Buddhism’s principal architectural form.  'The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya Which Liberates Upon Seeing', located at Shambhala Mountain Center in Red Feather Lakes, Colorado and dedicated to the meditation master Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, is an especially rich example of Tibetan Buddhist visual culture in the diaspora.  An iconographic analysis of the monuments exterior and interior architectural elements, sculptures and paintings, when contextualized within their historical context, reveals an intimate biography of Trungpa Rinpoche’s life.  Specifically, the visual narrative conveys two main Tibetan Buddhist themes:  the teacher’s progressive path of meditation and his lineage affiliations within Vajrayāna Buddhism.  In this way, the 'stūpa'' 'acts as a visual 'namtar '('rNam-thar', a traditional Tibetan biography that emphasizes a teacher’s personal journey to liberation and the masters who guided the way.  Although located far from the Himalayas and its Tibetan heritage, 'The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya’s' affinity to traditional Tibetan Buddhist architectural and religious modalities provides a window into Tibet Buddhism's history prior to 1959.  At the same time, the monument serves as coherent, visual documentation of Tibetan art during the diaspora’s early period and will, no doubt, become an increasingly important part of the tradition’s historical record.''

  2. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and his thought on socialism in India: A critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Aditya Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In establishing an egalitarian society in India which is based on liberty , equality and fraternity and social justice, Ambedkar, the great Indian Constitution maker, struggled to find out avenues and means – intellectual, organizational and in terms of programs throughout his life. This study attempts to throw light on Ambedkar’s quest for socialism in India with special reference to Marxism and Buddhism. He accepted the concept of class struggle but he felt that in the Indian set up, it had to be substantially redefined and ascribed a similar agenda to the Buddha and agreed that one of the major contradictions of capitalism was the social basis of its production in contrast to private appropriation. He criticized Marxism for subscribing to economic determinism, for its inadequate grasp of liberal democracy, for its inability to adequately understand the realm of ideologies and for considering moral values as historically conditioned. Though Ambedkar described his scheme of economic organization of the Indian society as state socialism, in view of its other features, we believe it appropriate to identify it democratic socialism. Moreover, collective farming, one of the major features of his model of democratic socialism, needs to be thoroughly reconsidered as it lacked viability. It is somewhat inconceivable how he could achieve socialism by eliminating socio-economic inequality without undermining the basic economic foundation of society on which the system of inequality was founded. The inability to resolve this contradiction ultimately led Ambedkar to find solace in Buddhism, with an attempt to present its teachings ‘in a new light to suit modern class realities’. In fact, Ambedkar’s conversion to Buddhism was a ‘self-deception’ and channeled the whole movement of workers and peasants led by him into ‘reactionary and metaphysical conceptions’.

  3. ZHENG Guan-ying's View of Religious%论郑观应“七教合一”的宗教观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万淑君

    2012-01-01

    郑观应的宗教观是其整个思想中最具特色的部分,他以"道术"为其宗教观立纲,阐发了独特的性命观和神气观。他又从同源、同道、同心三方面会通儒、道、佛,在统一儒、道、佛三教的基础上,提出"七教统一"的宗教观,试图融儒、道、释、回、耶稣、天主等各教思想于一炉,通过寻找各个宗教的共通点来实现会通全球各教的理想。他的宗教观突破了"中体西用"文化观的局限,显示出新文化观的端倪。%ZHENG Guan-ying's view of religious is the most unique part of his thought.With "Dao and Tactics" ZHENG Guan-ying elucidated his view of religious which included the unique concept of "Xing and Ming" and "Shen and Qi".He described the interdisciplinary of Confucianism,Taoism and Buddhism from three aspects.On the basis of unified three religions of Confucianism,Taoism and Buddhism,he proposed his view of religious which was "Seven Religious Unity",attempted to unify the thoughts of all religions,such as Confucianism,Taoism,Buddhism,Islamism,Protestantism,Catholicism and Greek.By finding the common points of all religions,he tried to achieve the fusion of all religious around the world.His view of religious breaks through the limitation of "Westernized Chinese Style" and shows the clues of a new view of culture.

  4. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and his thought on socialism in India-A critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarba Priya Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In establishing an egalitarian society in India which is based on liberty , equality and fraternity and social justice,Ambedkar, the great Indian Constitution maker, struggled to find out avenues and means – intellectual, organizational and in terms of programmes throughout his life. This study attempts to throw light on Ambedkar’s quest for socialism in India with special reference to Marxism and Buddhism. He accepted the concept of class struggle but he felt that in the Indian set up, it had to be substantially redefined and ascribed a similar agenda to the Buddha and agreed that one of the major contradictions of capitalism was the social basis of its production in contrast to private appropriation. He criticized Marxism for subscribing to economic determinism, for its inadequate grasp of liberal democracy, for its inability to adequately understand the realm of ideologies and for considering moral values as historically conditioned. Though Ambedkar described his scheme of economic organization of the Indian society as state socialism, in view of its other features, we believe it appropriate to identify it democratic socialism. Moreover, collective farming , one of the major features of his model of democratic socialism, needs to be thoroughly reconsidered as it lacked viability. It is somewhat inconceivable how he could achieve socialism by eliminating socio-economic inequality without undermining the basic economic foundation of society on which the system of inequality was founded. The inability to resolve this contradiction ultimately led Ambedkar to find solace in Buddhism, with an attempt to present its teachings ‘in a new light to suit modern class realities’. In fact, Ambedkar‘s conversion to Buddhism was a ‘self-deception’ and channeled the whole movement of workers and peasants led by him into ‘reactionary and metaphysical conceptions’.

  5. The role of sutras translation in Chinese form development%佛经翻译在汉语形式发展中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2015-01-01

    Buddhism was born in ancient India, is one of the world's three major religions. The introduction of Buddhism in China is mainly done through the translation of Buddhist scriptures. Buddhist scriptures translation cause in China starts at the beginning of the Han period, and with its unique religious beliefs permeate the spirit of the Chinese people's thought and traditional culture. Buddhist scriptures in the process of translation based on the traditional culture of China, in many ways more had a profound influence in China, as the spread of Buddhism culture carrier, played an important role in the Chinese language and culture, many Chinese Buddhist scriptures also to Chinese mandarin in the sound, word, meaning, syntax and style influenced many aspects, such as the development of the Chinese language.%佛教诞生于古印度,是世界三大宗教之一,.我国对佛教的引入主要是通过佛经的翻译来进行的.我国的佛经翻译事业之初是在我国的两汉时期,并以其独特的宗教信仰渗透到中国人民的精神思想和传统文化当中.佛经在翻译过程中依托中国的传统文化,在诸多方面多中国产生了深远的影响,作为佛教文化传播的载体,汉语言文化发挥了重要的作用,众多的汉译佛经也对中国汉语在音、字、意、句法、文体等诸多方面影响了汉语的发展.

  6. India's Engagement With East Asia and The China Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction India's engagement with East Asia has enjoyed a long history.In ancient times,the Indian Civilization exerted substantial influence on Southeast and East Asia.Buddhism,originating on the Subcontinent more than two centuries ago,remains most popular in Southeast and East Asia.India also has centuries of economic bonds with the region.Under the colonial rule of the British,India was used to safeguard and promote British"interests"in the Pacific Ocean,as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

  7. 中国宗教の原質としての「宇宙神教」 : 中国宗教の全体構造に関するモデル

    OpenAIRE

    前川, 亨

    1998-01-01

    J. J. M. de Groot's work “Universismus” contains an important suggestion.He points out that ‘three teachings’-Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism-share a fundamental sphere common to all Chinese religions, which forms the common values of the Chinese people.He calls this sphere ‘Universismus’(‘universism’ in English).In this paper, following his lead, we will describe the whole structure of Chinese religion, including not only the elite level but also the popular level, by elaborating on the c...

  8. 滇越瑶族宗教信仰略论--兼论传统度戒文化%On Yao People’s Religious Faith in Honghe Prefecture --Discussing on the Traditional Conversion Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙倮贵

    2014-01-01

    The Honghe Yao people have a belief that everything in nature has a spirit. They, as well, believe in Taoism and Buddhism. The disciplines of Taoism and Buddhism, and the morals regulated in their primitive religion help to form a complicated religious document used in various ways. The conversion is a rite for the men adults to be religious followers, and is also a rite by which the religion is passed down to generations. Under the influence of the Taoism and Buddhism, the Yao people’s primitive religious activities are quite familiar with that of the Taoism and Buddhism. They respect the same spirits and use the same instruments. In the research course, it is needed to discard the dross and select the essence as to promote Honghe Yao people’s refined culture and ethnic spirit.%滇越瑶族崇信“万物有灵”,并道教经义和佛教教规为核心,又结合本民族原始宗教及伦理道德,发展成具有个性名称和用途十分繁杂的瑶族宗教经籍。度戒是瑶族男子的成年礼,既是瑶族男子度戒入教仪式,又是其宗教以沿袭的传承形式,是瑶族社会生活中的传统伦理道德观念的重要内容。滇越瑶族宗教活动,受道教和佛教的影响,除崇奉的神祗大体相同外,使用的法器与道教无甚差别,对滇越瑶族宗教的教义和活动调查研究,取其精华,弃其糟粕,发扬光大滇越瑶族的优秀文化传统和民族精神。

  9. Al-Ummah fī Indūnīsīya: Mafhūmuhā, Wāqi‘uhā wa Tajrībatuhā

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quraish Shihab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Islam has undergone several renewals throughout its long history in Indonesia. These renewals have resulted in stratifications leading to the formation of sects within Indonesian Muslim community. Meanwhile, Hinduism and Buddhism -  the two dominant religions which came before Islam - still exist amongst a small number of the population, and Christianity is gaining more adherents. In effect Indonesia is becoming an ethnically, religiously and professionally pluralistic nation. Differences in opinion are thus unavoidable.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v1i1.867

  10. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  11. THE PHILOSOPHY OF “DALIT”?...(A new theory on “JATIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is focused that in human social system “Dalits” are considered as an “out-caste” and treated them as “Untouchables” and being ill-treated almost in every day of Life. If so, where did Dalits come from?... Since Ancient time global level Scientists, Scholars, Anthropologists could not exactly answer who are Dalits?... Further world wide Untouchability, Casteism discrimination being practiced besides “BLACK” and “WHITE”, ethnics. Further hundreds of castes, sub castes exist within main “Ethnic frame” of religions like Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, considering Dalits as distinguished out-caste.

  12. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU stay. PMID:26817913

  13. 連続性と非連続性 : 呂澂の中国大乗佛教批判について

    OpenAIRE

    張, 文良

    2013-01-01

    According to Lü Cheng, the Consciousness-Only or Yogācāra School of Indian Buddhism claims that the essence of all sentient beings is “tathatā,” which is lack of cognitive ability, and therefore is a theory of what he calls“Primal Purity.” On the other hand, he claims that Chinese Buddhist philosophers believe that the nature of all sentient beings is pure and intelligent, by their theory of “Original Bodhi.” With these contrasting, Lü Cheng claims that there is a radical rupture between Ch...

  14. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs. PMID:24601783

  15. http://englishkyoto-seas.org/2014/02/vol-1-no-3-takahiro-kojima/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kojima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the religious practices of Theravada Buddhists in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. The data presented were gathered by the author during a year of fieldwork in a village outside the city of Ruili. Dehong Prefecture is located on the China-Myanmar border. One of the main groups in this area is the Dai (Tăi, who follow Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism was brought into Dehong mainly from Myanmar. Local religious practices have much in common with Buddhist practices in Southeast Asia, sharing the same Pali canon. However, this area differs from other Theravada Buddhist societies in that it has a relatively low number of monks and novices. Although all the villages in Dehong have a monastery, just as in the rest of Southeast Asia, most of the monas- teries are uninhabited. One reason for this is the oppression of religion during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. But more important, the custom of ordaining is significantly less widespread in Dehong than in other Theravada Buddhist societies. Therefore, without resident monks, Buddhist rituals in Dehong are performed by virtue of the direct relationship between the lay community and their Buddhist texts, Buddha images, and pagodas. In particular, holu (experts in reciting Buddhist texts and xiŋ lai (elderly people who go to the monastery during the rainy season retreat to keep eight precepts on special holy days play important roles as mediators in this relationship.1 It is laypeople, not monks, who play the central role in the practice of Buddhism in Dehong. In this situation, knowledge of Buddhism is transmitted mainly from laypeople to laypeople. Furthermore, a diver- sity of practices has been produced and reproduced by local Buddhists. These features of Buddhist practices in Dehong are in striking contrast to practices in other Theravada Buddhist societies, and suggest that there is a need to re-examine the models to understand

  16. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  17. Understanding religious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S

    1979-01-01

    The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid. PMID:24318473

  18. Comparison of Spiritual Traditions in the Context of Universality of Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Gálik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors study similarities in mysticism of Western Christian tradition and selected Eastern spiritual traditions based on comparative analysis of prayer degrees (mansions in The Interior Castle in Teresa of Avila and Yogic psychical centres (the so-called chakras that are known also in other Eastern spiritual traditions (Taoism and Buddhism. The authors note that especially higher degrees – from the fourth to the seventh – show formal similarities, while the seventh degree also reveals similarities in contents. They speak of importance of revealing these similarities in the perspective of understanding of human being, his further spiritual development, and also interreligious dialogue.

  19. What works for whom in mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danelund, Jakob Rindum; Bihal, Tina; Flyger, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness flows over the West. It is often branded as a method rooted in Buddhism, but in academical research its relations to a series of Buddhist and spiritual concepts remain undefined. We've conducted a systematic reading of 63 self-presentations from women with breast cancer that have......-meditators are strikingly unarticulated. Common phrases about ‘being more present in the now with an accepting attitude’ may be related to spiritual experiences, but are more frequently inserted in a phenomenology of attention in recent neuroscience. This branch of research lacks qualitative studies that can...

  20. Sacred Buddha Image: The Integration of Indigenous Knowledge on Traditions, Rituals, and Beliefs for Developing Cultural Tourism of Communities in Isan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Chanakan Wisetphai; Somchai Lamduan; Sitthisak Champadaeng

    2014-01-01

    Sacred Buddha Image is a symbolic culture of the Buddha or the great founder of Buddhism highly praised by Buddhists. Each sacred Buddha image was created from the faith in the Buddha of the head builder, the joint builders, and the sculptor. Most sacred Buddha images in Isan region (northeast Thailand) were built during 637-1817 A.D. and monasteries were also built in the same period. People believe in the sacred power of these period. People believe in them luck, and prosperity. This resear...

  1. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. ROŠKER

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality plays a significant role in shaping the cohesion of communities, their values, and their structures across the globe. Various religious practices and ideational systems are particularly complex in Asia. Home to some of the world major spiritual traditions such as Hinduism and Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism, as well as to a relevant number of practicing Christians, Muslims, and self-identified atheists and agnostics, Asia provides us with an intense and extraordinarily rich tapestry of different religious and spiritual practices...

  2. Theory of Traditional Chinese Aesthetic Thoughts Influence on Ancient Chinese Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静

    2014-01-01

    the Chinese tradition of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism thought influence the design style of the building. Confu-cian, Taoist thought of"the doctrine of the mean"of"nature and humanity"ideology, traditional Confucian thought on the forma-tion of the traditional architectural style vital role. Of ancient Chinese architecture is harmonious and peaceful feelings, Confucian, Taoist, buddhist thought deeply, meanwhile, reflect the hand, reasonable aspiration is dependent of the aesthetic, the emotion affects the ancient Chinese architecture planning, layout and construction, formed the ancient Chinese architecture unique architectural style and artistic style and features.

  3. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson, Sunny Yim

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis. PMID:20531257

  4. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719

  5. [A comparative study on the ethics of Western and traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; Liu, Sheng

    2008-10-01

    The ethics of Western medicine and that of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) developed separately in their own ways. The formation and development of ancient medical ethics of China were extensively and deeply influenced by Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and other religious thought, while the ancient ethic basis of western society was influenced by traditional Judaism, Christianism, Catholicism and other natural philosophical thinking of ancient Greece and Rome. With the progress of medical and life sciences, the medical ethics begins to transfer into the life ethics, thus giving rise to new questions in the ethics of Western medicine and TCM. PMID:19141202

  6. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  7. 浅谈日本古典园林与美学%Discuss the Japanese Classical Gardens and Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧文霞

    2013-01-01

    In the process of its development, Traditional Japa-nese garden is under the influence of Chinese garden, which gradually formed its own distinct style subject to the impact of Buddhism and Confucianism, and not due to assimilation.%  日本传统园林深受中国园林的影响,在其发展过程中,受到佛教和儒学的冲击,并不归于同化,逐渐形成了自己鲜明的风格。

  8. 道元による自己の思索

    OpenAIRE

    松田, 央; Hiroshi, MATSUDA

    2004-01-01

    Dogen is the founder of Japanese Sotoshu, a sort of Zen Buddhism. He is as excellent a religious thinker as ever lived not only in Japanese religious history but also in the world religious history. He has sought his original self by thinking of his self and also aimed to grow out of his awareness of the self, his ego. Here self is distinguished from ego. Contemporary people are lost in a maze named the ego, and suffer and struggle in this space. Dogen is a great master who teaches the way ho...

  9. Altered Space for a New Zen in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Soucy, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Twentieth century events, with the Buddhist Revival (in response to colonialism), the war (and subsequent dispersal of the Vietnamese overseas), and Communist challenges, have brought about a renewed interest in Zen Buddhism in the twenty-first century. The southern Vietnamese monk, Thích Thanh Từ, has drawn on potent historical signifiers of Trần Nhân Tông and the only Vietnamese Zen lineage (Trúc Lâm) to create a new kind of Zen while simultaneously claiming identity with a nationalistic sy...

  10. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  11. Was epicurus a buddhist? An examination and critique of the theories of negative happiness in buddha and epicurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Barkman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p286Comparisons betw western philosophies are uncommon and this, among other things, hinders global philosophical discourse. Thus, in this essay I want to compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus for similarities, particular in regard to what I call "negative happiness." Once I have establish this, I want to give a brief critique of negative happiness, which subsequently amounts to a selective critique of Buddhism and Epicureanism.

  12. Sanctuaries of urban sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    latter. Thirdly, they are not perceived of as pockets of resistance; however, the sanctuaries studied have offered possibilities for acquiring a social etiquette, aesthetic skills and a social morality which point beyond the local community or the lodge formations, irregular intrigues and power plays of...... sanctuaries were reinvented during Tokugawa. In this historical period Buddhism and Shinto were thoroughly intertwined (Reader 2005). People of Edo ‘picked and mixed’ from both religions. The focus is on issues of practice and on levels of engagement in a variety of events as indices of religiosity....

  13. Shadow Celadon Statue of Guanyin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In Buddhist legend, the Bodhisattva Guanyin is infinitely merciful, always helping the needy and succoring the distressed. Guanyin can also freely change into many incarnations. Starting from the 2nd century A.D., Guanyin began to appear as a woman, becoming one of the most important images in Chinese Buddhism. This statue of Guanyin was excavated in 1955 from the ruins of Dadu (the capital of the Yuan Dynasty) at Dingfu Street, Xicheng District of today’s Beijing. It stands 67 cm high. Smiling slightly with her half-lidded eyes, Guanyinlooks dignified and refined, with a some-

  14. The Great Tibetan Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Second only to the famous Rin chen bzang po (958–1055) in receiving the title of a “Great Translator” (lo chen) during the period of the “Later Propagation” (phyi dar) of Buddhism in Tibet, rNgog lo tsā ba Blo ldan shes rab (or rNgog lo) was one of the most influential figures in the establishment of Tibetan Buddhist scholasticism. After having devoted seventeen years of his life to the study of Sanskrit under scholars in Kashmir, India and Nepal, he became renowned for his more than fifty pa...

  15. Dynamism of Ballet in Isan

    OpenAIRE

    Sirimongkol Natayakul; Surapone Virunrak; Vutthipong Roadkhasermsri

    2015-01-01

    Isan is a region with diverse dancing art forms, such as Fon (Northertern-Thai-style-dance), Serng (Northestern-Thai-style-dance), and Ram (Central-Thai-style-dance) which are attached to important traditions associated with Buddhism and spiritual beliefs. Ballet is a unique cross-cultural dance that has spread into Isan society over a long period of time. This qualitative research aims to study the history of ballet in Isan from 1976 to 2012 and the factors that have led to the dynamism of b...

  16. La Teoría del Big bang y la doctrina de Nagarjuna el vacío o sunyata como síntesis ontológica de todo cuanto existe /

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Radovic, Cristian

    2005-01-01

    My doctoral thesis studies the Big Bang Theory about the origin of the universe and his relationship with the doctrine of the buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna (India s.II-III), founder of Buddhism of the Middle Way, in accord with his genuine work, titled: Mûla-mâdhyamaka-kârik_; an authentic text, opus magna of this author in accord with the india, chinese and tibetan tradition, clear probe of the history of his figure. Nagarjuna, one of the four suns witch illuminated the world in the four di...

  17. Maritime trade contacts of Odisha, east coast of India with the Roman world: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Pradhan, G.C.

    regions (Chakravarti 1995 and 2001) where we could witness the rise of mulanagars (headquarter, city, main town) in case of Odisha at Sisupalgarh, Kankia-Radhanagar and Jaugada. All these three sites have been excavated and remains of urban centre have...) show that 226 Sila Tripati et al. the second urbanization of Ganga Valley was extended up to Kalinga and Buddhism survived in Odisha for at least 1,000 years (Patnaik 2012). The much referred to city centres like Tosali, Samapa (referred to in Asokan...

  18. 福建福鼎市太姥山宋代国兴寺遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Guoxingsi Temple-site of the Song Period at Tailaoshan in Fuding City,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 福鼎市文体局; 福鼎市旅游局; 太姥山风景区管理局

    2003-01-01

    In September-November 2001,the Fujian Provincial Museum and other institutions excavated the site of Guoxingsi Temple at Tailaoshan in Fuding City.They revealed the vestiges of pavilions,side rooms,passages,small yards and a stupa in this Song period temple and dug out large quantities of ceramic articles,structural members and inscribed steles.The excavation indicates that the temple was first built in the fourth year of the Qianfu reign,Tang Dynasty,and reached its prosperity atthe turn from the Northern Song to the Southern Song period.The unearthed material contributes to studying the history of architecture and Buddhism in ancient China.

  19. Social Influence of the Conversion of Some Dai People to Christianity and A Study on the Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wenan

    2014-01-01

    Historically , the spread of Christi-anity in the Dai areas took place roughly in two are-as.One includes the area represented by Xishuang-banna and Dehong where most of the people believe in Theravada Buddhism , and the other is the area represented by Xinping , Yuanjiang and Wuding where most of people believe in primitive religion . In recent years , Christianity in the Dai areas such as Xishuangbanna and Dehong has been very ac-tive, and the number of Dai people who have con-verted to the Christianity is increasing rapidly .

  20. Hotel Business in Temples in the Tang Dynasty%唐代寺院旅店业初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金凤; 李珍

    2016-01-01

    唐代寺院旅店业兴盛,成为突出的社会经济现象。这一现象的形成,不仅与唐代佛教鼎盛而寺院经济的繁荣相关,也与这一时期社会经济快速发展、人员流动频繁、寺院旅游休闲、山林修学之风等因素相关。唐代寺院旅店业在一定程度上推动了寺院经济的上升与社会经济文化的进步,同时也强化了佛教的世俗化倾向。%The prosperous of the hotel business in temples was the outstanding social economic phenomenon. The forming of this phenomenon was not only because the prosperous of Buddhism and temple economy,but the social economy development,the floating population,temple tourism leisure and academic studies in the mountains and forests etc. The hotel business in temples promoted the upward of the temple economy and the progress of the social economic culture. At the same time,it strengthened the secularization of Buddhism.

  1. 信仰藏传佛教尼姑出家原因及价值观趋向分析%The Trend Analysts of Reasons and Ualues of Becoming Tibetan BuddhistNun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白安良

    2012-01-01

    藏传佛教尼姑作为信仰藏传佛教的一个特殊群体,在藏传佛教的建构、传播、发展过程中起到了重要的作用。在广大藏区剃度出家、削发为尼者曾构成了藏传佛教庞大社会实体的组成部分。本文从价值观追求的角度来探析藏区女性出家的原因,希望能够对当前和谐社会建设提供一些积极的借鉴。%Tibetan Buddhism nun,as one of the special categories who have beliefs in Tibetan Buddhism,plays crucial role in building,spreading and developing Tibetan Buddhist.Currently there are an increasing number of women who take the tonsures and become nuns in a widespread of Tibetan area.This article explores the reasons for women choosing to become nuns in Tibetan area from the value pursuit perspective as well as the reason for the trend of the ever-increasing number of the female nuns.Based on this exploration,it analyzes the impacts of this phenomenon on society and hopes of the current construction of harmonious society provide some active learning.

  2. On Altar Scripture and Sushi's Poem Creation%《坛经》与苏轼诗歌创作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁庆勇; 阮延俊

    2012-01-01

    佛典的义理在一定程度上改变了苏轼诗歌风貌,《坛经》对苏轼诗歌创作产生了很大的影响。从思想角度看,它帮助苏轼如何运用佛教智慧来处理人生存亡意义的问题;从创作角度看,《坛经》的"灭尽着相"思想,给苏轼提供不少写诗的源泉,或作为归纳而用,或作为演绎而用,或作为主导思想贯穿全篇而用。%Buddhism theory to a certain extent has changed Sushi's poems, and Altar Scripture gready influenced Sushi's poem-writing. From the perspective of thought, Altar Scripture helped Sushi use Buddhism wisdom to deal with the problem of life and death, while from the perspective of writing, the thought of completely extinction in Altar Scripture provides Sushi with various resources of writing as summary or deduction, or as a leading thought of the whole work.

  3. Tea Production and Consumption in Korea%韩国茶叶生产与消费

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴龙求

    2000-01-01

    Mr. Taeryum, an envoy of Shilla Dynasty brought tea seeds from China during Tang Dynastyand the seeds were planted at Jiri Mt. by the order of King Heungduk at AD 828. During Koryo Dynasty (918-1392), Buddhism spread rapidly all over the country and the tea culture reached its highest stage of prosperity. At the Chosun Dynasty. However, the ceremonial drinking of tea vanished almost completely due to the flourishing Confucian tradition, a kind of substitution of Buddhism. But a few people have supported the traditional tea culture by themselves. Since the independence of Korea soon after the World War II(1945), the cultivation area of tea plants has been increased and the cultural tradition of tea drinking has become popular again.At present, the cultivation area has been continued to increase and tea production has also been lifted up year byyear. In spite of continuous increased tea cultivation area, there still is a severe problem of shortage of tea in thecountry. Tea farmers and the Korean government should take several actions to solve to remedy the situation.In this paper the prospect for shortage of tea demand is discussed after 2003 when the high special customs du-ties for tea products is lowered from 536% to 30 or 40% in Korea and the trade situation of tea products oncountries around Korea are also discussed.

  4. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan. PMID:18490884

  5. Practicantes del dharma en Andalucía (Practitioners of Dharma in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías Sánchez, Clara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El pluralismo religioso en Andalucía (España se ha intensificado en los últimos años pero no puede ser explicado exclusivamente con los flujos migratorios sino que también es el resultado de la sinergia de diversos factores. Un ejemplo de ello es el budismo cuya llegada puede fecharse en la década de los ochenta. El objetivo de este texto es profundizar en la situación actual de la implantación de esta confesión en un territorio determinado. El mejor conocimiento de los diferentes tipos de grupos budistas, las escuelas dispares a las que se adscriben, sus modos de organización y sus actividades, servirá para conocer mejor estos budismos que hablan el español. Abstract: The religious pluralism in Andalusia (Spain has been intensified in the last years, but it cannot be explained exclusively with the migratory flows but also is the result of the synergy of several factors. An example of this is Buddhism which arrivals can be dated in the eighties. The aim of this text is look in depth at the currently situation of this confession in a certain territory. The better knowledge of the different kinds of Buddhist groups, the diverse schools that they are affiliate, their ways of organization and their activities, will come in useful for know better this Buddhism that speaks Spanish.

  6. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ly Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  7. Fighting Brick with Brick: Chikazumi Jōkan and Buddhism’s Response to Christian Space in Imperial Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Washington

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1915, with the support of Jōdo Shinshū (True Pure Land Buddhism’s Higashi Honganji sect and dozens of private Buddhist donors, Buddhist priest Chikazumi Jōkan erected a new, one-of-a-kind Buddhist meeting hall in Tokyo, the Kyūdō Kaikan. Chikazumi conceived of the building as a clear and deliberate spatial challenge to the crowded Protestant churches and lecture halls of turn-of-the-twentieth-century Tokyo. He chose prominent Western-style architect Takeda Goichi (1872–1938, rather than a traditional Japanese shrine or temple carpenter, to design it. The new building, in tandem with the adjacent Kyūdō Gakusha (Salvation Dormitory that Chikazumi established in 1902, spoke to, and significantly impacted, the socio-moral, intellectual, and religious life of hundreds of young Tokyoites. These two buildings represented a response to Protestant Christianity’s popularity and relevance like no other in imperial Japan. In order to achieve the religious evangelism and suprasectarian reform that he envisioned for Buddhism, Chikazumi proved willing to apply observations made in the West and appropriate practical Western Christian architectural features. Through an analysis of drawings, photographs, periodicals, institutional records, and other sources, this article tells the story of the rare fusion of opposites as Chikazumi equipped Buddhism to compete with Protestantism for the attention and devotion of the educated elite.

  8. 对佛教图书编目工作的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘泰华

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there are always new Buddhism library built and supported by the other local libraries on the technical and business help. In the books cataloging work, book description, choice of classification, subject indexing, cataloging cooperation and staff training all also just start, we must focus on automation and standardization construction, in order to realize the co-construction and sha ring of Buddhism literature.%近年来不断有新的佛教图书馆建成,并得到了当地其他图书馆在技术和业务上的大力帮助。而图书编目工作中的图书著录、分类法的选择、主题标引、编目合作、人员培训等项工作都还处于刚刚起步阶段,因此要注重佛教图书编目的自动化、标准化、规范化建设,以期实现佛教文献的共建共享。

  9. The Waste Land: Eliot’s Expiatory Pilgrimage from Church to Pagoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kuriakose

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eliot’s poem The Waste Land is a pilgrimage in quest of an answer to the problem of desire—universal as well as personal—especially deviant sexuality, immoral behavior and their consequences. The traditional tags on the poem such as “a poem about Europe” and a poem about the “disillusionment of a generation” serve only to blinker the reader against its universal and spiritual dimensions. From the epigraph to the very concluding line of the poem, through numerous references and allusions to literary masterpieces and religious texts ranging over history, Eliot addresses the question of desire—craving-- in view of the essentials of Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism. Thrashing out the problem in the light of  St. Augustine’s Confessions on burning and Buddha’s Fire Sermon on its remedy, Eliot preaches Datta, Dayadhvam and Damyata as the key virtues for the attainment of Shantih or “the peace that passeth understanding.” Thus the poem becomes a pilgrimage of Eliot across the spiritual landscape of the world.Keywords: expiatory pilgrimage, desire, homoeroticism, confession, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Buddha’s Fire Sermon  

  10. EVOLUTION OF CREATION BUDDHIST LENT CANDLE OF WORK AWARDED IN UBON RATCHATHANI’S LENT CANDLE CONTESTS 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakchai Uttitho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of Lent candle procession at the Buddhist Lent festival is the grand festival at the national level in Ubon Ratchathani province. From the merit-making tradition concerning Buddhism binding to the way of life of Isan people for the long time, this festival has developed to be a tourist festival at the national level. Later, there have been contests of candle making in continuity. Throughout the past time the contests have promoted creation of candle with different styles contests and stories which are valuable for studying and dissemination in the future. The purposes of this research were to examine the background of the Buddhist Lent candle trees, elements of contests and evaluation of candle trees awarded on Lent candle contests in Ubon Ratchathani province from 2003-2007. The research area covered Ubon Ratchathani provinces where Buddhist Lent candle were created for contests which were the most famous in Thailand. The research procedure used the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from related literature and field studies using survey, observations, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 35 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. The results reviewed that candle trees had been made for neatness contests since 1927. In 1977 the tradition of Lent candle procession week was held to be a grand annual festival of the province. Candle trees were contested in 3 types. Later two elements of contest consisted of large-sized candle tree and small-sized candle tree. Concepts of candle tree creation were from the criteria determined by Ubon Ratchathani province. The criteria were different from year to year. The stories to created as candle trees were about Buddhism local culture and identities of Ubon Ratchathani. The same criteria were use for decision making in every type by considering from candle tree base and all elements, The evaluation of candle trees

  11. 明清大理白族地区书院教育的流变及其特点%Evolution and Characteristics of Academy Education in Dali Bai Nationality Areas during Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀芳

    2016-01-01

    明清时期是大理白族地区书院教育发展的重要时期,伴随着中央王朝“兴儒抑佛”到“兴儒传佛”到“先抑儒后兴儒”再到“反儒尚西”的文教政策转变,大理白族地区的书院教育经历了“萌芽—发展—调整—成熟—衰落”这样一个过程。明清大理白族地区的书院教育秉承中原书院的儒学教育思想,同时因处在大理白族地区特殊的民族文化背景中,其教育思想又呈现出重教化、轻名利、儒释道兼容等显著的特点。%Ming and Qing Dynasties are the important periods for the development of academy education in Dali Bai nationality area. Along with the change of the central dynasty cultural policy, from "revitalization of Confucianism and suppression of Buddhism" to"revitalize Buddhism", and to"inhibition of Confucianism", and to"revival Confucianism", and last change to"eliminate Confucianism and promoting western culture", the academy education of the Bai nationality in Dali has experienced a long developing process. This process can be expressed as:begin, development, adjust, mature, and decline in the end. The academy education of the Bai nationality in Ming and Qing Dynasties was obedient to the Confucianism education thought of the central academy. Meanwhile, due to the special minority culture background in Dali Bai nationality areas, the academy education thoughts showed the emphasis on education, neglect fame and wealth, and combination of Buddhism and Taoism.

  12. Mulheres budistas como líderes e professoras Buddhist women as leaders and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M. Gross

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available No budismo, o papel do professor de dharma (religioso é a função mais prestigiosa, e o professor de dharma tem mais autoridade do que qualquer outro líder. Apesar de os ensinamentos budistas não conterem nenhuma doutrina que limite essa função ao homem, na prática, em toda a história budista, foram pouquíssimas as mulheres que se tornaram conhecidas como professoras de dharma. Algumas pessoas acham que essas práticas não prejudicam as mulheres, porque estas podem, ainda assim, receber os ensinamentos, fazer as práticas mais avançadas e obter altos níveis de esclarecimento espiritual. Contudo, eu afirmo que o fato de não haver professoras de dharma reconhecidas foi nocivo seja para as mulheres budistas, seja para o próprio budismo. Isso tem a ver com o legado das comunidades de monjas em muitas partes do mundo budista, com os baixos padrões de educação para as mulheres, com o fraco prestígio de que gozam as praticantes mulheres, com a falta de modelos para as mulheres e com a perda da sabedoria feminina na herança do pensamento budista. Até que as professoras de dharma não forem amplamente reconhecidas e honradas, o budismo continuará sendo perseguido por seu passado patriarcal, com o prejuízo de todos.In Buddhism, the role of the dharma (religious teacher is the most prestigious role, and dharma teachers have more authority that any other leaders. Though the Buddhist teachings contain no doctrines that limit this role to men, in practice throughout Buddhist history, very few women have been publicly acknowledged as dharma teachers. Some people claim that this practice does not harm women because women can, nevertheless, receive teachings, do advanced practices, and attain high states of spiritual realization. However, I claim that the practice of not recognizing women as dharma teachers has been very harmful both to Buddhist women and to Buddhism itself. It has lead to the demise of the nuns' community in many parts of

  13. Ritual y poder en los centros budistas zen argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catón Eduardo Carini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo es un estudio de los grupos budistas zen argentinos desde la perspectiva de la antropología política. El objetivo es, en primer lugar, explorar las distintas posiciones sociales que los miembros pueden ocupar al interior de un grupo zen y los sistemas nativos de clasificación social, es decir, las categorías que nombran y crean distinciones rituales. En segundo lugar, analizar la estructura de autoridad y de poder al interior de una comunidad zen, indagando los vínculos entre el sistema ritual de posiciones sociales y la distribución del poder y la autoridad. La investigación etnográfica se efectuó siguiendo una metodología cualitativa, que incluyó la observación participante en los encuentros que los centros zen organizan periódicamente y la realización de entrevistas semi-estructuradas e historias de vida a sus miembros. Las conclusiones giran en torno a la importancia del ritual para la vida política de la comunidad, y la centralización del poder en la figura del maestro zen mediante la particular dinámica que evidencia la estructura de autoridad. Palabras clave: Argentina; Budismo zen; Política; Poder. Abstract The present anthropological study takes a political approach to the Argentinean Zen Buddhism groups. The first objective is to explore the variety of native social classification systems, that is to say the categories naming and creating rituals. Secondly, we try to analyze the authority and power system within a Zen community, investigating the relation between the ritual system of social positions and the distribution of power and authority. This article is based on qualitative research, which included periodic participant observation in gatherings organized by the Zen Buddhism centres and semistructured interviews with and life histories of their members. The conclusions focus on the importance of ritual for the community’s political life, and the centralization of power in the

  14. Another Side of Monks in Song Dynasty from the View of Yi Jian Zhi%《夷坚志》所见宋代僧道的另一面(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树友

    2016-01-01

    The inclusive and flexible religious cultural policy, an equal approach to Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism pur-sued by the Southern and Northern Song dynasties, along with the social great changes flourishing commodity economy had great effects on Buddhism, Taoism and their followers. More and more monks in Song Dynasty went after the earthly life which became their value orientation. They were crazy about money and infatuated with women. The secularization, another side of monks in Song Dynasty, was made public in Yi Jian Zhi by Hong Mai, a giant of literature in the Southern Song dynasty. These monks did their businesses, accumulated wealth wantonly by illegal means and defrauded people of money, which was in compatible with the rules and creeds of Buddhism and Taoism. As a result, it developed into a serious problem endangering the secular world.%由于两宋政府奉行包容宽松的儒、道、佛三教并举的宗教文化政策,辅之以社会的剧烈变迁及商品经济的高度繁荣,极大地影响、冲击着宋代的佛教及佛教徒、道教及道教徒,不仅促使僧道这一特殊社会群体恶性膨胀,而且宋代僧道已由超然尘俗之外、不食人间烟火的宗教徒日益向世俗化方面转化。热衷钱财,迷恋声色,贪图享乐,追求世俗生活,越来越成为宋代众多僧道的价值取向,并日益外化于其日常言行中。南宋文坛巨擘洪迈独撰的志怪小说集《夷坚志》,就大量披露了宋代僧道的另一面,亦即世俗化的一面:经营产业,大肆敛财,诈骗钱财等,与佛教、道教的教规教义与禁律戒条以及佛道徒的特质格格不入,进而演变成为危害世俗社会的严重问题。

  15. ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES CONTEXTUALES EN TORNO AL PRIMER VIAJE A JAPÓN DE JACQUES LACAN (1963 Contextual considerations on the subject of lacan’s first trip to japan (1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Altimir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro propósito es dar a conocer la importancia y el influjo de la cultura y el pensamiento oriental y Japón en la obra de Lacan, para cuya tarea hemos tomado el eje del viaje que realizó al archipiélago en la primavera de A partir de esta coordenada de tiempo hemos retrocedido hasta la presencia del país oriental en la obra de Sigmund Freud y hemos referido la mención del mikado y de los ainus en Tótem y tabú. En cuanto al budismo, centro del interés de Lacan en este primer viaje a las islas, Freud se mostró cauto, reticente, incluso hostil. Lacan, en cambio, se entusiasma por oriente y se interesa por el budismo, en especial por el zen. Hemos seleccionado los comentarios que hizo a su regreso de Japón. En los mismos, el psicoanalista francés pone el dedo en la llaga y nos habla del escamoteo que sufre la sexualidad femenina en el budismo, lo que le sirve de aviso para orientar la práctica del psicoanálisis.My aim in this paper is to make known the importance and influence of Eastern culture and thought and of Japan on Lacan’s works. I have taken as a starting point the trip he made to this country during the spring of 1963. After this I have gone backwards to consider the presence of Japan in Sigmund Freud’s works, calling attention to his mention of the Mikado and the Ainu in Totem and Taboo. Towards Buddhism, which was the focus of Lacan’s interest in this first trip to the archipelago, Freud was cautious, reticent and even hostile. Lacan, on the other hand, was enthusiastic about Orient and interested in Buddhism, especially in Zen. I have made a selection of the comments he made on his return from Japan, in which he pointed out weaknesses and commented on how feminine sexuality is eschewed in Buddhism, which he took note of in order to direct his practice in psychoanalysis accordingly.

  16. High Road into the Cloud --- Ni Yun-lin's Art of Painting and Its Cultural Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuli Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni Yun-lin, Painter in the Yuan Dynasty, had great influences in the history of Chinese painting, especially the history of painting of man-of-letters. He stepped over the spatio-temporal limitation and guided trend of painting of man-of-letters several hundred years later. Although he was familiar with Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and was endowed with a kind, sentimental and sincere heart, the abnormality of political ruling of Meng and Yuan Dynasty together with his obstinate and unruly character determined since his birth his destiny --- living in seclusion. He re-organized the value system of human being and established a virtual spiritual homeland. His art of painting was a monument which stood like a giant at the top of the world ethnic arts, with an intangible, cold, secluded and lonely style of painting. It was Ni Yun-lin who pushed the quality of painting to perfection which was most impressive.

  17. 大乘佛典中女性反驳男性的故事--对日本女性文学的影响%The Stories of Women Refuting Men in Mahayana Buddhist Classics--The Influence on Japanese Women’s Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石井公成; 霍君(译)

    2015-01-01

    本论文首先介绍了大乘佛教的经典中女性驳倒男性类故事,探讨了大乘佛教的成因与此类故事的关联,以解明此类故事是否隐含有歧视女性的因素。在此基础上,分析了此类故事在日本古典文学中的接受及其特点。%This paper firstly introduces the stories of women who refute men in Mahayana Buddhist Classics, and then investigates the relationship between the formation of Mahayana Buddhism and these stories to determine whether these stories include the implicit characteristics of discrimination against women. Based on this discussion, the paper analyses the acceptance and characteristics of these stories in classical literature in Japan.

  18. National Theatre of China's Romeo and Juliet and Its Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the “Chinese-ness” of this brand new production of Romeo and Juliet by the National Theatre of China, from a ritual perspective. Three main areas were discussed. Firstly, this play has got several religious connotations. The absence of religion in this play’s setting is relevant to China’s current high percentage of atheists. Despite that, several religions, such as Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity, are mentioned in this play. Secondly, the play has also incorporated several Chinese culture and traditions. The use of bicycles as one of the main props can be linked to the cultural significance of bicycles in China. The play also incorporated other cultural and traditional elements such as wedding customaries in China, Xinjiang dance, as well as the Chinese tongue twisters. Finally, the play has incorporated multiple Brechtian moments. Perhaps the Brechtian moments can lead audience to think about the current religious and cultural developments in modern China.

  19. 有关白居易故居的几个问题%Some Problems of Bai Juyi's Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2004-01-01

    In 1992--1993, a large-scale survey and excavation were carried out on the site of Bai Juyi's home. The work resulted in the determination of the location of this building complex and thelayout of its living area and garden. The Liidaofang Block where the poet's home was situated lay east of the Shiziqiao Bridge, south of the Luoshui River and north of the Yishui River. The living area consisted of a front compound and a rear one. The most distinct feature of Bai's mansion was the full utilization of water resources by leading the water of the Yishui River into the garden. The unearthed objects reflect the poet's interest in poem-composition, drinking and tea sipping, as well as his belief in Buddhism. Theresidence was made into the Buddhist Puming Temple, also called Dazisiyuan Temple-garden, in AD 924 and destroyed presumably at the turn from the Ming to the Qing period.

  20. 建筑景观设计中的中国传统意识形态%On Chinese traditional ideology in architectural landscape design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙正军

    2015-01-01

    结合当前建筑景观现象,论述了儒、释、道的历史文化与园林景观关系,分析了各宗教意识形态对园林景观的影响,指出设计师应在尊重传统宗教基本思想的前提下,运用现代设计手法创造出适合现代人的文化休闲场所。%Combining with the architectural landscapes,the paper indicates the relationship among Confucius,Buddhism and Taoism and garden-ing landscapes,adopts the modern design methods to create the humanistic recreational places,with architects’respects for the basic ideas for traditional religions.

  1. The Buddhist Stupa Site of Bharhut, and its Sacred and Secular Geographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkes, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    -occupation with only a few ‘important’ sculptures and inscriptions has limited the full examination of archaeological data. These sculptures and inscriptions have not been put into a broader context, and the wider site and its surrounding region have never been explored. Thus, interpretations about Bharhut, and...... the ways in which the Buddhist community at the site were engaged with the wider society around them, have always been made with reference to wider models of Buddhism, and not the evidence provided by the site and the region. Addressing this, research carried out for this PhD has re-examined this......, the wider regional contexts of Bharhut have been examined by surveying the archaeological and geographical features in the surrounding region. Third, the sculptures and inscriptions have been thoroughly re-assessed in light of the findings of the examination of the site and the region. This work has...

  2. 略论梁漱溟的治学理念%On Liang Shuming’ s Academic Ideas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚焱超

    2014-01-01

    Liang Shuming is a very influential figure in Chinese modern academic circles. In the past, scholars always concentrated in his philosophy, Buddhism thought and rural construction theory, rarely researched his Academic ideas. With Liang Shuming’ s activities and experiences that he went through as a clue, this article intends to discuss his academic ideas preliminary.%梁漱溟是中国近代学术上一位极有影响力的人物。学术界以往多集中于对他的哲学思想、佛学思想以及乡村建设理论的研究,鲜有论及他的治学理念。本文拟以梁漱溟一生的活动和经历为线索,对梁漱溟治学理念作一次初步的探讨。

  3. Vietnamese Buddhist pagoda in France: “institution-place of memory”. Legitimate power to communicate the memory of exiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme GIDOIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Buddhism took hold and developed in France partly because it was able to obtain a monopoly on funeral rites and mourning rites. Many exiled families see the interest of this and delegate their ancestor worship to the monks. By combining the spiritual, socio-cultural, eschatological and political domains, and despite whatever generation gaps may exist, the pagoda allows families to reconstruct a social and family ethic in a context of social acculturation. It provides a fitting answer to the question inherent to the migratory context: how to find new symbolic resources outside of Vietnam? And it can thus implement a communication strategy that officialises, in the land of exile, the inextricable link between the pagoda and the assumption of responsibility for the memory of exiled ancestors.

  4. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. PMID:25676193

  5. Law of the leading digits and the ideological struggle for numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Benford's law states that occurence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but follows a logrithimic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Bhah'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits conform to the Benford's law. We found that the adherent data on all the religions, except Christianity, excellently conform to the Benford's law. Further, unlike data on Christainity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obey the law. The study indicates that Benford's law can be used as a statistical tool to test the integrity of the available world religion adherent data which is bound to be suspicious due to infancy of religious demography research.

  6. A critical analysis of the concepts and measurement of awareness and equanimity in Goenka's Vipassana meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Oei, Tian P S; Ye, Yiqing; Liu, Xiangping

    2015-04-01

    Goenka's Vipassana meditation (GVM), a widely applied mindfulness training system rooted in Buddhism, is currently widely used. Although the two abilities cultivated in GVM, awareness and equanimity, exhibit certain similarities with the mindfulness cultivated in mindfulness-based psychotherapies (MBTs), they are not major concerns in MBTs. While many mindfulness scales have been created to measure different aspects of mindfulness constructs and certain scales and items can indeed reflect the basic abilities of awareness and equanimity, none of them can adequately capture the way in which those abilities and related ideas are applied in GVM. This paper presents a critical examination of the problems associated with the concepts and measurement of awareness and equanimity and presents potential solutions for achieving better measurement of these concepts in the future. PMID:24222100

  7. Revision of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale for measuring awareness and equanimity in Goenka's Vipassana meditation with Chinese Buddhists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Li, Mengdan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xiangping

    2015-04-01

    Goenka's 10-day Vipassana course is a widespread mindfulness course rooted in traditional Buddhism. Awareness and equanimity are two abilities cultivated in this course that are not featured in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies and thereby not adequately measured by current mindfulness scales. The present article analyzed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al. in Assessment 15(2):204-223, 2008) and revised it into a short version to avoid confusion when measuring awareness and equanimity. Empirical data obtained using Chinese university students and Chinese Buddhists showed that the psychometric properties of the original version of the PHLMS had low factor loading on some items and that the short version had improved psychometric properties, especially for Buddhists. The short PHLMS also exhibited reasonable relationships with emotional outcomes and meditation practices among Buddhists. Implications for the future application of the PHLMS among Buddhists were also discussed. PMID:24824919

  8. Triratna Budistlik Kogukond: juhtumiuuring budistlikust kogudusest Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Liiders

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the first detailed case study of a Buddhist congregation in Estonia. The object of this study is Triratna Buddhist Community in Estonia, which was established here in 1989 and is part of international Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly known as Friends of the Western Buddhist Order created in the United Kingdom in 1967. Mainly through oral history and participant observation methods as well as analysis of data presented by different written and oral sources the researcher strives to give an overview of various aspects of activity connected with one particular Buddhist group in Estonia, including its practice, ordination rituals, beliefs and membership characteristics. It also includes a detailed overview of the congregation’s history and its relationship with members of Triratna congregations in Finland and the UK. It presents Buddhism as an emerging new religion in Estonia through a case study of a Western Buddhist ecumenical congregation.

  9. Promoting resilience and recovery in a Buddhist mental health support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Bethany

    2014-04-01

    Communities of faith are important arenas for psychiatric mental health nurses to promote emotional well-being and support recovery for persons with mental health problems. This article describes an innovative faith-based mental health group, based on Buddhist philosophy and practice and established by an advanced practice psychiatric nurse, that uses psychoeducation, peer support, and faith encouragement to help participants find hope and meaning in the experience of mental health problems. A brief overview of Buddhism and selected concepts relevant to the philosophical framework of the Buddhist mental health support group is followed by a review of the common themes of the group discussions. These include: finding value in the illness experience; differentiating the proper role of treatment from that of Buddhist practice in optimizing mental health; and experiencing a deeper sense of joy, despite current suffering. PMID:24702210

  10. Contradictions in stem cell research education amongst science educators and Buddhist, Christian and Muslim theologians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhayboubi, Samira Nawal

    We examine how teachers approach stem cell research (SCR) as a controversial religio-scientific issue, and how theologians derive rulings in SCR. We also examine the contradictions teachers have regarding religio-scientific aspect of SCR. Two observations were the igniters of this study, increasing public involvement in political decision-making and changing demographics among voters. Two samples were gathered, a teachers' group and a theologians' group. The teachers' group consisted of 43 graduate-level Science education teachers and teachers-in-training from the University of Texas at Dallas and Stanford University. The theologian's group consisted of theologians from 3 denominations, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. Data was obtained using Likert-surveys, open-ended questions and interviews. Results show that majority of the teachers' group are open to discussing SCR but fear retaliation.

  11. Hermann Oldenberg and the Historical Imperative: Writing a Biography of Gautama Buddha from Nineteenth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Eduardo García Fernández

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century Buddhism was well known as a religion among academic and literary circles in Europe. However, the variety of doctrinal versions and texts from different Buddhist schools posed a dilemma for the pioneering scholars in the field: which one was the real history and teaching of the Buddha? Although there were numerous studies and biographical versions of the life of Buddha, the one written by German Orientalist Hermann Oldenberg is noted for its historicist reconstruction and its claim to have used the original source. This article discusses how Oldenberg’s work represented an effort to reconstruct a hagiography through the lens of a modern rational society that demanded consistency with respect to religious events, imposing a holistic perspective to a heterogeneous material which in itself is fragmented, and thus contributing to the “construction” of the life of Gautama Buddha as a coherent whole.

  12. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  13. Monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phramaha Somdet Wongtham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation, monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan, is a qualitative study with three primary aims:To study the background of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand, to study the current state of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand and to outline a set of guidelines for community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected and was composed of nine communities in Northeastern Thailand. Results show that monks have been involved in community development since Buddhism first arrived in North-eastern Thailand and their role is now primarily separated into three areas: Faith, knowledge and practice. The results of this investigation can be considered by local temples, communities, government institutions and individual monks when deciding how to manage and administer community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand.

  14. Comparative Theology and Religious Studies in a Non-religious Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Scheuer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.

  15. Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cortland J; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Scientific research highlights the central role of specific psychological processes, in particular those related to the self, in various forms of human suffering and flourishing. This view is shared by Buddhism and other contemplative and humanistic traditions, which have developed meditation practices to regulate these processes. Building on a previous paper in this journal, we propose a novel classification system that categorizes specific styles of meditation into attentional, constructive, and deconstructive families based on their primary cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that meta-awareness, perspective taking and cognitive reappraisal, and self-inquiry may be important mechanisms in specific families of meditation and that alterations in these processes may be used to target states of experiential fusion, maladaptive self-schema, and cognitive reification. PMID:26231761

  16. The law of the leading digits and the world religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, T. A.

    2012-02-01

    Benford's law states that the occurrence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but tends to follow a logarithmic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate here numerical data on the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Baha'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits occurring in the distribution conforms to Benford's law. We find that the adherent data of all the religions, except Christianity, excellently does conform to Benford's law. Furthermore, unlike the adherent data on Christianity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations i.e. Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obeys the law. Thus in spite of their complexity general laws can be established for the evolution of religious groups.

  17. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  18. Analysis of the private, collective, and relational self-cognitions among Han and Tibetan Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Mamat, Marhaba; Shang, Rui; Zhang, Tianyang; Li, Hao; Wang, Yao; Luo, Wei; Wu, Yanhong

    2014-08-01

    Differences in the concepts of private, collective, and relational selves between two Chinese ethnic groups, the Han and Tibetan-adhering to the philosophies of Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism, respectively-were examined. 128 students (54 men, 74 women; M age = 20.9 yr., SD = 2.2) completed the revised Twenty Statements Test and self-reference paradigm. Study 1 found that for Han participants relational and private selves were ranked similarly and as more important than the collective self. Studies 2 and 3 found that adjective words describing private and relational selves were recalled in greater proportions than words describing the collective self. Tibetan participants showed no significant differences between the three self-cognitions. The findings correspond to differences in self-identity among these two subcultures. PMID:25153957

  19. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Daemi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Self-esteem appears to play a central role in the spiritual life and ethical behaviour of the typical Iranian. For example, for many Iranians, humankind is believed to be the crown of creation, and each person is believed to be individually valued by God. Previous empirical studies also indicate that in Iran spirituality is positively associated with self-esteem. On this basis, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would be one of the mechanisms through which spirituality leads to increased mental well-being. Mediation analysis showed that self-esteem was a partial mediator of the spirituality-well-being relationship. Moreover, results of moderated mediation analysis revealed that this mediation was not significantly moderated by gender, and that the indirect path through self-esteem was significant in both genders. Implications of the results and their relevance to other western and eastern religions (e.g. Christianity and Buddhism) are discussed. PMID:25721881

  20. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct. PMID:25921657

  1. 丰子恺的佛学价值取向初探%Feng Zikai’s Orientation of Budhist Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉祥华

    2015-01-01

    丰子恺推重佛学,是受弘一法师的影响,但是他的佛学思想比较驳杂,华严宗、法相宗、净土宗、禅宗、律宗等在其身上都有所体现。丰子恺信佛但不迷信佛,不是为了成佛,更不是为了获得与佛同在的最高幸福。他信佛的目的只有一个,那就是“以精神生活代替物质生活”。在他的眼里,佛只是一种最高的人格境界。佛教的“无我说”乃苦难的解脱之道。“无我”首先要抛弃“我私我欲”的贪念,正是在这一基点上,丰子恺毕生笃守佛家信念,并身体力行致力于个人品性的修炼。丰子恺对佛教中的迷信部分始终是否定的,他强调直接用心灵与佛陀的精神进行“对话”,去理解佛陀物我一体的慈悲心和四大皆空的基本义,这无疑与“五四”时代对待宗教的态度是一致的。%Influenced by Master Hong Yi,Feng Zikai has high regard for Buddhism,but his Buddhist thoughts are more complex,which embodied Huayan School,Hossoshu,Pure-land School,Zen,Vinaya School,and so on.Though he trusts in Buddhism,he has neither blind faith on it nor becomes a Buddha,even nor obtains the supreme happiness of being with Buddha.It is “to substitute the spiritual life for the material life”that is his only purpose.Buddhism,in which “the Theory of Anatman”is the way to relieve oneself from suffering,is only the supreme realm of personality in his mind.Being “anatman”,one must firstly abandon “oneself and his desires”,in which he keeps his belief all his life and cultivates his personality with his practice.He keeps a negative attitude to the superstition belief in Buddhism,and emphasizes the direct dialogue between one’s soul and the spirit of Buddha to understand Buddha’s compassion of “the integrity of oneself and the universe”and the essential meaning of “being void of vanities”,which is undoubtedly consistent with the attitude towards religions

  2. Bushido dalam Masyarakat Jepang Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wibawarta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushido is most often translated as the way of the warrior caste in Japan. Bushirefers to warriors in feudal Japan while do means several things including: the correct way,the path, or the road. Another interpretation of Bushido could be the way of preserving peacethrough the use of force. Bushido comes out of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shintoism. Thecombination of these schools of thought and religions has formed the code of warrior valuesknown as Bushido. A key to our understanding of how the concepts of Bushido fit into Japanesemodern lives is to understand the historical and societal aspects of Bushido. Today, this meaningcan be modernized to include minimizing violent conflict. The code of Bushido, the Samurai'scode of honor, upholds loyalty, discipline, total dedication, honor and valor, and numerousexamples of these elements can be witnessed today or in recent history.

  3. The mystery of reincarnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  4. Almost a Proper Buddhist: the Post-secular Complexity of Heritage Buddhist Teen Identity in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra Nicholas Thanissaro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores how Buddhist affiliation relates to practice, how Buddhist teens define and experience their religious identity and which sociological paradigms are helpful in understanding the dynamics of Buddhist teen identity. Focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes to superstition, stereotypes, prejudice, religion and society, convictions, and friends for 65 heritage Buddhist teenagers from Britain. Shared identity was expressed in terms of spiritual teachers, eclecticism within the Buddhist tradition, Asian heritage, openness to the supernatural, relevance of Buddhism in the present day and temple-going. Practice rather than belief seemed to represent the operational difference between how Buddhist teens defined 'Buddhist' and 'proper Buddhist'. Buddhist teens experienced little negative prejudice on account of their religion but experienced being grouped with Buddhists of other ethnicities in others' eyes. Secularization, modernity, projection and especially post-secularism were found helpful as sociological paradigms for explaining various aspects of Buddhist teen identity.

  5. Connotations of architectural culture transmitted in cliff carvings in the Bashu region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cong-hua; ZHANG Xing-guo; LIU Zhi-yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on site studies,historical literature investigation and academic communication,this work aims to dig out the cultural significance in architectural and religious aspects conveyed in cliff carvings in the Bashu region.After casting a glance at the origin and evolution of Bashu culture and religion mainly involving Daoism and Buddhism recorded in forms of cliff carvings,we concentrated on discovering the national,regional and folk architectural characters implicated in cliff carvings at different sites within the Bashu region.The cliff carvings in this region vividly depicted the evolution of the architectural culture hereof.The essence of their religious and architectural connotations can be good stuff to be input in today's architectural design philosophy.

  6. DR.B.R.AMBEDKAR'S INFLUENCE AND NEO-BUDDHIST SETTLEMENTS IN BELGAUM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN BAGEWADI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Karnataka “The priceless gift of indulgent nature” is a unique blend of a glorious past and a rich present, situated on the lower west coast of south India. Karnataka has its neighbours such as Maharashtra in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the East, Tamilnadu and Kerala in the south and the Arabian Sea on the west. It is the land were various religious faiths like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity, and various philosophies followed and practised. In this state we find the people of different languages, castes and culture. The religious reformers like Kanakadas, Purandardas, Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya and Madwacharya have preached their principles. The freedom fighters such as N.S.Hardiskar, Gangadhar Rao Deshpande and Nadakarni contributed a lot for the cause of Indian Independence, Gandhiji has presided over one session of Indian National-Congress at Belgaum in 1924, which influnenced the people immensely

  7. APPLICATION OF BUDDHIST VALUES & PRACTICES IN BUSINEES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ashtankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emerging profit-driven global economy is guided by unbridled development and gigantism. Such an economy is also coming under ever increasing domination of science and technology. Such a development is not only cutting us off from nature and one another but also undermining natural and cultural diversity. One major consequence of this is that our very survival is threatened. Buddhism, with its practical focus on happiness and communal harmony in this lifetime, has a great deal to offer to today's business world, which is often full of confusion and difficulty. people in business want to solve problems which are very similar to eliminating suffering. As we do this together, we change the way we live our business lives, and make room for less suffering and more joy. This paper aims at exploring the possibility of application of Buddhist values & practices for the benefit of today’s business world.

  8. Qualitative content analysis of suicidal ideation in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong Ju; Sohn, Ki-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate for ages 15-24 increased recently in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicidal ideation using the qualitative content analysis in South Korean college students. The data were collected with non-structured open questions in 134 college students and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified 2 categories, 6 themes, and 21 theme clusters. Two categories are emerged: (1) facilitators of suicidal ideation, and (2) inhibitors of suicidal ideation. This study identified that the facilitators of suicidal ideation are physical, psychological and societal concerns, and suggested that the inhibitors of suicidal ideation are influenced by religious and cultural context. These results presented that Buddhism and Confucianism had influence on reasons to not attempting suicide behavior as the inhibitor of suicidal ideation. In conclusion, cultural context should be considered to develop strategies for the suicide prevention in South Korean college student. PMID:21706996

  9. Tea Culture in the Land of Confucianism——Sightseeing in the Wuyi Mountains ,Fujian province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Walking through the Wuyi Mountains, Fujian province in summer, you can smell the fragrant aroma of Shanshui Tea everywhere Within the 70 square kilometers of the park, most people are drawn to a slogan stating there have been "A Thousand yrars of Confucianism, but 10,000years of Shanshui Tea", it also tells of a legend that the Wuyi Mountains are not only a symbol of the integration of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, but that they are also the birthplace of a special kind of Shanshui Tea withits unique Wuyi name. Thc most important aspect,however,is that Shanshui Tea is a product of the same soil and water of the Wuyi Moutains and, giying it thc same purity as well.

  10. Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of the Vietnamese Dementia Caregiving Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Jane Nhauyen; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of religion and spirituality in dementia caregiving among Vietnamese refugee families. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with nine Vietnamese caregivers of persons with dementia, then tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for emergent themes. Caregivers related their spirituality/religion to three aspects of caregiving: (1) their own suffering, (2) their motivations for providing care, and (3) their understanding of the nature of the illness. Key terms or idioms were used to articulate spiritual/religious dimensions of the caregivers' experience, which included sacrifice, compassion, karma, blessings, grace and peace of mind. In their narratives, the caregivers often combined multiple strands of different religions and/or spiritualities: Animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and Catholicism. Case studies are presented to illustrate the relationship between religion/spirituality and the domains of caregiving. These findings have relevance for psychotherapeutic interventions with ethnically diverse populations. PMID:20930949

  11. Ekstratekstuele relasies van 'spieël' in die poësie van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferreira

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available Extra-textual relations in the poetry of Breyten Breytenbach are regarded as having the same importance as intra-textual relations. Focusing on extra-textual relations, references to “mirror” show non-literary extra-textual relations to the “mirror mind” of Buddhism. This relation is constituted by literary extra-textual relations between four analysed poems. All other references to “mirror” in the oeuvre are listed for comparison in this framework. The Buddhist principle of unity underlying this poetry becomes a textual strategy. The reader is guided towards a reading process in which no single poem is to be considered as a bearer of the full meaning. Interrelated with all other poems in the oeuvre, each single poem is only an aspect, a flowing image, in the “mirror mind” of this poetry.

  12. Meditation, Mindfulness, Psyche and Soma: Eastern, Western Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Jordanov, Daniel; Autrup, Mads

    This presentation focuses on the genesis of meditation and mindfulness in the East for comprehension of these phenomena, which are increasingly applied and adapted in the current Western context. Their very origin from the East, particularly Buddhism and Yoga practices, directs our attention to the...... three major assumptions about human nature; the monoism between mind and body, the centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct. The mainstream Western understandings promoting the body-mind dualism are challenged by invoking the bodily experiences and consciousness emphasising...... is perceived as a way of resisting dualisms and binaries regarding psychological, physical, social and spiritual realities. We conclude that without a holistic, integrated understanding of the basic principles and assumptions in which meditation and mindfulness are embedded, there is a risk for these...

  13. Culture-centered engagement with delivery of health services: co-constructing meanings of health in the Tzu Chi Foundation through Buddhist philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Sydney J; Dutta, Mohan; Sun, Wei-San

    2014-01-01

    The shift in health communication scholarship from the narrow focus on curing to the complexly intertwined spaces of health, illness, healing, and curing attends to the dynamic cultural contexts within which meanings and practices are negotiated, directing scholarship toward alternative spaces of health care delivery. This study utilized the culture-centered approach as a theoretical lens for providing a discursive space for understanding meanings of health constituted in the practices of the Tzu Chi Foundation, an organization that offers biomedical services within the larger philosophical understandings of Buddhism with 10 million members in over 50 different countries. The emerging perspective promotes non-biomedical meanings of health through selfless giving and assistance founded in Buddhist principles, simultaneously seeking purity of the mind, body, and soul holistically. Through the negotiation of the principles driving Buddhist philosophy and the principles that shape biomedical health care delivery, this study seeks to understand the interpretive frames that circulate among foundation staff and care recipients. PMID:23484486

  14. Cultural Studies and Matters of Faith: The Case of DhammaWheel.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the premise that cultural studies has neglected questions about religion and faith. Through an analysis of a discussion in an online Buddhist forum whereby the participants debate the issue of faith vis-a-vis knowledge, the paper explicates how Buddhism negotiates dominant cultural formations and evolves against various contexts of social struggles. The analysis also reveals how the participants articulate a vernacular theory of faith to rethink the relationships between reason, religion, faith, knowledge, and ethics. The article demonstrates how an engagement with a religious discourse elucidates themes that are of interest to cultural studies’ critical project, and argues that cultural studies has an ethical responsibility to engage with religion and address matters of faith.

  15. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  16. The perspective of psychosomatic medicine on the effect of religion on the mind-body relationship in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2014-02-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is time for traditional religions to play an active role in helping those seeking psychological stability after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the ongoing crisis related to the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, to maintain a healthy mind-body relationship. PMID:22434576

  17. Human Actions Illustrated in Zen’s Ox-Herding Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The enlightenment from Zen’s perspective is the experiences of action that reveal a horizon of new consciousness. This event of enlightenment is the process of action rather than the outcome of action. Therefore, actions are not just the means to enlightenment but the very core of it. The actions of enlightenment from Zen’s perspective cannot be adequately described and explained in logical terms. Unlike most other Buddhist schools, Zen does not engage in extensive philosophical discourses; its classical literatures are mostly artistic in nature, consisting of collections of koans, poetry, and paintings, etc. The ten ox-herding pictures of Zen Buddhism are recognized as the classical illustration of Zen’s spiritual journey, as it vividly depicts the practice of Zen in a poetic and metaphorical way. They present a visual parable of the path to enlightenment in a narrative sequence of a boy’s searching, seeing, wrestling, riding, and transcending of the ox.

  18. Attitude of muslim youth to the other (erzurum ataturk university. Department of religious studies sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emine ÖZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand whether or not our prejudgements from past to present shape today’s youth and to what extent it’s shaped. The research is a field work and questionnaire technique has been used in the research as well as qualitative method. The place that the questionnaire is used has been chosen as Erzurum Ataturk University. Department of Religious Studies. In other words. the research is a qualitative research. The subject of the research is “Attitude of Today’s Muslim Youth to the Other”. The definition of the other in this research has been considered as the members of the three other major religions. These major religions;Ò  JewishnessÒ  ChristianityÒ  Finally. Buddhism.

  19. 王守仁寓醴诗试解%Interpretation of Poems by Wang Shouren Living in Liling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史铁良

    2012-01-01

    Being banished to Longehangyi in Guizhou, Wang Shouren travelled by way of Liling, and wrote four poems depicting hardships and danger on the way, in pursuit of intense relief and purity of the turesque scenery of the temple as well. These poems are all related to monks and temples deeply influenced by Buddhism. monks and the picbecause Wang was%王守仁被贬贵州龙场驿,来回均经过湖南醴陵县,在醴作诗四首,反映了旅途环境的艰险、寻求解脱的心理及僧人的纯朴,也有对寺庙如画风光的描绘。这四首诗都与佛寺有关,主要原因是王守仁的思想深受佛教的影响。

  20. Translation and investigation of Vidyânandin's Satyaúâsanaparîkṣâ

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Summary This thesis is a translation of the 10th century Jain philosophical Sanskrit text Satyaśāsanaparīkṣā, composed by Vidyānandin. The text, not all of which has survived, presents and refutes 12 Indian philosophical systems, the most important of which are Sautrāntika and Yogācāra Buddhism, Advaita Vedānta, Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Mīmāṃsā and Cārvāka. Criticizing these from the standpoint of the Jain anekāntavāda (theory of manysidedness), Vidyānandin aims to establish the superior ...

  1. Instances of belief in fate in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Gustav Diehl

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Man's life is predetermined by Karma. The deeds of an earlier existence bear their fruits in the present life. That is why the poor man is poor and the rich is happy with his wealth and good fortune. One man is born a brahman and another spends his days as a pariah. The law of Karma has spread in the wake of Buddhism all over the Indian continent and far beyond, whereas its complement and presupposition Samsara for the most part appears as an intellectual conception with little foundation in popular belief. But Karma is not blind. On the contrary it is absolutely just, and for that very reason inescapable. This is, however, modified in so far as good deeds are both possible and profitable. The fatal consequences of the Karma of previous births end with this span of existence. Life hereafter will depend on the fruits of accumulated Karma here and now.

  2. 从“省之又省”到圆融三教——党争及贬谪与苏辙的思想蜕变%Changes from Cleansing His Heart and Limiting His Desires to Fusing the Three Religions- On the Party Struggle, Relegation and Su Zhe's Declination of Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴增辉

    2012-01-01

    出于明哲保身的需要,苏辙元丰时期以老子之道作为处世哲学,兼容儒释,初步呈现出三教合流的倾向。绍圣以后,苏辙贬谪日重,心意衰颓,其思想更由儒道趋向佛禅,儒释道在苏辙那里更加呈现出圆融为一的态势。从"省之又省"到圆融三教,苏辙的思想变化代表了北宋中后期被贬士人群体由有所作为到不断沉沦的衰变历程。%For the need to protect himself, Su Zhe regarded the Lao Tze's thought as the philosophy of life and absorbed Confucianism and Buddhism at the same time, Preliminarily showing the trend of fusing the three religions. After the Shao Sheng period, Su Zhe suffered more serious relegation which leaded to his negative mentality, his thought changing from Confucianism and Taoism to Buddhism and Dhyana. The three religions showed the trend of fusion in Su Zhe's mind. From cleansing his heart and limiting his desires to fusing the three religions, Su Zhe's change of thought represented the decay course of the intellectual group of the Late Northern Song Dynasty from the positive to the negative thought.

  3. РАННИЙ БУДДИЗМ И КОГНИТИВНАЯ ПСИХОЛОГИЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Зарубко, Елена; Левкин, Вадим

    2006-01-01

    Статья посвящена сопоставлению раннего буддизма и когнитивной психологии. Авторы стремятся ответить на вопрос о том, какие общие идеи существуют в буддизме и психологии. В статье также рассмотрено, как взгляды, отраженные в буддизме, могут способствовать решению некоторых проблем когнитивной психологии.The authors compare early stages of Buddhism and cognitive psychology and try to trace ideas common both for Buddhism and cognitive psychology, focusing upon the possibility to implement Buddhi...

  4. Between Faith and Utilitarian: the Scholars' Wild State of Mind in the Middle and Late Tang Dynasty%信仰与功利之间:中晚唐文人的狂放心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春林

    2012-01-01

    唐中后期文人狂放、超脱的个性,虽然常常出现在诗文书写之中,但由于佛教南宗禅的广泛传播,往往被后世研究者归因为信仰的影响,其中儒家传统的出世观念,则常常被所谓的禅理遮蔽。通过对这一时期文人狂放行为特征的剖析,发现文人的超脱只是建构在人世遭遇与个人信仰交点之上的外在处世方式,投影到社会价值观念转型之时,超脱更多地彰显着士大夫文人即时的功利心态,而天命至上的伦理观业已消弭在信仰与现实之间。%The scholars in the Middle and Late Tang Dynasty were unconventional and unrestrained, which often ap- peared in the writing of poetry. But with the wide spread of southern sect zen of buddhism, later generations of re- seaxchers ascribe it to the influence of faith, in which the traditional idea of confucianism' s being born is often shiel- ded by the so-called Buddhism. Through the analysis of the scholar' s wild behavior characteristic in this period, we find the scholars' unconventionality is based on the way of communicating of the intersection point between personal experience and belief. When unconventionality is put into the transformation of social value, it more reveals the litera- ti and offieialdoms' immediate utilitarian mentality. However, the ethics of destiny has disappeared between belief and reality.

  5. 从超脱到内醒:唐中后期文人的狂禅心态%From Aloofness to Introspection: the Scholar's Crazy Chan Mentality in the Middle and Late of Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春林

    2012-01-01

    唐中后期文人狂放、超脱的个性,虽然常常出现在诗文书写之中,但由于佛教南宗禅的广泛传播,往往被后世研究者归因为信仰的影响,其中儒家传统的出世观念,则常常被所谓的禅理遮薮。文章通过对这一时期文人狂禅行为特征的剖析,发现文人的超脱只是建构在人世遭遇与个人信仰交点之上的外在处世方式,当这种超脱投影到社会价值观念转型之时,则更多地彰显着士大夫文人即时的功利视角,而天命至上的伦理观业已消弭在信仰与现实之间。%The scholars in the middle and late of Tang Dynasty were unconventional and aloof.With the wide spread of Nanzong Chan Buddhism,later researchers mostly ascribe it to the influence of Buddhist faith,while ignore the effect of Confucian tradition of freeing oneself.Analyzing the characteristics of scholar's crazy Chan behavior,this paper finds that their aloofness was the way of living outside,reflecting the conflict between the beliefs and personal experience,and when the aloofness interacted with the transformation of social value,the concept of utility in Confucianism was more prominently revealed than the notion of destiny in the ethics of Buddhism.

  6. 拉康的主体理论及其现实性研究%Research on Lacan’ s Subject Theory and Its Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺蕾; 孙志海

    2014-01-01

    拉康通过镜像理论和小他者理论揭示了儿童自我意象的虚假性,通过结构语言学和大他者理论揭示了近代哲学主体的空无性。拉康与近代哲学一样都把主体限定在社会心理文化层面,但拉康却解构了这个主体。拉康对主体虚无性的解析具有与佛学相似的效果,都设定了具有本体意蕴的实在界的存在,认为实在界是经验、理性或象征无法达到的。佛学认为通过修行人们可以实现对生命本体界的回归,拉康对此则无有说辞。%Lacan announced the falsity of ego image in Childhood by mirror-image theory and the small Other theory .He also proclaimed subject was nothing by linguistic structuralism and the big Other theory . Lacan’s subject theory, as modern philosophical subject theory , limited subject with the social psychological level , but Lacan deconstructed the subject .Lacan analyzed subject was nothing , whose effect was as same as that of Buddhism .They all regard The Real as ontology , experience and reason are not belong to it .Buddhism tell people that one can back to the origin of life through practice , but Lacan said nothing about it .

  7. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  8. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems. PMID:23449366

  9. The Essence of Management by Morden Buddhist Organizations--The Case Study of Foguangshan Order and Wat Dhammakaya Order%当代佛教组织管理之道--以佛光山教团与法身寺教团为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湖江

    2016-01-01

    台湾地区佛光山教团和泰国曼谷法身寺教团是当今世界规模最大的两个佛教教团组织,前者属北传佛教之汉传佛教,后者为南传佛教之泰国佛教。然而两大教团从开山至今不过50年左右的时间,由此可以看出他们行之有效的管理手段:一是缔结兄弟寺之策略联盟,为双方共同发展奠定了基础;二是快速发展得益于现代化的管理手段与国际化的发展策略;三是以挫折化困境为契机,开创“蓝海之道”。%Foguangshan Order in China’s Taiwan and Wat Dhammakaya Order in Bangkok, Thailand, are the two largest organizations of Bud-dhist orders in the world. The former belongs to the Chinese Mahayana Buddhism while the latter, the Thai Theravada Buddhism. As they have devel-oped quickly into the two largest Buddhist orders in the world since they were founded about half a century ago, there must be something in their man-agement and administration that deserves our attention.1.The strategic alliance promote the common development of both sides;2.Modern management and international strategy lead to the rapid development of them;3. Foguangshan Order and Wat Dhammakaya Order change predicament as an oppor-tunity.

  10. Toward A Buddhist Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blumenthal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For more than twenty years key thinkers of Engaged Buddhism have used terms like “justice” and “social justice” quite freely.  Yet despite more sophisticated discussions of other philosophical topics, Engaged Buddhists have  not clearly defined what they mean by the term justice. Given that the term is one with a rich philosophical history in the West and has no direct parallel in Buddhist thought, it is incumbent upon Engaged Buddhist theorists to define what they mean when they use this term if they are to engage in any sort of meaningful dialog on justice and related issues in the international community. In this paper, to illustrate how Engaged Buddhists might begin this important line of work, I would focus on two cases. First, I will discuss John Rawls' theory of "justice as fairness" and compare that with some traditional Buddhist ideas and explore potential Buddhist thinking, responses, and adaptations. Second, I will discuss a relatively new model known as restorative justice in opposition to the pervasive use of retributive models implemented around the globe and consider the ways that Buddhism seems to lend itself quite well to "restorative" models, particularly with regard to criminal justice.  Both examples are merely beginning points for discussion used to illustrate how and why Engaged Buddhists ought to participate more directly in global philosophical discourse on justice.

  11. 夏同龢与唯识学%Xia Tonghe and Consciousness-only

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王路平

    2015-01-01

    Xia Tonghe studied Buddhism theory of consciousness-only in his late years;however, it has not been mentioned in the academic field. This article deeply and systematically discusses three aspects:the deeper reason between Xia Tonghe and consciousness only;the self-study by Xia Tonghe of the classical works of con-sciousness only in his old age, and the bodhisattva’ s activities for publicizing Buddhism, with the reason that he learned consciousness-only. The paper points out the central ideas of consciousness-only classics. In the end, in-vestigation is conducted related to some famous historical occurrences such that Xia Tonghe and Master Taixu founded the Buddhist World Federation.%夏同龢在晚年曾研习大乘佛学中之唯识学,学界从未有论著涉及此事。本文分别从夏同龢晚年自学唯识学之经典、夏同龢弘法利生之菩萨行和夏同龢研学唯识学的因缘三个方面,深入系统地论述了夏同龢与唯识学的甚深因缘,指出了唯识学经典的中心思想,考察了夏同龢与太虚大师共同发起成立世界佛教联合会等著名的历史事件。

  12. Zen Buddhist Spirituality (A espiritualidade zen budista - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p704en A espiritualidade zen budista (Zen Buddhist Spirituality - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Luiz Couto Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of mysticism and inter-religious spirituality has gained more space in universities and research centers that radiate everywhere. They are also research involving Eastern religions, in its peculiar mystical trait. Also in the context of Buddhism one can talk on spirituality, understood as a search path of liberation. This article presents the theme of Zen Buddhist spirituality based on the reflection of Eihei Dogen Zenji (1200 – 1253, one of the most important and prominent teachers of the Soto Zen Tradition.  This text aims to show the richness of spirituality and its peculiarity concerning the everyday reality. To promote understanding of the central question presented, the theme of spirituality was situated within the historical context of the birth of Zen Buddhism and the insertion of the presence of Dogen in its field of action. The theme of Zen spirituality was becoming evident in the approach to the problem of search of the Dharma in Dogen and his attention to small signs of everyday life. Keywords: Spirituality. Buddhism. Zen. Daily life. Religions. ResumoOs estudos de mística comparada e de espiritualidade interreligiosa vão ganhando espaço cada vez mais singular nas universidades e núcleos de pesquisa que se irradiam por toda parte. São pesquisas que envolvem também as religiões orientais, em seu traço místico peculiar. Também no âmbito do budismo pode-se falar em espiritualidade, entendida como um caminho de busca da libertação. Esse artigo visa apresentar o tema da espiritualidade zen budista, com base na reflexão de Eihei Dôgen Zenji (1200-1253, um dos mais importantes e destacados mestres da tradição Soto Zen. O objetivo é mostrar a riqueza dessa espiritualidade e sua peculiaridade de adesão à realidade cotidiana. Para favorecer a compreensão da questão central apresentada, visou-se situar a temática no âmbito do contexto histórico do nascimento do zen budismo e da inserção da

  13. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  14. On the Linshui Lady's Brief of Lvshanjiao in the Southeast of Guangxi and the Religious Feature of Chen Jinggu Lvshanjiao%桂东南闾山教临水夫人信仰探析——兼论陈靖姑暨闾山教的宗教特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道超

    2015-01-01

    The Brief of Linshui Lady is mainly popular among Taoist temples and Shigong(a kind of Taoist wizards). The contents of the Brief of Linshui Lady in the southeast of Guangxi mainly conclude two aspects. In the first instance ,Keyi rites with a series of goals,such as cure of disease,coping with an emergency,driving out evil spirits,application for the birth of son (s) and prevention of miscarriages and so on. Secondly,large scale Taoism rituals such as The Rite of Lady's confession in Dafan Jiao Rite and so on. The main contents of The Rite of Lady's confession colored by Buddhism and Taoism,among which one of the most outstanding religious characters is Chen Jinggu that characterized by quaternity (Confucianism,Taoism,Buddhism and wicthcraft ) which is the main feature of traditional religions in China. It safe to say that Chen Jinggu and Lvshanjiao (a branch of Taoism in China) are living fossil for the study on the traditional religions in China.%广西民间临水夫人信仰,主要存在各地道坛及师公(道公)群体中.桂东南闾山教中的临水夫人信仰,集中表现在两大方面:一是治病救急、驱邪除魔、求子保胎等各种科仪法事;二是在大幡醮仪等大型科仪中的《夫人忏》仪."夫人忏仪"的内容佛道兼具而以佛为尊. 陈靖姑儒道释巫四教一体的宗教形象十分突出.陈靖姑所属闾山教,同样具有儒道释巫四教一体的宗教特征.中国社会传统宗教的内在结构也是儒道释巫四位一体,不可分离. 因此,陈靖姑及其所属闾山教,实为探究中国传统宗教及其特征的活化石,学术意义与现实价值十分重大.

  15. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

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    Jui-Kun Chiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR. METHODS: We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. RESULTS: The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79 and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76 compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92 and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997, for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06. CONCLUSION: The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  16. The Introduction of Nezha and His Legend from Abroad and Its Localization in China%哪吒信仰的域外传入与其在中国的本土化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓啟刚

    2014-01-01

    哪吒及其传说随着佛教的传入而进入中土,不仅带来了印度文化因子,也吸收了中西亚神话传说。哪吒及其传说传入中国之初,面临着文化冲突问题。通过佛教自身、道教、儒家伦理、文学艺术、民间方术等对哪吒的传说、名称、形象、神能、信仰方式各方面进行了一系列的本土化改造,哪吒被本土道教所吸纳和改造,为儒家伦理所接纳。哪吒的民间传说经人们口耳相传,进而被吸收演化成通俗文学,使哪吒这一民间信仰流传更广。这种本土化过程使哪吒从外来的制度化宗教之中抽离,从上层“大传统”领域进入“小传统”视野,从“域外神”变为人们喜爱的“本土神”,完全融入中华传统文化之中。%With the introduction of Buddhism,came Nezha and his legend to China as well. It not only brought the Indian cultural factors,but also embraced the myths and legends of the middle and west Asia. At the very be-ginning of its introduction ,Nezha and his legend was challenged with cultural conflict. It is eventually accepted and adapted,however,by Taosim and Confucianism,after being localized in every aspect including Nezhaˊs story , his name,appearance,extraordinary ability,and faith so that it can adapt to the development of Buddhism itself, Taoism,Confucianism ethics. The legend of Nezha was spread through word of mouth,and later evolved into popu-lar literature,which in turn facilitated its wide spread. This process of localization isolates Nezha from its original foreign institutionalized religion,propelling Nezha the"extraterritorial God" flow into the homes of ordinary people, and become one of the most favorite "local god". Nezha has been fully integrated into traditional Chinese culture.

  17. 论“韩李”之学与理学滥觞%The Discussion of Han Yu and Li Ao's Theory and the Origin of Neo-Confucianism

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    许宁宁

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Neo-Confucianism was a major event in Chinese ideology history and it was an important stage in the development of Confucianism,yet its origin traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the middle period of the Tang Dynasty. Han Yu stood in the height of the times,denouncing the Buddhism,and in order to revive Confucianism,he put forward to the famous"Confucian orthodoxy"and "doctrine of three classes of human nature".His Confucian orthodoxy which was an inter-mediate link developed from Confucius and Mencius but it introduced the Confucian orthodoxy of Neo-Confucianism in Song Dynasty.Han Yu's mentor Li Ao revised Han Yu's doctrine of three classes of human nature and proposed "nstincts",that is, good nature and evil feeling,which pioneered the Confucian theory of mind and played an exemplary role to Neo-Confucianism's fusions of Confucianism,Taoism,Buddhism in Song dynasty.Accordingly,the revival of Confucianism by Han Yu and Li Ao as the representative could be regarded as the forerunner of Neo-Confucianism in Song dynasty.%宋明理学的产生是中国思想史上的重大事件,是儒学发展的重要阶段,然溯其源头可至唐中叶的韩愈和李翱。韩愈站在时代的高度,痛斥佛老,力图重振儒学,为此他提出了著名的“道统”论和“性三品”说,其道统思想上承孔孟、下启程朱,开宋代理学道统论之先河,是承前启后,联结两端的中间环节。与韩愈亦师亦友的李翱修正了韩愈的“性三品”说,提出了“性善情恶”的“复性”说,这不仅开启了理学心性论的先河,也为宋代理学融合三教做出了表率。据此而言,以韩愈和李翱为代表的儒学复兴运动,可以算是宋代理学的先导。

  18. 禅宗在中国兴盛的社会心理探源%Z en in the China Rising Social Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天杰

    2014-01-01

    禅宗的发展史是一部宗教实践的发展史,更是一部中国人追求信仰的发展史。人不可无信仰,一个民族也是如此。禅宗在中国的兴盛,既有深刻的政治、经济原因;也有历史、文化、社会心理方面的因素。早期佛教在中国的传播得益于中华民族固有的顺其自然的“从众”心理,禅宗的内容诠释过程追求通俗化的理念和中华民族崇尚言简意约的思维心理是一致的,禅宗依托大乘佛教所提出的佛性论,强调人人皆有佛性,并通过简单的修行参悟就可以寻求心灵的寄托与中华民族内心的文化认同心理是一致的。%The development history of Zen is a religious practice in the development of history , is a history of the development of Chinese belief.People can not do without faith , so does a nation.The China prosperity , not only political , economic reasons; there are the factors of history , culture , social psychology.Spread the benefits of early Buddhism in Chinese letting nature take its course in Chinese inherent “herd” psychological , content anno-tation process Zen pursuit the popularization of philosophy and the Chinese nation advocating concise about thinking psychology is consistent , relying on the Buddha Zen Buddhism theory , emphasizes that everyone has the Buddha nature , and through simple spiritual enlightenment can seek spiritual sustenance and the Chinese national culture i -dentity is the same.

  19. 径山茶汤会首求颂二首赏析%Appreciation and Analysis of Two Gatha Odes for Tea Liquor Meeting Held in Jingshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴茂棋; 许华金; 吴步畅

    2015-01-01

    The two Gatha Odes for Tea Liquor Meeting held in Jingshan Mountain were written by Shi Xianjie in Song Dynasty. It is important historical data to interpret the meeting itself, as well as the relationship between Jingshan Tea Banquet and Zen Buddhism (Dhyana). This article, starting from research of the historical background and a certain number of keywords of the odes, elucidated that the Tea Liquor Meeting in Song Dynasty was substantially a kind of massive grand-hall tea party, which had been known as Jingshan Tea Banquet. It was a characteristic Buddhist rite, a form of expression of tea banquet in Jingshan Temple, mainly targeting at Zen meditation literati and officialdom, with the purpose of developing and expanding Zen Buddhism. At the end of the paper, a conclusion was drawn that although there were many components of idealism in Tea Zen culture, it might be a sort of positive energy for today's socialist cultural construction and should to be further studied and utilized selectively.%宋·释咸杰的"径山茶汤会首求颂二首"是据以诠释径山茶汤会,即径山茶宴与佛教禅宗关系的重要史料. 本文从研究诗作的历史背景和若干关键词入手,阐明了宋时的径山茶汤会实质上是一种相当规模的大堂茶会,是径山寺以茶宴形式为载体的,以修禅士大夫为主要对象的,以弘扬禅宗教义为主要目的的一种特色道场,也即史称的径山茶宴. 论文最后指出,茶禅文化对于当今社会主义文化建设而言,也不失是一种正能量,应进一步有取舍地加以研究和利用.

  20. The Terracotta Plaques of Pagan: Indian Influence and Burmese Innovations

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    Vinay Kumar Rao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available    Since its inception Buddhist art aimed to make the Buddhist disciples well aware with the life and teachings of Buddha. The Buddhist followers had a belief that the attainment of Buddhahood was not an outcome of a single birth but was a successive effort and practice of ten pāramitās in his previous births. Though the origin of Jātakas was in India but its final and complete compilation was finalised in Sri Lanka by the scholars of Buddhaghoṣa School. The life scenes of Buddha in form of Jātakas depictions are ever preferred theme in Buddhist art and were carved with equal enthusiasm and potential elegance in every period irrespective to any political and social limitations. Buddhism entered Myanmar in three inflows, first in 5th Century CE through north-eastern India, secondly during 7th century CE through religious transformation from Sri Lanka and finally in 10–12 century CE through eastern India.  The period between 8th-12th centuries CE in India has been considered as a cradle of encouraging heterodox creeds and sects representing both Hinduism and Buddhism which were found to exist side by side. The art practiced during this period was flourished on well designated artistic paradigms of Gupta period but had a deep influence of Pāla art. The intense trade activities between eastern India and South East Asia and unstable political condition of India encouraged the Indian artist to look for new territories where he can easily perform his art. Pagan in central Myanmar provided suitable political and religious environment to these sculptors. As result the art and architecture performed in terracotta plaques of Pagan and its Buddhist religious monumental architecture attained deep influence of eastern India but the art of central Myanmar was not a mere repetition of its Indian neighbourhood but is evident with many local experiments and innovations.  The paper is intended intends to make present a brief analysis of the artistic

  1. 异域想象与文人观念:论晚明清初通俗小说中胡僧形象的色情化%Exotic Imagination and Literati's Ideas:The Eroticization of Foreign Monks in Late-Ming and Early-Qing Vernacular Fiction

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    薛英杰

    2016-01-01

    Foreign monks in vernacular fiction in late Ming and early Qing Dynasties are often con‐structed as lascivious characters who are associated with having black faces ,keeping aphrodisiacs and teaching men sexual techniques .Characterized by a lack of elaboration of monks'identities ,descriptions a‐bout eroticized foreign monks are quite similar in terms of physical appearances and plots .Furthermore , many terms for sexual practice in Tantric Buddhism and Taoism are applied to the art of the bedchamber in these descriptions .Therefore ,this paper argues that the eroticization of foreign monks is not terribly rele‐vant to the transmission of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism in China .To a great extent ,in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties the literati represent foreign monks as a threat to their moral identity ,w hich betrays a suppression of their sexual desire in Confucian culture .%作为一个色情符号,晚明清初通俗小说中被色情化的胡僧与黑面、春药、房中术有着固定的联想关系。胡僧的身份定位非常模糊,其体貌描写和情节模式高度类型化。胡僧色情描写所涉及的密教及道教内容经常被混淆为房中秘戏。小说对胡僧色情形象的符号化建构,与藏传密教的内传并无直接的联系,在很大程度上可以被视作文人异域想象的结果。胡僧色情形象所折射出来的是文人对外来宗教人士的警惕和被儒家文化所压抑的欲望。

  2. Huang Tingjian;Living in Exile of Qian-Rong;the way of facing despair The Way of Facing Despair During Huang Tingjian’ s Life in Exile of Qian-Rong%黄庭坚谪居黔、戎时期的处穷之道

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    赵德坤

    2015-01-01

    黄庭坚的黔、戎之贬,是其人生与宦途的重要转折,他置身荒远坤维,郁闷在所难免。而儒者黄庭坚自有其遣闷之方:与君子乡贤交游,与亲友诗书交流;怡情放心于山水之间,优游涵泳于艺术之林;造访寺院,遍谒硕德,于佛禅解脱之道实参实悟,从而表现出生机勃勃的处穷之道。以豁达超然之心,在极为窘困的生存境况中,其儒释思想之处穷与解脱观念得以融通。这种诚笃践履知行合一的生命体验,无疑为宋型文化的塑造做出卓越贡献。%Huang Tingjian’ s banishment of Qian and Rong, is a serious turning point in his life and political career.In the desolated far southwest, his gloomy can hardly be avoided.But, as a Confucian scholar, Huang Tingjian has the way of dispelling boredom: making friends with county sages, communicating with relatives and friends about the poem and the calligraphy;being intoxicated with mountains and rivers;stroll-ing and immersing in the garden of art;seeking the temples, visiting eminent monks, and acquiring real en-lightenment from the way to liberation of Zen Buddhism, from Which Huang Tingjian has obtained vigourous existence in the very difficult environment.With the heart of open-minded and detachment, in the ex-tremely poor survival situation, the idea of facing despair and absolving from the thought of Confucianism and Buddhism has been fused.No doubt, the life experiences from the unity of faithful practice of knowledge and behavior have made outstanding contributions to the shaping of the Song-Dynasty culture.

  3. 旅游开发背景下的地方文化重构——以香格里拉县措古隆村为例%Reconstruction of local culture in the context of tourism development -- A case study of Cuo -gulong village in Shangri -la County

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    熊燕

    2011-01-01

    该文以迪庆藏族自治州香格里拉县城北的一个小村庄——措古隆为例,探寻了民族地区在旅游业开发背景下,基层社区文化所发生的重构。措古隆是香格里拉县城北的一个小村庄,它毗邻于滇西北最大的藏传佛教格鲁派寺院——噶丹·松赞林寺,深受藏族传统宗教文化影响。随着迪庆州香格里拉旅游业的发展,寺院参与旅游业的程度逐渐加深,这对措古隆村文化的各个方面都产生了或深或浅的影响。该文通过措古隆村文化变迁的镜像,探寻旅游业发展对民族地区基层社区文化产生的影响。%This paper takes a small village named Cuo - gulong on the north of Shangri - La, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture as a case study to discuss the cultural reconstruction in the grass - roots community of minority region in the context of tourism development. Cuo - gulong is adjacent to the Songzanlin Monastery which belongs to the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism and is the largest Tibetan Buddhism monastery in the northwest of Yunnan province. Therefore, Cuo - gulong is endowed with the Tibetan religious culture. With an increasing number of tourists in Shangri - La, the monastery gradually more and more involves in tourism. This process has exerted some effects on culture. The paper measures Cuo - gulong village by a mirror of cultural change and explores the impact of tourism exploitation on the grass - roots community culture in minority region.

  4. An Outline of Yunnan Archaeology%云南考古述略

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    肖明华

    2001-01-01

    Before 1949, Chinese and foreign archaeological institutions and scholars carried out some excavations and surveys in Yunnan, and discovered several Paleolithic sites and animal fossils, as well as a few Neolithic sites and late Neolithic tombs. Since 1949, archaeological and antiquarian affairs in Yunnan Province have made rapid progress, which is distinctly marked by the discovery of Yuanmou man's fossils and stone tools, and the excavation and study of Neolithic and Bronze Age cultural remains across the province. The accomplishments in Iron Age archaeology are embodied in the following aspects:( Ⅰ ) cliff-side tombs with temporal and regional features; ( Ⅱ ) barrows from the Eastern Han to the Wei-and-Jin period; ( Ⅲ ) tombs of cremation from the Tang to the early Ming period; (Ⅳ) archaeology of Buddhism in the Tang-and-Song period. In the future, Yunnan archaeology should be further developed by means of strengthening monographic researches, pushing forward innovation and advance of archaeology, introducing foreign funds and techniques, launching multidisciplinary studies, intensifying the protection of cultural relics, improving the training of qualified personnel, and promoting Sino-foreign joint studies and academic exchange.

  5. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province

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    WU Feng; ZHANG Kong-lai; SHAN Guang-liang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism.Methods Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project.Results In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P<0.001),and some indices of the villagers' behavior using condoms improved after the intervention. But this improvement was poorer than that in the women group. In the Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P<0.001).Conclusion The results suggested that the Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms,but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  6. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Qing Dynasty Archives On the Dalai lamasThe Dalai Lama was one of the two leaders of the Gelug (Yellow) Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. It won the honorific title of the Dalai lama in 1653 from Qing Emperor Shunzhi, and the Living Buddha had since been following the reincarnation system under the supervision of the Central Government. His soul boy was not legal until he won the confirmation of the Central Government. Whenever there is the need not to go through the set system, Central Government permission is a must.The Dalai Lama also did his best to seek authorization of the Central Government which would therefore issue him certificate of authority and seal of power.All these were recorded in archives, part of which are contained in the book. Its major chapters contain 154 pieces of archives related with certification of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni under the reign of Qing Emperor Shunzhi, the demise of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, efforts made to look for their soul boys, selection of th

  7. EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE AND M. K. GANDHI

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    Shreekant Gour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabindranath Tagore's Educational Philosophy Generally, Western philosophy of education comprises two schools, traditional and modern. It has its roots in Athens, Rome and Judeo-Christianity, whilst Tagore's philosophy of education draws its inspiration from ancient Indian philosophy of education. However, it could be said that Tagore's philosophy of education may become a representation of the Eastern philosophy apart from others like Islam, Confucianism, Taoism, and Mahayana Buddhism. By looking on Western countries and India, both countries have distinct differences in their ways of developing and shaping an individual, in terms of skills and attitudes. Thus, different cultures will have different philosophies, which results in different ways of doing things, especially in educating the next generation. Philosophy of education developed by the West was shaped through philosophical thought, which manifested through an idea characterized by Materialism, Idealism, Secularism, and Rationalism. This philosophical thinking, however, affected the concept, interpretation and the definition of the knowledge itself. Rene Descartes, for instance, uses ratio as the sole criteria to measure the truth. Other western philosophers, such as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, Martin Heidegger, Emilio Betti, and Hans-Georg Gadammer, among others, also emphasize the use of ratio and the five senses as their source of knowledge, by which it creates a variety stream of philosophies and thoughts, such as empiricism, humanism, capitalism, existentialism, relativism, atheism, and many others that profoundly affect a number of disciplines, such as philosophy, science, sociology, psychology, politics, economics, and so on.

  8. 禮的「俗化」與「宗教化」--以現代中國的婚禮與喪禮為例 台灣 高雄師範大學 杜明德/“Secularization” and “Religion” of Ceremony––Modern Chinese Wedding and Funeral

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    Ming-Te TU

    2012-09-01

    關鍵字:禮、婚禮、喪禮、俗化、宗教化 Although “etiquette” is the essence of traditional culture in China, due to the development of modern society, its perspective should include the requirement of human sympathy, transformation of objects, and the role or duty associated with one’s title so that an appropriate manner can be well maintained. The times have changed and if the traditional etiquette cannot follow the steps of civilization, it will be eliminated. Contemporary Chinese weddings have become popularized and funerals religionized; however, they cannot completely meet the expectations of the Confucianists, but rather follow the development of etiquette, while conforming to the principles underlying the legislation and implementation of the rules of etiquette. Furthermore, integration can be found in the phenomenon of popularized weddings and religionized funerals, fully making it obvious that religious behavior has combined with the local wedding ceremonies. Because of the influence of Taoism and Buddhism, local folklore characteristics can be seen in funeral rites. As a result, if the connotations of the etiquette are maintained, whether it is a popularized or religionized ceremony, such etiquette can still be accepted by the society.

  9. Investigating the Folklore Cultural Significance of Mural Art of Ta’er Lamasery in Qinghai%青海塔尔寺壁画艺术的民俗文化学考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍福

    2015-01-01

    中国的壁画艺术历史悠久。在佛教传入中国之后,壁画艺术又迅速与宗教相结合,发展出了特色鲜明的宗教壁画艺术。被称为塔尔寺“艺术三绝”之一的壁画,便是宗教艺术、传统艺术与民间艺术相结合的产物。本文运用民俗文化学的理论和方法,在实地考察的基础上,对塔尔寺壁画艺术作了初步的研究。%China has a long history in mural art .It rapidly combined with religions after the introduction of Buddhism into China ,and so the religious mural art with lively features came into being .The mural art , as one of the named“The Art of Ruin”of Ta’er Lamasery ,is the product of combination of religious art , traditional art and folk art .This paper primarily studied it on the basis of field investigation by using the theories and methods of folklore culture .

  10. Coexistence and Harmonious Development of Multi - Religions - A Case Study of Cross - Border Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province%多元宗教兼容并包和谐发展——以云南跨境民族为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文清

    2011-01-01

    Yunnan is typical of multi - religions. While traditional religions of different ethnic groups exist, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Catholicism and Taoism are spreading at the same time. What is more, each religion has its various branches. Thus, different religions and their branches mingle with each other, leading to the coexistence, mutual respect and harmonious develop- ment of multi - religions.%云南是我国宗教种类最多、宗教形态最为多样的省份。不仅存在各少数民族的各种传统宗教(原始宗教),而且佛教、伊斯兰教、基督教、天主教、道教五大宗教均有传播;各种宗教门类齐全,每一种宗教内又有诸多支系和教派。长期的发展,形成了云南境内各种宗教、各个教派相互交织、互相尊重、包容并存的发展态势,构成了云南多元宗教互相融合、互相渗透,兼容并包、和谐发展的良性格局。

  11. Analysis on Pluralistic Religious Thought of Julia Ching%析秦家懿多元主义的宗教观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泳芳

    2012-01-01

    Julia Ching is a brilliant, productive and outstanding Canadian- Chinese scholar, religion expert and philosopher. Julia Ching defined that religion is the belief in god and the efforts of self - transcendence, and she thought that Chinese religion has the characteristics of harmonicity, and it includes not only Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, but also the crazy primitive religions. This pluralistic religious thought and multi - religious participation concept is beneficial to the self- development of religions, the resolution of the conflicts between world religions, and dialogue and integration of religions.%秦家懿是一位成就卓著的加拿大籍华裔学者、宗教学家和哲学家。她将宗教界定为对神的信仰和自我超越的努力,认为中国宗教不仅包括儒学,道教和佛教,还包括狂热的原始宗教,具有调和性的特点。这是一种多元主义宗教观和多种宗教参与观,对宗教的自我发展、化解世界宗教间冲突,以及促进彼此对话和融合是一种行之有效的方法。

  12. Phenomenon of Life and Death by Dōgen and Heidegger––In View of “Embodied Cognition” in Buddhist Philosophy and Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki HASHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to occidental philosophy, which is to grasp and solidify the principles of essential being (ontos on, Buddhism seeks to understand the existence of human beings and the significance of suffering in human life. In the East Asian languages human beings are described as “inter-beings” in that they are enveloped by the topos of life and death. From breath to breath, our life is bound to the moments of emerging and vanishing, being and non-being in an essential unity. Dōgen’s philosophical thinking integrated this conception with the embodied cognition of both the thinking and the acting self. In the phenomenological point of view, Heidegger, in his early work, emphasizes that being is bound to a fundamental substantiality, which borders on the Abgrund, falling into nothingness. With Dōgen, the unity-within-contrast of life and death is exemplified in our breathing because it achieves a unity of body and cognition which can be called “corpus”. In perfect contrast, the essential reflection for Heidegger is that of grasping the fundament of being in the world, which represents the actualization of a thinking-being-unity. The goal of this comparison is to fundamentally grasp what is the essentiality of being, life, and recognition (jikaku 自覚, bound to embodied cognition in our globalized world.

  13. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. PMID:25689145

  14. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. PMID:26159392

  15. Is Space Really Expanding? A Counterexample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Michał J.

    2007-03-01

    In all Friedman models, the cosmological redshift is widely interpreted as a consequence of the general-relativistic phenomenon of expansion of space. Other commonly believed consequences of this phenomenon are superluminal recession velocities of distant galaxies, and the distance to the particle horizon greater than ct (where t is the age of the Universe), in apparent conflict with special relativity. Here, we study a particular Friedman model: empty universe. This model exhibits both cosmological redshift, superluminal velocities and infinite distance to the horizon. However, we show that the cosmological redshift is there simply a relativistic Doppler shift. Moreover, apparently superluminal velocities and ‘acausal’ distance to the horizon are in fact a direct consequence of special-relativistic phenomenon of time dilation, as well as of the adopted definition of distance in cosmology. There is no conflict with special relativity, whatsoever. In particular, inertial recession velocities are subluminal. Since in the real Universe, sufficiently distant galaxies recede with relativistic velocities, these special-relativistic effects must be at least partly responsible for the cosmological redshift and the aforementioned ‘superluminalities’, commonly attributed to the expansion of space. Let us finish with a question resembling a Buddhism-Zen ‘koan’: in an empty universe, what is expanding?

  16. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes contains particulate matter (PM, gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  17. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSLIM LAW AND ITS MAIN SOURCES, INFLUENCE OF WESTERNIZATION ON LEGAL SYSTEMS OF MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND ISLAMIZATION OF ROMANGERMANIC AND ANGLO-SAXON LEGAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the Genesis of Islam and its role in the development of Muslim law family, highlights the main sources of Muslim law legal families. It is noted an important role of standards in Islamic law developed by the theologians of the activities in the process of interpretation in filling gaps in the law. All this has led to the emergence of different schools or sects, which contributed to the creation of many ideologically warring with each other Muslim sects. The followers of these movements convince their supporters that the rest courses are false. The article notes that currently, in general, the Muslim law has not lost its position. Modern Islamic community of the world has about a billion and a half followers. The Muslim law has not only maintained its position, but also extends its sphere of influence. Islam – the youngest world religion - enters the countries whose people earlier professed Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., the Followers of Islam, moving to other countries, almost do not assimilate. So, the Islamic community in Europe is practically not subjected to European influence. Some of the legal institutions in a number of non-Muslim countries are subjected to Islamization. In some countries, Islamic law is not considered as legally valid, but it works in fact. This happens in the Muslim enclaves of Europe, it is happening in Russia, particularly in the republics of the North Caucasus

  18. Drastic Aridification Caused the Decline of Oasis Civilizations on the Silk Route during the Eighth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, K.; Song, S.; Huang, C.

    2003-12-01

    Availability of water, and response to shortage of it, plays an important role in shaping human history. Near a century ago, Ellsworth Huntington (1907) suggested that the developments of ancient civilizations in Inner Asian and their invasions into China and Europe were pulsed by climatic changes. In revisiting this proposition, here we present a paleoclimatic record of the past 5000 years deduced from carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon and percentage of aragonite in bulk sediments of a radiometrically dated sedimentary core of Lake Bosten, Xinjiang, China. Together the two proxies of aridity provide a detailed record of climatic fluctuation of the Inner Asia. The arid periods are well characterized by high content of authigenic aragonite and heavier values of carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon in the bulk sediments (implying dominance of C4 plants which thrived under arid condition). Conversely, the humid/wet periods are marked by lighter carbon isotopic values (indicating presence of C3 plants of humid climateœcand absence of aragonite. The Western Region (Xi-Y"1) area of China enjoyed a long period of stable and humid condition from 2nd century B.C. to the 8th century when many oasis city-states were established and Buddhism spread from India. A drastic deterioration of climate during the eighth century appears to cause the decline of those once strived ancient civilizations in the eastern side of the Tarim Basin along the Silk Routes.

  19. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  20. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  1. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae [KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline.

  2. Visualizing the Evolution of the Sukhothai Buddha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawitree Wisetchat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As Buddhism spread from India to cover much of Asia, sculptures depicting the Buddha varied regionally, reflecting both the original Indian iconography and local ethnic and cultural influences. This study considers how statues of the Buddha evolved in Thailand, focusing on the Sukhothai period (1238–1438 CE, during which a distinctly Thai style developed; this style is still characteristic of Thailand today. The Sukhothai style primarily reflects features of the Pala, Sri Lankan, Pagan, and Lan Na styles, yet contains new stylistic innovations and a refinement over the four successive schools that were subsequently lost in later Thai Buddhist styles. To analyze this evolution, first a conventional “visual vocabulary” approach is used, wherein 12 styles (precursors, contemporaries, and successors of the Sukhothai style are described and summarized in a style matrix that highlights commonalities and differences. Then a novel application of digital “blend-shape animation” is adopted to assist in the visualization of differing styles and to better illustrate style evolution. Rather than comparing styles by shifting attention between sample images, the viewer can now appreciate style differences by watching one style metamorphose into another. Common stylistic features remain relatively unchanged and visually ignored, while differing features draw attention. While applied here to the study of Buddhist sculptures, this technique has other potential applications to art history, architecture, and graphic design generally.

  3. Relationship between Values and Religious Identity in Buddhist Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorokhova V.A.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.

  4. Religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy: a new method of treatment for major depression in patients with chronic medical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle J; Koenig, Harold G; Robins, Clive J; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F; Cohen, Harvey J; King, Michael B

    2015-03-01

    Intervention studies have found that psychotherapeutic interventions that explicitly integrate clients' spiritual and religious beliefs in therapy are as effective, if not more so, in reducing depression than those that do not for religious clients. However, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of religiously (vs. spiritually) integrated psychotherapy, and no manualized mental health intervention had been developed for the medically ill with religious beliefs. To address this gap, we developed and implemented a novel religiously integrated adaptation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in individuals with chronic medical illness. This article describes the development and implementation of the intervention. First, we provide a brief overview of CBT. Next, we describe how religious beliefs and behaviors can be integrated into a CBT framework. Finally, we describe Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (RCBT), a manualized therapeutic approach designed to assist depressed individuals to develop depression-reducing thoughts and behaviors informed by their own religious beliefs, practices, and resources. This treatment approach has been developed for 5 major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), increasing its potential to aid the depressed medically ill from a variety of religious backgrounds. PMID:25365155

  5. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members. PMID:26247206

  6. A week of Danjiki (Buddhist fasting ritual) on cardiometabolic health: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Sugawara, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Danjiki is an ascetic traditional fasting ritual in the Japanese Buddhism training. Here we present a case of a 48-year-old man who underwent a 1-week-long Danjiki fasting ritual in a remote Buddhist temple. The daily ritual consisted of waking up at 3:30 am, hiking strenuously in the steep mountains followed by meditations on the rocks, focused calligraphy of religious drawings and documents, recital of Buddhist prayer chanting, and standing under waterfalls while reciting prayers. He was allowed to drink water ad libitum and a cup of carrot juice a day. After a week of the Danjiki ritual, his body weight decreased by 5 kg. Resting metabolic rate did not change. Fasting blood glucose did not change but plasma triglyceride decreased 35 %. There were no changes in blood pressure. Arterial stiffness increased 15-25 % and endothelium-dependent vasodilation decreased 5 %. These results indicate that the Danjiki ritual produced significant weight loss but unexpectedly reduced vascular functions. PMID:27130193

  7. Skill and wisdom of craftsman of gold leaf; Kinpaku shokunin no waza to chie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, K. [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-01-05

    In the mid-sixth century, Buddhism was introduced from the Chinese Continent and accompanying therewith, gold leaves began to be used for large dry-japanned images of Buddha and artifacts. Also japan has been used widely for improvement of durability of wooden products and for the purpose of decoration, since japan is the best adhesive for the gold leaf and the gold leaf has an effect to retard deterioration of japan. In this article, technological elucidation has been made on the leaf making technique using Japanese papers unrivaled in the world. The traditional technique of manufacturing a gold leaf in Japan is the technique to manufacture extremely thin gold leaves, each of or less than 0.1 {mu}m thick, in an unit of 1500-1600 sheets at one time manually by the craftsman`s skill using Japanese papers, which are viscoelastic substances, as media and is unique among the traditional industries in Japan. Even by the currently available highest metal rolling technique, it is impossible to prepare metal leaves, each of which has a thickness of an order of submicron. The present leaf making processes are divided roughly into 3 processes and the gold leaf making method is described in detail together with the really skillful hunch and wisdom of the ancestors. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  9. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. PMID:26264787

  10. The contemporary mindfulness movement and the question of nonself1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and other "mindfulness"-based techniques have rapidly gained a significant presence within contemporary society. Clearly these techniques, which derive or are claimed to derive from Buddhist meditational practices, meet genuine human needs. However, questions are increasingly raised regarding what these techniques meant in their original context(s), how they have been transformed in relation to their new Western and global field of activity, what might have been lost (or gained) on the way, and how the entire contemporary mindfulness phenomenon might be understood. The article points out that first-generation mindfulness practices, such as MBSR and MBCT, derive from modernist versions of Buddhism, and omit or minimize key aspects of the Buddhist tradition, including the central Buddhist philosophical emphasis on the deconstruction of the self. Nonself (or no self) fits poorly into the contemporary therapeutic context, but is at the core of the Buddhist enterprise from which contemporary "mindfulness" has been abstracted. Instead of focussing narrowly on the practical efficacy of the first generation of mindfulness techniques, we might see them as an invitation to explore the much wider range of practices available in the traditions from which they originate. Rather, too, than simplifying and reducing these practices to fit current Western conceptions of knowledge, we might seek to incorporate more of their philosophical basis into our Western adaptations. This might lead to a genuine and productive expansion of both scientific knowledge and therapeutic possibilities. PMID:25480489

  11. The spirit of safety: oriental safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J. [Science Council of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Failure of a large system causes disasters. However, after an accident, the causes are frequently attributed to human error when the operators do not survive the accident. It might be difficult to prove that the real cause of the accident is human error. Process decision program chart (PDPC) would be a useful tool in indicating the causes of an accident since it can clearly show that if the operator made the correct choice, the safety of the system could be maintained. The case of the incident of the nuclear reactor at Mihama unit 2 is indicated by PDPC in which the sequence of events and the operations are indicated in this paper together with the safe operation. One can easily understand the cause of the incident and the way to avoid it. Also, PDPC for the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident is shown. Initially, in order to prevent an accident, mental training and safety culture is most important. The oriental safety culture based on Zentoism, a school of Buddhism is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  13. Reflections Around the Conservation of Sacred Thangkas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Cotte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan thangkas (Buddhist scroll paintings are created as religious ritual objects. The fact that they are mainly considered as artworks in the Western world impacts on the decisions made for their display and conservation. This article explores the current approach to thangkas in Australian public collections and compares it with the views of contemporary Tibetan Buddhism practitioners. It underlines a few misconceptions at the source of conservation decision-making, and discusses practical outcomes of integrating the sacred dimension into professional practice against the backdrop of conservation’s Codes of Ethics. Conserving living religious heritage requires that professional ethical standards are adaptable to the needs of users. Existing frameworks for the conservation of sacred objects of pre-colonised, indigenous cultures provide useful models for the conservation of thangkas. This article argues that engaging with contemporary cultural groups to conserve religious significance is part of the mission of conservators. This is viewed as an expansion of conservation practice into the social realm, in a search for purposeful conservation that establishes the social relevance of our profession.

  14. Einstein Universe Revisited and End of Dark ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgaliev, Ildus S.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the earliest general relativistic cosmological solution was received by Einstein himself as homogenous, isotropic one. In accordance with European cosmology it was expected static. The Eternal Universe as scientific model is conflicting with the existed theological model of the Universe created by God, therefore, of the limited age. Christianity, younger Islam, older Judaism are based on creationism. Much older oriental traditions such us Hinduism and Buddhism are based on conceptions of eternal and cyclic Universe which are closer to scientific worldview. To have static universe Einstein needed a factor to counteract gravity and postulated cosmological term and considered it as a disadvantage of the theory. This aesthetic dissatisfaction was amplified by interpretation distance-redshift relationship as a cosmological expansion effect. Emerged scientific cosmological community (excluding Hubble himself - almost always) endorsed the concept of expanding Universe. At the same time, as it is shown in this report, a natural well known factors do exist to counteract gravity. They are inertial centrifugal and Coriolis forces finding their geometrical presentation in the relativity theory.

  15. ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN AND MALAY THEATRE

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    Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest times, traditional theatre in Southeast Asia has been shaped by a wide range of religious and cultural influences—those deriving from animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, as well as from Chinese and western traditions. The overwhelming influences, especially of Hinduism, have had the tendency to obscure contributions from the Middle- and Near-East. The view that Islam, with rare exceptions, prohibits performing arts has resulted in a negligence of these arts forms in Muslim societies with the possible exception of Indonesia. This paper highlights significant elements of Islamic culture that have shaped Indonesian and Malay traditional theatre through the adaptation of borrowed genres such as taziya, as well as locally created styles of shadow play (wayang kulit and the doll-puppet theatre (wayang golek; the use of important themes from Islamic literature, in particular thosederived from Hikayat Amir Hamza; as well as esoteric interpretationsof certain episodes originally derived from pre-Islamic sources,including the Mahabharata, in terms of Sufism to make them both highly meaningful and acceptable to Muslim audiences.

  16. O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Karen

    My work is driven by the metaphysical and the potential for healing through the manipulation of energy. Points of research include the enso (the only symbol used in Zen Buddhism), which uses the circle as a symbol of wholeness, divinity, and enlightenment. The writings of Alex Grey, Eckhart Tolle and the work of Ann Hamilton will also be investigated. I plan to create work from turned wooden vortex forms, the shapes of which are based on the movement of energy within the body. These objects will be transformed from wood, through rubber, wax, plaster, iron, bronze to cast, and blown glass. This transformation through materials is becoming a metaphor for the continuous transformation of universal light and energy. As part of my material research, I will exploit various casting techniques including kiln casting, hot casting, and pate de verre. Photography, film, and projection also will be explored. Conceptually, the process will become an integral part of the work where involved, repetitive methods will be treated as a meditation or mantra and will, in turn, add a performative dimension to the work. It is through these meditative practices that I intend to imbue the work with healing energies.

  17. OS DIREITOS HUMANOS SOB A ÓTICA DAS DIFERENTES TRADIÇÕES RELIGIOSAS

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    Giselle Marques de Araújo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doutrina contemporânea dos direitos humanos vem sendo construída a partir de consensos estabelecidos entre os países integrantes da Organização das Nações Unidas, que possibilitaram a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos de 1948, aceito como mais importante documento em relação ao tema. Neste artigo, retratamos a análise de cientistas sociais que procuram verificar se existiria uma base comum entre esta doutrina e as diferentes tradições religiosas por eles professadas: islamismo, budismo, confucionismo e hinduísmo.Defendemos a idéia de que as identidades tradicionais precisam ser explicitadas e valorizadasno espaço público, onde a dimensão espiritual do ser humano merece ser contemplada. // The contemporary doctrine of human rights has been constructed from the consensus established among the member countries of the United Nations, which allowed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, accepted as the most important document in this regard. In this article we have depicted the analysis of social scientists who seek to verify whether there was common ground between this doctrine and the different religious traditions which they professed: Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism and Hinduism. We support the idea that identities need to be spelled traditional and valued in the public space, where the spiritual dimension of human being deserves to be considered.

  18. Meie maakera viimased minutid

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    Mare Kõiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to compare popular omens of the end of the world with the auguries of prophets. Both traditions reflect societal and cultural changes, the fears for doomsday tend to integrate new interpretations and causes for destruction. Astronomic celestialphenomena retain their relevance whereas the recent discoveries in astronomy, physics, genetics and other sciences have remarkably complemented the list omens for the end of the world. Latter-day prophecies leashed by human behaviour and intellect, alien civilisations and other relevant motifs have come to the forefront during the last century. Prophetic predictions propose fixed dates, represent certain political or ideological trends, associated with social norms and evoked as a result of changes therein. Among the prophetic messages there are stereotypical expressions and omenswhich have been adapted and attributed to different persons. Karl Tõnisson’s leaflet Meie maakera viimased minutid ‘The Last Minutes of Our Earth’, printed in 1907, is a political-apocalyptic contemplation based on scriptural passages substantiated by references to scholarly works, illustrated with five woodcuts. The omens of the end of the world, listed by the author, comprise an earthquake in Lisbon in 1795, a dark day in New England in 1780 and the 1833 meteor storm in America. The discussions presented in the leaflet differ from Tõnisson’s later self-centred political fantasies on Pan-Baltonia, and the ideology and rhetoric of the booklets endeavouring to create anative religion merged with Buddhism.

  19. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  20. 试析《雪国》中的虚无思想%Brief Analysis of Nihilism in Snow Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋会芳

    2012-01-01

    Japan's first Nobel Prize winner,Yasunari Kawabata,was strongly influenced by Japanese classical literature since childhood,the impermanence in Buddhism,and his unique life experiences.All these form his nihilism,which was impermanences,emptiness,no-self,and something from nothing.His nihilism has a complete manifestation in his masterwork Snow Country.%日本首位诺贝尔文学奖获奖者川端康成,自幼深受日本古典文学的熏陶,佛教中的无常思想对其影响深刻,加之他自身特殊的生活经历,从而形成了他人生无常、万事皆空、灭我为无、无中生有的虚无思想。川端康成的这一思想在他的登峰之作《雪国》中有充分表现,本文对此进行了相关探讨。