WorldWideScience

Sample records for buddhism

  1. Buddhism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism.......Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism....

  2. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we...... analyze the diverse range of influences that have impacted the manner in which Buddhism and business have been entwined, taking a look at historical as well as regional, national, and global impacts on the formulation of Buddhism within encounters with global market economies. Our review spans lay......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  3. Two Buddhisms, Three Buddhisms, and Racism

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    Wakoh Shannon Hickey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, observers of American Buddhism have created numerous typologies to describe different categories of Buddhists in the United States. These taxonomies use different criteria to categorize groups: style of practice, degree of institutional stability, mode of transmission to the U.S., ethnicity, etc. Each reveals some features of American Buddhism and obscures others. None accounts adequately for hybrids or for long-term changes within categories. Most include a divide between convert Buddhists, characterized as predominantly Caucasian, and “heritage” or “ethnic” Buddhists, characterized as Asian immigrants and refugees, as well as their descendants. This article examines several typologies, and considers two dynamics: the effects of white racism on the development of American Buddhist communities; and the effects of unconscious white privilege in scholarly discourse about these communities. It critiques “ethnic” categories and proposes other ways to conceptualize the diverse forms of Buddhism outside Asia.

  4. Buddhism and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Masashi

    2008-06-01

    Buddhism is an ancient religion that began in India and spread throughout Asia. It is prevalent in modern Japan. Breastfeeding has been a strong practice for centuries with the custom being to continue until the child is 6 or 7 years of age. The Edo period was very influential in establishing breastfeeding customs that continue today.

  5. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    or "spiritual" aspects. This book investigates the contemporary living reality of the largest Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhist group, Myōshinji. Drawing on textual studies and ethnographic fieldwork, Jørn Borup analyses how its practitioners use and understand their religion, how they practice their religiosity...... and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity...

  6. Buddhism: A Brief Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jerry

    The annotated bibliography lists 48 articles, atlases, dictionaries, bibliographies, and general and subject indexes on Buddhism. The bibliography is intended to provide college students with an introduction to the more complex literature of Buddhism and to stimulate further research and study. Topics include the history of Buddhism; the practice…

  7. Buddhism of Japanese Immigrants within the framework of Brazilian Buddhism

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    Frank Usarski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects upon Buddhism of Japanese immigrants, which is the historically and numerically most important sub-segment of the so-called “ethnic Buddhism” in Brazil. The latter represents - in distinction from the “Buddhism of converts” - one of the two principles analytical subcategories of Buddhist universe of the country. The text starts with a reconstruction of the trajectory of the religious sub-segment in question by relating it to other observable tendencies in Brazil’s Buddhist field in general. For analytical reasons, the history of Buddhism of Japanese immigrants is subdivided into four phases. In the second part of the article the aforementioned data are interpreted from a sociological point of view. This interpretation refers mainly to the statistics of the National Census from 1950 onwards conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The data indicate a gradual decline of Japanese Immigrant Buddhism during the last decades that has cumulated into general crises of the Buddhist segment in question. As for factors possibly responsible for this negative development, the article discusses aspects such as logistical failures on the side of the Buddhist institutions or the difficulties of the families of Japanese descendants in handing down their cultural and religious heritage to their children.  

  8. Gaochang Buddhism and the Silk Road

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    Wang Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At the crossroads between the West and the East in ancient times, one point along the Silk Road was Gaochang (the Turpan basin in Xinjiang which played an important role in cultural exchange and the spread of Buddhism. The bidirectional influence of Buddhism in Gaochang was achieved as Buddhism spread eastward, and through its westward transmission which resulted in Gaochang’s unique and significant position in the history of cultural interaction.

  9. Japanese Buddhism, Relativization, and Glocalization

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    Ugo Dessì

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of study on Japanese religions, the issue of globalization tends to be associated with the missionary activities of some successful new religious movements, and there is a certain reluctance to approach analytically the dynamics of glocalization/hybridization and the power issues at stake. In this article, I address these and other related problems by taking my cue from the relativizing effects of globalization and a working definition of religion based on the concept of authority. To this aim, I focus on two case studies. The first concerns the ongoing greening of Japanese Buddhism. The second revolves around the adoption of meditational techniques by priests and lay practitioners in Hawaiian Shin Buddhism. My findings show that there are at least four factors underlying the glocalization of Japanese Buddhism, that is, global consciousness, resonance with the local tradition, decontextualization, and quest for power. Moreover, they indicate that it is possible to distinguish between two types of glocalization (glocalization and chauvinistic glocalization and two configurations of glocalization (juxtaposition and integration.

  10. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

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    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  11. Pain Perception in Buddhism Perspective.

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    Waikakul, Waraporn; Waikakul, Saranatra

    2016-08-01

    Dhamma, which Lord Buddha has presented to people after his enlightenment, analyzes every phenomenon and objects into their ultimate elements. The explanation of sensory system is also found in a part of Dhamma named Abhidhammapitaka, the Book of the Higher Doctrine in Buddhism. To find out the relationship between explanation of pain in the present neuroscience and the explanation of pain in Abhidhamma, the study was carried out by the use of a comprehensive review. The comparisons were in terms of peripheral stimulation, signal transmission, modulation, perception, suffering, determination and decision making for the responding to pain. We found that details of the explanation on pain mechanism and perception in Abhidhamma could associate well with our present scientific knowledge. Furthermore, more refinement information about the process and its function in particular aspects of pain perception were provided in Abhidhammapitaka.

  12. Women and Ultramodern Buddhism in Australia

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    Anna Halafoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhists started arriving in Australia in large numbers during the mid-1800s, and the first Buddhist societies and centres began to be formed in the mid-late 1900s. This paper examines the role of women in bringing Buddhism to and establishing it in Australia. Women have featured prominently in a small amount of scholarship, including Paul Croucher’s (1989 Buddhism in Australia: 1848–1988 and Cristina Rocha and Michelle Barker’s (eds. 2011 edited volume on Buddhism in Australia: Traditions in Change. This paper draws on these sources, but primarily on more recent digital oral histories of prominent Buddhist women and men in Australia, recorded as part of the first stage of the Buddhist Life Stories of Australia project in 2014–2015. These first-hand accounts bring the early female pioneers of Buddhism in Australia to life and provide a rich re-telling of this history with emphasis on women’s contributions to it. We also argue that these women’s experiences can best be understood through a framework of ‘ultramodern Buddhism,’ built upon theories of modern and post-modern Buddhism, as many of these women were trailblazers bridging dualisms of tradition and modernity, Asia and the West, and adhering to both feminist and Buddhist principles.

  13. Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life.

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    Perrett, R W

    1996-10-01

    Damien and John Keown claim that there is important common ground between Buddhism and Christianity on the issue of euthanasia and that both traditions oppose it for similar reasons in order to espouse a "sanctity of life" position. I argue that the appearance of consensus is partly created by their failure to specify clearly enough certain key notions in the argument: particularly Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life. Once this is done, the Keowns' central claims can be seen to be either false or only restrictedly true.

  14. Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, R W

    1996-01-01

    Damien and John Keown claim that there is important common ground between Buddhism and Christianity on the issue of euthanasia and that both traditions oppose it for similar reasons in order to espouse a "sanctity of life" position. I argue that the appearance of consensus is partly created by their failure to specify clearly enough certain key notions in the argument: particularly Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life. Once this is done, the Keowns' central claims can be seen to be either false or only restrictedly true. PMID:8910785

  15. The Art of Buddhism. A Teacher's Guide.

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    Forsgren, Krista; Benskin, Elizabeth

    While the art of Buddhism has an enduring tradition throughout Asia, this teaching guide focuses on the cultures of three countries in which the Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler Galleries' collections are particularly strong: India, China, and Japan. The guide identifies grade level appropriateness for some lessons and activities. It contains 15…

  16. Japan’s Modernization and the Persecution of Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta,Chisato

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purposes and consequences of the persecution of Buddhism in the early Meiji period (1868-1912). The Meiji government attempted to establish the legitimacy of the new state through the Shinto-based divine status of the emperor while pursuing anti-Buddhism policies and promoting Shinto as the state religion. By reinventing Shinto as an independent religion and ending the Shinto-Buddhism syncretism, the policy of shinbutsu bunri (separation of Shinto and Buddhism) aimed a...

  17. The Adulthood of Buddhahood: Buddhism, Lifelong Learning and the Education of Desire.

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    MacPherson, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Buddhism as a philosophy of education is examined through discussion of the three trainings: ethics, meditative stabilization, and special wisdom. Tantric Buddhism and Protestant Christianity are compared. (SK)

  18. Buddhism and Ecology: A Virtue Ethics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Keown, Damien V.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Whether Buddhism has a compelling ecological dimension or not has been a much discussed question in recent years. I think I should put my cards on the table at the outset and say that I count myself among the sceptics in this respect. I see little evidence that the Buddha or his followers, at least down to modern times, have been greatly concerned with questions of ecology. If anything, there is more evidence of a negative presupposition about the value and status of the natural...

  19. Anthropology of Buddhism: The Importance of Personal Spiritual Maturity and Vital Aims

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    Kaldybay, Kainar K.; Abdrassilov, Turganbai K.; Myrzabekov, Muratbek M.; Beysenov, Aybek S.; Pazylova, Kalamkas A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show the views of the major schools of Buddhism towards the notion of an individual in Buddhism. The problem of the human person in Buddhism is reflected through the perception of human desires and aspirations as the sources of "suffering." Essential Buddhism is not only a religion or philosophy--it is…

  20. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional--from Myanmar to Thailand-- and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid bord...

  1. Ayurvĕda gleaned through Buddhism.

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    Narayana, Ala; Lavekar, G S

    2005-01-01

    The Păli canon consists of three Pitakas (baskets), which replete the Buddhism and is known as Tripiţaka, viz, Vinaya, Sutta and Abhidhamma Piţakas. The original phase of Tripiţaka (Buddhisim started in 544 B.C. and lastly systematized up to 29 B.C. The Buddhist literature also possesses the esoteric material of Medical Science, which is practiced and conserved in India since centuries. It refers to the fundamentals of medicine, rules of good living, which lay considerable emphasis on the hygiene of body, mind. Internal Medicine, curative medicine including symptoms, methods of diagnosis, theories of causation, materia-medica, therapeutics and treatment and skills of Jivaka. Some famous and popular prescriptions are also dealt with.

  2. A Visual Narration of Hells in Buddhism and Islam

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    Ary Budianto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of the Hell’s Tortures both in Buddhism and in Islam is exactly similar. However, their kind of ‘theological’ tendencies may result different outcome. By comparing the visual narration of the Buddhism and Islamic comic books dealing with hell illustrations, I made an‘imaginary’ dialogue between the concept and visuality of hells tortures that exist in both traditions, and see the impact on how far a sincere dialogue could be achieved in these two religious people. During this comparison, I found that both Buddhism and Islam in Java had ever made such an interesting dialogue.Keywords: Hell tortures, Islam-Buddhism comparison, encounter of Java-IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i1.995

  3. Buddhism in the United States: an Ethnographic Study

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    Jaeyeon Choe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Buddhism in America, an neglected area of inquiry in anthropological study. There is a need for modern ethnographic studies to shed light on historical issues, paradigms for comparative inquiry, and thus, explore the impact of Buddhism on modern American society (Glazier, 1997. The enormous growth of Buddhism in the last quarter century (Smith, 2002 makes this an especially pertinent topic in American anthropology. We utilize Glazier’s model to add Buddhism as a topic in the area of modernity studies. This is a preliminary study of the nature of Buddhism in America. We conducted participant observation with a Buddhist meditation group in a north eastern state in the US for four months in the spring of 2010. Based on our preliminary ethnographic data, we believe that a unique perspectives of Buddhism in America can be identified: non-religious and therapeutic involvement or use of Buddhism. Also, new forms of practice become evident, for example, ‘walking meditation’ and ‘bowing to other Buddhists,’ are identified as characteristics of Buddhism in America. It is interesting to note that at the end of meditation sessions, participants not only bow to the Buddha statue, but also bow to each other. This is a unique ritual dynamic which appears to be consistent with the worldview of American people - being equal and individual. The meditation group also practiced ‘walking meditation’ which is easy to do in everyday life. Additionally, we observed that American meditation rooms provide additional cushions to sit on which are a further element, along with walking meditation, which help American beginners to meditate more easily. These study observations shed light on the current situation by providing new lenses from which to understand and focus on different ritual performances/interpretations of Buddhism, and their meanings and functions in society. The most important reflection is that religious change is not an

  4. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

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    Vegard Skirbekk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influence of religion on demographic behaviors has been extensively studied mainly for Abrahamic religions. Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively little research attention. Objective: This paper draws upon a variety of data sources in different countries in Asia in order to test our hypothesis that Buddhism is related to low fertility. Methods: Religious differentials in terms of period fertility in three nations (India, Cambodia and Nepal and cohort fertility in three case studies (Mongolia, Thailand and Japan are analyzed. The analyses are divided into two parts: descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results: Our results suggest that Buddhist affiliation tends to be negatively or not associated with childbearing outcomes, controlling for education, region of residence, age and marital status. Although the results vary between the highly diverse contextual and institutional settings investigated, we find evidence that Buddhist affiliation or devotion is not related to elevated fertility across these very different cultural settings. Conclusions: Across the highly diverse cultural and developmental contexts under which the different strains of Buddhism dominate, the effect of Buddhism is consistently negatively or insignificantly related to fertility. These findings stand in contrast to studies of Abrahamic religions that tend to identify a positive link between religiosity and fertility.

  5. Interpreting the Diamond Way: Contemporary Convert Buddhism in Transition

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    Burkhard Scherer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the broader issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. It looks at the Diamond Way, a contemporary Karma bKa' brgyud lay movement founded by the Danish lay teacher Ole Nydahl. The paper aims to open this area of study by employing a balanced approach between a hermeneutics of suspicion and a hermeneutics of trust, and by adding the historical-critical approach of Tibetan Buddhist Studies to the perspectives of sociology and cultural anthropology. Acknowledging Nydahl as both a charismatic and controversial figure within contemporary Buddhism, the discussion focuses on notions of lay and yogi Buddhism in the Diamond Way and on the question of westernization in Diamond Way practices. The paper concludes by raising questions about the future, continuity and change of Nydahl's heritage after his death.

  6. The Coming of Secular Buddhism: a Synoptic View

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    Winton Higgins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Secular Buddhism is coalescing today in response to two main factors. First, it rejects the incoherence of Buddhist modernism, a protean formation that accommodates elements as far afield as ancestral Buddhism and psychotherapies claiming the Buddhist brand. Second, it absorbs the cultural influence of modern secularity in the West. Historically understood, secularity has constituted a centuries-long religious development, not a victory of "science" over "religion." Today's secularity marks a further stage in the cultural decline of "enchanted" truth-claims and the intellectual eclipse of metaphysics, especially under the aegis of phenomenology. In Buddhism as in Christianity, secularity brings forth a new humanistic approach to ethical-spiritual life and creative this-worldly practices.

  7. The centuries-old dialogue between buddhism and christianity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the pre-history of today's dialogue between Buddhists and Christians. Contrary to what one might think, pre-modern Europeans did have some understanding of Buddhism, however limited and distorted it might have been. Asians during the same period had a far better chance of understanding ...

  8. Building More Solid Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

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    Sugamura, Genji; Haruki, Yutaka; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2007-01-01

    Introducing the ways of cultivating mental balance, B. A. Wallace and S. L. Shapiro attempted to build bridges between Buddhism and psychology. Their systematic categorization of Buddhist teachings and extensive review of empirical support from Western psychology are valuable for future study. However, it remains a matter of concern that some more…

  9. The Influence of Chinese Master Taixu on Buddhism in Vietnam

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    Elise A. DeVido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available From the 1920s, Vietnamese Buddhist reformers revitalized their religion, inspired in great part by the Chinese monk Taixu’s blueprint to modernize and systematize sangha education and temple administration, and by his idea ofrenjian fojiao, “Buddhism for this world,” emphasizing the centrality of education, modern publishing, social work, and Buddhist lay groups to Buddhism’s future in the modern world. This article first discusses the Chinese Buddhist revival, then the activities of Buddhist reformers in Vietnam 1920s–60s, and the flows of Buddhist personnel and materials between Vietnam and China. This article explores how renjian fojiao was interpreted and realized in Vietnam, especially its influence upon Thich Nhat Hanh as he developed his ideas on “Engaged Buddhism.”

  10. Japanese psychoanalysis and Buddhism: the making of a relationship.

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    Harding, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the making of a relationship between Japanese psychoanalysis and Buddhism, in the life and work of Kosawa Heisaku. Kosawa did not work out the compatibility of psychoanalysis with Buddhism in abstract, theoretical terms; rather, he understood them as two different articulations of the same practical approach to living well. He saw this approach in action in the lives of Freud and Shinran, the latter a thirteenth-century Japanese Buddhist reformer. For Kosawa, both individuals exemplified the 'true religious state of mind', at the achievement of which Kosawa understood psychoanalytic psychotherapy as ideally aiming. This article uses newly available documentary and interview material to examine the historical dynamics both of Kosawa's work in this area and of the broader 'religion-psy dialogue' of which it is an early example. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Life is uncertain. death is certain. Buddhism and palliative care.

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    Masel, Eva K; Schur, Sophie; Watzke, Herbert H

    2012-08-01

    It is part of a palliative care assessment to identify patients' spiritual needs. According to Buddhism, suffering is inherent to all human beings. Advice on how suffering can be reduced in the course of serious illness might be helpful to patients with incurable and progressive diseases. Palliative care could benefit from Buddhist insights in the form of compassionate care and relating death to life. Buddhist teachings may lead to a more profound understanding of incurable diseases and offer patients the means by which to focus their minds while dealing with physical symptoms and ailments. This might not only be beneficial to followers of Buddhism but to all patients. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Buddhism in the Astrakhan territory: stages of the historical development

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    Андрей Алексеевич Курапов

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In authors article are considered the basic stages of distribution of the Buddhism on the Bottom Volga region, within the limits of the Astrakhan province. Analysed characteristic features of historical development of a Buddhist community (sangha at Kalmyks, participation of Buddhist clergy in political life of region. Determined and considered specificity of interaction of a Buddhist community with secular authorities of region and national elite.

  13. Between Buddhism and Science, Between Mind and Body

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    Geoffrey Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism has been seen, at least since the Theravāda reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as particularly compatible with Western science. The recent explosion of Mindfulness therapies have strengthened this perception. However, the 'Buddhism' which is being brought into relation with science in the context of the Mindfulness movement has already undergone extensive rewriting under modernist influences, and many of the more critical aspects of Buddhist thought and practice are dismissed or ignored. The Mind and Life Institute encounters, under the patronage of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, present a different kind of dialogue, in which a Tibetan Buddhism which is only beginning to undergo modernist rewriting confronts Western scientists and scholars on more equal terms. However, is the highly sophisticated but radically other world of Tantric thought really compatible with contemporary science? In this article I look at problem areas within the dialogue, and suggest that genuine progress is most likely to come if we recognise the differences between Buddhist thought and contemporary science, and take them as an opportunity to rethink scientific assumptions.

  14. Matriarchy, Buddhism, and food security in Sanephong, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisai, Solot; Chotiboriboon, Sinee; Sapsuwan, Charana; Tantivatanasathien, Praiwan; Setapun, Nuchjaree; Duangnosan, Prangtong; Thongkam, Nattapach; Chuangyanyong, Sasiwimon

    2017-11-01

    Sanephong is a matriarchal Karen community located in western Thailand. The community benefits greatly from the availability of local foods, such as cereals, tubers, wild vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, and animals. In the first phase of this project, 387 distinct local foods were identified, which were shown to be good sources of energy, protein, and vitamins. Despite the availability of a variety of nutritious local foods, the majority of households surveyed expressed concern over a decline in local foods due to changing socio-economic and environmental conditions. This study used a qualitative research approach to look at the dual influences of matriarchy and Buddhism on food security in the community. Through this approach, matriarchal values central to the community were adopted as a framework; these included care, consensus, collaboration, and cosmological respect. In Sanephong, women are central to life in the community, and matriarchal cultural practices reflect a nurturing spirit-for both the earth and family. The community practices Buddhism, which is very complementary to the matriarchal system. A type of gift economy within the Buddhist context, known as dhana, transfers food from the wealthy to the poor with no expectation of reciprocity. Consequently, matriarchy and Buddhism jointly promote food security in the community. Studies of matriarchal societies help society-at-large to understand the potential benefits of systems that contrast the current patriarchal paradigm. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

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    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  16. A Preliminary Assessment of Buddhism's Contextualisation to the English RE Classroom

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    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    In a preliminary study, 20 "migrant" Buddhist parents and children from England participated in semi-structured interviews to compare their home nurture with classroom presentation of Buddhism. In the home Buddhism received more time allocation and was presented mainly by the mother and monks--the content being that of "perpetuating…

  17. Conceptions and Misconceptions about "Western Buddhism": Issues and Approaches for the Classroom

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    Berkwitz, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    This article responds to the exponential growth in academic textbooks on Western or American Buddhism by arguing that popular trade books written by Buddhist teachers in the West make more effective tools for teaching and learning about the growth of Buddhism in western societies. The use of such texts in the classroom provides students with…

  18. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

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    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  19. Practical and Theoretical interactions of Buddhism and Psychiatry : a view from the West.

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    Osborne, Thomas R.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2003-01-01

    One of the greatest religions in the world. Buddhism and its tenets have been used for understanding the pain and human emotions. Using these tenets social and psychological development of the individuals can be encouraged.They key constructs of Buddhism can be employed in cognitive therapy. In this paper we provide an overview of the key principles embedded in Buddhism and also place these in the context of Western concepts of psychotherapy. We link the Buddhist concepts with anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, addictions and chronic illness. PMID:21206843

  20. Buddhism in Čampā Le Bouddhisme au Champa

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    Anne-Valérie Schweyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Čampā is a Far East country, whose Māhāyana Buddhism is known from 7th to 14th century. In fact, Sanskrit and Cam Inscriptions mostly attested Tantric practices, belonging to the Vajrāyana Buddhism, mixing Śaiva and Buddhist believes. More precisely, side by side Śiva and the three Buddha’ emanations, Śākyamuni, Amitābha and Vairocana, are honoured in Čampā, alone with the Goddess Prajñāpāramitā, the true substance of the Doctrine, and, secondary, with Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara and Vajrasattva. The confrontation of the epigraphic testimonies with the archaeological remains is very useful to understand the Buddhism of Čampā, crossroads of trade roads between India and China. Therefore, epigraphic and artistic evidences are used to propose a chronological presentation, with a special development on the revival of the 10th century, and especially, the esoteric way.Le Čampā, pays du centre Vietnam, connut un bouddhisme Māhāyana du xe au xive siècle. Les inscriptions en sanskrit et en cam montrent que ce bouddhisme était essentiellement tantrique, relevant du bouddhisme Vajrāyana, mêlant pratiques Śivaïtes et bouddhiques. Plus précisément, le bouddhisme cam montre qu’aux côtés de Śiva sont honorées les trois émanations du Bouddha, Śākyamuni, Amitābha et Vairocana, avec la déesse Prajñāpāramitā, la Vraie Substance de la Connaissance ; on trouve également Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara et Vajrasattva. La confrontation des témoignages épigraphiques et archéologiques permet de mieux appréhender le bouddhisme cam, à la croisée des routes commerciales entre l’Inde et la Chine. Cet article exploite ces témoignages dans une perspective chronologique, avec un développement particulier pour le Bouddhisme ésotérique au xe siècle.

  1. Macho Buddhism: Gender and Sexualities in the Diamond Way

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    Burkhard Scherer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Western Tibetan Buddhist movements have been described as bourgeois and puritanical in previous scholarship. In contrast, Ole Nydahl’s convert lay Karma Kagyu Buddhist movement, the Diamond Way, has drawn attention for its apparently hedonistic style. Focussing on the interpretation of Nydahl’s approach to gender and sexualities, this paper addresses the wider issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. Nydahl’s pre-modern gender stereotyping, the hetero-machismo of the Diamond Way and the mildly homophobic tone and content of Nydahl’s teaching are interpreted on the background of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist sexual ethics and traditional Tibetan cultural attitudes on sexualities. By excavating the emic genealogy of Nydahl’s teachings, the paper suggests that Nydahl’s and the Diamond Way’s view on and performance of gender and sexualities are consistent with his propagation of convert Buddhist neo-orthodoxy.

  2. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

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    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  3. Shadow of Buddhism and Shintoism in neurosurgical practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, almost all culture and civilization were introduced from abroad; in the past from China and now from U.S. and European countries, owing to her geographical features circumscribed by oceans and separated from the continents. Neurosurgical science and practice have been received in the same way as other activities. However, there are some exceptions such as organ transplantation from the brain dead and brain-dock, which means a brain check-up system of asymptomatic brain diseases. Reasons why these are practised or not in Japan are considered from the viewpoint of Buddhism and Shintoism. If our special practises could appeal to people in other countries, our neurosurgical philosophy might become widespread and welcome worldwide. Organ transplantations from brain dead have routinely been performed in many countries, while only 37 cases have been executed in Japan, after the Japanese government accepted its application in 1997. In contrast, brain-dock is widely practised without any national insurance systems, while this is rarely practised in other countries. It seems to me that Buddhism and Shintoism have influenced on these special situations, due to extreme fear and impurity of the dead body and a way of comprehending the oneness of body and mind, and also deep concern for the impact of their diseases to their families rather than for themselves. We neurosurgeons should realize that our profession is directly related to ultimate human sufferings such as aging, disease, and death, as pointed out by Gautama Buddha. We are in fact in a position to study the real way for resolution of the human sufferings, mentally and physically. Based on our experiences, the foundation of a new academic discipline like "cultural medical science" should urgently be considered in all parts of the world and in light of individual cultural, economical, geographical, and population problems.

  4. Social and Engaged Buddhism: The CEBB Experience and Lama Padma Samten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyve Redyson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to make a historical recovery of the emergence of CEBB (Centro de Estudos Budistas Bodisatva and his experiences as a vehicle for dissemination of Tibetan Buddhism in Brazil, as well as the very trajectory of Lama Padma Samten, its founder, and current religious leadership of this tradition. We intend to demonstrate that the CEBB experience set in a form of social and engaged Buddhism where prospects facing on education, social welfare and the preservation and respect for human rights are elements that approach the Brazilian reality. The lived experience of CEBB also binds to work at great social risk communities, but always connected with Brazilian identities of Buddhism that mirror the altruistic action, based on generosity and contemplation. Linked to CEBB it is also, in large part, the history and development of Buddhism in Brazil that link growth statistics and expansion as a result of social work engaged and universal responsibility with human beings.

  5. Buddhism and neuroethics: the ethics of pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    This paper integrates some Buddhist moral values, attitudes and self-cultivation techniques into a discussion of the ethics of cognitive enhancement technologies - in particular, pharmaceutical enhancements. Many Buddhists utilize meditation techniques that are both integral to their practice and are believed to enhance the cognitive and affective states of experienced practitioners. Additionally, Mahāyāna Buddhism's teaching on skillful means permits a liberal use of methods or techniques in Buddhist practice that yield insight into our selfnature or aid in alleviating or eliminating duhkha (i.e. dissatisfaction). These features of many, if not most, Buddhist traditions will inform much of the Buddhist assessment of pharmaceutical enhancements offered in this paper. Some Buddhist concerns about the effects and context of the use of pharmaceutical enhancements will be canvassed in the discussion. Also, the author will consider Buddhist views of the possible harms that may befall human and nonhuman research subjects, interference with a recipient's karma, the artificiality of pharmaceutical enhancements, and the possible motivations or intentions of healthy individuals pursuing pharmacological enhancement. Perhaps surprisingly, none of these concerns will adequately ground a reflective Buddhist opposition to the further development and continued use of pharmaceutical enhancements, either in principle or in practice. The author argues that Buddhists, from at least certain traditions - particularly Mahāyāna Buddhist traditions - should advocate the development or use of pharmaceutical enhancements if a consequence of their use is further insight into our self-nature or the reduction or alleviation of duhkha.

  6. How Is Buddhism Relevant to Career Counseling in an International High School in Hong Kong? A Counsellor's Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vinci; Yuen, Mantak

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the relevance of Buddhism to counselling in general and to career counseling in particular by discussing a program implemented at an international school in Hong Kong. The authors provide an analysis of the pertinent literature related to relevant concepts within Buddhism. This topic has not yet been adequately researched…

  7. Post-religional perspective and secular Buddhism: Stephen Batchelor and the post-metaphysical religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Durazzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present one of the contemporary trends on Buddhism, specially from the last decades in West, for its encounter with the globalized and dynamic context of present societies. This Buddhist trend, the progressive secularization of its traditions and practices, not to mention its increasing acceptance of historical-textual refutation, finds in Stephen Batchelor - a former monk in two different Buddhist traditions, Tibetan and Korean Zen - a catalyzer and a well-known advocate of secular perspective to the contemporary Buddhism. Here we will present the potential dialogue between the Secular Buddhism - besides the secularizing perspectives over orthodox cultural traditions - and the post-religional subject, as proposed by Marià Corbí and the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. For the purposes of this paper we will focus on the modernizing and secular hermeneutics on Dharma practice, as defended by Stephen Batchelor and others.

  8. [The relevance of zen-buddhism for dialectic-behavioral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy is a specific psychotherapeutic approach to answer the needs of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. It uses concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Humanistic Psychotherapies. For a deeper understanding, it is necessary to include also its Zen-Buddhistic background. The experience of Zen-meditation and the basic philosophy of Zen-Buddhism will be explained. In the context of the historical relation between Zen-Buddhism and Psychotherapy, the position of the DBT will be specified. Finally it will be demonstrated how Zen-Buddhism inspired the practice of DBT and what kinds of problems arise when a modern psychotherapy uses the concept of a premodern conception of the world and human existence.

  9. Buddhism-as-a-meaning-system for coping with late-life stress: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianbin

    2018-01-01

    Religion is increasingly conceptualized as a meaning system for adjustment and coping. Most of the conceptualizations are grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition. They may thus not be applicable to Buddhism, which provides a distinct tenor of meaning for coping. This article seeks to construct a conceptual framework of Buddhism-as-a-meaning-system for coping with late-life stress. Literature review and conceptualization were employed. Under this framework, Buddhism functions as a meaning system involving existential meaning, cognitive meaning, and behavioral meaning. There is reason to believe that this framework promises to offer a holistic conceptual map of Buddhist coping in late life. Thus, it could serve as a guide for further empirical and theoretical exploration in the uncharted terrains of Buddhist coping in old age. In addition, gerontological practitioners could use this framework as a frame of reference when working with elderly Buddhist clients who are in stressful circumstances.

  10. Erich Fromm's Involvement With Zen Buddhism: Psychoanalysts and the Spiritual Quest in Subsequent Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The first section of this paper covers Erich Fromm's profound involvement with Zen Buddhism, culminating in his co-authoring the book Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis in 1960. It details why this was a groundbreaking endeavor, as it countered the pervasive psychoanalytic denigration of spiritual traditions, practices, and experiences. The second section describes the effect of Fromm's Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis on the author of this paper, as he came to clinical psychology and psychoanalysis from involvement in Indian philosophy. The third section is a case study of a spiritually advanced Hindu woman seen in intensive short-term psychoanalytic therapy in Bombay, describing the interface of the spiritual with psychoanalytic therapy. The fourth section explains what eventually led to a sea change in psychoanalytic attitudes toward spiritual traditions and practices, with a small but significant group of psychoanalysts becoming involved in one or another spiritual practice, and working with patients also so involved.

  11. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  12. Zen Buddhism and the Psychotherapy of Milton Erickson: A Transcendence of Theory and Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susan Kelly; Forman, Bruce D.

    1989-01-01

    Compares Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy of Milton Erickson. Explores their similarities with respect to theory, change relationship between teacher/student and therapist/client, and acceptance of nature. Compares Ericksonian psychotherapy with Zen-based Morita therapy to concretize philosophical underpinnings of both systems. (Author/ABL)

  13. The Pedagogy of Happiness and Death: From the Perspectives of Buddhism and Christianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the pedagogy of happiness and death from the perspectives of Buddhism and Christianity. To discuss this study logically, three research questions are addressed. First, what are the concepts of happiness and death? Second, what is the relevance between happiness and death? Last, what are the meanings of…

  14. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  15. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  16. Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in "Negative Capability" in Light of Buddhism and Levinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to "negative capability" and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering…

  17. Buddhism, the status of women and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Areewan; Greenwood, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The common-sense construction of Buddhism is that of a general power for good; the less positive aspects of Buddhism's power, especially when reinforced by folklore and ancient superstition, is infrequently recognised. In this article we make explicit Buddhism's less positive power, particularly as it relates to the status of women and, by implication, its role in the human immunodeficiency (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Thailand. The Buddhist, folklore, and superstitious bases of Thai misogyny are explored, together with its expression in the differential gender roles of women and men. In addition, the attitudes of both women and men to commercial sex workers (CSWs) and condom use is discussed. The implications of these attitudinal analyses to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Thailand is outlined. We argue that the current spread of HIV/AIDS in Thailand is primarily a function of the inferior status of women, which, in turn, is a function of Buddhism and Thai cultural beliefs. In light of this, some realistic strategies to address the problem also are discussed.

  18. The Ethics of the "Real" In Levinas, Lacan, and Buddhism: Pedagogical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unstated ethics that exist in the silent space between teacher and students, highlighting Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Buddhism. The paper uses the juxtaposition of west and east to help illuminate ethical pedagogy, and it argues that there is an unknowable dimension which raises the question of ethics in human relations that…

  19. An encounter between critical Buddhism and Asian naturalism: can Asian naturalism be a tool in overcoming social discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeidong RYU

    2016-01-01

    Can their support of Asian naturalism be justified without any reserve? Some scholars of critical Buddhism movement, including Hakamaya Noriaki and Matsumoto Shiro, caution the danger of blindly supporting Asian Naturalism. Critical Buddhism movement began in Japan around the middle of 1980s, criticizing the social discrimination against oppressed people in Japan, and ascribing the cause of such discrimination to the idea of ‘a holistic harmony’ in Japan. According to Hakamaya Noriaki and Mat...

  20. A review of research on Buddhism and health: 1980-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J; Vane, Adam; Flannelly, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Electronic searches of social science and biomedical literature identified 44 empirical studies that specifically investigate Buddhism, meditation, and health. The number of studies increased over time, especially in medical and other health-related fields. The studies were found to differ by geographical region with regard to the emphasis on spiritual, psychological, or physical outcomes. Results from this study are explored with respect to historical trends as well as current variations in scholarship and religious practice between the regions.

  1. Buddhism as a resource of “soft power” of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Ivanovna Ponka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Now the concept of “soft power” introduced by the American political scientist Joseph Nye Jr., is of particular interest in the theory of international relations. Among the Asian countries special attention paid to China, which currently has not only extensive economic and political resources, but also sources of non-power influence. In the article, the authors explore a concept as “Buddhist diplomacy” and its role in China's foreign policy activities. It also examined the historical formation of Buddhism and its development as a resource of “soft power” by way of the one of state Chinese religions that is part of the syncretic complex, along with Confucianism and Taoism, in different periods of Chinese civilization, from the pre-imperial period to the modern framework. In this study were examined the views of Russian and foreign experts on the directions and spheres of the definition of the “Buddhism diplomacy” and the peculiarities of its implementation by the Chinese government. This research based on the using on using the historical approach and general scientific methods, such as analysis, synthesis, deduction, etc. In the article, the authors revealed the current state of religion on the example of Buddhism in China's foreign policy strategy both on the world stage and at the regional level and main aspects within which Chinese Buddhist diplomacy is developing.

  2. Development and Validity Testing of Belief Measurement Model in Buddhism for Junior High School Students at Chiang Rai Buddhist Scripture School: An Application for Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidi, Thirachai; Damrongpanich, Sunthorapot

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a model to measure the belief in Buddhism of junior high school students at Chiang Rai Buddhist Scripture School, and to determine construct validity of the model for measuring the belief in Buddhism by using Multitrait-Multimethod analysis. The samples were 590 junior high school students at Buddhist…

  3. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksa Antariksa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This study will discuss the philosophy and architectural aspects of the Zen monastery arrangement plan. Zen Buddhism is syncretism from Taoism and Confucianism.The layout plan of the Zen monastery temple principally was placed on a single axis and facing south. The typical layout plan was borrowed from the architecture of the Chinese monastery.

  4. The Analysis of Confucian Followers’ Understanding of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiato Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-culture, and multi-faith country. This piece of land combines a lot of ethnic elements into one. For example, Confucianism in Indonesia is combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism characteristic in many ways. Aim of this paper is to find out the features of Confucianism as a religion or a belief for its followers in Bangka. In addition, this paper also focuses on finding out the followers view towards their Gods in their perspectives. In this article, classification of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism is presented based on direct social observation. In this paper, analysis of Confucian followers understanding towards Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island Indonesia is presented respectively. In conclusion, characteristics of these three religions have blended perfectly and there is no more distinction in Confucius, Buddhist or Taoism Gods in Confucian followers’ community in Bangka Island. 

  5. Measuring attitude towards Buddhism and Sikhism : internal consistency reliability for two new instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the development and empirical properties of two new\\ud 24-item scales – one measuring attitude toward Buddhism and the other measuring attitude\\ud toward Sikhism. The scale is designed to facilitate inter-faith comparisons within the\\ud psychology of religion alongside the well-established Francis Scale of Attitude toward\\ud Christianity. Data were obtained from a multi-religious sample of 369 school pupils aged\\ud between 13 and 15 in London. Application of...

  6. [Influences of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese Medical Formulas in Jin-Tang Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-xiang

    2006-04-01

    In the Jin-Tang Dynasties, when Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism contended, conflicted and well blent, forming a state of mingled thoughts of the three sects. It exerted profound influences on Chinese Medical Formulas and promoted the academic fashion of compiling books about medical formulas characterized by collecting various formulas especially the simple and proved recipes. This plays a role in the formation of the formulas used in the Jin-Tang Dynasties, featuring simplicity, convenience, cheapness, and effectiveness, different from those of other periods.

  7. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  8. Won-Buddhism and a Great Turning in Civilization: The Role of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Nak-chung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the theme of a great turning in civilization, this essay focuses on the Korean religion Won-Buddhism with its founding motto, “With this Great Opening of matter, let there be a Great Opening of spirit.” Both its doctrine and practice arguably possess great potential. Unlike the traditional Buddhist view of enlightenment, Won-Buddhism’s “Great Opening of spirit” starts from a specific diagnosis of the current time as an age of “Great Opening of matter” and proposes a double project of at once adapting to and overcoming modernity. In this way, it carries on the tradition of Korea’s indigenous religious movements since the mid-nineteenth century, but by combining that strain with Buddhism as its core doctrine, it achieves a fuller global significance than its predecessors. The essay examines Roberto Unger’s The Religion of the Future for both parallels and divergences, sympathizing with Unger’s emphasis on a religious revolution, but finding his thought essentially confined within the limits of Western metaphysics. Martin Heidegger is brought in to elucidate this point, as is Karl Marx, for comparison and contrast with Won-Buddhism’s diagnosis of and response to modernity. In closing, the essay takes up two Won-Buddhist agendas that are also of global concern: gender equality and the “church and state” relation.

  9. Os intelectuais e o budismo japonês no Brasil / Intellectuals and Japanese Buddhism in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Basto de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste ensaio trata da história da descoberta do Budismo japonês por intelectuais brasileiros, como um conjunto de práticas e sabedorias espirituais, realizada através de leituras e encontros com monges budistas japoneses e/ou imigrantes japoneses. Devido a isso, estes intelectuais defendem uma experiência religiosa baseada numa noção universalista de representações do Budismo japonês, que lhes proporcionam reflexão filosófica não-dualista e experiência psicológica única. Tais intelectuais, através de experiências espirituais inovadoras, romperam a tensão criada pela disputa entre secularização via ciência e a hegemonia católica, predominantes no panorama intelectual.AbstractThis study concentrates on the discovery of Japanese Buddhism by Brazilian intellectuals as a group of spiritual practices and as a body of spiritual wisdom. The study has been realized through readings and meetings with Japanese Buddhist monks and/or Japanese immigrants. These intellectuals defend a religious experience based on a universal notion of representations of Japanese Buddhism, which provides them with a non-dualistic philosophical perspective and a unique psychological experience. Through innovative spiritual experiences these intellectuals have broken the tension created within the dispute between secularized science and the Catholic hegemony, both predominant in the intellectual panorama.

  10. Skeptic Spirituality or the Accidental Buddhism of Machado de Assis's O Segredo do Bonzo

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    Dilip Loundo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to support the idea that Machado de Assis’ work conforms well to what may be called a non-religious spirituality. For that, the article’s main focus is the analysis of the short story “O Segredo do Bonzo: Capítulo Inédito de Fernão Mendes Pinto”, published in 1882’s collection titled Papéis Avulsos, where the main principles of that spirituality, which is spread all over his work,  are given in a nutshell. In a first moment, we analise the intertextuality between Machado’s short story “O Segredo do Bonzo” and Portuguese Renaissance writer’s travelogue Peregrinação and the Machado’s nineteen century critique of the west’s main universalizing proposals: Christianity, scientificity and Enlightenment. In a second moment, we analise the philosophical implications of the primacy given to ‘opinion’ as an existential foundation and as a constitutive element of reality, in a context of close proximity with the soteriological traditions of ancient Greek skepticism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other. A critic of religion, specially of Christian religion, Machado’s  ‘accidental’ association with Buddhism is symptomatic of a very peculiar form of non-religious spirituality.

  11. Review Essay: Mortuary Practices, Buddhism, and Family Relations in Japanese Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-lin Hur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark Rowe. Bonds of the Dead: Temples, Burial, and the Transformation of Contemporary Japanese Buddhism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. 256 pp. $91 (cloth, $29 (paper.Satsuki Kawano. Nature’s Embrace: Japan’s Aging Urbanites and New Death Rites. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2010. 232 pp. $47 (cloth, $27 (paper.In Bonds of the Dead, Mark Rowe, who focuses on “the grave as the center of the ancestral orbit” in Japanese mortuary practices, observes that, due to the gradual loss of its gravitational pull, “the economic and social bedrock of temple Buddhism in Japan has eroded to the point where even its continued existence is publicly called into question” (222. Here, Rowe speaks to the decline of what is commonly known as the danka system. In contrast, in Nature’s Embrace, Satsuki Kawano finds that the dominance of Buddhist death-related rituals couched in the tradition of the danka system remains by and large intact...

  12. Choosing Buddhism in Australia: towards a traditional style of reflexive spiritual engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tim; Aarons, Haydn

    2005-06-01

    There has been little dedicated sociological research on the appeal Buddhism holds for many individuals in the West. It is suggested that this absence reflects a current tendency within the discipline to highlight a new age approach to spiritual involvement and to overlook other optional styles of engagement. Such a pattern of study is concerning because the propensity to privilege the new age style would seem to be less an outcome of a coherent research agenda than a result of the currency that the idea of postmodern religion has come to assume in theoretical accounts of spiritual transformation in contemporary societies. Using data from a modest quantitative survey, the study investigates spiritual style among a sample of Australians who have developed an interest in Buddhist practice and belief. The results point to the prevalence of a traditional approach to involvement, whereby the individual decides to engage solely with Buddhism for the long duration. Given its possession of these qualities, the research goes on to examine the social patterning of spiritual commitment. The findings suggest that comprehending the social restrictions to any kind of involvement is a more pressing sociological question than explaining social divergences among the engaged.

  13. Disentangling the neural mechanisms involved in Hinduism- and Buddhism-related meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Chiesa, Alberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-10-01

    The most diffuse forms of meditation derive from Hinduism and Buddhism spiritual traditions. Different cognitive processes are set in place to reach these meditation states. According to an historical-philological hypothesis (Wynne, 2009) the two forms of meditation could be disentangled. While mindfulness is the focus of Buddhist meditation reached by focusing sustained attention on the body, on breathing and on the content of the thoughts, reaching an ineffable state of nothigness accompanied by a loss of sense of self and duality (Samadhi) is the main focus of Hinduism-inspired meditation. It is possible that these different practices activate separate brain networks. We tested this hypothesis by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The network related to Buddhism-inspired meditation (16 experiments, 263 subjects, and 96 activation foci) included activations in some frontal lobe structures associated with executive attention, possibly confirming the fundamental role of mindfulness shared by many Buddhist meditations. By contrast, the network related to Hinduism-inspired meditation (8 experiments, 54 activation foci and 66 subjects) triggered a left lateralized network of areas including the postcentral gyrus, the superior parietal lobe, the hippocampus and the right middle cingulate cortex. The dissociation between anterior and posterior networks support the notion that different meditation styles and traditions are characterized by different patterns of neural activation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Loving-kindness brings loving-kindness: the impact of Buddhism on cognitive self-other integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Zech, H.; Hommel, B.; Verdonschot, R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hsieh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Common wisdom has it that Buddhism enhances compassion and self-other integration. We put this assumption to empirical test by comparing practicing Taiwanese Buddhists with well-matched atheists. Buddhists showed more evidence of self-other integration in the social Simon task, which assesses the

  15. THE ADOPTION OF BUDDHISM'S PRINCIPLES AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING PHYSICIANS' WORK WITH TERMINALLY ILL PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The medical approach as summarized by Leibowitz--"We must treat the person, not just the disease"--highlights the importance of treating the sick person and not only the illness' pathology. This approach calls for healing not only the physical side, but also--and mainly--the mental aspect of the patient. One of the goals of this article is to turn physicians' attention towards the compassion necessary in treating a person with a severe or chronic illness, or a person who is dying--precisely because sometimes there is no medical cure for the physical state of such a patient. Therefore, physicians' attention does need to be directed to providing emotional assistance to such a patient. Sometimes, the emotional strength the patient draws from the medical team that is treating him can change his view of, and approach to, the illness, and can enable his body to muster the emotional strength necessary to deal with his situation. Buddhism's approach enables the sick patient to experience his illness in a different way, by making peace with one's situation and, sometimes, even viewing the situation differently--viewing the illness as a type of renewal. Buddhism, therefore, enables a sick person to choose a different point of view when his energy is exhausted and he loses hope, providing quality of life to patients. In such a situation, a sick person finds emotional strength in the knowledge that the end of his life is actually a renewal somewhere else. The limited life expectancy of the terminally ill patient demands that he be able to spend his time with minimal concerns and worries, and does not leave much time for treating the emotional side--the patient's fear. In light of this fact, the patient's ability to look ahead and grasp at hope is the most important issue. As much as possible, this is accomplished in an atmosphere of acceptance and with the absence, or reduction, of fear. The freedom to decide for oneself how to behave, according to one's own approach, is what

  16. The practice of mindfulness: from Buddhism to secular mainstream in a post-secular society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Frisk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the practice of mindfulness, which has migrated from being part of a religion, Buddhism, to being an integral part of Western psychology. Mindfulness is especially used in cognitive behavioural therapy, but also in, e.g., dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT. In Sweden several doctors, psychologists and psychiatrists use and recommend mindfulness for therapeutic purposes. Mindfulness is used today in many segments of mainstream medical and therapeutic care. Mindfulness is also used outside the mainstream medical and therapeutic sector, in the area of personal development or spirituality, as well as in more traditional Buddhist groups and innovative Buddhist groups such as vipassana groups. This paper investigates the migration of mindfulness from a religious to a secular sphere, and discusses whether mindfulness is a religious practice or not.

  17. Understanding suffering and giving compassion: the reach of socially engaged Buddhism into China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the social engagement of Buddhists through their active voluntary works - works that result in the development of a religious philanthropic culture. Through three case examples, this paper will examine how the sangha and individual Buddhists understand social suffering and compassion and attempt to integrate their understanding of Buddhist virtues and values in their daily life where the performance of voluntary works is seen as Buddhist spiritualism. In this process, the individuals seek to understand the key principles of Buddhism that are of direct relevance to their daily existence and their quest to be a compassionate self. Foremost are two notions of yebao (karma) and gan-en (gratitude) and how through compassionate practices and gratitude for those who accepted compassionate acts, they would be rewarded with good karma. Here, pursuing compassionate acts and the alleviation of social suffering is the pursuit of this-worldly spiritualism.

  18. Good feelings in christianity and buddhism: religious differences in ideal affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Miao, Felicity F; Seppala, Emma

    2007-03-01

    Affect valuation theory (AVT) predicts cultural variation in the affective states that people ideally want to feel (i.e., "ideal affect"). National and ethnic comparisons support this prediction: For instance, European Americans (EA) value high arousal positive (HAP) states (e.g., excitement) more and low arousal positive (LAP) states (e.g., calm) less than Hong Kong Chinese. In this article, the authors examine whether religions differ in the ideal affective states they endorse. The authors predicted that Christianity values HAP more and LAP less than Buddhism. In Study 1, they compared Christian and Buddhist practitioners' ideal affect. In Studies 2 and 3, they compared the endorsement of HAP and LAP in Christian and Buddhist classical texts (e.g., Gospels, Lotus Sutra) and contemporary self-help books (e.g., Your Best Life Now, Art of Happiness). Findings supported predictions, suggesting that AVT applies to religious and to national and ethnic cultures.

  19. Integrating Buddhism and HIV prevention in U.S. southeast Asian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, S; Lane, S D; Lloyd, L S; Loh, L

    1999-02-01

    Asian Pacific Islander communities in the United States have experienced an alarming increase in HIV infection over the past few years, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and the relative absence of appropriate educational interventions. The authors propose a new approach to the development of HIV prevention programs in U.S. southeast Asian communities. This article reviews the cultural and economic factors that may facilitate HIV transmission within these communities. Relying on the basic precepts of Buddhism, the dominant religion of many southeast Asian populations in the United States, the health belief model is utilized to demonstrate how recognizable, acceptable religious constructs can be integrated into the content of HIV prevention messages. This integration of religious concepts with HIV prevention messages may increase the likelihood that the message audience will accept the prevention messages as relevant. This nuanced approach to HIV prevention must be validated and refined through field research.

  20. Psychological Resources, Personality Traits and Buddhism: A Study of Italian Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Beraldi, Daniela; Gori, Alessio

    2018-04-28

    We aimed to examine whether young adults practicing Buddhism have elevated levels of psychological resources and specific personality traits compared to Catholics and Atheists. We recruited 184 participants: Soka Gakkai Buddhists (n = 60); non-practicing Roman Catholic Church believers (n = 62); Atheists (n = 62). We found that the Buddhists have higher optimism than both Catholics and Atheists. They also have higher self-efficacy and self-esteem than Catholics and higher perceived social support than Atheists. Concerning global personality factors, they are more extraverted than the other groups, and they are less tough-minded than Catholics. Differences also emerged relating some primary personality factors. Since we did not find differences between Catholics and Atheists about psychological resources, we speculate that religion alone does not provide an efficacious source of psychological resources; it could be that religious practice is determinant.

  1. Religion and suicide: Buddhism, Native American and African religions, Atheism, and Agnosticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, D; Gearing, R E

    2010-09-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. A clear understanding of the influence of religion on suicidality is required to more fully assess for the risk of suicide. The databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE were used to search peer-reviewed journals prior to 2008 focusing on religion and suicide. Articles focusing on suicidality across Buddhism, Native American and African religions, as well as on the relationship among Atheism, Agnosticism, and suicide were utilized for this review. Practice recommendations are offered for conducting accurate assessment of religiosity as it relates to suicidality in these populations. Given the influence of religious beliefs on suicide, it is important to examine each major religious group for its unique conceptualization and position on suicide to accurately identify a client's suicide risk.

  2. The Role of Religion in Higher Education Funding:Special Reference to Hinduism and Buddhism in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masitoh Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion is one of the recognised factors which play important roles in changing human lives. It influences various aspects of man’s life spectrum. Generally, each and every religion promotes man’s well-being and brings guidance to improve man’s lives psychologically, sociologically, spiritually and economically. From the economic point of view, every religion therefore provides sacred instruments to improve the society. In Hinduism and Buddhism, dana (charity, through redistribution of wealthis one of the economic sacred instruments practised to enhance man’s well-being. Therefore, Hinduism and Buddhism, amidst the other major world’s religionsin Malaysia, strive to play their own vital role in inculcating the sense of awareness among its adherents on the importance of charity and knowledge; for charity is known through knowledge (dharma. Both religions maintain that knowledge and hence, education has vital values and roles in order for man to attain happiness and prosperity in life, physically and spiritually. This research focuses on the economic role of religion, specifically Hinduism and Buddhism, in developing the society’s well-being through funding for higher education in contemporary Malaysia. It discusses the concept of dana (charity and its significance in the teachings of the two Indian religions, as well as factors encouraging their adherents to the practice of giving and charity. This paper will also examine the role and dana management of two religious institutions, namely the Penang Hindu Endowments Board (PHEB and Malaysian Buddhist Association in higher education financing. This research incorporates both library research and field studies, wherein survey and interview methods are applied. It suggests that the doctrine of dana in Hinduism and Buddhism plays important roles for the well-being of the society in contemporary Malaysia, specifically in economy and education.

  3. Loving-kindness brings loving-kindness: the impact of Buddhism on cognitive self-other integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Zech, Hilmar; Hommel, Bernhard; Verdonschot, Rinus; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hsieh, Shulan

    2012-06-01

    Common wisdom has it that Buddhism enhances compassion and self-other integration. We put this assumption to empirical test by comparing practicing Taiwanese Buddhists with well-matched atheists. Buddhists showed more evidence of self-other integration in the social Simon task, which assesses the degree to which people co-represent the actions of a coactor. This suggests that self-other integration and task co-representation vary as a function of religious practice.

  4. Tsunami and ghost stories in Thailand: exploring the psychology of ghosts and religious rituals within the context of Thai Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorajjakool, Siroj

    2007-01-01

    The post-tsunami ghost phenomena in Thailand may be understood, in Jungian terms, as an expression of the autonomous complex of the collective psyche resulting from traumatic loss. Religious rituals, as in the context of Thai Buddhism, provide an alternative method of dealing with grief, and hence they affirm the place of religious practices in the overall psychological well-being of people from various cultural backgrounds.

  5. Buddhism and the formation of the religious body: a Foucauldian approach

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    Malcolm Voyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poststructuralist debates around the body have demonstrated how our knowledge of the body is constituted in specific cultural and historical circumstances and in the context of particular relations of power. This article develops this approach to the body in Buddhism and thus attempts to show how the body has been represented within different discourses in Buddhist texts. Implicit in this account is the remedying of the failure in some Buddhist scholarship to recognise different types of bodies (negative and positive and to show how these aspects of the body, as enumerated by texts, operate together to constitute forms of identities capable of being constituted within different historical moments out of the pressure of new social and material changes. At the same time the body is seen as being capable of self modification in terms of that discourse. The term ‘body’ is used here in the sense that it implies not only a physical aspect (flesh, bones, liquids etc., but that it is connected to various cognitive and emotional capacities as outlined in the khandhas (see below explanation of the human constitution. The author's concern in his treatment of the body is to avoid the problems of psychological analysis, as this form of analysis often implies the existence of a psyche or soul along with the ideas of complete individual self-determination.

  6. Declínio do budismo "amarelo" no Brasil The decline of "yellow buddhism" in Brazil

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    Frank Usarski

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas empíricas indicam que o chamado "budismo de cor amarela", sobretudo associado ao budismo de imigração japonesa, está em um declínio constante no que diz respeito a adeptos explícitos. Depois de algumas considerações metodológicas, o artigo aborda os dados estatísticos relevantes. Na parte final são discutidas possíveis razões da dinâmica negativa, em conformidade com três níveis de explicação, a saber: motivos relacionados com instituições budistas; constelações dadas na comunidade étnica; fatores no âmbito do indivíduo.Empirical research shows that 'Yellow Buddhism,' primarily associated with Japanese immigrants in Brazil, is steadily declining in terms of its 'explicit' followers. After some methodological observations, the article examines the relevant statistical data. The final part of the text discusses possible reasons for this negative dynamic at three levels of explanation: namely, internal motives related to Buddhist institutions, configurations within the ethnic community, and factors at individual level.

  7. Revisiting the “Secret Consort” (gsang yum in Tibetan Buddhism

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    Holly Gayley

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the question, first introduced by feminist scholars in the mid-1990s, about whether sexual practices within Buddhist tantra (heterosexually conceived are empowering or exploitative to women. The purpose here is to complicate this question, given the different geographic settings and cultural contexts in which consort relationships have been embedded—from eastern Tibet to North America—and to nuance our understanding of the potential and pitfalls of sexuality in tantric contexts. To do so, I query the dynamics of secrecy and sexuality in tantric practice, examining twentieth century examples of female practitioners of Tibetan Buddhism who have participated in such relationships and thereby highlighting the localized ways that the “secret consort” (gsang yum has been invoked as a social role. This issue is especially relevant today in light of the global #MeToo movement and recent disclosures of sexual improprieties and alleged abuse involving Tibetan teachers at the head of Buddhist communities in Europe and North America. For this reason, to conclude, I discuss shifting perspectives on sexuality as Buddhist tantra has spread beyond Asia and draw attention to current voices calling for greater transparency and community accountability.

  8. Reducing Defensive Responses to Thoughts of Death: Meditation, Mindfulness, and Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Chin; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2017-08-24

    Three studies investigated the effects of meditation on responses to reminders of death. Study 1 took a quasi-experimental approach, comparing defensive responses to mortality salience (MS) of South Korean participants with varying levels of experience with Buddhism and meditation. Whereas non-Buddhists without meditation showed the typical increase in worldview defense after mortality salience (MS), this effect was not found among non-Buddhists immediately after an initial meditation experience, nor among lay Buddhists who meditated regularly or Buddhist monks with intensive meditation experience. Study 2, a fully randomized experiment, showed that MS increased worldview defense among South Koreans at a meditation training who were assessed before meditating but not among participants assessed after their first meditation experience. Study 3 showed that whereas American students without prior meditation experience showed increased worldview defense and suppression of death-related thoughts after MS, these effects were eliminated immediately after an initial meditation experience. Death thought accessibility mediated the effect of MS on worldview defense without meditation, but meditation eliminated this mediation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Religion and Depression in South Korea: A Comparison between Buddhism, Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism

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    Jinhee Seomun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the occurrence of depression in South Korea has significantly increased. Even though Buddhism was the main religion in historical South Korea, Christianity has recently emerged as a dominant faith tradition. However, the relationship between religion and depression among older Korean adults is understudied. The present study is designed to investigate religious variations and the role of religious participation in depression among older Korean adults using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA. From the KLoSA database, 6817 participants were extracted and analyzed. Utilizing the Korean version of the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 10 and the generalized linear models (GLM, a significant difference in depressive symptoms between religious groups (p < 0.05 and religious nones surfaced. This significant difference remained even after adjusting for the confounding factors. When the levels of depressive symptoms were compared across various faith traditions, the lowest depression score was detected from Buddhists (7.04, followed by Roman Catholics (7.12, and Protestants (7.71. Moreover, a significant difference in depressive symptoms between Buddhists and Protestants was observed. With regard to the frequency of religious participation, a significant difference in the depression score was observed only for Protestants. That is, the depression score for those who reported attending religious meetings ‘once to six times a year’ was significantly higher than the others. It is concluded that those who are religiously involved had significantly less depression symptoms than religious nones. Moreover, of the three faith traditions, Buddhists and Protestants showed a significant difference in depressive symptoms.

  10. Buddhist Contribution to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953

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    Xue Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by Chinese Buddhists, especially the so-called "progressive Buddhists," in the socialist transformation of the sangha at the early stage of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. I concentrate on the case of Ven. Juzan (1908–1984. While the focus on one individual does not reveal the whole story about Chinese Buddhists’ involvement in the Chinese Communist Party’s project of reshaping the sangha, the career of Juzan does provide a window on the issue. By exploring various sources, including Modern Buddhist Studies (Xiandai foxue and government documents, I investigate how Juzan urged his fellow Buddhists to work with the Communist leadership, and how he justified government policies on Buddhism by reinterpreting Buddhist doctrines. In so doing, this study intends to show that Chinese Buddhists’ collaboration with the Communist regime was a significant dimension of the socialist transformation of the Chinese sangha, a process that laid the foundation for full-scale persecution of Buddhism during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976.

  11. Retrospective and modern views on modernization and alternative modernization components of shinto and zen buddhism

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    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2016-03-01

    . For Japanese Buddhism, this dichotomy remains irrelevant, since in this religious system as, by the way, Shintoism, no opposition secular / social and religious rationality, which means no distinction between intellectuals, clergy and social stratum administrators who form a social cluster higher death and rationality are the bearers of traditional Weber.

  12. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  13. Psychiatry in Tibetan Buddhism: madness and its cure seen through the lens of religious and national history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan Buddhism offers the oldest written theory of psychiatry, dating back to the 7th and 8th century C.E. In this article, aspects of Tibetan psychiatry and the Tibetan view of mental illness, including the notion of demonic possession, are examined and compared to Western descriptive psychiatric and psychoanalytic object relations perspectives on mental illness. The mythology of Palden Lhamo is also explored, including the way this Tibetan Buddhist "special protector," or "dharmapala," is associated with the cure and causation of mental illness in Tibetan Buddhist conceptions of mental illness. The myth of her life is further explored and interpreted from a social psychological perspective in terms of its similarities and differences to the life of the Buddha, and to historical figures involved in Tibet's transformation from a war-like state to a pacifist Buddhist state.

  14. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  15. Never Die Alone: Death and Birth in Pure Land Buddhism : Jonathan Watts and Yoshiharu Tomatsu, editors, 2008, Jodo Shu Press (Tokyo, 978-4-883-63041-7, 175 pp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymind, Ilana

    2017-09-01

    This is a review of a collection of six essays. These essays, with the exception of one, are written by the followers of Shin Buddhism (Pure Land Buddhism). The last essay in this collection is written from the perspective of Theravada Buddhism rather than Mahayana Buddhism. This collection is a result of the initiative by Rev. Yoshiharu Tomatsu who, as a Buddhist priest, has acquired hands-on experience in dealing with grieving Temple members and became acutely aware of the discrepancy between a medical system and a ritualistic Buddhist system. While a medical system overlooks the spiritual needs of the dying, a Buddhist temple system neglects the spiritual needs of the living. This book ensued from a project that was initiated in 2006 and focused on the above-mentioned missing links, aiming to bring into conversation medical and religious practitioners.

  16. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    OpenAIRE

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya; Suoneth Photisan; Makhawin Purisuttamo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1) to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning dei...

  17. Are religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism associated with disability and salivary cortisol in office workers with chronic low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooksawat, Annop; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Tencomnao, Tewin; Pensri, Praneet

    2013-01-17

    Low back pain (LBP) is common among office workers. A number of studies have established a relationship between Christianity and physical and mental health outcomes among chronic pain patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism and disability and psychological stress in office workers with chronic LBP. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire delivered by hand to 463 office workers with chronic LBP. Saliva samples were collected from a randomly selected sub-sample of respondents (n=96). Disability due to LBP was assessed using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and psychological stress was assessed based on salivary cortisol. Two hierarchical regression models were built to determine how much variance in disability and psychological stress could be explained by religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism variables after controlling for potential confounder variables. Only 6% of variance in psychological stress was accounted for by the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism. Those with high religiousness experienced lower psychological stress. No association between the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism and disability level was found. Depressive symptoms were attributed to both psychological stress and disability status in our study population. The findings suggest that, although being religious may improve the psychological condition in workers with chronic LBP, its effect is insufficient to reduce disability due to illness. Further research should examine the role of depression as a mediator of the effect of psychological stress on disability in patients with chronic LBP.

  18. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event.

  19. Effects of Buddhism walking meditation on depression, functional fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhinkit, Susaree; Suppapitiporn, Siriluck; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Suksom, Daroonwan

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the novel Buddhism-based walking meditation (BWM) and the traditional walking exercise (TWE) on depression, functional fitness, and vascular reactivity. This was a randomized exercise intervention study. The study was conducted in a university hospital setting. Forty-five elderly participants aged 60-90 years with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly allocated to the sedentary control, TWE, and BWM groups. The BWM program was based on aerobic walking exercise incorporating the Buddhist meditations performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Depression score, functional fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation as measured by the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were the outcome measures used. Muscle strength, flexibility, agility, dynamic balance, and cardiorespiratory endurance increased in both exercise groups (p<0.05). Depression score decreased (p<0.05) only in the BWM group. FMD improved (p<0.05) in both exercise groups. Significant reduction in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were found in both exercise groups, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cortisol, and interleukin-6 concentrations decreased only in the BWM group. Buddhist walking meditation was effective in reducing depression, improving functional fitness and vascular reactivity, and appears to confer greater overall improvements than the traditional walking program.

  20. HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

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    G V Ozhiganova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data. Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.

  1. Buddhism at Crossroads: A Case Study of Six Tibetan Buddhist Monks Navigating the Intersection of Buddhist Theology and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin

    Recent effort to teach Western science in the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries has drawn interest both within and outside the quarters of these monasteries. This novel and historic move of bringing Western science in a traditional monastic community began around year 2000 at the behest of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism. Despite the novelty of this effort, the literature in science education about learners from non-Western communities suggests various "cognitive conflicts" experienced by these non-Western learners due to fundamental difference in the worldview of the two knowledge traditions. Hence, in this research focuses on how six Tibetan Buddhist monks were situating/reconciling the scientific concepts like the theory of evolution into their traditional Buddhist worldview. The monks who participated in this study were engaged in a further study science at a university in the U.S. for two years. Using case study approach, the participants were interviewed individually and in groups over the two-year period. The findings revealed that although the monks scored highly on their acceptance of evolution on the Measurement of Acceptance of Theory of Evolution (MATE) survey, however in the follow-up individual and focus group interviews, certain conflicts as well as agreement between the theory of evolution and their Buddhist beliefs were revealed. The monks experienced conflicts over concepts within evolution such as common ancestry, human evolution, and origin of life, and in reconciling the Buddhist and scientific notion of life. The conflicts were analyzed using the theory of collateral learning and was found that the monks engaged in different kinds of collateral learning, which is the degree of interaction and resolution of conflicting schemas. The different collateral learning of the monks was correlated to the concepts within evolution and has no correlation to the monks' years in secular school, science learning or their

  2. Healthcare in Pali Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustarini, Giuliano

    2017-05-02

    This article addresses an apparent paradox found in Pali Buddhist literature: while the "uncompounded" (asaṅkhata) is valued over and above what is "compounded" (saṅkhata), the texts also encourage careful attention to relative (or, physical) health. The mind is the laboratory and the object of a thorough work meant to lead to final liberation from mental affliction and from the cycle of existence, whereas the body is perceived as impure, limited, and intrinsically unsatisfactory. Nonetheless, a disciple of the Buddha is supposed to take care of his/her own and others' physical wellbeing, and monastic equipment includes a set of medicines. "Ultimate health" is the final goal, but conventional healthcare supports the path to nibbāna and represents a value per se. The present article will explore the intricate connection between these two dimensions.

  3. Buddhism and medical futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tuck Wai; Hegney, Desley

    2012-12-01

    Religious faith and medicine combine harmoniously in Buddhist views, each in its own way helping Buddhists enjoy a more fruitful existence. Health care providers need to understand the spiritual needs of patients in order to provide better care, especially for the terminally ill. Using a recently reported case to guide the reader, this paper examines the issue of medical futility from a Buddhist perspective. Important concepts discussed include compassion, suffering, and the significance of the mind. Compassion from a health professional is essential, and if medical treatment can decrease suffering without altering the clarity of the mind, then a treatment should not be considered futile. Suffering from illness and death, moreover, is considered by Buddhists a normal part of life and is ever-changing. Sickness, old age, birth, and death are integral parts of human life. Suffering is experienced due to the lack of a harmonious state of body, speech, and mind. Buddhists do not believe that the mind is located in the brain, and, for Buddhists, there are ways suffering can be overcome through the control of one's mind.

  4. 台灣佛教數位典藏資料庫之建置 Digital Archives for the Study of Taiwanese Buddhism

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    Jen-Jou Hung

    2011-09-01

    culture. As part of this program a number of digital archives specifically concerning the history and development of Buddhism in Taiwan have been created. Supported at various stages by the Taiwan eLearning and Digital Archives Project, the Haoran Foundation and the National Science council these archives preserve a wide range of texts and images pertaining to Buddhism in Taiwan from its inception in the 17th century to the present day. This paper describes the creation principles and scope of these digital collections.

  5. Buddhism, behavior change, and OCD.

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    Olson, Tom

    2003-06-01

    For individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), the difficulty of their situation comes as no surprise. But what might be less expected is how directly their situation is spoken to in Buddhist teachings. Still, in nearly all mainstream discussions of psychiatric disorders, including OCD, the rich philosophical and spiritual dimensions of these conditions and the related treatment and care tend to be either ignored or disguised in euphemisms and vague explanations. This article sheds light on this hidden aspect of psychiatry and psychiatric nursing through a philosophical analysis of one of the most popular approaches to treating OCD, Schwartz's four-step method from Brain Lock. In so doing, the argument is made that sharing the philosophical and spiritual foundations of treatment and care promises not only to deepen the insights and skills of clinicians but also to empower clients as participants in their own journeys toward wellness and beyond.

  6. Theravada Buddhism and Thai Luxury Fashion Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory

  7. Theravada buddhism and thai luxury fashion consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features

  8. Buddhism and adolescent alcohol use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Li, Tiandong; Innadda, Saranya

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 2019 Thai secondary school students in grades equivalent to U.S. 10 through 12 completed a 43-item alcohol expectancy questionnaire in June 2000. Factor analysis revealed four factors: (a) positive expectancies, (b) negative expectancies, (c) sex and power expectancies, and (d) religious expectancies. Practicing Buddhists were less likely to drink than nonpracticing Buddhists and had fewer positive and more negative expectancies about alcohol. Among students who did drink, Buddhist beliefs did not appear to influence whether or not they were binge drinkers. Buddhist beliefs may influence decisions to drink but not decisions related to drinking patterns.

  9. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  10. Buddhism and psychoanalysis: a personal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, David

    2006-06-01

    Around 600 BC Siddhartha Gotama practiced intensive meditation for several years and found a way for people to cultivate a sense of equanimity, wisdom, and compassion in their lives. Around 1900 AD Sigmund Freud undertook several years of intensive self-analysis and developed theories and therapeutic techniques for understanding how the unconscious operates in our lives to perpetuate neurotic suffering, and how we might gain insight and relief from that suffering and be more free to move toward our potential in this life. This article gives an overview of Buddhist theory and practice, gives an account of the author's personal journey through both disciplines, and then point outs the similarities and differences in them, leading to an integration of elements of these two paths of exploration of the psyche, for the purpose of mutual enrichment.

  11. Buddhism, Copying, and the Art of the Imagination in Thailand

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    Jim Taylor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article theorizes new urban religio-scapes in metropolitan Bangkok, a city space of contradictory modernities. Here, I look at two contrasting Buddhist monastic spaces of sanctity from periods of fieldwork between 1998 and 2002. Firstly, as found in the modern semblance of order and discipline at the radically neo-conservative Dhammakaya Movement (lit. “Body of Dhamma”. Secondly, the chaotic, disordered flamboyant and kitsch space of the Sanam Chan Monastery on the outskirts of the ever-expanding Thai post-metropolis, which has similarities with the consumerist contemporary “Buddhist” feature art of the arcades and shopping centres. I argue that Wat (Monastery Sanam Chan is a postmodern representation of sanctity; it is a response to modernity, while Dhammakaya, aside from its immense spectacle, reflects more the essentialist conditions inherent in modernity. Nevertheless, it is clear that both spaces of sanctity challenge the established religious hierarchy, its perceived orthodoxy, legitimation and the ethical bases of civic religion in Thailand.

  12. The Concept of Self in Buddhism and Brahmanism: Some Remarks

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    Andrej ULE

    2016-02-01

    I contrast briefly the Buddhist concept of Self as a process and a conditional reality with the concept of the substantial metaphysical concept of Self in Brahmanism and Hinduism. I present the criticism of the Buddhist thinkers, such as Nāgārjuna, who criticize any idea of the metaphysical Self. They deny the idea of the Self as its own being or as a possessor of its mental acts. However, they do not reject all sense of Self; they allow a pure process of knowledge (first of all, Self-knowledge without a fixed subject or “owner” of knowledge. This idea is in a deep accord with some Chan stories and paradoxes of the Self and knowledge.  

  13. Understanding Buddhism through Pali in India and Thailand

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    Upender Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pali plays a vital role in the history and culture of India. It preserves the Indian culture in a systematic way. Hence an attempt of understanding the Indian culture without Pali cannot fulfil the complete purpose. In fact Pali was an important source for understanding ancient Buddhist culture and philosophy which are integral part of Indian culture. In ancient India there were Buddhist universities and people from many countries used to visit India to learn the Indian culture including Buddhist philosophical expositions. Indian languages and literatures were highly influenced by Pali language and literature.

  14. Santi Asoke Buddhism and the Occupation of Bangkok International Airport

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    Marja-Leena Heikkilä-Horn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced dramatic political turmoil from February 2006 to November 2008 culminating in the occupation of the Bangkok International Airport. The demonstrations against then Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his political allies were organised by the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD. One of the PAD leaders, Major-General Chamlong Srimuang, is an active member of the Buddhist Santi Asoke group. The group is controversial as it is not under the state Buddhist authorities and has implicitly criticised the Thai state Buddhist monks for moral corruption. Known as the ‘Dharma Army’, hundreds of Santi Asoke monks, nuns and lay people participated in PAD demonstrations. This paper analyses what the Santi Asoke Buddhist group represents, what the ‘Dharma Army’ is, how its reality differs from media images, what the ideological reasons for Asoke to initially support Thaksin were, and why the group finally turned against him. The paper argues that the group cannot be viewed as a monolithic community. Instead, it should be considered as an amalgamation of monks and nuns, urban and rural temple residents, lay followers of Asoke monks, practitioners of organic agriculture in Asoke village communities, students and former students of Asoke schools, and supporters of Major-General Chamlong Srimuang. Representatives of all these networks participated in the demonstrations albeit with different intensity. ----- Zwischen Februar 2006 und November 2008 stand Thailand unter dem Zeichen tiefgehender politischer Unruhen, die in der Besetzung des internationalen Flughafens ihren Höhepunkt fanden. Organisiert wurden diese Demonstrationen, die sich gegen den damaligen Premierminister Thaksin Shinawatra und seine politischen Verbündeten richteten, von der Volksallianz für Demokratie (PAD. Einer ihrer Anführer, Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang, ist aktives Mitglied der buddhistischen Santi Asoke Gruppe. Da sich Santi Asoke nicht der staatlich kontrollierten buddhistischen Ordnung beugt und solche Mönche implizit der moralischen Verdorbenheit beschuldigt, hängt ihr ein kontroverser Ruf an. Unter der Bezeichnung „Dharma Armee“ nahmen hunderte Anhänger von Santi Asoke, darunter Mönche, Nonnen und Laien an den PAD- Demonstrationen teil. Inhalt dieses Artikels ist daher die Analyse der Hintergründe und Ziele der Santi Asoke Gruppe und der „Dharma Armee“, Unterschiede zwischen medialer Darstellung und vorgefundener Realität sowie die Motive der anfänglichen Unterstützung Thaksins durch Santi Asoke und ihre spätere Abkehr von ihm. Dabei wird argumentiert, dass die Gruppe nicht als monolithischer Block verstanden werden kann, sondern in ihrer Vielfalt, zusammengesetzt aus Mönchen, Nonnen, EinwohnerInnen städtischer und ländlicher Tempel, Laien, AnhängerInnen biologischer Landwirtschaft in Asoke-Dörfern sowie UnterstützerInnen von Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang begriffen werden muss. RepräsentantInnen all dieser Netzwerke nahmen, wenn auch in unterschiedlicher Intensität, an den Demonstrationen teil.

  15. Killing, karma and caring: euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, D; Keown, J

    1995-10-01

    In 1993 The Parliament of the World's Religions produced a declaration known as A Global Ethic which set out fundamental points of agreement on moral tissues between the religions of the world. However, the declaration did not deal explicitly with medical ethics. This article examines Buddhist and Christian perspectives on euthanasia and finds that in spite of their cultural and theological differences both oppose it for broadly similar reasons. Both traditions reject consequentialist patterns of justification and espouse a 'sanctity of life' position which precludes the intentional destruction of human life by act or omission.

  16. Buddhism, science, and market: The globalisation of Tibetan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Craig R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the processes by which Tibetan medicine has become globalised, and the ways in which these have come to determine, constrain, and, ultimately, transform local practices of healing in both Tibet and the West. I examine the degree to which globalisation, in particular international market capitalism, operating in this case through the Chinese state, structures the content of primary medical resources, confers legitimacy to certain technologies, and sets the ground rules by which the healers in charge of deploying such technologies are set into conversation with one another. I also argue that the cultural dimensions of globalisation enter the local context through the multiple-stranded flows of people, images, and ideas, and contribute to redefinitions of identity, suffering, and body praxis among patients/consumers in diverse local contexts. I proceed within two registers of analysis. In the first, I analyse these movements in the context of Tibetan medicine as it has been transformed, practised, and used, in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. In the second, the analytic lens shifts to a focus on Tibetan medicine as a 'global' alternative medicine in North America and Europe. The focus throughout is on the global-local dialectic: how Tibetan medicine is both produced as global commodity and consumed as 'local' tradition.

  17. Killing, karma and caring: euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, D; Keown, J

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 The Parliament of the World's Religions produced a declaration known as A Global Ethic which set out fundamental points of agreement on moral tissues between the religions of the world. However, the declaration did not deal explicitly with medical ethics. This article examines Buddhist and Christian perspectives on euthanasia and finds that in spite of their cultural and theological differences both oppose it for broadly similar reasons. Both traditions reject consequentialist patterns of justification and espouse a 'sanctity of life' position which precludes the intentional destruction of human life by act or omission. PMID:8558539

  18. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Spencer A.

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  19. Buddhism in Sarnath: An Account of Two Chinese Travellers

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    Dr Anuradha Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw the religious life in Sarnath (and Varanasi as accounted by the Chinese travellers—Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang. The accounts not only talk about the stupas, pillars, statues built by King Ashoka; vihars and monks (bhikshus living in those vihars but also contain the first preachings of Lord Buddha, establishment of Sangha and the story of Mrigajataka that remain significant. With the increased popularity of Buddha dharma in China, the Chinese were attracted towards travelling to India. They came to India mainly with the intentions to visit the places related to the fond memories of Lord Buddha, to study the Buddha religion and philosophy and carry the copies of the Buddhist compositions. Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang occupy significant places among these Chinese travellers. These accounts can be associated with ancient history as well as with historical geography, religion and philosophy. While Fa-hien in his journey details had described about the Buddha Empire, Hiuen-tsang highlighted the civilisation of India and its cultural landscape, albeit it has been often accepted by the historians that these accounts of their journeys should be considered as significant only when they are backed by historical evidences. They opine that these travellers were mainly influenced by the Buddha dharma and therefore, their accounts are liable to containing exaggerated journey details. It is true that the journey details contain few imaginary instances; nevertheless, these accounts have been validated by the remnants, stupas and vihars at the sites.

  20. Siddartha: An Introduction to Buddhism and Hinduism Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Edward L.

    This three-week unit in world literature for 11th grade, average-ability students was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. An outline of the unit's content and subject matter is given. The novel "Siddhartha" is studied in its Hindu and Buddhist religious and cultural…

  1. The Concept of Self in Buddhism and Brahmanism: Some Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I contrast briefly the Buddhist concept of Self as a process and a conditional reality with the concept of the substantial metaphysical concept of Self in Brahmanism and Hinduism. I present the criticism of the Buddhist thinkers, such as Nāgārjuna, who criticize any idea of the metaphysical Self. They deny the idea of the Self as its own being or as a possessor of its mental acts. However, they do not reject all sense of Self; they allow a pure process of knowledge (first of all, Self-knowledge without a fixed subject or “owner” of knowledge. This idea is in a deep accord with some Chan stories and paradoxes of the Self and knowledge.

  2. The Path to attain al-Fana’ in Islam and Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masitoh Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quran is a primary resource for Islamic scientists and researchers. As a divine revelation of heaven and the source of legislation, it guides towards "sirat al-mustaqim”. The holy Quran dominates the work of great writers and scholars and has attracted their minds with the finest literary features which have been embarked in the study and have dived into the secrets, in "aagash of Quran” by Shykh Abdul Al-Qahir El-Gorjani. This study examined the miraculous Quran in Risalah Syafiah. He thwarted those who said (purely the eloquence of Quran is non-miraculous, Even the KufrQuraisy could not perform or create Quran because Allah swt has blocked their hearts and their indictment to say that Quran is eloquence and rhetoric. This research has emphasized on "aaghash” (miracle or extraordinary in "Risalah Syafiah” of Abdul Al-Qahir El-Gorjani, trying to explain general matters and El-Gorjani’s theory about "aaghash”, in which could be summarized that defy ‘purely’, as the main topic to be discussed. This research emphasized one of the topics related with a citation from the Quran (nas in which could be developed and most valuable. Hence, in comparison between Al-Jurjaani opinion and Abd Al-Jabbar’s opinion is to determine that Abd El-Jabbar had influenced El-Gorjani for his view and theory about "purely”.

  3. The emergence of the ecological mind in Hua-Yen/Kegon Buddhism and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambray, Joe

    2017-02-01

    The complexity associated with deep interconnectedness in nature is beginning to be articulated and elaborated in the field of ecological studies. While some parallels to the psyche have been made and the field of Eco-psychology has been developing, Jung's explicit contribution by way of the image of rhizomes has not been considered in detail. Philosopher Gilles Deleuze acknowledges borrowing the term from Jung, though he disagreed with Jung's Empedoclean use of the term. The paper presents some fundamental properties of rhizomes along with contemporary scientific research on mycorrhizal (fungal) networks. Comparisons are made, first with classical symbolic forms, demonstrating some overlap but also some differences. Then comparison of rhizomal networks is made to those found both in mammalian brains and in recent images of the 'cosmic web'. While no hard conclusions can be drawn from these images, their remarkable similarities are suggestive of a need to reconsider what is meant by 'intelligence'. The cosmic web is one of the largest structures in the known universe (clusters of galaxies which form into filaments and walls) with empty spaces in between. Exploration of the structure of this web leads to a discussion of dark matter and dark energy, current hot topics in science, probing into the mysteries of our 'Big-Bang' cosmology. An additional comparison of the emerging image of the universe as a whole with the ancient Chinese Buddhist cosmological vision from the Hua-Yen School (Kegon in Japan) again reveals profound parallels. The potential convergence of aspects of subjective, or meditative, explorations with objective scientific constructions is striking and offers links between East and West, as well as potential confirmation of the objective aspects of empathy. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  5. Mental balance and well-being: building bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L

    2006-10-01

    Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as identifying and treating psychological problems. This article attempts to draw on centuries of Buddhist experiential and theoretical inquiry as well as current Western experimental research to highlight specific themes that are particularly relevant to exploring the nature of mental health. Specifically, the authors discuss the nature of mental well-being and then present an innovative model of how to attain such well-being through the cultivation of four types of mental balance: conative, attentional, cognitive, and affective. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The gap between: being and knowing in Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P C

    2001-12-01

    The author discusses various relationships derived from the image of gap, precipice, and abyss with specific emphasis on interacting dynamics between being and knowing as explicated in the Zen Buddhist teachings of Hui-neng and in the psychoanalytic writings of Wilfred Bion. While of significant value to psychoanalysis, it is argued that symbolic meanings can occlude the actuality of the analysand's or of the spiritual seeker's affective experiencing, particularly concerning the human tendency to concretize experiential states engendered through meditation and/or the psychoanalytic encounter. The author draws from Matte-Blanco's explication of symmetrical and asymmetrical perceptual modalities to discuss the fluid nature of spiritual experiencing, paradoxical coexistence of ultimate and relative realities and reciprocal dynamics and identities between states of experiencing that might otherwise appear opposed. The primacy of experiencing for both disciplines, particularly concerning the experiencing subject's momentary state of consciousness, forms a central theme for both Zen and psychoanalysis. Brief clinical vignettes support and illuminate the author's points.

  7. Buddhism, Christianity, and psychotherapy: A three-way conversation in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the scope of 'religion-psy dialogue' in the mid-twentieth century, via a case study from Japan: Kosawa Heisaku, a Buddhist psychoanalyst based in Tokyo. By putting this case study in brief comparative perspective, with the conversation that took place in 1965 between Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers, the article discusses both the promise and the pitfalls of the modern and contemporary world of 'religion-psy dialogue', alongside the means by which specialists in a variety of fields might investigate and hold it to account.

  8. Blending Buddhism, Shinto, and the Secular: Japanese Conceptualizations of the Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Bruce, Jessica L.; Salmon, Ptamonie Y.; Eich, R. Tony; Brandewie, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interview study investigated Japanese understandings of spirituality, religion, and The Divine. Thirteen native Japanese living in central Ohio (6 male, 7 female) answered open-ended questions about spiritual or religious activities they engaged in, motivations for engaging in them, what constitutes sacredness, why humanity and…

  9. Who founded Buddhism? Notes on the psychological effectiveness of religious objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David M

    2017-04-01

    Starting with an outline of Buddhist history from a psychoanalytic perspective, this paper uses ideas from philosophy and psychoanalysis to consider the nature of the psychological effectiveness of religious objects. It suggests that the development of the devotional cult of Buddhas 'without form' such as Amitābha, at-first-glance surprising when juxtaposed with the founding vision of Gautama Siddhartha, tells us a great deal about the psychological needs that impel the evolution of religious thinking. Distinguishing religious objects from mythological ones, it argues that 'religious objects' are, more specifically, allegorical objects that can be encountered in the second person; that these may not always be well described as 'illusion'; and that they may in some cases be better understood as providing opportunities for experience that, like the transference in psychoanalysis, may have far-reaching psychological impacts. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. [Contributions of Catholicism, Protestantism, and Buddhism to medicine--taking into account the future of palliative medicine in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is worth recalling that Catholicism and Protestantism have each played an important role in the development of modern medicine. Before modern medicine become widely accepted, palliative care was addressed by Catholic abbes in Western Europe, as well as by Buddhist monks in Japan. Palliative medicine exceeds the capability of contemporary medicine in general, insofar as spirituality is an important dimension when doctors are caring for patients who may be facing death. Being aware of this problem, the author tries to elucidate the contributions of religion to medicine, with the intention of considering the future of palliative medicine in Japan.

  11. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  12. The meaning of suffering in drug addiction and recovery from the perspective of existentialism, Buddhism and the 12-Step program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the current article was to examine the meaning of suffering in drug addiction and in the recovery process. Negative emotions may cause primary suffering that can drive an individual toward substance abuse. At the same time, drugs only provide temporary relief, and over time, the pathological effects of the addiction worsen causing secondary suffering, which is a motivation for treatment. The 12-Step program offers a practical way to cope with suffering through a process of surrender. The act of surrender sets in motion a conversion experience, which involves a self-change including reorganization of one's identity and meaning in life. This article is another step toward understanding one of the several factors that contribute to the addict's motivation for treatment. This knowledge may be helpful for tailoring treatment that addresses suffering as a factor that initiates treatment motivation and, in turn, treatment success.

  13. “The meeting between Buddhism and the West” in the French media-academic sphere: A theosophical soteriology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dapsance

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo affronta il tema della persistenza delle visioni del mondo teosofiche nei discorsi sul Buddismo in Occidente. L’articolo mostra come alcuni intellettuali francesi attivi in ambito accademico e mediatico, mentre ritengono di analizzare la diffusione del Buddismo in Occidente sviluppano nei fatti un discorso soteriologico centrato su una entità reificata definita appunto “Occidente”. In tal modo essi non solo contribuiscono a sviluppare forme di “occidentalismo” (Carrier 1995 ma producono anche una interpretazione messianica della religione buddista. La prima parte dell’articolo descrive come questi intellettuali rifiutino di cogliere gli elementi propri di questa tradizione religiosa se non a partire dall’opposizione con quanto è noto: il Cristianesimo, la religione, la scienza, la modernità. La seconda parte esamina le radici storiche e ideologiche di questa soteriologia, mentre la terza parte ne esplora alcune applicazioni concrete.

  14. The Justifications for War and Peace in World Religions: Part II: Extracts, Summaries and Comparisons of Scriptures in Indic Religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the Brâhmana caste (though he has not studied the Veda or been initiated for a Soma-sacrifice), 8. Likewise he who has destroyed an embryo of a...king, they are obedient and act only on the orders of another. 31. “It is as a consequence of my evil destiny and my own misdeeds in the past that I...heavenly planets” (6.11.4). To kill a brahmana who is a saintly and sinless person, versed in Vedic knowledge, would be “like destroying the embryo

  15. Chinese Policy Toward South Asia: Implications and Prospects for Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Silk Road not only served as a major trade route between India and China, but was also credited for the expansion of Buddhism in this region. India...endowed with legendary fighters of world fame.36 Nepal is the melting pot where two important religions, Hinduism and Buddhism are being practiced...It is believed that Hinduism exists since 1200 BC37 and Buddhism since 520 BC.38 Buddha was born in Nepal, enlightened in India, and Buddhism spread

  16. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  17. To Lose China’s Support is to Lose Superpower Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Taoism , 2% Judaism, 4.5% Buddhism, 1% Buddhism, 3% Christianity, 1% Islam 3% Islam GDP $14.264 trillion $4.401 trillion ($46,859... Taoism and Buddhism, register only 7.5% and 4.5% respectively. It has been noted in this thesis that the United States has the largest economy in

  18. [Buddhist influences on Sun Simiao's precious prescriptions for emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J

    1999-10-01

    Living in a period when the Buddhism was quite flourishing, Sun had a close contact with the monk Dao Xuan, the founder of Nanshan Sect Buddhism. Sun's Quian jin fang adopted all schools including Buddhism, evidenced by the following 3 aspects: 1) Direct Buddhist influence, mainly on medical morality; 2) Indian medicine coming together with Buddhism, including the theory of "four - element theory", the conception of all matters are medicines, pills of all disorders, recipes, and keep - fit art. Buddhism acts as a carrier here; 3) the achievements of treatment for beriberi by monks. However, Buddhist influence was far inferior to Taoism as far as Sun's work is concerned.

  19. "Cultural additivity" and how the values and norms of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism co-exist, interact, and influence Vietnamese society: A Bayesian analysis of long-standing folktales, using R and Stan

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Ho, Manh-Tung; La, Viet-Phuong; Van Nhue, Dam; Khiem, Bui Quang; Cuong, Nghiem Phu Kien; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Ho, Manh-Toan; Nguyen, Hong-Kong T.; Nguyen, Viet-Ha; Pham, Hiep-Hung; Napier, Nancy K.

    2018-01-01

    Every year, the Vietnamese people reportedly burned about 50,000 tons of joss papers, which took the form of not only bank notes, but iPhones, cars, clothes, even housekeepers, in hope of pleasing the dead. The practice was mistakenly attributed to traditional Buddhist teachings but originated in fact from China, which most Vietnamese were not aware of. In other aspects of life, there were many similar examples of Vietnamese so ready and comfortable with adding new norms, values, and beliefs,...

  20. Temple Wars: Cambodia’s Dispute Over Preah Vihear Ownership and its Effects on National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    patronage of Buddhism and aspects of kingship that led to territorial expansion. Suryavarman was a unifying monarch that expanded the Khmer Empire by...to Buddhism may be the reason why elements of the religion are found in the temple’s architecture. Likewise, the thirteenth century brought about a...decline of Hindu worship in the Khmer Empire and the Preah Vihear Temple was then dedicated to Buddhism . 23 Cambodia’s Geography and its

  1. How to Train a Dragon: How the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Modernizes to Fight and Win Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Modern Strategy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), chap. 5. 8 Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism form the cultural underpinnings of...pursuit of human endeavor, social activity, and individual ambition.” Buddhism forms the last piece of the three part ideology. Introduced by India in...order to experience an abyss of nothingness.”3 The three religious foundations of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism form the basis of the

  2. Aloha Buddha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    , Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues, just as Hawaii with its long migration history and religious pluralism is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion...... and ethnicity. By analyzing contemporary religious life and the historical context of two Japanese American Zen temples in Maui, it is argued that the ethnic and cultural divide related to spirituality follow a general tendency by which the secularization of Japanese Americans’ communal Sangha Buddhism...... is counterbalanced by a different group’s spiritualization of Buddhism....

  3. Elder Gongga 貢噶老人 (1903-1997) between China, Tibet and Taiwan : Assessing Life, Mission and Mummification of a Buddhist Woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Elder Gongga (1903-1997), a Chinese Buddhist woman native of Beiping, played a crucial role in the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in China and Taiwan, bridged Dharma traditions, and merged Buddhist and cultural identities; she also became an eminent nun in the history of female Buddhism for life

  4. Jigten Gönpo on meat and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism.......A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism....

  5. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  6. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  7. Operationalization of the Religious Support Team Concept Utilizing a Collaborative Leadership Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    19 APPENDIX D50 CHAPLAIN 2005 2012 +/- % ENLISTED 2005 2012 +/- % DENOMINATION DENOMINATION Agnostic Agnostic 1 2 +100 Buddhism ... Buddhism 2 1 -50 Christian 593 465 -21.5 Christian 278 221 -20.5 Christian No Pref 94 106 +12.7 Hindu Hindu 1 0 Jewish 11 7 -36.3 Jewish 3

  8. ALAM SEMESTA (LINGKUNGAN DAN KEHIDUPAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF BUDHISME NICHIREN DAISHONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Wilujeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Buddhism taught by Sidhartha Gautama in India about two thousand years B.C. has spread throughout the world. From India to Tibetan Buddhism evolved, China and into Japan. Buddhism in Japan has distinct characteristics compared to Buddhism elsewhere. In Japan, Buddhism is mixed with a strong Japanese spirituality. This paper is the result of a brief research on the book, as well as the Buddhists by means of dialogue. The general objective of this paper is to get a general idea of ​​the concept of Nichiren cosmology, particularly on the subject of the universe (environment and life. The specific objective of this paper is the growing awareness to be open to understand other religions. It takes an attitude to want to investigate a  religion without fanaticial attitude or prejudice. Key words: Nichiren Daishonin, Universe, Life

  9. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  10. Buddhizmus a médiában. Az amerikai, brit és az angol nyelvű kínai újságok értelmezési keretei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sükösd, Miklós Áron

    2017-01-01

    How does international media represent Buddhism? This paper provides a quantitative framing analysis of American, British and Chinese (English language) newspapers between 2001 and 2013. Although the most frequently used frames (cultural, religious, political) are the same in all three countries......, there are major differences between as well as within countries. In the Western press, the subject of meditation-centered Western Buddhism enters the media. In Hong Kong, the press emphasizes the everyday, practical issues of traditional Buddhism. Beijing’s party press relates Buddhism to Chinese national...... identity and represents an official propaganda line regarding Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism. The logic of religion conflicts media logic as religious concepts and practices do not fit newspaper sections and media frames. The frames used by journalists brake down into parts and decontextualize religious...

  11. Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassanā meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongseok Joo, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassanā meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa Sŏn practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity.

  12. A polêmica sobre supostos “empréstimos” do Budismo ao Cristianismo e sua relevância para a fase inicial da Ciência da Religião institucionalizada (The polemics on alleged “borrowings” of Christianity from Buddhism. DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n31p914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Usarski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda década do século XX iniciou-se um debate polêmico sobre a possibilidade de que fontes budistas tenham influenciado escrituras cristãs. Nas décadas seguintes, o assunto tornou-se um tópico intensamente debatido em círculos acadêmicos da época, mas a controversa se acalmou ainda antes da Primeira Guerra Mundial. O presente artigo oferece um resumo sistemático do debate em questão e possibilita a hipótese de que em dois sentidos a discussão era sintomática para os Estudos da Religião da época. Primeiro, o debate era expressão de um interesse comparativo nas religiões que começou a se articular ainda antes da institucionalização da Ciência da Religião em universidades europeias. Segundo, após a incorporação oficial da Ciência da Religião nos currículos acadêmicos, as conquistas teóricas e instrumentais no âmbito da disciplina sensibilizaram para o caráter especulativo dos argumentos a favor da chamada “hipótese da dependência” e contribuíram para o declínio da discussão sobre supostos “empréstimos” do Budismo ao Cristianismo. Palavras-chave: Fontes budistas. Textos cristãos. Estudos Comparados da Religião. História da Ciência da Religião.   Abstract The second half of the 20th century witnessed the upswing of a polemic debate about the possibility that Buddhist sources may have influenced Christian scriptures. For the next decades, the issue became an intensely debated topic within certain academic circles, until the controversy lost its momentum before World War I. The present article offers an overview of the debate and argues that the controversy was in a twofold sense symptomatic for Religious Studies in the time under investigation. Firstly, the debate was an expression of the comparative impetus, which became prominent even before its institutionalization in European universities. Secondly, after the official incorporation of Religious Studies into the academic curriculum, the discipline’s theoretical and instrumental conquests shed a light on the speculative character of the arguments in favor of the so called “dependency-hypothesis” and contributed to the decline of the debate about the possibility that Christian scriptures could have borrowed material from Buddhist sources. Keywords: Buddhists sources. Christian scriptures. Comparative Religion. History of Science of Religion 

  13. La questione del misticismo: l’accettazione d’una realtà sovrasensibile e di un raccoglimento interiore. Profili comparati tra buddhismo zen, shivaismo, sufismo e mistica cristiana (The trascendental reality’s acceptance and her interior meditation. A comparative approach to mysticism between Zen Buddhism, Shivaism, Sufism and Christian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco LONGO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mysticism’s problem begins when our knowledge of the world becomes search for the deep: the sorrow and the joy are the same moments of life, lived in a mirror in which to dwell. The kintsugi art is care and meditation about joy and sadness, about the past time and present moment where life and death have a common point that introduces us to the mystery of our beginning.

  14. Mese Ajnak - Tajemství měděné hory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unger, Jiří; Engels, N.

    -, září (2012), s. 84-93 ISSN 1213-9394 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Afghanistan * excavations * buddhism * monasteries * mine Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. K buddhismu u Vietnamců v České republice: Od nenápadných počátků v ideovou páteř vietnamské diaspory ve střední Evropě?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brouček, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2016), s. 37-46 ISSN 0323-0619 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Vietnamese in the Czech Republic * integration * Buddhism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. International Politics of the Reincarnation of the Dalai Lama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarlagtay, Mashbat O

    2007-01-01

    ... religiously in Mongolia through a process of reincarnation. Mongolia would welcome the Dalai Lama's reincarnation in the country since Tibetan Buddhism enjoys the allegiance of many of Mongolia s people and is a part of Mongolia s national identity...

  17. Religion in Human Culture: An Elective Social Studies Course about World Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee H.; Bodin, Wesley J.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines a course which utilizes rational processes to teach high school students about religious diversity. Topics covered are Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and religious issues in contemporary society. (Author/DB)

  18. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bingenheimer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  19. Spiritual Medicine in The Multi Perspective of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas, Marwa; Akhmad, Syaefudin Ali; Afzal, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Spiritual healing, also known as healing through prayer and meditation, has been widely studied by various scholars from different religions including Islam, Hindu, Buddhism and Christianity. The term spiritual medicine is increasingly popular with increasing mental disorders, degenerative diseases, metabolic, cancer and social illness such as drug abuse. Religions of Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity have almost the same tradition in the spiritual aspect to create purity of self and...

  20. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 413

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-28

    country, Taoism has had over 1,700 years of history, Islamism has had over 1,300 years of history while Catholicism and Christianity have developed...beliefs. The major religions that are practiced in the areas inhabited by minority nationalities are Buddhism, Islamism , Christianity, Catholicism...Shamanism, the East Pakistan religion, Taoism and the Orthodox Eastern Church. Among them, Buddhism has enjoyed nearly 2,000 years of history in our

  1. USSR Report, Problems of the Far East No 4, Oct-Dec 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-21

    religion as a camouflage, so Buddhism, Taoism , and Islam have been freed of domination and exploitation by reactionary class- es.’ ’ 3. "We...or millenniums. Chinese Buddhism is more than 2000 years old, Tao.sm-ovcr 1700 Islam -1300! whereas Catholicism and Protestantism had appeared...mind the living conditions of the national minorities, with the bulk of population professing either Islam or Lamaism. In this case special

  2. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  3. Cosmic design from a Buddhist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, T X

    2001-12-01

    The Buddhist view of the origin of the universe is discussed. One of the basic tenets of Buddhism is the concept of interdependence which says that all things exist only in relationship to others, and that nothing can have an independent and autonomous existence. The world is a vast flow of events that are linked together and participate in one another. Thus there can be no First Cause, and no creation ex nihilo of the universe, as in the Big Bang theory. Since the universe has neither beginning nor end, the only universe compatible with Buddhism is a cyclic one. According to Buddhism, the exquisitely precise fine-tuning of the universe for the emergence of life and consciousness as expressed in the "anthropic principle" is not due to a Creative Principle, but to the interdependence of matter with flows of consciousness, the two having co-existed for all times.

  4. Buddhist Revival under State Watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laliberté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party has shown tolerance, if not direct support, for the growth of Buddhism over the last few decades. Three explanations for this lenient attitude are explored in this article. The flourishing of Buddhism is encouraged by the state less for its propaganda value in foreign affairs than for its potential to lure tourists who will, in turn, represent a source of revenue for local governments. Buddhist institutions are also establishing their track record in the management of philanthropic activities in impoverished area where local governments lack the resources to offer specific social services. Finally, the development of such activities has contributed to enhance cooperation between China and Taiwan, whose governments have a vested interest in the improvement of relations across the Strait. The article concludes that the growth of Buddhism in China results from the initiatives of Buddhists themselves, and the government supports this growth because it serves local politics well.

  5. Easternization of the East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Zen Buddhism has for decades fascinated the West, and the former elitist tradition has in contemporary times become part of a broader popular culture. Zen is for Buddhists, but it is also part of a general “Easternization” and alleged “spiritual revolution” narrative. In Japan both Zen...... domains are separate and that such a division is based on general differences in culturally constrained narratives (Western/Japanese, Zen/spirituality). Besides focusing on a concrete Japanese context, the article thus also contributes to research on global and transnational (Zen) Buddhism as well...

  6. モンゴル時代の「道仏論争」の実像:クビライの中国支配への道

    OpenAIRE

    中村淳

    1994-01-01

    The disputes between one sect of Taoism Quan-zhen-jiao (全真教) and the Zen sect (禅宗) of Buddhism arose three times in the reign of the Emperor Möngke. According to the Zhi-yuan-bian-wei-lu (至元辯偽録) compiled by a Buddhist monk which have been regarded as the only relevant literature, it is reported that these disputes ended in a victory for Buddhism. As the result of examining relevant parts of a report of mission composed by William of Rubruck and a Tibetan chronicle Hu-lan-deb-ther, we have fou...

  7. Comparison of Clothing Cultures from the View Point of Funeral Procession

    OpenAIRE

    増田, 美子; 大枝, 近子; 梅谷, 知世; 杉本, 浄; 内村, 理奈

    2011-01-01

    This study was for its object to research for the look in the funeral ceremony and make the point of the different and common point between the respective cultural spheres of the Buddhism,Hinduism, Islam and Christianity clearly. In the year 21, we tried to grasp the reality of costumes of funeral courtesy in modern times and present-day. And it became clear in the result, Japan, the Buddhist cultural sphere, China and Taiwan, the Buddhism, the Confucianism and the Taoism intermingled cultura...

  8. The phenomenon of the self-identification in ancient eastern traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stoiano

    2015-04-01

    By majority of ancient Indian sages (in the Vedas, the Upanishads the Self was conceived as invariant and unchanging core of essence of the soul (Atman, the managing body and which is the organic part of the universal whole (Brahman. In Buddhist philosophy, the concept of ‘I’ is movable, unknowable, because it is a continuous process of choosing vital values, reincarnations and suffering on the way to finding the true Self in Nirvana. Like Buddhism, Taoism conceives the Self as a set of states of the soul and body, but unlike Buddhism, asserts the possibility of self­knowledge, at least on an intuitive level.

  9. Removing the Stigma: For God and Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Total Agnostic 0 788 1,318 249 2,355 Atheist 2,930 1,033 1,898 4,226 10,085 Baha’l Faith 0 30 22 37 89 Buddhism 2,236 1,309 937 1,498 5,980...USMCR ANG USAFR Total Agnostic 360 0 137 188 22 52 759 Atheist 1,548 748 152 276 559 401 3,684 Baha’l Faith 3 0 5 0 12 13 33 Buddhism 889 871 189

  10. Buddhist ethics and end-of-life care decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Buddhism has grown in the United States in the past 50 years. Immigrants come following long traditions. American converts are more eclectic. The first Buddhist precept prohibiting harm to living things, the virtue of compassion, and the goal of a peaceful death provide guidance for ethical decision making regarding organ donation, withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, voluntary cessation of eating, physician aid in dying, and euthanasia. Concepts and views from three Buddhist traditions and views of master practitioners are presented. Case examples illustrate some of the differences within Buddhism. Suggestions for social workers are provided.

  11. Balancing the Direct and Indirect Approaches: Implications for Ending the Violence in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    place daily. More than 2,500–3,000 years into its history, Thailand and the Indo-China region were influenced by Brahmanism ( Hinduism ) and Buddhism... Hinduism and Buddhism from India, beginning in the 7th century; then Islam was brought to the area and to other countries in Southeast Asia in the 13th...the 7th century, the three southern provinces of Thailand were called the “Lankasuka Empire” and influenced by Hinduism . People lived their lives by

  12. One or many Buddhas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga)....

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clasquin-Johnson, M. Vol 29, No 2 (2009) - Articles The centuries-old dialogue between buddhism and christianity. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2309-9089. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  14. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  15. Aan duiding van Zen-trekke by Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Steenberg

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The author undertakes his analysis on the basis of his statement that he found it impossible to read Breytenbach without recourse to Zen-Buddhism. He deals briefly with the issue of the topicality of Zen-Buddhism. He analyses certain poems to point out the Zen-Buddhist experiential context and approach to reality before going on to a discussion of what constitutes Zen-Buddhism. The method of Zen-Buddhism, a looking into the self, a meditation, leads ultimately to a strongly ascetic lifestyle, and this spiritual discipline becomes determining for one's experience and life. He gives a diagrammatic representation of the implications of self-analysis in the Zen framework before analysing Breytenbach's poetry to indicate motifs and steps in the process. The analyses involve the theory of knowledge, the way to nirvana, the concepts of time and eternity and mysticism, a true acceptance of reality, the oneness of all things (including the "I", the awareness of mortality, death, the worldly, and in a long final section, the fallibility of language. The final conclusion is that the poetry in the relevant volumes demands a great deal of co-creative activity on the part of the reader. While Biblical and Zennist allusions converge, it emerges that Biblical referencesare merely communicative devices within a framework of over-arching Zen-Buddhist thought.

  16. Kinesisk Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Nielsen, Klaus Bo

    Bogen Kinesisk Religion omhandler kongfuzianisme, daoisme, buddhisme, maoisme, folkereligion og nye religioner i ind- og udland. Den indeholder klassiske myter og magiske ritualer, historiske milepæle og moderne udfordringer, politisk religion og levende folkereligiøsitet. Bogen henvender sig...

  17. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  18. Defining death: organ transplants, tradition and technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, E A

    1988-01-01

    This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern medical dilemmas.

  19. Overview of religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  20. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    politics). 1. Four books of Veda (= to see), approximately 2000 B.C.. a. Revelations essential to Hindu way of life. b. Brahmans taught Vedas from...Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. It occurs first in the Vedas , in its oldest form as dharman. It is difficult to provide a single concise

  1. A Mandala's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A Tibetan Buddhist monk, Lama Tenzin, spent a week at the Manhattan private school where the author of this article was the middle school director. Lama Tenzin did not come to introduce students to Buddhism or to explain the plight of the Tibetan people. Instead, he came to create a piece of art that is a specialty of his and his brother monks': a…

  2. Shi Cihang 航慈釋. The First Case of Mummified Buddhist in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Travagnin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shi Cihang 航慈釋 (1895-1954, is one of the eminent figures in the so-called Modern Buddhism in Taiwan. Engaged in improving education and training of Buddhist monks and nuns, and promoter of the so-called renjian fojiao 教佛間人 (Buddhism for the Human Realm, which refuses any sort of superstitious understanding and practice of Buddhism and calls for the return to the original and pure essence of the Dharma, Cihang is also the first Buddhist monk in Taiwan who attempted to, and eventually succeeded in, preserving his body afterdeath. Nowadays, the gilded relic-body of Cihang is enshrined and venerated in Xizhi, Taipei county, as well as being included in the list of the roushen pusa 薩菩身肉 (flesh-body Bodhisattvas who appeared in the history of Chinese Buddhism. This paper analyses Cihang’s relic-body as case-study of Chinese mummified Buddhist in the scene of contemporary Taiwan and modern Taiwanese Buddhim, discussing the Buddhist significance, sociological implications and eventual impact of mummification within the reality of the new renjian fojiao.

  3. PSICOANÁLISIS Y BUDISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Uribe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism as a philosophical and religious worldview does not coincide with psychoanalysis as a clinical practice and research method. Nevertheless, the intervention techniques that Buddhist masters use with their pupils can be compared with interpretation and transference since paradox, silence, and contradiction are used, but with different purposes. This paper aims to show that relationship by keeping the differences

  4. Peircean Cosmogony's Symbolic Agapistic Self-organization as an Example of the Influence of Eastern Philosophy on Western Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Charles S. Peirce developed a process philosophy featuring a non-theistic agapistic evolution from nothingness. It is an Eastern inspired alternative to the Western mechanical ontology of classical science also inspired by the American transcendentalists. Advaitism and Buddhism are the two most i...

  5. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); Z. Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society.

  6. Politiske buddhister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Munkene i Myanmar (Burma) er på gaden i politiske protester mod et undertrykkende regime. Den fredelige asiatiske religion er kommet i politikernes bevidsthed, og for en gangs skyld er det ikke islam, der skaber overskrifter i mediernes religionsdækning. Men politik og buddhisme har aldrig været...

  7. Religion as a Site of Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of early work on the translation of sacred texts into various languages. Reviews the language use patterns and practices historically characteristic of different religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Quakerism. Describes linguistic effects of missionary activity in several…

  8. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dung Hue

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  9. Det menneskelige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    livsfasepsykologi, Winnicotts og Heinz Kohuts Selv-psykologi, Seligmans positive psykologi, kognitiv psykologi og A. H. Almaas' essenspsykologi), lærinsgteori (David Kolb), teorierne om følelsesmæssig intelligens (Daniel Goleman, David Servan-Schreiber) samt buddhisme (Dalai Lama) og kristendom. I bogen gives der...

  10. The web of life a new synthesis of mind and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Capra, Fritjof

    1996-01-01

    Capra argues that at the end of the 20th century we are shifting away from the mechanistic world of Descartes and Newton to a holistic, ecological view. He establishes patterns between ideas from such diverse fields as Buddhism and quantum physics.

  11. The Startling Phenomenon of the Western Tibetan Buddhist Nun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author concludes that despite the difficulty of adopting an ancient Asian religious tradition and transplanting its monastic institution to the West, these nuns have contributed significantly in transforming gender prejudice within the ranks of Tibetan Buddhism, and furthermore render a diversity of services in the lay and ...

  12. Ein Meer von Nektar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumgön, Jigten; Jungne, Sherab

    One of the key feature of early Kagyüpa Buddhism in Tibet was the practise of long meditation retreats in the complete solitude of the Himalayan mountains. The author of the Tibetan text, Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön (1143-1217), had himself spent 7 years in a cave in central Tibet. After he established...

  13. World Religions for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy Arnett

    This teaching and resource guide contains ideas appropriate for teaching junior and senior high school students about the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Individual sections discuss general approaches to teaching the religious philosophies and rituals, and exemplary…

  14. China Report, Red Flag, Number 9, 1 May 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-10

    Qing Dynasties also made use of its Lamaism sect and Islam as a spiritual mainstay to rule the minority nationalities concerned. In modern times...attaches importance to academic study and Lamaism pays attention to medicine. Buddhism and Taoism are noted for their martial arts and skills for

  15. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  16. A Manual for Teachers of Indochinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phap, Dam Trung

    This is a manual for teachers of Indochinese students. The manual begins with brief cultural, linguistic, and historical descriptions of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodian people. The tenets of animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Christianity, as practiced in Indochina are reviewed. Also discussed are Indochinese attitudes toward learning and…

  17. USSR Report, Problems of the Far East, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-13

    Buddhism, Taoism , and so on), which exercised a considerable influence on Western spiritual culture. A good example are the works of writer and...teachings of Antiquity (Confucia- nism, Legalism, Taoism ). ... J-,- 2) The labour and home traditions of the people. These include dili- gence, a high

  18. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  19. Sunshine Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdrege, Craig; And Others

    Hinduism, yoga, transcendental meditation, traditional American Indian philosophies, far-Eastern philosophies (Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and Zen concepts), macrobiotics, and Judeo-Christian teachings are the topics discussed in this student developed book. Designed for use by both elementary and high school students, it was written with two major…

  20. JPRS Report, China QIUSHI (Seeking Truth), Number 24, 16 December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-26

    dynasties had absorbed and merged the thinking of Buddhism and Taoism . Regarding this, Bao Zunxin and his ilk have refrained from mentioning it. This fact...be completely denounced, but synthesized and pop- ularized. In short, it is our belief that calling for extensive efforts in developing civilization

  1. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  2. What happens after realisation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this article the questions is raised whether spiritual accomplishment has consequences for ethicals. In particular it is investigated whether the realisation of the illusionary nature of all phenomena may lead in certain forms of Tibetan Buddhism to a neglect of ethical conduct....

  3. Counseling in Thailand: Development from a Buddhist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.; Pokaeo, Soree

    2012-01-01

    The authors present historical and current accounts of the counseling profession in Thailand. In addition to the influences of Buddhism on counselor training and practices, professional issues such as licensure, professional organizations, and the relationship between counselors and other mental health professionals are summarized. The role of…

  4. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  5. Justpeace Prospects for Peace-Building and Worldview Tolerance: A South Asian Movement's Social Construction of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jeremy A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to understand the meta-narratives of justice operating within the "Trailokya Bauddha Mahasangha, Sahayak Gana" (TBMSG), a dalit Buddhist social movement active in Maharashtra, India. The movement, a vestige of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar's 1956 conversion to Buddhism, is actively fighting for dalits rights by…

  6. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  7. Vocational Discernment among Tibetan Buddhist Monks in Dharamsala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alvin; Kellom, Gar E.

    2009-01-01

    A major historical shift is taking place in Tibetan Buddhism with the relocation of large numbers of monks from Tibet and the establishment of monasteries in Dharamsala, India and other parts of South Asia. This has created a shift in the way that young men are joining these monasteries and leading this age old religious tradition. Fifteen college…

  8. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several…

  9. A Brief History of the Current Reemergence of Contemplative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of the current reemergence of a contemplative orientation in education. While referencing an ancient history, it primarily examines the history of contemporary contemplative education through three significant stages, focusing on the third. The first was arguably initiated by the introduction of Buddhism to the…

  10. Mindful Teaching: Laying the Dharma Foundations for Buddhist Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted in the first mainstream school in Australia being guided by Buddhist philosophy. It focuses on a group of teachers, examining the impact of Buddhism on their teaching, exploring the challenge for them of bringing together their professional knowledge with Buddhist worldview. The major conclusion is that the…

  11. Buddhist Foundations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted on the impact of Buddhism on teaching, exploring the educational philosophy and approach, the daily practice of teaching, and the challenge of bringing together the mainstream education curriculum with Buddhist worldview in the first school in Australia being guided by Buddhist philosophy. Although there…

  12. Western Science and Local Thai Wisdom: Using Museum Toys to Develop Bi-Gnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhadilok, Peeranut; Watts, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the intersections of two worldviews: Western modern science and a Buddhism-based way of life in Thailand. It enters the debate on the place and practice of Indigenous forms of knowledge and the clashes with formal science education curricula. Our goal is "balanced bi-gnosis": the possession of, and…

  13. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  14. Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kaori; Park, Jeeseon

    2009-01-01

    The field of grief counseling has yet to see an integration of Buddhist psychology. Drawing on Buddhist psychology literature and Western models of grief, this article explores possible integrations of two approaches. To lay the foundation for this discussion, the authors introduced a brief overview of the history of Buddhism as well as a Buddhist…

  15. Facing the Grand Challenges through Heuristics and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powietrzynska, Malgorzata; Tobin, Kenneth; Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We address the nature of mindfulness and its salience to education generally and to science education specifically. In a context of the historical embeddedness of mindfulness in Buddhism we discuss research in social neuroscience, presenting evidence for neuronal plasticity of the brain and six emotional styles, which are not biologically…

  16. Philosophy 323, Readings in Asian Thought. Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, Burton G., Jr.

    A survey course syllabus of Asian philosophy is presented. For each period of dates in the semester course, a reading assignment was made, discussion topics and questions proposed, and supplementary readings and sources suggested. The course focused on Indian philosophy, Buddhism and Hinduism, and Chinese philosophy, specifically Confucian…

  17. India: General Survey Unit for World Civilization Course Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Victoria

    This unit is intended to provide high school students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Lessons include: (1) "Early India"; (2) "Indian Civilization 1500 BC - 500 AD: Hinduism"; (3) "Buddhism"; (4) "Indian Empires"; (5) "Indian Empires, Continued"; (6)…

  18. World Religions, Women and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  19. Multireligious, Multicultural, and Multiethnic Calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korra, Herb, Comp.

    This guide features materials concerning ethnic and religious groups and the annual dates important to those groups. Specifically, the guide contains an index of religious holidays; a list of the historical dates important to Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism; and a calendar that lists, by month, cultural and…

  20. Festivals Together. A Guide to Multi-cultural Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjohn, Sue; Weston, Minda; Large, Judy

    This is a resource guide for observing and celebrating special days according to the traditions of many cultures. It brings together the experience and activities of persons from many religions--Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, and the Sikh religion--and draws on diverse backgrounds from many parts of the world. The context is…

  1. Tradition and Modernity: India's Quantum Leap into the 21st Century. Independent Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elise

    This lesson on India is suggested as a culminating activity to bring together previously taught units about infrastructure, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, ancient India, and contemporary India. The lesson's goals are to examine how a country's cultural background can influence change and to study the development of modern infrastructure. The students…

  2. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    establishment image made him a romantic figure. Damodar was the son of Acharya Dharmananda Kosambi, an eminent scholar of Pali and Buddhism who led an extraordinary life himself. D D Kosambi's academic life spanned the turbulent decades preceding and following the independence of India. He underwent no ...

  3. The Jesuits: History’s Most Effective Special Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    traders, Hindu, Hinduism, Buddhist, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism , proselyte, political influence, secular, religious, politics, foreign society...basic elements of personal existence as vocation, food , habitation, marriage, education, and every component of social interaction (Arumairaj in...up chairs, cots, shoes, hat, traveling on horseback, etc. It meant even cutting oneself off from his own brethren with regard to food , and to this

  4. The Role of Religion in Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of religion in Korean elite and higher education during the premodern and modern periods with descriptive analysis. The study focuses on the contribution of Buddhism and Confucianism to premodern elite education in Korea, particularly the interaction between Confucianism and Christianity with modern higher education in…

  5. Divided Korea: United Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  6. O dharma verde-amarelo mal-sucedido: um esboço da acanhada situação do Budismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Usarski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available EMBORA a mídia venha freqüentemente afirmando que o Budismo é uma das religiões mais crescentes no Brasil, as pesquisas, inclusive os dois últimos censos nacionais, revelam o contrário. O artigo confronta a imagem pública exagerada com a realidade empírica e discute de maneira sistemática os problemas e desafios principais com os quais o Budismo brasileiro contemporâneo é confrontado.CONTRARY to the positive image maintaned by the mass media there is no evidence for the claim that Buddhism is one of the most dramaticaly growing religions in Brazil. From the empirical point of view, rather the opposite is true. The article confronts the public image with the results of academic research including the last two national census, and dicusses the main problems and challenges the contemporary Brazilian Buddhism is confronted with.

  7. Kumārajīva’s Meditative Legacy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhante Dhammadipa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that in China and other Far East countries, where Chinese Buddhism spread at the early stages of Mahāyāna Buddhism, traditional methods of Buddhist practice, as explained in the Āgamas, were in practice, but reinterpreted from the Mahāyānistic understanding. Eventually, in the periods following the decline of the Tang Dynasty those practices were mostly abandoned and replaced by pure Mahāyānistic meditation practices, especially those of the Chan (Zen and Pure Land schools. It can be clearly seen from the meditation treatises discussed in this article, which are attributed to Kumārajīva, the most popular translator of Indian Buddhist literature in China. Actually, as Western researchers show, these treatises are likely to be notes of Kumārajīva’s disciples, introduced into meditation by him.

  8. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  9. Cutting Through False Dualisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Beshara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will use the two truths doctrine from Buddhism to explicate transformative social change as a transmodern moral framework for critical psychological research. The two truths doctrine, a teaching from the Madhyamaka, or Middle Way, school of Mahāyāna Buddhism founded by Nāgārjuna, nondualistically collapses the ontology of transformation (absolute truth and the epistemology of social change (relative truth in the name of soteriology. At their core, dualistic problems and reductionist solutions are based upon the reification of concepts, which can result in devastating effects, such as the objectification (and oppression of research participants—not mentioning moral relativism. This article attempts to offer a transmodern moral framework for qualitative and theoretical researchers in critical psychology outside the confines of the modern–postmodern debate.

  10. The Vallipuram Buddha Image "Rediscovered"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schalk

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available When, at the end of the 19th century, the Visnu kovil in Vallipuram, in Vatamaracci, in northern Ilam (Lanka was (rebuilt, a Buddha statue was unearthed close to this temple, 50 yardsnortheast of it. It remained in the lumber room of this temple until 1902, when it was set up in Old Park at Yalppanam under a bo-tree. In 1906, the Vallipuram Buddha image was presented by Governor Sir Henry Blake to the King of Siam, who was particularly anxious to have it, as it was supposed to be of an archaic type. This event together with the statue, was forgotten for almost 90 years. All Tamilar and Sinhalese born after 1906 have never seen the Vallipuram Buddha image, provided they have not gone to and found it in Thailand. The study of the religious significance per se, in its historical setting, of the statue is important. The Vallipuram Buddha image is a typical creation of Amaravati art, the spread of which documents the spread of Buddhism to Ilam, where it exercised a decisive influence on the first period of the development of Buddhist art in the Anuratapuram school. We get then a geographical triangle of a cultural encounter between Amaravati, Anuratapuram in its first phase, and Vallipuram. This happened at a time when Buddhism was still not identified as Sinhala Buddhism, but just as Buddhism. The study of the Vallipuram statue is thus a way of transcending or at least suspending for some time polarising ethnic identities, not ethnic identities as such.

  11. [Euthanasia/assisted suicide. Ethical and socio-religious aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, V; Chiriţă, Roxana; Duică, Lavinia; Talau, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide are viewed differently by moral and religious references. In a religious way, cardinal confessions (Christianity, Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism) condemn euthanasia/assisted suicide and, in the same time have a more relaxed attitude regarding passive euthanasia. Other aspects of euthanasia regard financial/economic and ethical-medical considerations. All these contradictory standpoints are expressed in some legal acts that make specifications on the concept of "euthanasia"--Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (1994) and Netherlands's Euthanasia Law (2001).

  12. “Spare me the endurance of endless time”:the influence of Christian and Buddhist ethics on the view of immortality in the TV series Doctor Who

    OpenAIRE

    Vuolteenaho, L. (Leena)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This thesis examines the influence of Christian and Buddhist ethics on British science-fiction TV series Doctor Who, by looking at how the series’ depiction of immortality as an ethical issue reflects the views of Christianity and Buddhism. The study was conducted as qualitative, using as primary data a selection of episodes from which observations were made, with reference to theoretical background based on litera...

  13. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a ...... that are inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....

  14. ORIENTALISMO NA POESIA DE CECÍLIA MEIRELES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Borges Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of Cecília Meireles’ imaginariness gathers, besides the western culture, also the eastern culture which is noticed by the connection with the Indian philosophy. Her humanist perspective attempts an ethical interweave in her poetry which is inspired by the conceptions of permanentness spread out by both Eastern mainstream Buddhism and Hinduism. Through these bases this study investigates the Eastern substrate in the symbolic constellation of some poems of Metal rosicler.

  15. Religious conversion and Dalit assertion amongst a Punjabi Dalit diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon original ethnographic research amongst Punjabi Dalit communities within the UK and India, this paper examines post-transnational migration religious conversion from Sikhism to neo-Buddhism and Christianity, assessing the extent to which this process is simultaneously one of Dalit assertion and resistance to caste-based oppression, thereby facilitating social change within the contemporary Punjabi transnational community. While it is generally accepted that, despite the Ambedkar m...

  16. From Undang-undang Melaka to federal constitution: the dynamics of multicultural Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Abdullah, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaysia is a multicultural state comprising three main races: Malays, Chinese and Indians. The three main religions are Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. Other religions such as Sikhism and Christianity are also practised. Muslims are the majority comprising 67?% of the population. Methods This paper is qualitative in nature. It applies historical comparative method in presenting its data. The Undang-undang Melaka (Malacca Laws) was obtained from the monograph available at National Li...

  17. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-01-01

    Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture a...

  18. Operational Ethics in Coalition Warfare: Whose Ethics Will Prevail? A Philosophical/Theological Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-13

    34choices freely made and the rational principle employed." 25 There are three "fathers" of Utilitarianism , Jeremy Bentham, James Mill , and his son John ... Stuart Mill who refined and expanded upon his father’s work. This ethical position states that the...Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and the indigenous religions of Africa; Western and Eastern philosophers, Aristotle, Mill , Confucius, Storer, and Rand to

  19. The Perspective of Psychosomatic Medicine on the Effect of Religion on the Mind–Body Relationship in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2012-01-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is ti...

  20. Putuo Mountai and Guanyin Bodbisattva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    LOCATED on the Zhoush-an Archipelaso in ZhejiangProvince,Putuo Mountain isone of four famous Buddhist shrinesin China.The mountain featuresbeautiful scenery,strange peaks,deep caves,golden sand and ancienttrees and temples.The 12.93-sq-km islet has been known as“the king-dom of Buddhism between the seaand the sky“and”a beauty of thesouthem sea“since ancient times.

  1. RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF COMPUTER GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...

  2. Vliv všímavosti na afektivitu: fenomenologický výklad buddhistické meditace vipassanā

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puc, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2016), s. 1-11 ISSN 1336-6556 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10832S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : passive synthesis * affection * attention * mindfulness * Husserl * vipassanā * meditation * Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://www.ostium.sk/sk/vliv-vsimavosti-na-afektivitu-fenomenologicky-vyklad-buddhisticke-meditace-vipassana1/

  3. Music in Korean shaman ritual.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Simon R.S.

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to sum up Korean Shamanism in a few sentences but, in short, it could be described as the traditional syncretic folk religion of Korea. It mixes together ritual practices, beliefs, symbols and myths from Buddhism, Taoism, and folklore and adds elements commonly associated with nature religions and shamanism – including the use of techniques such as divination, trance, and mediumship. As with many other syncretic folk religions around the globe, there is very little in the way o...

  4. On the honourable shravakas and pratyekabuddhas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In mahayana Buddhism shravakas are often denigrated as disciples from the "lower vehicle" and it is denied that their spiritual achievements are on par with those of the bodhisattvas. Jigten Gönpo, however, teaches in his dGongs-gcig that the achievements of shravakas and bodhisattvas are the sam...... up to the 6th bhumi, and in the commentaries derogatory language against shravakas is described as a serious fault. This article puts these statements into the "single family - single vehicle" theory....

  5. TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF NURSING KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Tuyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As nurses, we seek to better understand how to apply nursing knowledge in our daily practice. Nowadays, the term philosophy is widening used in many areas, including nursing. However, there is existence of unclear understanding about nursing knowledge development derived from standpoint of philosophical and methodological perspectives. This article discusses about this issue and mainly focus on empiricism, postpositivistic view, the philosophy of Buddhism and an example related to asthma.

  6. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Irwin

    2017-01-01

    American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more cur...

  7. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  8. China QIUSHI SEEKING TRUTH no 4, 16 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-26

    consider integrating "the east wind" with "opening up to the West" and setting our eyes on a number of Islamic states from Central Asia to the...nationalities, chiefly Tibetan, Han, Islamic , and Xianbei, live in compact communi- ties. It serves as a buffer zone between Xinjiang and Tibet, the two...the essence of Confucianism in young children. In so doing, he could reduce the influ- ence of Taoism and Buddhism. We can see that the ancients were

  9. Factors and features of the religious modernization in Taiwan: socio–historical retrospective (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the religious modernization in Taiwan. It has been concluded by the author that the modernization in traditional societies, as it comes from the analysis of key religious communities of Taiwan, to a limited extent can be implemented by means of traditional religions – Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The modernisation is possible only on the basis of syncretic religious cults, which allow putting rationalist values on the first place together with valu...

  10. Let Us Not Pray: Prayers at Formal Army Events and the Establishment Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    founded in 1982 that brings together "representatives of all the major faith communities in the United States," including Christianity, Judaism, Islam ...Christianity; 13.2% with no religious affiliation; 1.4% with Judaism; 0.5% with Islam , Buddhism, and Agnosticism, respectively; 0.4% with Atheism and...Baha’i Faith, New Age, Sikhism, Church of Scientology, Humanism, Secularism, and Taoism , respectively). DOBOSH 110 activities or their historical place

  11. Maritime Security and the Strait of Malacca: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Indian populations. Its major religions are Taoism , Buddhism, Islam , and Christianity. Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a unicameral...population, ethnic Islamic Malays were keen to join the Federation. However, ethnic Chinese and indigenous Sabah and Sarawak peoples held little affinity...languages. The Javanese are the primary power holders within the nation. As stated previously, Islam is the major religion and is practiced by

  12. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    five religions (Evangelical Christianity, can be carried out in the most rustic of circumstances. Catholicism, Buddhism, Taoism , and Islam ) have...church 30 none thorough analysis of religion in the area, including the Islam 800 5 1800 2 laws which govern its development, its organizational and...mosques mosques personnel structure, and its systems and activities, thereby Taoism 10-20 none 4-5 1 temple arriving at an objective evaluation of its

  13. Cohesion, the Human Element in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    on the Persian heritage and Islamic religion. Leadership, too, is an extremely important nationalistic factor. It is essential that the nation is the... Taoism , Buddhism, and Christianity. While the values im- ported by these religions are generally compatible with Vietnamese nationalism, they have...Soviet borders (such as the Pan-Turkish and Arab- Islamic movements). Soviet attempts to make Russian the primary language within the Soviet Union have

  14. China’s Strategic Culture: A Perspective for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-17

    belief that “China will soon dominate the world” and 54 percent believing that “the emergence of China as a superpower is a threat to world peace.”5...Traditional Chinese social values are derived from Confucianism, Taoism and to a lesser degree, Buddhism. Confucianism is undisputedly the most influential...Confucian beliefs and norms in strategic decision-making and behavior, therefore demonstrating a defensive strategic culture vice an offensive one.17

  15. International Students’ Perceptions of the Naval Postgraduate School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Judeo-Christian-Islamic traditions, while Eastern or Oriental cultures seem to have been dominated by Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism , and Hinduism...norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture, as Ehe language we speak or the beliefs we accept...our basic, unconscious belief that our encultyred cstoms assump- tions values and behaviors are right ; (b) it does not stike suAdenl or have a sinyle

  16. ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN AND MALAY THEATRE

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

    2010-01-01

    From the earliest times, traditional theatre in Southeast Asia has been shaped by a wide range of religious and cultural influences—those deriving from animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, as well as from Chinese and western traditions. The overwhelming influences, especially of Hinduism, have had the tendency to obscure contributions from the Middle- and Near-East. The view that Islam, with rare exceptions, prohibits performing arts has resulted in a negligence of these arts forms in Muslim s...

  17. [A Buddhist view of health and care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Buddhism has an original anthropology without dolorism or sacrifice, based on which a care ethic is deployed. The Buddhist way leads to freeing the spirit of the illusions that lead it astray and considers the body as a precious material support for the spirit. Pain and illness are treated while paying great attention to the person's suffering, whether conscious or not. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Chaplaincy at a Crossroads: Fundamentalist Chaplains in a Pluralistic Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    different light. The pluralistic nature of the military community, with its very broad base of faith and cultural backgrounds, makes it a virtual minefield...Buddhism, Hinduism —in the changing world.”13 Despite the broader use by some scholars today, in this paper the author‟s use of the term “fundamentalist...While there are points of agreement among members of all three groups, there are also many points of contention. These differences have been a source

  19. The ambivalence of ritual in violence: Orthodox Christian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian G. Simion

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that ritual plays an ambivalent role in the interaction betweenreligion and violence. Ritual triggers and gives meaning to violence, or it enforces peace andcoexistence. The first part of the article defines the ambivalence of ritual in the context ofviolence. The second part surveys standard rituals of peace and violence from Hinduism,Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The third part focuses on the ambivalent natureof Orthodox Christian rituals.

  20. From the "god and ghost world" to the "human and nature world" : a study of the changes of health care in Yongxing village in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Pingyuan

    2000-01-01

    The thesis aims at analyzing and explaining the changes that have occurred in health care in Yongxing village, a village located in Yongxing Xiang, Jingshan County, Hubei province in central China. Since its introduction, Western medicine has been widely used in the later half of the 20th century and has become the main form of medical care. It is now well integrated into the local setting. Traditional Chinese medicine, together with other traditional treatment forms (Buddhism and Taoism, Sha...

  1. Application of Technology Transfer Process Model for Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    22 world prices of major commodities, particularly food items and raw materials since 1972 and the increase of crude oil prices. These influences...Islam 3. Christianity 4. Hinduism S. Sikhism Doctrines 1. Confucianism 2. Taoism 3. Shintoism 4. Animism 5. Others "Buddhism, especially Theravada...educational facilities, health, social welfare, food and nutrition, to the rural and remote areas will contribute to achieving the objective of better income

  2. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 69, Number 2, August 1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    1928-08-01

    hour law, the immediate availability of funds for the purchase of supplies, creation of a food administration, and perhaps wage limitation and price...Confucius exercises ~ Pfofoun~ influence over the people. Buddhism and Taoism people the universe with numerous spirits, making the people snperstitious... food stuff for her need and so can subsist with- out outside aid. The raw materials produced are silk, camel, goat and sheep wool, cotton, vegetable

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 2, March-April 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-04

    culture was represented by Buddhism, the Chinese—by Taoism which was a representative of the native Chinese ideo- logical substratum. The latter...and metaphysically oriented doctrine. The naturalistic and substantialistic approach of Chinse classical tradi- tion expressed by Taoism led...which are evolving in the direction of capitalism, the state sector also exists in the textile and food industries, chiefly in the cotton, jute and

  4. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. VNAF Improvement and Modernization Program, July 1971 - December 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Thus it’s not too difficult to understand that Vietnamese who follow Confucius, Mencius and Mo Tzu or who subscribe to Taoism , Buddhism or other...Bombing System, improving the Air Liaison Officer (ALO)/FAC system, improving the airlift control system, improving the food distribution system, and...to have to sustain many, many places that are surrounded and cannot get food and supplies other than by airlift, then they don’t have the capability

  5. The Power of Interconnectivity: Tan Sitong's Invention of Historical Agency in Late Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore how Chinese Buddhists acted as trailblazers of Engaged Buddhism, I shall analyze a late nineteenth-century thinker, Tan Sitong 譚嗣同 (1865–1898. The focus of my analysis is his masterpiece, Renxue 仁學. From his position of Buddhist eclecticism, Tan discoursed at length on non-differentiation as the truth of the universe to reflect on the creative disposition of human agency. He described in Renxue how this disposition would contribute to the agendas defining Chinese modernity. In addition, discussing the meanings of non-differentiation, Tan also generalized about the nature of the human agency he attempted to advocate: while he perceived the human agency blessed with a non-differentiating mindset as an omnipotent history-making force, he also argued that it did not confer upon its owner the status of world savior. In fact, in his view, the efficacy of a non-differentiating mind was determined by the world it aimed to help. Tan's signature piece, I argue, provides a lens through which we can observe modern Chinese Buddhism's role as an important part of the global formation of Engaged Buddhism.

  6. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  7. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  8. Communicative practices in talking about death and dying in the context of Thai cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilainuch, Pairote

    2013-01-01

    This article explores communicative practices surrounding how nurses, patients and family members engage when talking about death and dying, based on study conducted in a province in northern Thailand. Data were collected from three environments: a district hospital (nine cases), district public health centres (four cases), and in patients' homes (27 cases). Fourteen nurses, 40 patients and 24 family members gave written consent for participation. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were used for supplementary data collection, and 40 counselling sessions were recorded on video. The raw data were analysed using Conversation Analysis. The study found that Thai counselling is asymmetrical. Nurses initiated the topic of death by referring to the death of a third person--a dead patient--with the use of clues and via list-construction. As most Thai people are oriented to Buddhism, religious support is selected for discussing this sensitive topic, and nurses also use Buddhism and list-construction to help their clients confront uncertain futures. However, Buddhism is not brought into discussion on its own, but combined with other techniques such as the use of euphemisms or concern and care for others.

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Western adoption of Buddhist tenets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a psychological intervention that has wide clinical applications with emerging empirical support. It is based on Functional Contextualism and is derived as a clinical application of the Relational Frame Theory, a behavioral account of the development of human thought and cognition. The six core ACT therapeutic processes include: Acceptance, Defusion, Present Moment, Self-as-Context, Values, and Committed Action. In addition to its explicit use of the concept of mindfulness, the therapeutic techniques of ACT implicitly incorporate other aspects of Buddhism. This article describes the basic principles and processes of ACT, explores the similarities and differences between ACT processes and some of the common tenets in Buddhism such as the Four Noble Truths and No-Self, and reports on the experience of running a pilot intervention ACT group for the Cambodian community in Toronto in partnership with the community's Buddhist Holy Monk. Based on this preliminary exploration in theory and the reflections of the group experience, ACT appears to be consistent with some of the core tenets of Buddhism in the approach towards alleviating suffering, with notable differences in scope reflecting their different aims and objectives. Further development of integrative therapies that can incorporate psychological and spiritual as well as diverse cultural perspectives may help the continued advancement and evolution of more effective psychotherapies that can benefit diverse populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. SINKRETISME DALAM AGAMA HINDU DAN BUDDHA DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Kiriana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In religious life, at first the existence of Hindu and Buddhist very harmonious and contradictory in their home country, namely India. But the two religions in Indosesia seem very harmonious, especially in the era of the Majapahit kingdom. Moreover, the existence of Hinduism and Buddhism in Bali very harmony and even complement each other in practice and spiritual order. Buddhism is very much a substance similar to the teachings of Hinduism. In some Hindu literature was found a lot in common with the essence of Buddhism, and vice versa. Very often found literature-literature that reflects the harmony of both religions, among others: Lontar Siwagama, Kekawin Mahabharata, Ramayana Kekawin, Kekawin Arjuna Wiwaha, Kekawin Bharata Yudha and Kekawin Sutasoma, Sanghyang Kamahayanikan, Bubugsah Gagakaking and so on. By looking at it as if the two religions fused in practice in Bali, especially in the implementation of religious activities such as the ritual tawur agung in connection with the celebration of Nyepi Saka as the New Year.

  11. Buddhist values as a potential economic determinant in the development of Tuvan society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna S. Tarbastaeva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article actualizes the study of the influence of Buddhist values on the socio-economic development of Tuvan society. Research on economic success in contemporary world has supported the link between Buddhism and economy. After the spread of Buddhism in the West in the middle of the 20th century, ancient knowledge and practices became available to the urbanized population. Foreign researchers drew attention to their actual potential when conducting financial and industrial activities. Among Western economists, the cornerstone of the idea was laid by E. Schumacher, who published "Small is fine: an economy in which people matter" (1973. Among Asian researchers, an important contribution was made by a Thai monk and philosopher P. Paiotto. As these and other studies show, Buddhism does not encourage poverty, nor call for a rejection of material wealth. It is incorrect to interpret it as an ascetic religion. Buddhist texts contain direct indications concerning the way of earning money and the meaning of well-being. Modern teachers also give advice to laypeople about economic activity. Although in Buddhism practitioners strive, first of all, for spiritual goals —such as liberation from suffering or achieving Buddhahood, laymen are included in social life and have to provide for themselves and their family, which the religious teaching has to account for. Buddhists believe that wealth cannot bring true happiness. Therefore, for a practicing layman, achieving a high level of material well-being is not a life goal. The article presents a summary of the conclusions contemporary economists, psychologists and neurobiologists arrive at, confirming that the empirical correlation between the increase in incomes and happiness is insignificant. Some examples of how Buddhist values help entrepreneurs are also provided. For instance, as a result of faith in the law of karma, there is a greater degree of honesty in business interaction, and a long

  12. Parallels between Mindfulness and First-person Research into Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga MARKIČ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights some of the parallels encountered in the areas of mindfulness and first-person scientific approaches to research into consciousness. It thus considers the possibilities of using mindfulness as a scientific method in the area of cognitive science. We are well aware that both first-person research approaches in cognitive science and mindfulness as a type of Buddhist practice are intertwined with certain conceptual frameworks. This calls for a careful consideration of their individual characteristics, which may gain completely different meanings outside of their primary contexts. Since the concept of mindfulness has been a part of Western thinking for some time now, especially in the area of therapy, we believe it is necessary for a critical reflection on the possibilities of both of these areas to inspire each other. We touch upon some of the important epistemological and methodological questions, and point out some of the problems common to both empirical first-person research and Buddhist methods of contemplation of experience. More specifically, this work examines the problem of limited scope of insight, the subject-object split and excavation fallacy, the problem of researching everyday experience, and the issue of horizon. We also consider the question of research intention in both science and Buddhism. The conclusion gives some suggestions as to how these two areas might mutually benefit one another. We also point out the ethical aspects that Buddhism might contribute to scientific research, and the open-endedness that science could contribute to Buddhism and other spiritual practices.

  13. The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya: Visual Expressions of a Tibetan Teacher's Path and Lineage in the Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Glowski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the Tibetan diaspora in the late 1950s, Tibetan Buddhism spread to nearly every continent on the globe and has begun transforming western landscapes through the construction of 'stūpas', Buddhism’s principal architectural form.  'The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya Which Liberates Upon Seeing', located at Shambhala Mountain Center in Red Feather Lakes, Colorado and dedicated to the meditation master Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, is an especially rich example of Tibetan Buddhist visual culture in the diaspora.  An iconographic analysis of the monuments exterior and interior architectural elements, sculptures and paintings, when contextualized within their historical context, reveals an intimate biography of Trungpa Rinpoche’s life.  Specifically, the visual narrative conveys two main Tibetan Buddhist themes:  the teacher’s progressive path of meditation and his lineage affiliations within Vajrayāna Buddhism.  In this way, the 'stūpa'' 'acts as a visual 'namtar '('rNam-thar', a traditional Tibetan biography that emphasizes a teacher’s personal journey to liberation and the masters who guided the way.  Although located far from the Himalayas and its Tibetan heritage, 'The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya’s' affinity to traditional Tibetan Buddhist architectural and religious modalities provides a window into Tibet Buddhism's history prior to 1959.  At the same time, the monument serves as coherent, visual documentation of Tibetan art during the diaspora’s early period and will, no doubt, become an increasingly important part of the tradition’s historical record.''

  14. The Amenity of Temple and Longshan Forest in Xishuangbanna Restored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正>Dai nationality believes in Buddhism. According to the Book of Yebei (shell leave) in Dai language, there have been 28 Buddha, including Sakyamuni, passed on from generation to generation, Sakyamuni was the last generation of Buddha. It is said that their attainment of enlighten and becoming Buddha were connected with trees, Sakyamuni was under Bodhi-tree to become Buddha. These trees were deemed as Holy Bodies, they received careful protection from Dai people. There is a saying in Dai nationality that "never discard parents and never cut Bodhi-tree. The old regulation stipulates that cutting Bodhi-tree will be deemed as destroying temple or

  15. The Sinicization of Dunhuang Mogao Cave Buddhist Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ōhashi Katsuaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Indian Buddhism in China occurred around the Christian era. However, Indian Buddhism was not directly accepted by the Han Chinese as they could not rival the philosophical religions which were already in existence. The existing philosophical religions were Confucianism and Taoism; therefore Indian Buddhism was not a necessity for the Han Chinese. Large volumes of Indian Buddhist scriptures, written in ancient Hindustani, began to be translated into Chinese, known as the ‘Chinese Translation Project.’ Accordingly, Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures appeared. As for the Chinese translations, it was clear that ancient Chinese philosophies were instilled into these translations in order to make them more easily acceptable by the Han Chinese. It took a long period of time, around 200 years, for Indian Buddhism to assimilate into Chinese culture. Once Indian Buddhism was embraced by East Asia’s largest developed country, the foundations of Chinese civilization such as Chinese characters, paintings, sculptures, crafts, architecture, construction, and casting methods, then were transformed by Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Buddhist art. In the instance when one developed civilized country adopts features of another developed civilization, it takes a long period of time for harmonization to occur. However, within a short period of time, Chinese Buddhism became a significant culture within the East Asia region, and was accepted in the surrounding regions of China, such as the Korean Peninsula and islands of Japan. However, soon after the collapse of the Han Dynasty in 220A.D, the country was divided into three parts and the troubled time of 5 Hu 16 Guo began. Most aristocrats, bureaucrats and people in Chang’an became refugees, escaping towards the southern area of the Gansu River. Among them, painters and sculptors from Chang’an created splendid wall paintings and produced luxurious clay statues in the Mogao Caves. At

  16. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  17. Faith and grace in the thought of Tanabe Hajime and of Søren Kierkegaard

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this essay is to compare the conceptions which Søren Kierkegaard and Tanabe Hajime have of the notions of religious faith and of divine grace. The investigation was triggered by the observation that Tanabe’s philosophy owes much to the thought of Kierkegaard, and by the fact that Kierkegaard has been trained as a Danish Protestant theologian while Tanabe adopted for himself positions of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism. After a rigorous analysis of the notions of faith and...

  18. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  19. Treasure-Traditions of Western Tibet: Rig-’dzin Gar-dbang rdo-rje snying-po (1640–1685) and His Activities in Mang-yul Gung-thang

    OpenAIRE

    Solmsdorf, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    From the fourteenth century onwards the treasure-tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (gter ma) played a significant role in the small south-western Tibetan kingdom of Mang-yul Gung-thang. The treasure-discoverer (gter ston) Rig-’dzin rGod-ldem-can (1337–1408) defined both the religious and political environment with his activities, e.g. through disclosing treasure-texts in the dominion and transmitting them directly to it’s rulers, and, more particularly, through designating the region as one of th...

  20. KESEDERHANAAN WABICHA DALAM UPACARA MINUM TEH JEPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajria Noviana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese tea ceremony is called chanoyu in Japanese. It is a multifaceted traditional activity strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism, in which powdered green tea, or matcha, is ceremonially prepared and served to the guests. Wabicha is a style of Japanese tea ceremony particularly associated with Sen no Rikyū that emphasizes simplicity. He refined the art of Japanese tea ceremony equipment and tea house design, with a preference for very simple and very small tea rooms, and natural materials with simpler decoration

  1. モンゴル帝国期東トルキスタンの宗教 : 新疆イスラム教小史2

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 鋼二

    2008-01-01

    After Islam was brought into the west area of the Eastern Turkistan (Xinjiang) by the Qara-Khan Dynasty in the 10th century, it took 500 years until the establishment of Islamization in the Eastern Turkistan when the Buddhism power was expelled from Hami (the east of Xinjiang) in 1513. At the beeginning of the 12th century, the Qara-Khan Dynasty was driven away from the eastern Central Asia by non-Islam Qara Khitay. From the beginning of the 13th century the eastern Central Asia was also unde...

  2. The perspective of psychosomatic medicine on the effect of religion on the mind-body relationship in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2014-02-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is time for traditional religions to play an active role in helping those seeking psychological stability after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the ongoing crisis related to the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, to maintain a healthy mind-body relationship.

  3. Initial research on planning and design of today's Buddhist temple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjian LI; Guangya ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the reconstruction planning for the Chongyuan Temple in Suzhou Industrial Park, the planners explored the elements of contemporary Buddhism architecture planning and design in terms of the social multi-requirement, environmental utilization fitted for a given time and place, appropriate temple pat-tern on specification and institution, functional division for harmonic relationship between monks and laymen, etc. For realization of historic mission: carrying forward the cultural tradition and constructing harmonic society, this paper proposes some principles of creation, which have historical evidence and are keeping pace with the times.

  4. Factors associated with drug use among male motorbike taxi drivers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Vu, Thinh Toan; Pham, Ha Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 291 male motorbike taxi drivers (MMTDs) recruited through social mapping technique in Hanoi, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with drug use among MMTDs using Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model. Among 291 MMTDs, 17.18% reported drug use sometime in their lives, 96% of whom were drug injectors. Being depressed, being originally borne in urban cities, currently residing in rural areas, having a longer time living apart from their wives/lovers, using alcohol, following Buddhism, and reporting lower motivation of HIV prevention predict significantly higher odds of uptaking drugs.

  5. Perancangan Interior Vihara Buddhayana Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Aprilia

    2017-01-01

    Vihara is a symbol of Buddhism. The various streams that make the monastery one with the other have the emphasis of its own teaching derived from the history and the value of Buddhahood. Design object that being used is Buddhayana Buddhist temple, one of the monasteries with a new stream in Surabaya. This monastery is still building and have some problems such as to visualize its room to be seen as Buddhayana streams in Dhammasala room, air quality issues that must be free from over-smoke ne...

  6. An Investigation of Moral Principles and Mental Training in the Pāli Nikāyas and Their Implications for Behaviour Modification and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanacara, Ashin

    2017-08-12

    This article explicates the fundamental moral principles and mental training of Buddhism that have implications for behavioural transformation and mental health promotion. These techniques are considered to be effective for transforming the unwholesome thoughts and overcoming the afflictions (āsavas). It investigates some methods of mental training that can be designed to fit the behaviour of a practitioner. It also investigates the three key interdependent elements of mindfulness techniques and, in particular, how a simple practice of mindfulness (sati), full awareness (sampajañña), and proper attention (yoniso-manasikāra) can help us modify our behaviour and achieve mental health.

  7. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. ROŠKER

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality plays a significant role in shaping the cohesion of communities, their values, and their structures across the globe. Various religious practices and ideational systems are particularly complex in Asia. Home to some of the world major spiritual traditions such as Hinduism and Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism, as well as to a relevant number of practicing Christians, Muslims, and self-identified atheists and agnostics, Asia provides us with an intense and extraordinarily rich tapestry of different religious and spiritual practices...

  8. 道元による自己の思索

    OpenAIRE

    松田, 央; Hiroshi, MATSUDA

    2004-01-01

    Dogen is the founder of Japanese Sotoshu, a sort of Zen Buddhism. He is as excellent a religious thinker as ever lived not only in Japanese religious history but also in the world religious history. He has sought his original self by thinking of his self and also aimed to grow out of his awareness of the self, his ego. Here self is distinguished from ego. Contemporary people are lost in a maze named the ego, and suffer and struggle in this space. Dogen is a great master who teaches the way ho...

  9. Was epicurus a buddhist? An examination and critique of the theories of negative happiness in buddha and epicurus

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    Adam Barkman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p286Comparisons betw western philosophies are uncommon and this, among other things, hinders global philosophical discourse. Thus, in this essay I want to compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus for similarities, particular in regard to what I call "negative happiness." Once I have establish this, I want to give a brief critique of negative happiness, which subsequently amounts to a selective critique of Buddhism and Epicureanism.

  10. 福建福鼎市太姥山宋代国兴寺遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Guoxingsi Temple-site of the Song Period at Tailaoshan in Fuding City,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 福鼎市文体局; 福鼎市旅游局; 太姥山风景区管理局

    2003-01-01

    In September-November 2001,the Fujian Provincial Museum and other institutions excavated the site of Guoxingsi Temple at Tailaoshan in Fuding City.They revealed the vestiges of pavilions,side rooms,passages,small yards and a stupa in this Song period temple and dug out large quantities of ceramic articles,structural members and inscribed steles.The excavation indicates that the temple was first built in the fourth year of the Qianfu reign,Tang Dynasty,and reached its prosperity atthe turn from the Northern Song to the Southern Song period.The unearthed material contributes to studying the history of architecture and Buddhism in ancient China.

  11. The Impact of Religious Factors on Legitimation of Power in the Golden Horde and Late Medieval Turkic-Mongol States of the 15th–18th Centuries

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    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new factor of legitimating power in the late medieval Chinggisid states established after the decline and fall of the ‘steppe empires’ of the Yuan Dynasty, Ilkhanate in Iran, Chagatai Ulus, and Golden Horde. The decrease of Chinggisid power resulted in the appearance of other claimants for the throne (non-Chinggisid dynasties who used another factors for legitimazation, in particular – the religious one. To save their power, the Chinggisids as well had to appeal to religion – Islam in the Turkic states and Buddhism in Mongol ones.

  12. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

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    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  13. AHP 21: Review: Spirits of the Place

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    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available John Holt draws deeply upon more than twenty years of scholarship on the Theravadin world in Spirits of the Place, a work that analyzes the historical role of Buddhism in Laos. This work will appeal to scholars in such diverse fields as history, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, US foreign policy, and area studies. In this study Holt turns his focus to the Lao ethnic majority of Laos and the Lao ethnic minority of Isan Province, Thailand,1 in five chapters that compellingly combine historiographic and anthropological analysis, including what (MacDaniel 2010:120 has referred to as "the best Literature review of scholarship on Lao religion to date…" ...

  14. 基本的感情の数について

    OpenAIRE

    宇津木, 成介

    2007-01-01

    How many basic emotions are? As William James suggested, we may have an endless list of words expressing emotional states if we enumerate them. In this article the author briefly introduced 'seven (basic) emotions' which seem to be based on Buddhism. Charles Darwin provided 37 affective words in eight chapter titles in his 'On the expression of the emotions in man and animals.' To the contrary J.B. Watson argued he found only three basic emotions X,Y, and Z in his 'Behaviorism.' James listed ...

  15. Tibetan medicine. Part I: Introduction to Tibetan medicine and the rGyud-bzi (Fourth Tantra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasaad Steiner, R

    1987-01-01

    Tibetan medicine is one example of a traditional cultural health care system. Until recently, geographic barriers have permitted this medical tradition to evolve in an uninterrupted way. The history, concepts, and foundations of Tibetan medicine are closely interwoven with those of Buddhism in Tibet The following essay is an introductory overview of Tibetan medicine. The purpose of this essay is to provide a conceptual framework and a proper perspective for understanding a highly edited translation of one chapter from a traditional Tibetan medical text.

  16. The Bird in the Corner of the Painting: Some Problems with the Use of Buddhist Texts to Study Buddhist Ornamental Art in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of ornament and decoration in Buddhist monasteries in Thailand, as an art form, ornament has been almost entirely ignored in favor of the study of narrative and didactic art and literature. In this paper, I approach the subject of temple ornament (focusing primarily on the use of decorative birds) in Thai Buddhism through the lens of Affect Theory. As scholars of this approach emphasize that to study affect is to study “of accumulative beside-ness.” It is the study of a...

  17. Fluxus: between Koan and artistic practice

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    Iñigo Sarriugarte Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the experimental Fluxus and shaped by their attraction to certain premises of Zen Buddhism, including koan, many artists began to raise all kinds of proposals, from object-based practices to actions, but generally guided by the mental structure of zen koan itself, for example, irony, humor and meditative processes. These artists were able to give a previously nonexistent prominence both actions based on daily events, such as objects that had failed to interest social. In this way, they managed to eliminate many of the barriers between art and life.

  18. Understanding religious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S

    1979-01-01

    The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid.

  19. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.

  20. Developing perspectives on Korean nursing theory: the influences of Taoism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K R

    2001-10-01

    Nursing theory provides a systematic explanation and description of nursing phenomena. Western nursing theories have widely influenced Korean nursing. And yet, although nursing theory has universal aspects, the differences in philosophy and culture that are unique to each country need to be considered. This inquiry seeks to investigate the Korean cultural heritage, which integrates Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and how it provides a unique worldview of human beings, the universe, health, and nursing. Essential principles and therapies consistent with Taoist philosophy are also identified. This framework is proffered as the basis for establishing understanding between Korean nurses and patients.

  1. The influence of religious affiliation on heavy drinking, heavy smoking and heavy betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent.

  3. Comparison of Spiritual Traditions in the Context of Universality of Mysticism

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    Slavomír Gálik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors study similarities in mysticism of Western Christian tradition and selected Eastern spiritual traditions based on comparative analysis of prayer degrees (mansions in The Interior Castle in Teresa of Avila and Yogic psychical centres (the so-called chakras that are known also in other Eastern spiritual traditions (Taoism and Buddhism. The authors note that especially higher degrees – from the fourth to the seventh – show formal similarities, while the seventh degree also reveals similarities in contents. They speak of importance of revealing these similarities in the perspective of understanding of human being, his further spiritual development, and also interreligious dialogue.

  4. Falungong: recent developments in Chinese notions of healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Deborah Dysart; Gorman-Yao, W M

    2003-01-01

    Transcultural nursing literature provides a rich picture of prominent Chinese health-related beliefs derived from the traditions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. However, these traditional beliefs are being challenged and modified in response to public discussion of a new spiritual movement, Falungong (also spelled Falun Gong). This movement calling for personal and social renewal has arisen in reaction to significant political and economic upheavals in Chinese society. This paper presents an overview of the Falungong movement and the health beliefs it advances. Implications for U.S. nursing practice are discussed.

  5. Analysis on an illusion unexpected occurred on a moving statue leaving in fact but approaching by environmental judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Youwu; Li, Zhifang; Qiu, Yishen; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Earlier this year we visited Sanya, Hainan Province, China. There is a huge statue, the South Sea Avalokitesvara (南海观世音菩萨), at Sanya Nanshan Buddhism Cultural Tourism Resort. When we were gazing at the statue on a leaving car on gradually rising road, an unexpected visual illusion took place in which the statue seemed running after us. In this presentation, an optical model is developed to explain the illusion occurred on a moving object leaving in fact but approaching by environmental judgement. Such an interesting illusion analysis will play a significant role in having students understood the main principles in geometrical optics.

  6. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  7. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients’ religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients’ religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism. The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ2 test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions. A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of “nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency” (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of “postoperative, major surgery” (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay. This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU

  8. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or χ test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P = 0.02), unemployment (P = 0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P = 0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P Buddhism/Daoism (P = 0.04), married marital status (P = 0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P = 0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU stay.

  9. Religion and Ethical Attitudes toward Accepting a Bribe: A Comparative Study

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    Robert W. McGee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of an empirical study of ethical attitudes toward bribe taking in six religions—Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, the Baha’i faith, Hinduism, and Judaism. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical and empirical literature on the subject. The empirical part of the study examines attitudes toward accepting bribes in 57 countries from the perspectives of six religions using the data from Wave 6 (2010–2014 of the World Values Survey. The sample population is more than 52,000. More than a dozen demographic variables were examined. The study found that attitude toward bribe taking does differ by religion.

  10. JPRS Report, China, Qiushi (Seeking Truth), No. 7, 1 April 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-24

    Buddhism and Taoism , we will have only to look at the following process—from the teaching of Six Arts by Confucius, to which Dong Zhongshu added the...impressed by this line of his: "I refused bribes of food and such things, and I can sleep with a clear conscience." It is not easy for a person to...34refuse bribes of food and such things, and sleep with a clear conscience" in today’s society. As I read this line, I think of the person and realize

  11. Tibetan Buddhist Elements Contained by Artifacts Unearthed in Shanghai%解析上海出土文物中的藏传佛教因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汝聪

    2016-01-01

    元代以来,藏传佛教广泛在西藏以外地区传播,带来了独特的宗教理念和宗教艺术。江南地区寺塔林立,在上海佛塔“天宫”、“地宫”出土的佛教文物中,诸多藏传佛教文化元素,从较早的元代一直延续到清代。这些文物是藏传佛教在江南地区传播的实证,对其性质的分析研究,可以了解元明清时期汉藏文化的融合方式和特点。%Since the Yuan dynasty, Tibetan Buddhism has been widely spread in regions outside Tibet, bringing in distinctive religious ideas and arts. Among the numbers of temples and pagodas distributed in the Jiangnan areas, the Buddhist artifacts unearthed from the“heavenly palaces”(tiangong) and under⁃ground palaces (digong) of pagodas in Shanghai contain Tibetan Buddhist elements from the Yuan dynasty through the Qing dynasty, providing material evidence of the spreading of Tibetan Buddhism in Jiangnan. Ex⁃amining these artifacts may bring knowledge of the integrating means and characteristics of the Han and Ti⁃betan cultures in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.

  12. Fighting Brick with Brick: Chikazumi Jōkan and Buddhism’s Response to Christian Space in Imperial Japan

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    Garrett Washington

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1915, with the support of Jōdo Shinshū (True Pure Land Buddhism’s Higashi Honganji sect and dozens of private Buddhist donors, Buddhist priest Chikazumi Jōkan erected a new, one-of-a-kind Buddhist meeting hall in Tokyo, the Kyūdō Kaikan. Chikazumi conceived of the building as a clear and deliberate spatial challenge to the crowded Protestant churches and lecture halls of turn-of-the-twentieth-century Tokyo. He chose prominent Western-style architect Takeda Goichi (1872–1938, rather than a traditional Japanese shrine or temple carpenter, to design it. The new building, in tandem with the adjacent Kyūdō Gakusha (Salvation Dormitory that Chikazumi established in 1902, spoke to, and significantly impacted, the socio-moral, intellectual, and religious life of hundreds of young Tokyoites. These two buildings represented a response to Protestant Christianity’s popularity and relevance like no other in imperial Japan. In order to achieve the religious evangelism and suprasectarian reform that he envisioned for Buddhism, Chikazumi proved willing to apply observations made in the West and appropriate practical Western Christian architectural features. Through an analysis of drawings, photographs, periodicals, institutional records, and other sources, this article tells the story of the rare fusion of opposites as Chikazumi equipped Buddhism to compete with Protestantism for the attention and devotion of the educated elite.

  13. AHP 40: Review: Mountains, Monasteries, and Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Zeisler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ladakh is famous among trekkers for her mountains and among other tourists also for her association with Tibetan Buddhism. Most visitors, however, neglect that half or more of the population follow a different religion, and hardly anybody comes to Ladakh specifically for her mosques. While the title of the volume under review is somewhat misleading – none of the articles deals specifically with monasteries or mosques, and only one, the last, with (sacred mountains – it aptly highlights that Islam has become an essential part of Ladakhi culture, and cannot be ignored. Nevertheless, the volume is again heavily biased towards Buddhism and the middle class Ladakhi. Only two of the fifteen articles deal with Islam, and a further one with a Muslim trader. In contrast, five articles engage with ritualistic aspects within the Buddhist fold, and a sixth with a Buddhist community. The remaining six articles, actually constituting the first part of the volume, deal with trade and other aspects of Buddhist or general history, of which four also involve neighbouring regions: Spiti, Bashar, Kinnaur, and Kangra. ...

  14. Privacy, the individual and genetic information: a Buddhist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongladarom, Soraj

    2009-09-01

    Bioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data, the issue has become even more pronounced. Traditionally, privacy presupposes the individual self but as Buddhism does away with the ultimate conception of an individual self, it has to find a way to analyse and justify privacy that does not presuppose such a self. It does this through a pragmatic conception that does not depend on a positing of the substantial self, which is then found to be unnecessary for an effective protection of privacy. As it may be possible one day to link genetic data to individuals, the Buddhist conception perhaps offers a more flexible approach, as what is considered to be integral to an individual person is not fixed in objectivity but depends on convention.

  15. A lemma science of mind: the potential of the Kegon (Flower Ornament) Sutra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shin'ichi

    2017-02-01

    The paper argues for a new perspective on the relationship between Buddhism and European psychology, or sciences of the mind, based in the Kegon Sutra, a text that emerged in the early stages of Mahayana Buddhism (3 rd - 5 th century CE). The basis of European science is logos intellection, formalized by Aristotle as following three laws: the law of identity, the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Logic in the Buddhist tradition, by contrast, is based in lemma (meaning to understand as a whole not with language, but with intuition). Lemma-based science born in the Buddhist tradition shows that rational perception is possible even without the three laws of logos. The Kegon Sutra, which explains what Buddha preached only a week after he attained enlightenment, is unified under the logic of lemma and can be seen as an effort to create a 'lemma science of the mind'. The fundamental teaching of the Kegon Sutra is explored, and its principles are compared with primary process thinking and the unconscious as outlined by Freud and Jung. Jung's research of Eastern texts led him to create a science of the mind that went further than Freud: his concept of synchronicity is given by way of example and can be seen anew within the idea of a lemma-based science. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. ISLAM IN SOUTH THAILAND: ACCULTURATION OF ISLAM IN THE MALAY CULTURE

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    Suryadi Suryadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of history, the religious and cultural system of Patani Malays in Southern Thailand have underground evolution development stages from animism and dynamism to Hinduism and Buddhism. This ‘’old’’ culture has been handed down into the traditions and values as well as the mindset of the present day life and culture of the Patani Malays. The arrival of Islam has brought chnges in the religious and cultural system of the Patani Malays. The Patani’s worldview was formerly based on the religious and cultural system of animism, dynamism, Hinduism, and Buddhism in the term of their customs and traditions. This study examines the process of inculturation of Islamic values into Patani malay’s culture in Southern Thailand. This study used a descriptive-analytical method and an historical-anthropological approach. This study researches the Patani malay’s religious system and culture as manifested in their everyday life and the dynamic relationship of Islamic values and local culture. In so doing, the study can describe and analyze the development of Islamic Values and Patani Malay’s culture have eventually facilitated the process of its inculturation into Patani Malay’s religious system and culture. Keywords: The religious systems, Islamic values, culture, inculturation.

  17. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  18. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan.

  19. Kipling’s Ecclectic Religious Identity

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    Serdar Ozturk

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865 -1936 is one of the most popular writers in English, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rudyard Kipling does not subscribe to any particular religion, but he is deeply a religious man because he believes in one absolute God, and the divine purpose behind the creation of man. Although Rudyard Kipling uses a lot of Christian symbols in his works, he is not a Christian. In some of his stories, he shows a unique insight into the redeeming power of love, which is the main pillar of Sufism. He also accepts some of the Islamic precepts however he is not a Muslim. He is very sympathetic to Buddhism and Hinduism and always alludes to Hindu gods and goddesses, but he does not believe in Hinduism or Buddhism. Rudyard Kipling uses a lot of religious themes, motives and symbols in his Works but he does not subscribe to any particular religious views at all.

  20. Practicantes del dharma en Andalucía (Practitioners of Dharma in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Macías Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El pluralismo religioso en Andalucía (España se ha intensificado en los últimos años pero no puede ser explicado exclusivamente con los flujos migratorios sino que también es el resultado de la sinergia de diversos factores. Un ejemplo de ello es el budismo cuya llegada puede fecharse en la década de los ochenta. El objetivo de este texto es profundizar en la situación actual de la implantación de esta confesión en un territorio determinado. El mejor conocimiento de los diferentes tipos de grupos budistas, las escuelas dispares a las que se adscriben, sus modos de organización y sus actividades, servirá para conocer mejor estos budismos que hablan el español.Abstract: The religious pluralism in Andalusia (Spain has been intensified in the last years, but it cannot be explained exclusively with the migratory flows but also is the result of the synergy of several factors. An example of this is Buddhism which arrivals can be dated in the eighties. The aim of this text is look in depth at the currently situation of this confession in a certain territory. The better knowledge of the different kinds of Buddhist groups, the diverse schools that they are affiliate, their ways of organization and their activities, will come in useful for know better this Buddhism that speaks Spanish.

  1. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

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    Kao-Ly Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  2. Zen Buddhist Spirituality (A espiritualidade zen budista - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p704en

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    Faustino Luiz Couto Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of mysticism and inter-religious spirituality has gained more space in universities and research centers that radiate everywhere. They are also research involving Eastern religions, in its peculiar mystical trait. Also in the context of Buddhism one can talk on spirituality, understood as a search path of liberation. This article presents the theme of Zen Buddhist spirituality based on the reflection of Eihei Dogen Zenji (1200 – 1253, one of the most important and prominent teachers of the Soto Zen Tradition.  This text aims to show the richness of spirituality and its peculiarity concerning the everyday reality. To promote understanding of the central question presented, the theme of spirituality was situated within the historical context of the birth of Zen Buddhism and the insertion of the presence of Dogen in its field of action. The theme of Zen spirituality was becoming evident in the approach to the problem of search of the Dharma in Dogen and his attention to small signs of everyday life. Keywords: Spirituality. Buddhism. Zen. Daily life. Religions. ResumoOs estudos de mística comparada e de espiritualidade interreligiosa vão ganhando espaço cada vez mais singular nas universidades e núcleos de pesquisa que se irradiam por toda parte. São pesquisas que envolvem também as religiões orientais, em seu traço místico peculiar. Também no âmbito do budismo pode-se falar em espiritualidade, entendida como um caminho de busca da libertação. Esse artigo visa apresentar o tema da espiritualidade zen budista, com base na reflexão de Eihei Dôgen Zenji (1200-1253, um dos mais importantes e destacados mestres da tradição Soto Zen. O objetivo é mostrar a riqueza dessa espiritualidade e sua peculiaridade de adesão à realidade cotidiana. Para favorecer a compreensão da questão central apresentada, visou-se situar a temática no âmbito do contexto histórico do nascimento do zen budismo e da inserção da

  3. Mulheres budistas como líderes e professoras Buddhist women as leaders and teachers

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    Rita M. Gross

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available No budismo, o papel do professor de dharma (religioso é a função mais prestigiosa, e o professor de dharma tem mais autoridade do que qualquer outro líder. Apesar de os ensinamentos budistas não conterem nenhuma doutrina que limite essa função ao homem, na prática, em toda a história budista, foram pouquíssimas as mulheres que se tornaram conhecidas como professoras de dharma. Algumas pessoas acham que essas práticas não prejudicam as mulheres, porque estas podem, ainda assim, receber os ensinamentos, fazer as práticas mais avançadas e obter altos níveis de esclarecimento espiritual. Contudo, eu afirmo que o fato de não haver professoras de dharma reconhecidas foi nocivo seja para as mulheres budistas, seja para o próprio budismo. Isso tem a ver com o legado das comunidades de monjas em muitas partes do mundo budista, com os baixos padrões de educação para as mulheres, com o fraco prestígio de que gozam as praticantes mulheres, com a falta de modelos para as mulheres e com a perda da sabedoria feminina na herança do pensamento budista. Até que as professoras de dharma não forem amplamente reconhecidas e honradas, o budismo continuará sendo perseguido por seu passado patriarcal, com o prejuízo de todos.In Buddhism, the role of the dharma (religious teacher is the most prestigious role, and dharma teachers have more authority that any other leaders. Though the Buddhist teachings contain no doctrines that limit this role to men, in practice throughout Buddhist history, very few women have been publicly acknowledged as dharma teachers. Some people claim that this practice does not harm women because women can, nevertheless, receive teachings, do advanced practices, and attain high states of spiritual realization. However, I claim that the practice of not recognizing women as dharma teachers has been very harmful both to Buddhist women and to Buddhism itself. It has lead to the demise of the nuns' community in many parts of

  4. Ritual y poder en los centros budistas zen argentinos

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    Catón Eduardo Carini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo es un estudio de los grupos budistas zen argentinos desde la perspectiva de la antropología política. El objetivo es, en primer lugar, explorar las distintas posiciones sociales que los miembros pueden ocupar al interior de un grupo zen y los sistemas nativos de clasificación social, es decir, las categorías que nombran y crean distinciones rituales. En segundo lugar, analizar la estructura de autoridad y de poder al interior de una comunidad zen, indagando los vínculos entre el sistema ritual de posiciones sociales y la distribución del poder y la autoridad. La investigación etnográfica se efectuó siguiendo una metodología cualitativa, que incluyó la observación participante en los encuentros que los centros zen organizan periódicamente y la realización de entrevistas semi-estructuradas e historias de vida a sus miembros. Las conclusiones giran en torno a la importancia del ritual para la vida política de la comunidad, y la centralización del poder en la figura del maestro zen mediante la particular dinámica que evidencia la estructura de autoridad. Palabras clave: Argentina; Budismo zen; Política; Poder. Abstract The present anthropological study takes a political approach to the Argentinean Zen Buddhism groups. The first objective is to explore the variety of native social classification systems, that is to say the categories naming and creating rituals. Secondly, we try to analyze the authority and power system within a Zen community, investigating the relation between the ritual system of social positions and the distribution of power and authority. This article is based on qualitative research, which included periodic participant observation in gatherings organized by the Zen Buddhism centres and semistructured interviews with and life histories of their members. The conclusions focus on the importance of ritual for the community’s political life, and the centralization of power in the

  5. Religious Relationships with the Environment in a Tibetan Rural Community: Interactions and Contrasts with Popular Notions of Indigenous Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Emily; Mills, Martin A; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    Representations of Green Tibetans connected to Buddhism and indigenous wisdom have been deployed by a variety of actors and persist in popular consciousness. Through interviews, participatory mapping and observation, we explored how these ideas relate to people's notions about the natural environment in a rural community on the Eastern Tibetan plateau, in Sichuan Province, China. We found people to be orienting themselves towards the environment by means of three interlinked religious notions: (1) local gods and spirits in the landscape, which have become the focus of conservation efforts in the form of 'sacred natural sites;' (2) sin and karma related to killing animals and plants; (3) Buddhist moral precepts especially non-violence. We highlight the gaps between externally generated representations and local understandings, but also the dynamic, contested and plural nature of local relationships with the environment, which have been influenced and reshaped by capitalist development and commodification of natural resources, state environmental policies, and Buddhist modernist ideas.

  6. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  7. Mindfulness – en religionssociologisk analyse af et moderne fænomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfredsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness er et fænomen i vækst. Den udbydes af mange forskellige typer af udbydere. Denne undersøgelse kategoriserer i et komplet sample af mindfulness-udbydere i Aarhus måden hvorpå disse udbydere kommunikerer deres tilhørsforhold til mindfulness som henholdsvis buddhisme, spiritualitet eller a......-religiøs teknik. Dette gøres ved hjælp af kriterier indenfor autorisation, tekst- og visuelle referencer. Artiklens undersøgelse viser, at mindfulness udbydes som a-religiøs teknik, men hævder samtidigt med udgangspunkt i Hornborg og Durkheim, at selv denne påståede a-religiøsitet kan kaldes religiøs....

  8. What works for whom in mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danelund, Jakob Rindum; Bihal, Tina; Flyger, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness flows over the West. It is often branded as a method rooted in Buddhism, but in academical research its relations to a series of Buddhist and spiritual concepts remain undefined. We've conducted a systematic reading of 63 self-presentations from women with breast cancer that have...... participated in mindfulness intervention. Through a simple count of words and meaning units we find that patients describe the effect as becoming more attentive of the present moment and not worrying about the past or the future as much as before. But in a linguistic analysis we find that beginner...... a better understanding of how the mindfulness-phenomenology is related to neuroscience, spirituality and religion...

  9. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

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    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  10. Using neurotechnologies to develop virtues: a Buddhist approach to cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Fenton (2009) has argued that Buddhist ethics can accommodate the use of attention-enhancing drugs, and Walker (2006 , 2009) has argued that future neurotechnologies may be used to enhance happiness and virtue. This paper uses a Western Buddhist perspective, drawing on many Buddhist traditions, to explore how emerging neurotechnologies may be used to suppress vices and enhance happiness and virtue. A Buddhist approach to the authenticity of technologically-mediated spiritual progress is discussed. The potential utility and dangers of mood manipulation for a Buddhist understanding of liberation are outlined. Then the ten paramitas of Theravadan Buddhism are explored to frame an exploration of the potential genes, neurochemicals and brain structures that could be targeted as part of a program of neurotechnological moral enhancement.

  11. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

  12. Philosophy on Stage: Theatricality, Ritual and Logic in Ancient India

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    Juan Arnau

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the public debates in ancient India, distinguishing the different modalities of these practices as they appear in the compendiums of logic (Nyāyasūtra and in the medical Sanskrit literature (Carakasamhitā. A special attention is paid to one of these kinds of debate, called vitandā, which allows a dialectic limited to refutation and dismissed the defence of the own point of view. This type of dialectic, exercised by different schools of thought in which the negative argument would acquire a fundamental role, would find its scope of development in religious traditions as Madhyamaka Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta. The justification of such practices, in which the logic is represented as in a theatre, will give way to an ironic philosophy which found many points of contact with contemporary thought.

  13. Spiritual bonds to the dead in cross-cultural and historical perspective: comparative religion and modern grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, D; Goss, R

    1999-09-01

    Contemporary spirituality within continuing bonds with the dead is placed into the comparative context of Western Christianity and Japanese Buddhism. Throughout history, humans have maintained interaction with two kinds of dead: ancestors and sacred dead, the first characterized by symmetrical relationships and the second by asymmetrical. Continuing bonds are deeply connected with, and are often in conflict with, bonds to the nation and (in the West) to God. In this framework, the authors find that continuing bonds in the present function within the private sphere and have very limited functions within the larger society, resemble traditional bonds with the sacred dead, and, at this time, offer a mild critique of the values and lifestyles on which consumer capitalism is based.

  14. Chinese cultural dimensions of death, dying, and bereavement: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G; Gupta, Rashmi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans' attitudes and practices about death, dying, and bereavement. To this end, three focus groups were conducted with social work graduate students, pastors and religious leaders, and service providers working in the Chinese American community in New York City. The United States is becoming increasingly multicultural, and Chinese Americans are the most rapidly growing Asian American group. Findings from this study revealed that many Chinese attitudes and practices about death and dying are rooted in Asian cultural values such as filial piety, centrality of the family, and emphasis of hierarchy. In addition, strains of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and local folklore are embedded in these death attitudes and practices. Based on themes extrapolated from the focus groups, recommendations are delineated for service providers in order to implement culturally-sensitive bereavement practices.

  15. Contradictions in stem cell research education amongst science educators and Buddhist, Christian and Muslim theologians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhayboubi, Samira Nawal

    We examine how teachers approach stem cell research (SCR) as a controversial religio-scientific issue, and how theologians derive rulings in SCR. We also examine the contradictions teachers have regarding religio-scientific aspect of SCR. Two observations were the igniters of this study, increasing public involvement in political decision-making and changing demographics among voters. Two samples were gathered, a teachers' group and a theologians' group. The teachers' group consisted of 43 graduate-level Science education teachers and teachers-in-training from the University of Texas at Dallas and Stanford University. The theologian's group consisted of theologians from 3 denominations, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. Data was obtained using Likert-surveys, open-ended questions and interviews. Results show that majority of the teachers' group are open to discussing SCR but fear retaliation.

  16. Vietnamese Buddhist pagoda in France: “institution-place of memory”. Legitimate power to communicate the memory of exiles

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    Jérôme GIDOIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Buddhism took hold and developed in France partly because it was able to obtain a monopoly on funeral rites and mourning rites. Many exiled families see the interest of this and delegate their ancestor worship to the monks. By combining the spiritual, socio-cultural, eschatological and political domains, and despite whatever generation gaps may exist, the pagoda allows families to reconstruct a social and family ethic in a context of social acculturation. It provides a fitting answer to the question inherent to the migratory context: how to find new symbolic resources outside of Vietnam? And it can thus implement a communication strategy that officialises, in the land of exile, the inextricable link between the pagoda and the assumption of responsibility for the memory of exiled ancestors.

  17. Comparative Theology and Religious Studies in a Non-religious Environment

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    Jacques Scheuer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.

  18. Country watch: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraksa, S

    1996-01-01

    Many of Thailand's 300,000 monks have only a rudimentary understanding of HIV/AIDS, and, in 1990, some senior monks debated about whether or not to ordain persons with AIDS as monks. Buddhism teaches that preparing for death is a way to gain enlightenment, however, and in 1991 a Buddhist monk was asked to develop a hospice care center for AIDS sufferers. After a difficult first year, the center expanded to include day care and home care facilities. In addition, a community care project was begun to raise HIV awareness. These centers have reduced the still widespread stigmatization of persons with AIDS, and three other monasteries have begun treating persons with AIDS with kindness, herbs, and meditation. As Buddhists begin to approach AIDS more seriously, the next step will be to find a way to convey information about the disease to the poverty-stricken population which will be most affected by it.

  19. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Daemi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Self-esteem appears to play a central role in the spiritual life and ethical behaviour of the typical Iranian. For example, for many Iranians, humankind is believed to be the crown of creation, and each person is believed to be individually valued by God. Previous empirical studies also indicate that in Iran spirituality is positively associated with self-esteem. On this basis, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would be one of the mechanisms through which spirituality leads to increased mental well-being. Mediation analysis showed that self-esteem was a partial mediator of the spirituality-well-being relationship. Moreover, results of moderated mediation analysis revealed that this mediation was not significantly moderated by gender, and that the indirect path through self-esteem was significant in both genders. Implications of the results and their relevance to other western and eastern religions (e.g. Christianity and Buddhism) are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. To register emotions at school, a social and educational need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Buitrago Bonilla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, emotions have played a very discreet role in the school and affectivity in the classroom has been lacking in the relationships of teachers and students. With all of the above, since Mayer &, Salovey (1990 first coined the term Emotional Intelligence (EI in an academic journal, the number of researches and findings regarding the relationship of EI with different behaviors, with life success and academic achievement among others, have led to important progress, allowing repositioning of emotional management programs in educational institutions. It should be noted that various disciplines such as Psychology, Affective Neuroscience, Buddhism and Education, have given prominence to emotions and their impact on social and human development. For this reason we can identify several successful experiences in different educational contexts that have nurtured these findings, besides suggesting a focus for the development of emotional skills in teachers ‘trainee.

  1. Culture-centered engagement with delivery of health services: co-constructing meanings of health in the Tzu Chi Foundation through Buddhist philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Sydney J; Dutta, Mohan; Sun, Wei-San

    2014-01-01

    The shift in health communication scholarship from the narrow focus on curing to the complexly intertwined spaces of health, illness, healing, and curing attends to the dynamic cultural contexts within which meanings and practices are negotiated, directing scholarship toward alternative spaces of health care delivery. This study utilized the culture-centered approach as a theoretical lens for providing a discursive space for understanding meanings of health constituted in the practices of the Tzu Chi Foundation, an organization that offers biomedical services within the larger philosophical understandings of Buddhism with 10 million members in over 50 different countries. The emerging perspective promotes non-biomedical meanings of health through selfless giving and assistance founded in Buddhist principles, simultaneously seeking purity of the mind, body, and soul holistically. Through the negotiation of the principles driving Buddhist philosophy and the principles that shape biomedical health care delivery, this study seeks to understand the interpretive frames that circulate among foundation staff and care recipients.

  2. National Theatre of China's Romeo and Juliet and Its Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the “Chinese-ness” of this brand new production of Romeo and Juliet by the National Theatre of China, from a ritual perspective. Three main areas were discussed. Firstly, this play has got several religious connotations. The absence of religion in this play’s setting is relevant to China’s current high percentage of atheists. Despite that, several religions, such as Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity, are mentioned in this play. Secondly, the play has also incorporated several Chinese culture and traditions. The use of bicycles as one of the main props can be linked to the cultural significance of bicycles in China. The play also incorporated other cultural and traditional elements such as wedding customaries in China, Xinjiang dance, as well as the Chinese tongue twisters. Finally, the play has incorporated multiple Brechtian moments. Perhaps the Brechtian moments can lead audience to think about the current religious and cultural developments in modern China.

  3. History of Shamanism in Korean Peninsula%朝鲜半岛萨满教的历史发展梳理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代娜新

    2013-01-01

    The generation , development and decline of Shamanism in Korean peninsula were summarized .The influence of Confucianism , Buddhism and Taoism of China on the Shamanism in Korean peninsula was investiga-ted.Besides, the position and significance of Shamanism in the history and social life of Korean peninsula were an -alyzed.%本文对萨满教在朝鲜半岛的产生、发展及衰落的过程进行了历史性的梳理,论证了中国儒释道对萨满教发展过程的影响,确定了萨满教在朝鲜半岛历史上以及官民生活中的地位和作用。

  4. Bushido dalam Masyarakat Jepang Modern

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    Bambang Wibawarta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushido is most often translated as the way of the warrior caste in Japan. Bushirefers to warriors in feudal Japan while do means several things including: the correct way,the path, or the road. Another interpretation of Bushido could be the way of preserving peacethrough the use of force. Bushido comes out of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shintoism. Thecombination of these schools of thought and religions has formed the code of warrior valuesknown as Bushido. A key to our understanding of how the concepts of Bushido fit into Japanesemodern lives is to understand the historical and societal aspects of Bushido. Today, this meaningcan be modernized to include minimizing violent conflict. The code of Bushido, the Samurai'scode of honor, upholds loyalty, discipline, total dedication, honor and valor, and numerousexamples of these elements can be witnessed today or in recent history.

  5. Suicide and the afterlife: popular religion and the standardisation of 'culture' in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Mary

    2012-06-01

    For an overwhelming majority of commentators, including many anthropologists, 'Japanese culture' is still associated with a positive view of suicide. Western-language writings have contributed by feedback loop to perpetuate this stereotype. Besides the local 'samurai ethic', Japanese Buddhism is also said not to prohibit taking one's life. However, the most popular examples of heroic self-sacrifice, from the Edo period to WWII, are fraught with covert contradictions. From ancient times to the present religious practitioners of all sorts have maintained that suicide creates unhappy, resentful spirits who harm the living. This article discusses many examples of a diverse series of narratives, from spirit medium's séances to drama to contemporary films, in which the anguished spirits of suicides are allowed to express themselves directly. After the figures rose alarmingly in the late 1990s various religious organisations have attempted to fight the stigma suffered by bereaved family members and have introduced new interpretations and new rituals.

  6. Deepening psychoanalytic listening: the marriage of Buddha and Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2009-06-01

    Freud (1912) delineated the ideal state of mind for therapists to listen, what he called "evenly hovering" or "evenly suspended attention." No one has ever offered positive recommendations for how to cultivate this elusive yet eminently trainable state of mind. This leaves an important gap in training and technique. What Buddhism terms meditation-non-judgmental attention to what is happening moment-to-moment-cultivates exactly the extraordinary, yet accessible, state of mind Freud was depicting. But genuine analytic listening requires one other quality: the capacity to decode or translate what we hear on the latent and metaphoric level-which meditation does not do. This is a crucial weakness of meditation. In this chapter I will draw on the best of the Western psychoanalytic and Eastern meditative traditions to illuminate how therapists could use meditation to cultivate "evenly hovering attention" and how a psychoanalytic understanding of the language and logic of the unconscious complements and enriches meditative attention.

  7. Inner happiness among Thai elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Kittisuksathit, Sirinan; Thongthai, Varachai

    2008-09-01

    This study, based on data collected in 2005 from Chai Nat province, examines the level of happiness of the Thai elderly population and its relationship to various external and internal factors. It was found that mean happiness was slightly above a feeling of "neutral." According to multiple regression analyses, external factors including economic hardship, living arrangements, functional ability, perceived social environment, and consumerism significantly influence the level of happiness. The strongest predictor of happiness is, however, the internal factor-that is, a feeling of relative poverty when compared to their neighbors. Controlling for demographic and all external factors, the respondents who do not feel poor show the highest level of happiness compared to those who feel as poor as or poorer than their neighbors. This is self-interpreted as a feeling of contentment with what one has, which has been influenced by Thai culture, which is pervaded by Buddhism.

  8. Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: Cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cortland J.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research highlights the central role of specific psychological processes, in particular those related to the self, in various forms of human suffering and flourishing. This view is shared by Buddhism and other contemplative and humanistic traditions, which have developed meditation practices to regulate these processes. Building on a previous paper in this journal, we propose a novel classification system that categorizes specific styles of meditation into attentional, constructive, and deconstructive families based on their primary cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that meta-awareness, perspective taking and cognitive reappraisal, and self-inquiry may be important mechanisms in specific families of meditation and that alterations in these processes may be used to target states of experiential fusion, maladaptive self-schema, and cognitive reification. PMID:26231761

  9. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Irwin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more current theoretical influences, based in paranormal science research. The paper demonstrates that current theories of reincarnation are increasingly less dependent upon religious support and increasingly based in direct personal experience, paranormal research, and new therapeutic models. The paper concludes with some reflections on the complexity of reincarnation theory and raises questions concerning the future development of such theory.

  10. [History of acupuncture in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    India and China are both featured with ancient civilization. During the communication between the two countries, the communication from Indian culture, especially Buddhism, to China was predominant, while communication from Chinese culture to India was rare. So it was with medical communication until the end of 1950s when acupuncture was introduced to India. In this article, the medical communication between India and China as well as the introduction of acupuncture to India were discussed, and the resulting phenomenon was analyzed. The introduction of acupuncture to India proved personnel exchange was not necessary to acupuncture communication, and several invisible factors, such as language, religion and culture tradition might be the reasons for foreign nations to accept acupuncture. Therefore, these factors should be valued in the future international communication of acupuncture.

  11. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome.

  12. Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cortland J; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Scientific research highlights the central role of specific psychological processes, in particular those related to the self, in various forms of human suffering and flourishing. This view is shared by Buddhism and other contemplative and humanistic traditions, which have developed meditation practices to regulate these processes. Building on a previous paper in this journal, we propose a novel classification system that categorizes specific styles of meditation into attentional, constructive, and deconstructive families based on their primary cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that meta-awareness, perspective taking and cognitive reappraisal, and self-inquiry may be important mechanisms in specific families of meditation and that alterations in these processes may be used to target states of experiential fusion, maladaptive self-schema, and cognitive reification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AHP 40: Review: HEALING TRADITIONS OF THE NORTHWESTERN HIMALAYAS AND BEING HUMAN IN A BUDDHIST WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Beltramini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available These two contributions address the important topics of Himalayan and Tibetan medicine. Gupta et al. is a book of science, primarily focused on the knowledge about, and the therapeutic effects of, plants and plant products in Himachal Himalaya, India. Gyatso's work is an intellectual history of the mutual influence of healing knowledge and Buddhism in early modern Tibet. Both books ask a crucial question: What is medicine in a Himalayan and Tibetan landscape? While both texts also contextualize medicine in a broader scenario, considering medicine as a non-Western tradition, Gupta et al. understand Himalayan medicine as an insular system, while Gyatso sees parallels between Tibetan and Western medical traditions, particularly in the relationship between the religious and the empirical. ...

  14. Pedestrian Dharma: Slowness and Seeing in Tsai Ming-Liang’s Walker

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    Teng-Kuan Ng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the ways that Walker, a short film by the Malaysian-Taiwanese auteur Tsai Ming-Liang, visualizes the relationship between Buddhism and modernity. Via detailed film analysis as well as attention to sources in premodern Buddhist traditions, this paper argues that its filmic performance of Zen walking meditation serves two functions: To present slowness and simplicity as prophetic counterpoints against the dizzying excesses of the contemporary metropolis; and to offer contemplative attentiveness as a therapeutic resource for life in the modern world. By instantiating and cultivating critical shifts in viewerly perspective in the manner of Buddhist ritual practice, Walker invites us to envision how a place of frenetic distraction or pedestrian mundaneness might be transfigured into a site of beauty, wonder, and liberation.

  15. AHP 37: A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from Geo-political, economic, and archaeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level. ...

  16. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  17. Integration of religious traditions in Japanese children's view of death and afterlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-03-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked to draw and describe pictures of what "to live" and "to die" meant to them. Transcribed interviews were interpreted based on thematic analysis, incorporating paradigm cases and exemplars within the hermeneutical tradition. The children perceived life as an evolving process that leads to death, and regarded death as a transitional point to an afterlife. Some children perceived this process, or flow, as linear; others as circular. Their notions of death and the afterlife incorporated three main religious traditions in Japan (Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism) as well as Christianity, as illustrated by 3 case examples and children's drawings.

  18. Meditation, Mindfulness, Psyche and Soma: Eastern, Western Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Jordanov, Daniel; Autrup, Mads

    This presentation focuses on the genesis of meditation and mindfulness in the East for comprehension of these phenomena, which are increasingly applied and adapted in the current Western context. Their very origin from the East, particularly Buddhism and Yoga practices, directs our attention...... to the three major assumptions about human nature; the monoism between mind and body, the centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct. The mainstream Western understandings promoting the body-mind dualism are challenged by invoking the bodily experiences and consciousness emphasising...... is perceived as a way of resisting dualisms and binaries regarding psychological, physical, social and spiritual realities. We conclude that without a holistic, integrated understanding of the basic principles and assumptions in which meditation and mindfulness are embedded, there is a risk for these phenomena...

  19. The Healing Spirituality of Eastern Orthodoxy: A Personal Journey of Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos C. Markides

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally assumed by western scholars and spiritual seekers that mystical, experiential religion and spirituality are primarily a hallmark of the far East, as exemplified by Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and tribal religions like native American shamanism. In this overview, based on thirty years of field research as a sociologist, I have tried to show that such mystical practices and spiritual approaches exist in Eastern Christianity among groups of lay people, as well as in ancient monasteries like those found on Mt. Athos in northern Greece. It is argued that these thousand-year-old practices in the Christian East may contribute to what some thinkers have called the “eye of contemplation”, namely the cultivation of the intuitive, spiritual side of human beings that has been repressed over the centuries because of the dominance of rationalism and scientific materialism.

  20. Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of the Vietnamese Dementia Caregiving Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Jane NhaUyen; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of religion and spirituality in dementia caregiving among Vietnamese refugee families. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with nine Vietnamese caregivers of persons with dementia, then tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for emergent themes. Caregivers related their spirituality/religion to three aspects of caregiving: (1) their own suffering, (2) their motivations for providing care, and (3) their understanding of the nature of the illness. Key terms or idioms were used to articulate spiritual/religious dimensions of the caregivers’ experience, which included sacrifice, compassion, karma, blessings, grace and peace of mind. In their narratives, the caregivers often combined multiple strands of different religions and/or spiritualities: Animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and Catholicism. Case studies are presented to illustrate the relationship between religion/spirituality and the domains of caregiving. These findings have relevance for psychotherapeutic interventions with ethnically diverse populations. PMID:20930949

  1. Religious beliefs along the suicidal path in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Hsin-Chin; Liu, Shen-ing; Sun, Yi-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the current inclinations toward depression and compulsion for members of four different religious groups, and to predict religious beliefs along the suicide path through analyzing the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts for members of these religious groups. Participants in this cross-sectional study, which adopted purposive sampling, were members of Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, and Taoism in northern Taiwan. In the case of suicide experiences, suicides among people one knows, and tendency toward compulsion and depression, there are statistical differences between the four religions. According to the results, some people with suicidal tendency will attend religious activities; therefore, we predict that religious beliefs play an important role in suicide prevention.

  2. The mystery of reincarnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence.

  3. [The relation between the contents of "Yamaizoushi" picture scrolls and Goshirakawa Houou's thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Satoko

    2005-12-01

    "Yamaizoushi," depicting the "human way" of reincarnation in Buddhism, was ordered by Goshirakawa Houou in the latter half of the 12C. This paper deals with the relation between the contents of "Yamaizoushi" and Goshirakawa Houou's thought. While earlier literature about "Yamaizoushi" emphasized its religious aspects, this paper suggests that "Yamaizoushi" actually lacks a sense of religion, because the accompanying texts are not related to any sutra, and the pictures are mocking sick people. The paper argues that these features originate from Goshirakawa Houou's discriminative feelings towards the sick, which were actually typical for that time. The lack of sympathy may also be due to the fact that, as a noble, he hadn't really experienced any hardships of human existence himself. In ordering such a scroll, Goshirakawa Houou was hunting for the bizarre. The paper claims these are the reasons why the "Yamaizoushi" picture scroll is so different from any other paintings depicting the "human way".

  4. Instances of belief in fate in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Gustav Diehl

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Man's life is predetermined by Karma. The deeds of an earlier existence bear their fruits in the present life. That is why the poor man is poor and the rich is happy with his wealth and good fortune. One man is born a brahman and another spends his days as a pariah. The law of Karma has spread in the wake of Buddhism all over the Indian continent and far beyond, whereas its complement and presupposition Samsara for the most part appears as an intellectual conception with little foundation in popular belief. But Karma is not blind. On the contrary it is absolutely just, and for that very reason inescapable. This is, however, modified in so far as good deeds are both possible and profitable. The fatal consequences of the Karma of previous births end with this span of existence. Life hereafter will depend on the fruits of accumulated Karma here and now.

  5. Application of Digital Survey Mapping Technology in the Investigation of Colored Wood Statue in the Caoxi Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The colored wood statues in the CaoXi Temple represent the Sandashi(Manjushri, Samantabhadra , Avalokitesvar) in the Buddhism.These statues with great value were carved in Dali kingdom of the Song dynasty. Because of natural and man-made reasons, disease has become very seriously both in the painted layer on the surface and the structure inside. So it is very important to record the current situation, analyze the structure, craft and material, and detect the cause of disease. This paper takes the colored wood statues as the research object, and kinds of digital survey technology were applied in the process. The Research results will play an important role in the protection, explanation and display.

  6. In Order to Translate the Pāli Canon: Reine Sprache on the Other Side of the Möbius Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Goran Skare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes to analyze some potentialities in the translation of the pāli canon, language in which are the writings of Theravāda buddhism. In order to do this, we use the concept of pure language (reine Sprache as formulated by Benjamin. After this, we proceed to a reading of the concept under the light of buddhist doctrine. Thus, we defend a Revelation without Creator, which brings us to the idea of pure language as a karmic parameter. In our discussion, we point to translating as a practice. In our conclusion, we translate some verses from the Dhammapada and we discuss them, and we respond to some possible objections.

  7. Monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phramaha Somdet Wongtham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation, monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan, is a qualitative study with three primary aims:To study the background of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand, to study the current state of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand and to outline a set of guidelines for community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected and was composed of nine communities in Northeastern Thailand. Results show that monks have been involved in community development since Buddhism first arrived in North-eastern Thailand and their role is now primarily separated into three areas: Faith, knowledge and practice. The results of this investigation can be considered by local temples, communities, government institutions and individual monks when deciding how to manage and administer community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand.

  8. Hermann Oldenberg and the Historical Imperative: Writing a Biography of Gautama Buddha from Nineteenth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Eduardo García Fernández

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century Buddhism was well known as a religion among academic and literary circles in Europe. However, the variety of doctrinal versions and texts from different Buddhist schools posed a dilemma for the pioneering scholars in the field: which one was the real history and teaching of the Buddha? Although there were numerous studies and biographical versions of the life of Buddha, the one written by German Orientalist Hermann Oldenberg is noted for its historicist reconstruction and its claim to have used the original source. This article discusses how Oldenberg’s work represented an effort to reconstruct a hagiography through the lens of a modern rational society that demanded consistency with respect to religious events, imposing a holistic perspective to a heterogeneous material which in itself is fragmented, and thus contributing to the “construction” of the life of Gautama Buddha as a coherent whole.

  9. The Use of Gemstones in The Chinese Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddin Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to provide documentation of information relating to local intelligence from the older generations, specifically the local intelligence of the Chinese community on gemstones.To better understand this issue, an informal interview had been conducted on an informant from the Chinese community who has vast experiences dealing with gemstone crafting. Literature reviews were also carried out to further understand the issue under discussion. It can be assumed that religion is the main factor influencing the use of gemstones among ancient Chinese. Although other aspects such as luck, prestige, and healing may also exist, the reasons would be solely based on the teachings of Buddhism. In summary, every God’s creations possess benefits and it is up to human to utilise them in either beneficial or adverse ways 

  10. The law of the leading digits and the world religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, T. A.

    2012-02-01

    Benford's law states that the occurrence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but tends to follow a logarithmic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate here numerical data on the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Baha'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits occurring in the distribution conforms to Benford's law. We find that the adherent data of all the religions, except Christianity, excellently does conform to Benford's law. Furthermore, unlike the adherent data on Christianity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations i.e. Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obeys the law. Thus in spite of their complexity general laws can be established for the evolution of religious groups.

  11. The mystery of reincarnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  12. The Interplay between Religiosity and Horizontal and Vertical Individualism-Collectivism among Polish Catholic Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarzycka Beata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Individualism-collectivism has emerged as one of the most important constructs to depict cultural differences and similarities. It is typical to examine individualism and collectivism through comparison between the cultures of the West and those of the East or comparison between various religious traditions, e.g. Christianity has been seen as the source of Western individualistic understanding whilst Buddhism as the source of Eastern collectivist understanding. The research presented in this paper explored the connections between individualism-collectivism and religiosity in Polish Catholic culture. Although Poland is an orthodox Catholic environment, gradually intensified secularization processes have been observed there. In two separate studies we examined relationships between individualism-collectivism and religiosity defined in a traditional (study 1 and secularized context (study 2.

  13. Spiritual perspectives and practices at the end-of-life: A review of the major world religions and application to palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer-Wu S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care professionals promote well-being and ease suffering at the end-of-life through holistic care that addresses physical, emotional, social and spiritual needs. The ways that individuals cope with serious illness and prepare for death are often done so within a religious context. Therefore, it is essential that palliative care practitioners are sensitive to and have an appreciation of different religious perspectives and rituals to meet the unique needs of their patients and families. This paper provides a brief overview of the five major world religions - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism - with particular emphasis of the respective perspectives on suffering, death and afterlife. Despite wide variation in these traditions, an understanding of common rituals surrounding death, funerals and bereavement can improve care for patients, families and communities facing the end-of-life.

  14. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  15. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  17. REVIEW: MINDSCAPING THE LANDSCAPE OF TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dorje Tashi (Rdo rje bkra shis རྡོ་རྗེ་བཀྲ་ཤིས།, Duojie Zhaxi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dan Smyer Yü. 2015. Mindscaping the Landscape of Tibet: Place, Memorability, Ecoaesthetics. Boston: Walter de Gruyter. 257 pp. ISBN 978-1-61451-553-1 (hardback 140USD, ISBN 978-1-61451-562-3 (paperback 42USD, ISBN 978-1-61451-423-7 (PDF 140USD, ISBN 978-1-61451-980-5 (EPUB 140USD. Dan Smyer Yü's work (2015 is an important contribution to the field of Tibetan Studies and provides thought-provoking insights on Tibetan landscapes. A professor of anthropology at Yunnan Minzu University, Yü's research interests include trans-regional studies of ethnic relations, religious diversity, and Tibetan Buddhism in the Himalayas. Yü has also been involved in the production of documentary films about Tibet and Tibetan landscape, Buddhism, and culture. In Mindscaping the Landscape of Tibet, Yü explores the potency of Tibetan landscape through the lens of post-Orientalism, with a focus on intimate interactions between place and people, and connections between landscape and mindscape. Containing extensive ethnographic descriptions and theoretical applications, Yü borrows Edward Casey's (b. 1939 concept of "placiality" as a conceptual tool, linking the "materiality and immateriality of place" (23 and exploring their manifestations. The book features eight chapters, including introduction and conclusion chapters. The remaining six chapters are case studies carried out in Sambha (Sum ba, a Tibetan community in Khri ka (Guide County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province; Beijing; Shangrila (Xiangelila, Sems kyi nyi zla, Rgyal thang, a Tibetan city in Bde chen (Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province; and Lha sa. Also included are narratives of the Chinese People's Liberation Army's (PLA arrival in Tibet in the 1950s, and analysis of the cinematic landscapes of Tibet, Tibetan intellectual critics of traditional Tibet, religious tourism, and public discourse between Tibetans and non-Tibetans. ...

  18. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  19. Between Faith and Utilitarian: the Scholars' Wild State of Mind in the Middle and Late Tang Dynasty%信仰与功利之间:中晚唐文人的狂放心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春林

    2012-01-01

    唐中后期文人狂放、超脱的个性,虽然常常出现在诗文书写之中,但由于佛教南宗禅的广泛传播,往往被后世研究者归因为信仰的影响,其中儒家传统的出世观念,则常常被所谓的禅理遮蔽。通过对这一时期文人狂放行为特征的剖析,发现文人的超脱只是建构在人世遭遇与个人信仰交点之上的外在处世方式,投影到社会价值观念转型之时,超脱更多地彰显着士大夫文人即时的功利心态,而天命至上的伦理观业已消弭在信仰与现实之间。%The scholars in the Middle and Late Tang Dynasty were unconventional and unrestrained, which often ap- peared in the writing of poetry. But with the wide spread of southern sect zen of buddhism, later generations of re- seaxchers ascribe it to the influence of faith, in which the traditional idea of confucianism' s being born is often shiel- ded by the so-called Buddhism. Through the analysis of the scholar' s wild behavior characteristic in this period, we find the scholars' unconventionality is based on the way of communicating of the intersection point between personal experience and belief. When unconventionality is put into the transformation of social value, it more reveals the litera- ti and offieialdoms' immediate utilitarian mentality. However, the ethics of destiny has disappeared between belief and reality.

  20. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2013-01-01

    The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79) and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92) and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06). The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  1. The Fourth Way in Finland

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    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  2. ANÁLISIS CRÍTICO DE LA EXPLICACIÓN DE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN MORAL EN EL BUDISMO NEURAL

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    Jeffrey R.Dickson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A medida que las argumentaciones no teístas se tornan cada vez más sofisticadas y complejas, se hace más difícil realizar una crítica sin antes admirar lo habilidoso de su diseño y casi maestría. Una de esas argumentaciones es una innovación relativamente reciente que es el hijo del naturalismo y la filosofía oriental: el budismo neural. Como dos diseñadores mundialmente famosos que trabajan juntos en una prenda nueva, el naturalismo y el budismo se unieron en este programa distintivo para ofrecer algo inventivo, especialmente en la explicación de la transformación moral. Por el contrario, este análisis va a develar al final que la explicación de la transformación moral del budismo neural es incapaz de ofrecer buenas respuestas a varias críticas convincentes. Abstract As non-theistic arguments for morality become increasingly sophisticated and complex, they are harder to criticize without first admiring their skillful design and near-artistry. One such argument involves a relatively new innovation that is the child of naturalism and eastern philosophy—Neural Buddhism. Like two world- renowned designers collaborating on a new garment, Naturalism and Buddhism have come together in this distinct program to offer something inventive, especially in its explanation of moral transformation. However, this critical analysis will ultimately reveal that Neural Buddhism’s explanation of moral transformation is incapable of providing good answers to several compelling criticisms.

  3. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.

  4. ANTONIO DE MONTSERRAT – LA RUTA DE LA SEDA Y LOS CAMINOS SECRETOS DEL TANTRA

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    Oscar R. Gómez

    2016-01-01

    article presents Antonio de Montserrat’s biography to insert him in Buddhist critical thinking as whom is considered the first Westerner initiated into tantric philosophy and who became a driver thereof in the West through the Society of Jesus. To do so, a historical review is first presented to focus on the way Buddhism was removed from India and found refuge among the peoples of Central Asia such as the Uyghurs in present-day Turkistan, how it was then adopted by Chinese emperors and spread throughout the Silk Road. The combination of Indian Buddhism and Western influences (Greco-Buddhism gave rise to several Buddhist schools in Central Asia and China. Then, the esoteric form Buddhism took (tantra is briefly described, which was consolidated as Vajrayana (tantric Buddhism in Tibet in the eighth century. That is the Buddhist form rulers have adopted, which promotes full social and gender equality, the idea of the subject as a cultural construction and the notion of metaphorical deities —useful to model people’s character but completely non-existent— in addition to the Buddhist principle of relative truth (not absolute. This non theistic view —or transtheistic, as Gómez would rather call, was projected in the absolute religious tolerance within the Chinese, Uyghur, and Mongolian empires, which ensured safety and free exchange on the Silk Route. Such standpoint of people not divided into castes or differentiated by reason of bloodline is what amazes de Montserrat when saying Tibetans "have no kings among them" and what encourages those who made a journey (based on de Montserrat’s writings especially to receive initiation into Tibetan Tantric Buddhism such as Jesuits Antonio de Andrade and John de Brito. Finally, the article jumps in Antonio de Montserrat’s biography and it shows its connection with tantrism.

  5. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

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    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  6. Abiding by the sufficiency economy philosophy to develop the quality of life of teachers and educational personnel in the central region

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    Khumkhong, Tippawan

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to 1) study the ideas and procedures of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) to make it fully implemented to develop the quality of life of teachers and educational personnel in the central region, 2) study the results of implementing the SEP and 3) offer some guidelines in implementing the SEP to develop the quality of life. The samples were the teachers and educational personnel, the cremation service welfare members of 2015 in 9 provinces of the central region namely Bangkok, Sing Buri, Saraburi, Chai Nat, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pha Nakhon Si Ayuttaya, Lop Buri and Ang Thong. The qualitative research's samples were the 6 key informants selected purposely, collected by depth-interview, analyzed using inductive method, checked by the methodological triangulation and the key informants. The quantitative research's samples were the 398 offered obtained by stratified random sampling having regard to the ratio, collected by questionnaire with the reliability value of 0.982, analyzed by percentage, mean and standard deviation. The findings were as follows: 1) As for the ideas towards the SEP and the ethical principles of Buddhism are one and the same thing. All levels of people can follow this philosophy. The procedures towards the SEP to develop the quality of life by performing in harmony with their daily lives regarding to the moderation, the reasonableness, building self-immunity with knowledge and ethical qualification. 2) The SEP helps develop the better quality of life, happiness, sound life, sound economy with great satisfaction of the living. 3) On offering some guidelines in implementing the SEP to develop the quality of life: 3.1) the performers must have good understanding in the philosophy and accept to bring it into use 3.2) lead a life according to the ethical principles of Buddhism or to the ones of the religion you believe. 3.3) members of the family had to cooperate in leading lives according to the SEP and 3.4) save money

  7. The Terracotta Plaques of Pagan: Indian Influence and Burmese Innovations

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    Vinay Kumar Rao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available    Since its inception Buddhist art aimed to make the Buddhist disciples well aware with the life and teachings of Buddha. The Buddhist followers had a belief that the attainment of Buddhahood was not an outcome of a single birth but was a successive effort and practice of ten pāramitās in his previous births. Though the origin of Jātakas was in India but its final and complete compilation was finalised in Sri Lanka by the scholars of Buddhaghoṣa School. The life scenes of Buddha in form of Jātakas depictions are ever preferred theme in Buddhist art and were carved with equal enthusiasm and potential elegance in every period irrespective to any political and social limitations. Buddhism entered Myanmar in three inflows, first in 5th Century CE through north-eastern India, secondly during 7th century CE through religious transformation from Sri Lanka and finally in 10–12 century CE through eastern India.  The period between 8th-12th centuries CE in India has been considered as a cradle of encouraging heterodox creeds and sects representing both Hinduism and Buddhism which were found to exist side by side. The art practiced during this period was flourished on well designated artistic paradigms of Gupta period but had a deep influence of Pāla art. The intense trade activities between eastern India and South East Asia and unstable political condition of India encouraged the Indian artist to look for new territories where he can easily perform his art. Pagan in central Myanmar provided suitable political and religious environment to these sculptors. As result the art and architecture performed in terracotta plaques of Pagan and its Buddhist religious monumental architecture attained deep influence of eastern India but the art of central Myanmar was not a mere repetition of its Indian neighbourhood but is evident with many local experiments and innovations.  The paper is intended intends to make present a brief analysis of the artistic

  8. An explanation and analysis of how world religions formulate their ethical decisions on withdrawing treatment and determining death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setta, Susan M; Shemie, Sam D

    2015-03-11

    This paper explores definitions of death from the perspectives of several world and indigenous religions, with practical application for health care providers in relation to end of life decisions and organ and tissue donation after death. It provides background material on several traditions and explains how different religions derive their conclusions for end of life decisions from the ethical guidelines they proffer. Research took several forms beginning with a review of books and articles written by ethicists and observers of Bön, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Indigenous Traditions, Islam, Judaism, Shinto and Taoism. It then examined sources to which these authors referred in footnotes and bibliographies. In addition, material was gathered through searches of data bases in religious studies, general humanities, social sciences and medicine along with web-based key word searches for current policies in various traditions. Religious traditions provide their adherents with explanations for the meaning and purpose of life and include ethical analysis for the situations in which their followers find themselves. This paper aims to increase cultural competency in practitioners by demonstrating the reasoning process religions use to determine what they believe to be the correct decision in the face of death. Patterns emerge in the comparative study of religious perspectives on death. Western traditions show their rootedness in Judaism in their understanding of the human individual as a finite, singular creation. Although the many branches of Western religions do not agree on precisely how to determine death, they are all able to locate a moment of death in the body. In Eastern traditions personhood is not defined in physical terms. From prescribing the location of death, to resisting medical intervention and definitions of death, Eastern religions, in their many forms, incorporate the beliefs and practices that preceded them. Adding to the complexity for these

  9. Analisis Sosiologis terhadap Sistem Pergantian Sultan di Kesultanan Palembang Darussalam

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    Muhammad Syawaluddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One task of being a umaro sultan, that he was a religious adviser to the government. The existence of the Sultanate of Palembang is not only the cultural but also the existing political elements. In this study it was found that the process of appointment of kings or sultans who ruled in Palembang no different from those in other sultanates that ever existed on earth this archipelago. Despite having Islamic political unity, but actually still continue what has been there in the past, the concept of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam simply as a shirt while outside. The same is true for aspects of legality. As a maritime empire that is absolute, it seems referrals can be directed only remaining absolute monarchy in Southeast Asia was the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. However, the origin of the empire was not of royal birth agrarian civilization as a palace, but of an empire in estuaries and the sea like, the kingdoms in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and others.   One task of being umaro sultan, that he was a religion adviser to the government. The existence of the Sultanate of Palembang was not only the cultural but also the existing elements of political. In this study it was found that the process of appointment of kings or sultans who ruled in Palembang not different from people of other sultanates that ever existed on this archipelago earth. Despite having Islamic political unity, but actually still continued what had been there in the past, the concept of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam was only as a temporary shirt outside. The same thing was prevail for the aspects of legality. As a maritime empire that was absolute, it seemed directive could be directed only remaining absolute monarchy in Southeast Asia was the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. However, the origin of the empire was not born the empire of agrarian civilization as a palace, but from an empire in estuaries and the sea like, the Kingdoms in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and others.

  10. Book Reviews

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    J. van Baal

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available - W. Ph. Coolhaas, António Galvao, A treatise on the Moulccas (c. 1544, probably the preliminary version of António Galvao’s lost História das Molucas, edited, annotated and translated into English from the Portugese manuscript in the Archivo de Indias, Seville by Hubert Th. Th. Jacobs, S.J.; Sources and Studies for the History of the Jesuits: Volume III; Jesuit Historical Institute, Rome 1971. 402 pp., 4 plates, 2 maps. - H.J. de Graaf, Generale missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. Deel IV, 1675-1685. Uitgegeven door Dr. W. Ph. COOHAAS. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën Grote Serie 134, ‘s-Gravenhage 1971. 893 blz. - R.S. Wassing, Norbert Mylius, Kulturhistoriche Abhandlungen. Gé Nabrink, Amsterdam 1970. 46 + 53 + 93 blz., 30 + 36 platen. - R.S. Wassing, Jeune Scott-Kemball, Javanese shadow puppets. The Trustees of the British Museum, Londen 1970. 66 p., 30 plates. - James J. Fox, Maurice Bloch, Placing the dead. Seminar Studies in Anthropology No. 1. Seminar Press, London 1971. 214 pp., 16 plates, maps, figs. - L.F.B. Dubbeldam, Karl G. Heider, The Dugum Dani, a Papuan culture in the highlands of West New Guinea. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, 1970. 334 pp. - P. van de Velde, Raymond Firth, Tikopia string figures. Royal anthropological institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Occasional paper no. 29, London 1970. 64 p., 54 figs., 1 plate., Honor Maude (eds. - E. Schlesier, Glynn Cochrane, Big men and cargo cults. Oxford monographs on social anthropology. Clarendon Press. Oxford 1970, XXIX und 187 p., 4 maps, 3 figs, index. - J. van Baal, Rose Schubert, Methodologische Untersuchungen an Ozeanischem Mythen-material. Bd. 24 der Studien zur Kulturkunde. Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH, Wiesbaden, 1970; 237 S., broschiert, D.M. - M. Ondei, S.J. Tambiah, Buddhism and the spirit cults in Northeast Thailand. Cambridge studies in social anthropology 2. Cambridge University Press, 1970

  11. Contemporary ethnic processes in Tuvan population in the south of Krasnoyarskii Krai

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    Viktor P. Krivonogov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the contemporary ethnic trends in the group of Tuvans who for a long time have been residing in Krasnoyarskii Krai, near the border with the Republic of Tuva, along the river Us. They are habitually referred to as the ‘Usinsk Tuvans’. Since early 1990s, due to the decay of cattle farming and mass unemployment, almost all of them have relocated to two Russian villages, where they now form a minority. After the move, the Tuvan population, especially its youngest age groups, have had specific ethnic experience which was investigated by an ethnographic expedition the author took part in in 2014. The Usinsk Tuvans were surveyed with the help of an ethnographic questionnaire. In addition, informant and expert discussions were held, and available statistical materials studied, as well as household books for a number of years from the local village council archive. Our study has found that even those whose mother tongue is Tuvan commonly have to communicate in Russian. Linguistic assimilation was most conspicuous in the youngest age group, where children are increasingly often given Russian names. Youth increasingly often sing only Russian song. While the elder generation still remembers several Tuvan fairy tales, there are fewer children and teenagers with such knowledge. Tuvans still preserve only some elements of the traditional wedding rites, but funeral rites are better known and kept. Dualist religious self-identification can be observed (Buddhism-Shamanism, Orthodox Christianity – Buddhism, or Orthodox Christianity – Shamanism. Over a third of Usinsk Tuvans identify as atheists. Ethnic closing is habitually worn mainly by elderly women, while the majority of Usinsk Tuvans (64.5% never wear it. Dishes belonging to Tuvan national cuisine are cooked in most families. 31.7% of households are mixed-marriage families, with women marrying a non-Tuvan more frequently than men. This significant proportion of mixed marriages

  12. Silent Bodies: Japanese taciturnity and image thinking

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    Ana Došen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A nonverbal transmission and an implicit way of communication are highly encouraged in Japanese society. The reason for this “silence prerogative” is often found in historical facts of lengthy feudal era or in ancient philosophies and religions such as Buddhism and Confucianism and their various concepts which privilege taciturn way of communication. Moreover, the unspoken comprehension is often complemented by the attitude which equates truthfulness with silence. This paper explores the silence as a communicative act in the domain of Japanese art, where the body takes over the place of the language. In traditional Japanese theatrical performance, such as noh, words are often inadequate to convey emotion and therefore the aesthetics of emptiness, understatement and abstraction is transcended by the masks with "nonmoving lips". Drawing on theoretical perspectives from both East and West, I argue that the silent bodies operate as deliberate and integral determinants of Japanese non-silent art forms – especially in cinema and theatre. In the Eastern thought, visual perception is fundamental in cognition of the world, whereas auditory discernment is secondary to "image-thinking" (Yuasa. Accustomed to taciturnity, Japanese audience effectively corresponds to the performance and "completes" it in silence.

  13. Cultural perspectives of older nursing home residents regarding signing their own DNR directives in Eastern Taiwan: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Tzu Sophie; Cheng, Shu-Chen; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Mei; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2016-05-06

    Chinese tradition and culture developed from Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism and have influenced ethnic Chinese for thousands of years, particularly thoughts on death. Many ethnic Chinese, particularly older people, refrain from discussing death-related concerns, making it difficult to obtain advance directives, including do-not-resuscitate (DNR) directives, signed independently by older people. This study explored the attitudes of older nursing home residents in Taiwan toward signing their own DNR directives. This study adopted purposive sampling and collected data through in-depth interviews. The data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis, and the study location was a nursing home in Eastern Taiwan. A total of 11participants were recruited from a sample of 12 eligible participants. Most of the older residents in this study refused to make decisions independently regarding DNR directives. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes concerning refusing to sign DNR directives independently: not going against nature, accepting the results of cause and effect, viewing the family as a decision-making system, and practising self-effacement. Chinese cultural aspects, including Taoist, Buddhist, and Confucian philosophy, affected the autonomy of the older residents, and they relied on others to make decisions for them. Professionals must respect this family-oriented decision-making thinking of older residents because it reflects personal choice. Otherwise, healthcare providers may play a mediating role in coordinating and communicating between older residents and their families regarding EOL-care-related concerns, replacing the traditional practice of holding a family meeting.

  14. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  15. Zen-Boeddhistiese selfloosheid as sentrale interteks van die Breytenbach-oeuvre

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    M. Sienaert

    1993-05-01

    The Buddhist concept of selflessness as expressed in the work of Breytenbach is by way of contrast firstly set against the background of the more familiar Western philosophical tradition, and then analysed within the context of Buddhist experiences such as Sunyata, Satori, Zazen and the Taoist principle of relativity to which it is inexorably linked. In doing so an attempt is made to fulfil a need that became apparent from discussions with colleagues and (postgraduate students: Although Zen -Buddhism in general has long been accepted as a primary intertext of the Breytenbach oeuvre, and although it is common practice to refer to notions such as Satori, Zazen and the Void when studying his work, it is not always clear in which way the Buddhist philosophy is pertinent to the creative process as such, be it that of creative writing or painting. To construe the presence of Buddhist terminology in the Breytenbach text as a mere tool for the unfolding of plot or as an attempt to define his writing as moralistic or mystical is an unfortunate misconception. In addition to the focus on Buddhist selflessness and the way in which it is reflected in Breytenbach’s work, this article therefore offers some suggestions on the way in which an understanding of Buddhist principles can serve as elucidation of the nature of the Breytenbach oeuvre and the creative experience as such.

  16. Reflections Around the Conservation of Sacred Thangkas

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    Sabine Cotte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan thangkas (Buddhist scroll paintings are created as religious ritual objects. The fact that they are mainly considered as artworks in the Western world impacts on the decisions made for their display and conservation. This article explores the current approach to thangkas in Australian public collections and compares it with the views of contemporary Tibetan Buddhism practitioners. It underlines a few misconceptions at the source of conservation decision-making, and discusses practical outcomes of integrating the sacred dimension into professional practice against the backdrop of conservation’s Codes of Ethics. Conserving living religious heritage requires that professional ethical standards are adaptable to the needs of users. Existing frameworks for the conservation of sacred objects of pre-colonised, indigenous cultures provide useful models for the conservation of thangkas. This article argues that engaging with contemporary cultural groups to conserve religious significance is part of the mission of conservators. This is viewed as an expansion of conservation practice into the social realm, in a search for purposeful conservation that establishes the social relevance of our profession.

  17. Reconceptualizing Mujō: A Japanese worldview not in the pursuit of eternity

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    A. Rezaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of "Mujō," one of the fundamental concepts of Japanese culture and thinking. The concept of Mujō, compared with other concepts and keywords necessary to understand Japanese culture, is completely unknown in Iran. In fact, this concept is a prerequisite for understanding many aspects of Japanese culture. Some of these aspects include the importance of sakura or cherry blossoms in Japanese culture, the reason for the preference of wood over stone in Japanese architecture, the justification for the tradition of samurai suicide by sword, the kamikaze concept, and the specificity of the meaning of the word for goodbye (sayonara. Mujō is also instrumental in understanding the theme of many Japanese poems, particularly Haiku. Mujō represents a kind of worldview that has emerged throughout the history of Japan and through the integration of genuine Japanese thoughts with the thoughts of Buddhism. After explaining the literal and conceptual meaning of Mujō, the present article deals with its manifestations in the literature, culture, society, and language of Japan. This article also attempts, from the perspective of a non-Japanese, to examine one aspect of the Japanese worldview. Based on the various interpretations of Mujō, the author has attempted to reconceptualize Mujō by interpreting it as "escape from eternity." The present article seeks to respond to the implications of this conceptualization.

  18. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  19. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN MANAJEMEN KAWASAN EKOWISATA BUDAYA CANDI MUARA TAKUS KAMPAR RIAU

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    Dodi Sukma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Muara Takus Temple (MTT is a relic of the kingdom of Sriwijaya derived from Buddhism and it has the potential to be developed as a tourist attraction. MTT cultural development of the ecotourism area as a cultural heritage, tourist destinations and places of worship need to be done as a measure to keep the MTT area and improve the local economy. If cultural tourism will be managed carefully, it will be had the economic potential as the motivation for the cultural stakeholders to provide rewards and protection of cultural heritage. In other words, cultural tourism has a double significance that is able to increase the economic value and cultural value. The research aimed to develop ecotourism management of cultural MTT. The used method was the method of survey (survey methods with a questionnaire technique, which was a collection of data that provided a list of questions/statements to the informant/respondent hoped of providing a response to the questionnaire. The used questionnaire was elaborated from the combination question/statement patterned open, closed and scale (rating. The research showed that the parties were supported the development of management area eco-cultural tourism muara takus temple. Eliminating the gaps by establishing an agency has been to manage the MTT in order to avoid overlapping policies and has been facilitated communication, coordination, collaboration parties were involved to achieve the desired objectives.  Keywords: eco-cultural tourism, immaterial, material, muara takus temple

  1. Mental health and hospital chaplaincy: strategies of self-protection (case study: toronto, Canada).

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    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional - hospital chaplains - who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and modern paganism) in different Toronto (Canada) Hospitals to see how they manage their emotion, and what resources they rely on in order to protect their mental health. Data analysis was perfumed according to Sandelowski's method of qualitative description. The average age and work experience of the subjects interviewed in this study are 52 and 9.6 respectively. 11 chaplains worked part-time and 10 chaplains worked full-time. 18 respondents were women and the sample incudes 3 male chaplains only. The findings are discussed, among others, according to the following themes: work-life balance, self-reflexivity, methods of self-care, and chaplains' emotional make-up. Emotion management per se is not a problem. However, if chaplains fail to maintain a proper work-life balance, job pressure can be harmful. As a strategy, many chaplains work part-time. As a supportive means, an overwhelming number of chaplains regularly benefit from psychotherapy and/or spiritual guidance. None.

  2. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

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    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

  3. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

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    Qianguo Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.

  4. How Peircean semiotic philosophy connects Western science with Eastern emptiness ontology.

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    Brier, Søren

    2017-12-01

    In recent articles in this journal I have discussed why a traditional physicalist and mechanist, as well as an info-computationalist, view of science cannot fulfil the goal of building a transdisciplinary science across Snow's two cultures. There seems to be no path proceeding from mechanistic physicalism to views that encompass phenomenological theories of experiential consciousness and meaning-based cognition and communication. I have suggested, as an alternative, the Cybersemiotic framework's integration of Peirce's semiotics and Luhmann's autopoietic system theory. The present article considers in greater depth the ontological developments necessary to make this possible. It shows how Peirce avoids materialism and German idealism through his building on a concept of emptiness similar to modern quantum field theory, positing an indeterminist objective chance feeding into an evolutionary philosophy of knowing based on pure mathematics and phenomenology that is itself combined with empirically executed fallibilism. Furthermore, he created a new metaphysics in the form of a philosophical synechist triadic process philosophy. This was integrated into the transcendentalist view of process view of science and spirituality developed from Western Unitarianism by Emerson (agapism), and featuring a metaphysics of emptiness and spontaneity (tychism) that are also essential for the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism and Vedanta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A week of Danjiki (Buddhist fasting ritual) on cardiometabolic health: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Sugawara, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Danjiki is an ascetic traditional fasting ritual in the Japanese Buddhism training. Here we present a case of a 48-year-old man who underwent a 1-week-long Danjiki fasting ritual in a remote Buddhist temple. The daily ritual consisted of waking up at 3:30 am, hiking strenuously in the steep mountains followed by meditations on the rocks, focused calligraphy of religious drawings and documents, recital of Buddhist prayer chanting, and standing under waterfalls while reciting prayers. He was allowed to drink water ad libitum and a cup of carrot juice a day. After a week of the Danjiki ritual, his body weight decreased by 5 kg. Resting metabolic rate did not change. Fasting blood glucose did not change but plasma triglyceride decreased 35 %. There were no changes in blood pressure. Arterial stiffness increased 15-25 % and endothelium-dependent vasodilation decreased 5 %. These results indicate that the Danjiki ritual produced significant weight loss but unexpectedly reduced vascular functions.

  6. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  7. Religious views of the 'medical' rehabilitation model: a pilot qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamey, Gavin; Greenwood, Richard

    2004-04-22

    To explore the religious beliefs that patients may bring to the rehabilitation process, and the hypothesis that these beliefs may diverge from the medical model of rehabilitation. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with representatives of six major religions--Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Sikhism, and Hinduism. Representatives were either health care professionals or religious leaders, all with an interest in how their religion approached health issues. There were three recurrent themes in the interviews: religious explanations for injury and illness; beliefs about recovery; religious duties of care towards family members. The Buddhist, Sikh, and Hindu interviewees described beliefs about karma--unfortunate events happening due to a person's former deeds. Fatalistic ideas, involving God having control over an individual's recovery, were expressed by the Muslim, Jewish, and Christian interviewees. All interviewees expressed the fundamental importance of a family's religious duty of care towards ill or injured relatives, and all expressed some views that were compatible with the medical model of rehabilitation. Religious beliefs may both diverge from and resonate with the medical rehabilitation model. Understanding these beliefs may be valuable in facilitating the rehabilitation of diverse religious groups.

  8. Consciousness and Reality in Western and Oriental Tradition. Relationship between Human and Universe

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    Anatoly P. Suprun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stating the main principles of Buddhist philosophy and psychology is usually going with help of ancient categories and metaphors, which had been developed since the fifth century B.C. till the tenth century A.C That means they were worked out by quite different kind of mentality (culture, language, traditions.... That makes those categories and metaphors almost untranslatable on European languages properly and unequivocally. In its turn, that situation makes difficult any kind of modern scientific research of the phenomena, discovered inside Buddhism, as well as ideas, developed in it. In this article we set a question of possibility to select such basic concepts of modern natural science, which can effectively translate main oriental ideas about Reality into modern scientific paradigm and discover the meaning of psychological phenomena from the transpersonal psychology sphere of interest. We take a look on some comparisons between pictures of Reality in modern physics and in Buddhist paradigm, allocating two sides of Reality, called Nirvana and Samsara.

  9. Discussion of FAN Zhong-yan’s Buddhist Thought and Personality Spirit%论范仲淹的佛禅思想及其人格精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢爽; 胡遂

    2014-01-01

    FAN Zhong-yan’s life ambition is to make the monarch as wise as Yao and Shun.He begged the ancient heart of Habitat for Humanity in his “YueYang Tower Notes”,“not pleased,not to have com-passion,”the implication was obvious Buddhist ideas with.The fusion of Confucianism and Buddhism thought of Fan Zhong-yan for the later generations to establish the “independent personality model un-moved either by gain or loss”.His life is spent in the pursuit and practice of Mahayana Bodhisattva “the highest state of compassion for the world of vision”,“being and not being”in perfect unity.%范仲淹的一生志在致君尧舜。《岳阳楼记》中他“尝求古仁人之心”,“不以物喜,不以己悲”的思想俨然带有佛家的意味。融合儒释思想的范仲淹为后来的士人树立了“宠辱不惊”的独立人格典范。他的一生都在追求和践行大乘菩萨道“悲心宏愿”的最高境界,为世人诠释了“有无之境”的完美统一。

  10. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. A Buddhist approach to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disayavanish, Chamlong; Disayavanish, Primprao

    2007-08-01

    The majority of the Thai population is Buddhists and Buddhism has a great deal of influence on their mind, character, way of life, and health, particularly mental health. According to the Four Noble Truths (Cattări ariyasaccani), suicide is a form of suffering that is originated from craving (Tanhă). Therefore, human beings cannot avoid suffering by taking their own lives, nor do they escape from "the wheel of suffering" by doing so. Moreover, the consequence of suicide is a rebirth in the woeful planes of existence, and hence further suffering endlessly. From the present study, the Buddhist approach to suicide prevention can be considered in the following areas: 1) Buddhist attitude toward suicide, 2) faith and confidence in life after death, 3) providing monks with general knowledge and understanding about suicide and life after death, 4) early identification of mental disorders, persons at risk of suicide and prompt referral to appropriate mental health professionals, 5) control of access to instruments of suicide, 6) control of alcohol and drug abuse, 7) prevention of HIV infection, 8) responsible media reporting and 9) practice of meditation.

  12. Functional brain mapping during recitation of Buddhist scriptures and repetition of the Namu Amida Butsu: a study in experienced Japanese monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Tabata, Masahisa; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    2008-04-01

    The invocation Namu Amida Butsu (Nembutsu), voices the hope of rebirth into Amida's Pure Land. In the Nembutsu, Buddhists imagine that they are absorbed into Amida's Pure Land. Shiritori, a Japanese word chain game, is a common task used to activate language related regions in Japanese. The purpose of this study was to identify the regions activated during praying of the Namo Amida Butsu (Nembutsu), and the reciting of Buddhist scriptures (Sutra). Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to identify the regions activated by the Nenbutsu, the Sutra and the Shiritori in eight highlytrained Japanese monks. The task of repeating the Nenbutsu activates the medial frontal gyrus, which is mainly related to mental concentration and visuospatial attention, similar to the areas activated by meditation. The task of reciting the Sutra activates the left lateral middle frontal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus, which are related to visuospatial attention also involved in the area activated by meditation. These results suggest that different types of meditation in Japanese Buddhism showed different brain regional activation. The Nenbutsu activated the prefrontal cortex, and the Sutra activated the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right parietal cortex.

  13. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Kong-lai; Shan, Guang-liang

    2010-04-20

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism. Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project. In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms, but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  14. Making Sense of the Works of Amar Kanwar: A Phenomenological Perspective

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    Christine Vial Kayser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amar Kanwar (b. 1964 is an Indian video and installation artist whose stated concern is violence in the context of South Asia. This article will examine two works, 'A Season Outside' (1997 and 'The Lightning ­Testimonies' (2007, proposing that empathy, intersubjectivity and a search for ­harmony, influenced both by Gandhi and Buddhism, are key concepts relevant to their interpretation while the choice of images and the editing process convey an embodied, phenomenological experience that is coherent with these influences. In addition it will infer from some evidence given by the works and by the artist that this search for social and collective harmony also has a psychological and individual dimension. It will be argued that the latter constitutes the true power of the works as the spectator does not so much reflect upon the violence exercised by the various perpetrators and experienced by the victims in a rational and political manner, but, rather, witnesses the film-maker’s reaction to the experience of violence; a situation which Vivian Sobchack has characterised as phenomenological. Through this process the spectator can empathise with the narrator and reflect on the affects examined by the works: namely violence and loss, but also love and compassion.

  15. 东西方动物伦理的共识与实践应用%Common Views and Application of Western Animal Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李山梅; 刘淘宁

    2012-01-01

    Animal ethics research in western countries originates from environmental ethics. In western society, animal ethics is not purely theoretical basic research, but has a wide range of applications. Animal ethics in Chinese culture is based on benevolence and compassion. Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism theories have detailed and in-depth discussions on animal ethics. The theory and practice of animal ethics in the east and west have their own characteristics but achieve the same goals.%西方国家动物伦理研究源于环境伦理学。西方社会对于动物伦理的研究已经不是纯理论基础研究,而是具有广泛的应用性。中华文化中的动物伦理是建立在仁爱和·刚隐之心基础上的,儒道释三家对动物伦理的研究非常详尽深入。东西方的动物伦理的理论与实践应用各有特点,但殊途同归。

  16. Factors and features of religious modernization in Taiwan: socio-historical retrospective (part 2

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    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of religious modernization in Taiwan. It has been concluded by the author that the modernization in traditional societies, according to the analysis of key religious communities of Taiwan, can be implemented to a limited extent by means of traditional religions - Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. It is possible only on the basis of syncretic religious cults, which allow placing rationalist values at the first place next to the enrichment of values and self-promotion. For the social morality of Thai society this means crisis situation and the emergence of numerous conflicts on the grounds of incompatibility with the principles of legitimation of traditional social action by Weber. Therefore, there is reason to predict highly probable poor compatibility of modernization vector with traditional Thai religions. However, a small percentage of the Thai population (5% has the congregation of Christianity and Islam, through which it becomes possible to promote the modified project of modernity. However, this idea requires further proof, as there are some quite ambiguous concepts of strengthening the authority of science, secular world, the capitalist-type accumulation among scientists and experts in the field of sociology of religion. However, the common denominator in the assessment of the discourse of modernization prospects of Thai society has optimistic point of view, allowing significant changes in the social structure and culture of Taiwan by the latent secularization, which is implemented through Christian missionary work.

  17. Where East meets West: in the house of individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray

    2017-02-01

    The psychological process of individuation as experienced in Jungian work may lead to states of consciousness that resemble advanced spiritual developments across religious traditions and cultures. This is where Westerners may reach a common ground with the East. In the essentials and with respect to the final goal there is little difference among the many ways to the self, even if the cultural features in the landscape are disparate. In late stage Jungian analysis and individuation and in what Erich Neumann calls 'centroversion', the personal and the impersonal aspects of the personality accumulate around the ego-self axis to form a composite identity. In this complex structure the ego does not vanish but is joined to the impersonal archetypal levels of the psyche and identity thus becomes at once individual and archetypal. This is the third stage of conjunction as described by Jung in Mysterium Coniunctionis and it is identical to the type of consciousness depicted in the final scenes of Zen Buddhism's Ten Ox-Herding Pictures. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Institutions in Disaster Management: A Case Study

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    Kyoo-Man Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Religion in Korea has been shaped by its followers to a degree, but the role of religion in Korea has been largely unexamined. This study examines the role of religion and the incorporation of religious beliefs and institutions in the field of disaster management. In doing so, the study examines how three religions—Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism—operate in Korea, in particular in terms of both care-oriented management and mitigation-oriented management approaches. While utilizing descriptive research as a methodology, policy measures have been suggested with the support of theological perspectives. Despite some difficulties in making a generalization, the major finding is that religion has a role to play in supplementing care-oriented management, with mitigation-oriented management approaches, by better grasping the nature of a disaster and its effective management while responding to regional culture. In addition, the Ministry of Public Safety and Security, local governments, and other government institutions must play new roles in incorporating religion in disaster management.

  19. Did Buddha turn the other cheek too? A comparison of posing biases between Jesus and Buddha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Friedrich, Trista E; Elias, Lorin J

    2015-10-02

    People tend to exhibit a leftward bias in posing. Various studies suggest that posing to the left portrays a stronger emotion, whereas posing to the right portrays a more neutral emotion. Religions such as Christianity emphasize the role of strong emotions in religious experience, whereas religions such as Buddhism emphasize the calming of emotions as being important. In the present study, we investigated if the emphasis on emotionality of a religion influences the depiction of their religious figures. Specifically, we coded 484 paintings of Jesus and Buddha from online art databases for whether the deity exhibited a left bias, right bias, or central face presentation. The posing biases were analysed to discover whether paintings of Jesus would more frequently depict a leftward bias than paintings of Buddha. Jesus is more commonly depicted with a leftward bias than Buddha, and Buddha is more commonly depicted with a central face presentation than Jesus. These findings support the idea that the amount of emotionality that is to be conveyed in artwork influences the whether the subject is posed with a leftward bias.

  20. On Matteo Ricci’s Interpretations of Chinese Culture

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    Chen Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On the contribution to introducing Western learning to China by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610, the 16th -century Italian Jesuit missionary to the Ming Dynasty, abundant research has been done; however, not so on his contribution to introducing Chinese learning to the West, and if so, not profoundly. Though Ricci‟s understandings of Chinese culture were found in every aspect of Ming Dynasty lives, this essay focuses on four important and representative aspects, and analyzes the political system of a government guided by philosophers, the confused outlooks of religious sects, Chinese ethics compared to Christian tenets, and the unique qualities of the Chinese language. It discloses Ricci‟s moderate (middle-of-the-road attitude toward Chinese culture, especially his efforts to reconcile Confucianism and Christianity as well as his prejudice against Buddhism and Taoism, which shows on the one hand his broad-mindedness as a humanistic missionary, and on the other the historical or rather religious limitations of his absolute faith as a pious Catholic. Narrow-minded or broad-minded, Ricci‟s role as the first scholar who introduced Chinese learning to the West should not be neglected. One should bear in mind that it is Ricci who laid the foundation for European sinology.

  1. OS DIREITOS HUMANOS SOB A ÓTICA DAS DIFERENTES TRADIÇÕES RELIGIOSAS

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    Giselle Marques de Araújo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doutrina contemporânea dos direitos humanos vem sendo construída a partir de consensos estabelecidos entre os países integrantes da Organização das Nações Unidas, que possibilitaram a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos de 1948, aceito como mais importante documento em relação ao tema. Neste artigo, retratamos a análise de cientistas sociais que procuram verificar se existiria uma base comum entre esta doutrina e as diferentes tradições religiosas por eles professadas: islamismo, budismo, confucionismo e hinduísmo.Defendemos a idéia de que as identidades tradicionais precisam ser explicitadas e valorizadasno espaço público, onde a dimensão espiritual do ser humano merece ser contemplada. // The contemporary doctrine of human rights has been constructed from the consensus established among the member countries of the United Nations, which allowed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, accepted as the most important document in this regard. In this article we have depicted the analysis of social scientists who seek to verify whether there was common ground between this doctrine and the different religious traditions which they professed: Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism and Hinduism. We support the idea that identities need to be spelled traditional and valued in the public space, where the spiritual dimension of human being deserves to be considered.

  2. Gender culture in Hinduism, traditionalist and modernization issues

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    I. O. Svyatnenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relationship between the traditional and the modernization of gender dimensions in the culture of Hinduism. The author concludes that women in classical Hindu texts, so often perceived as being of a lower order, sometimes reduced to Sudra level, regardless of their actual caste. On the other hand, images of women positioned in a variety of goddesses, which is obviously positive prototypes dharmichnyh women. However, the traditional gender roles of women in Hindu household in India has changed over the past fifty or a hundred years. Western countries have influenced these changes. The continued recovery of the social status of women has led to significant changes concern a wide range of issues: education, health measures, rural and industrial schemes of social security, the problems of early marriage, wearing the burqa, the status of widows, suffrage, women, women’s representation in government. Positioning social status of women improved substantially thanks to Buddhism. Women and men are equal in ethics that has been softened significantly in terms of expanding the number of women’s rights. While patriarchal society and patriarchal and sexist gender culture Brahmanism remained unchanged in the Buddhist society women have gained more freedom and considered as independent - they were allowed to become nuns and religious and be social and active individuals.

  3. Public Willingness to Pay for Transforming Jogyesa Buddhist Temple in Seoul, Korea into a Cultural Tourism Resource

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    Seul-Ye Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jogyesa Buddhist Temple (JBT, located in Seoul, Korea, is the chief temple of the Jogye Order, which represents Korean Buddhism. The Seoul government plans to transform the JBT into a cultural tourism resource and a historical site. This study attempts to analyze the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing the transformation, which includes building a new shopping arcade for Buddhist culture and tourism, constructing a museum for the teaching of history and an experience center for Korean traditional culture in the precincts of JBT, and making an open space for domestic and/or foreign visitors. To this end, the study looks into the WTP for the implementation, reporting on a contingent valuation (CV survey that was conducted with 500 Seoul households. The single-bounded dichotomous choice CV model and a spike model were applied to derive the WTP responses and analyze the WTP data with zero observations, respectively. The mean yearly WTP was computed to be KRW 7129 (USD 6.30 per household for the next five years, with the estimate being statistically significant at the 1% level. Expanding the value to the Seoul population gives us KRW 25.4 billion (USD 22.5 million per year. The present value of the total WTP amounts to KRW 114.6 billion (USD 101.3 million using a social discount rate of 5.5%. We can conclude that Seoul households are ready to shoulder some of the financial burden of implementing the transformation.

  4. Die plek van Empedokles in die metafisies-mistieke tradisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Krüger

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The place of Empedocles in metaphysical-mystical tradition This article argues that Empedocles was more than a pre-Socratic philosopher. His thinking was also essentially mystical and should be situated on a large map of metaphysical-mystical continuities with the following dimensions: A historically discernable cultural and religious pool, encompassing not only South-Eastern Europe, Asia Minor and Mediterranean Africa, but also the north-eastern Eurasian shamanic tradition, and India; an historically largely inaccesible esoteric tradition; a set of structural elements of the human psyche, running under and across historical religions through time; and the development of a new convergence of previously historically unconnected mystical traditions in the social and cultural circumstances of today. In particular, the article investigates similarities and differences between Empedocles and Indian (specifically Buddhist views on various issues, such as the four roots and the cyclical dialectic of love and strife. In that context the article notes the remarkable interpretation of Empedocles by Peter Kingsley which seems to draw Empedocles closer to Buddhism, but without explicating this implication of his reception.

  5. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

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    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  6. Beyond Emptiness: A Critical Review

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    Halla Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book, Jae-Seong Lee argues that not only Eastern thoughts but also Western philosophy lead us to transcend our ordinary, binary, reflexive thought and become one with the truth, namely, Emptiness, or the true self. But this aspect has not been thoroughly considered in Western metaphysics. After considering Heidegger’s failure to get to the bottom of transcendence through his “Dasein,” Lee looks to the French postmodern ethicists, in particular, Levinas, in this regard. Just like the Mahayana Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna did almost two thousand years earlier, Lee suggests that Levinas too may have hit upon the insight that genuine subjectivity can be reached through an openness to the Other as the wholly exterior. Throughout the entire book, Jae-Seong Lee shows a strong interest in postmodern ethics, Daoism, Buddhism, theology, and literature, but in the end, he concludes that Buddhist philosophy, with its focus on Emptiness, would be the best approach to a merging of Eastern and Western Ways of thinking in our search for the ultimate and absolute. Finally, Lee suggests that the general philosophical theory he introduces and develops actually works for literary works including the Book of Job, Count Dracula and Frankenstein.

  7. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.

  8. From Undang-undang Melaka to federal constitution: the dynamics of multicultural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Abdullah, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is a multicultural state comprising three main races: Malays, Chinese and Indians. The three main religions are Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. Other religions such as Sikhism and Christianity are also practised. Muslims are the majority comprising 67 % of the population. This paper is qualitative in nature. It applies historical comparative method in presenting its data. The Undang - undang Melaka (Malacca Laws) was obtained from the monograph available at National Library of Malaysia under the name of Hukum Kanun Melaka. Analysis was done on selected examples from this document. This paper highlights that had there been no introduction to a common law system, Malaysia would have remained with its traditional laws influenced by Islam and its local customs as evident from Undang - undang Melaka (Malacca laws). The Undang - undang Melaka was practised from 1422 to 1444 and the law of the country was developed to accommodate the introduction of civil law during the colonial period. One of the unique aspects of multicultural Malaysia is the fact that it has a parallel legal system: sharia and civil law. This paper examines histo-cultural development of the Islamic law as practised in pre-independent Malaysia, as well as the coexistence between these two laws after the independence of Malaya in 1957. This paper concludes that Islamic law in Malaysia is confined to Muslim family matters, while civil law covers all other matters.

  9. [The Application of Body-Mind-Spirit Integrated Psychotherapy in Nursing Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu

    2017-06-01

    Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy reflects the core value of nursing by emphasizing the inseparable concept of body, mind, and spirit and caring for the holistic needs of the patient. Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was developed based on Western psychotherapy (positive psychology and forgiveness therapy), traditional Chinese medicine, and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. The present paper describes the holistic concepts that underpin this therapeutic approach. Physical health is sustained through proper nutrition, physical relaxation, and harmonized breathing; psychological well-being helps maintain inner peace and harmony in interpersonal relationships; and spiritual well-being helps develop an optimistic and meaningful life. We report on several cases in which body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was applied to the care of clients with depressive disorders and of breast cancer survivors and their partners as well as the related efficacy of this intervention in these cases. Finally, we discuss the potential for culturally-enriched psychotherapy to help clients transform illness suffering into life-growth experiences.

  10. Caveat Emptor: The Dalai Lama’s Proviso and the Burden of (Scientific Proof

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    Rob Hogendoorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A more complete understanding of the Dalai Lama’s intellectual milieu and mental framework serves to contextualize and appraise his contributions to the discourse on Buddhism and Science in general, and the so-called Mind and Life Dialogues in particular. In addition to providing indispensable background information, a fuller expression of his foundational views and motives sheds light upon the idiosyncratic way the Dalai Lama engages new fields of knowledge. Thanks to the Dialogues’ format and the transparency of the Dalai Lama’s scholastic mentality, the way in which Mind and Life participants meet various challenges in practice offers enough traction to retrieve and critically appraise real-time patterns of engagement and innovation. This should prove to be instrumental in determining the Dialogues’ measure of success, at least by its own standards and stated purpose. Following this approach, the Dalai Lama’s long-time use of a proviso derived from Tsongkhapa’s reading of Middle Way philosophy as a methodological distinction that delineates the scope of Science warrants specific attention.

  11. Possibilities and Limits of Religion in the Cyberspace of Digital Media

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    Slavomír Gálik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper study possibilities and limits of religion in the cyberspace of digital media, especially in the World of Warcraft videogame. Basing on various research cases, they claim that videogames can saturate religious needs of the hypermodern human. Nevertheless, they cannot substitute them totally, since there is the humans’ body, a barrier between virtual and traditional religion. In the first case (the so-called external limitation, the body is irreplaceable in religious ritual such as Baptising in Christian religion or Mindfulness of Breathing (ānāpānasati in Buddhism. In the second case (the so-called internal limitation, when the body (or its nerve centre is linked to technologies, the boundary lies in the depth and validity of spiritual experience. The authors state that even if positive cyber-spiritual experience could be reached, it would still be necessary to plant it into broader moral and cognitive frames. Only in such case it could represent a positive stimulus for the spiritual journey.

  12. AHP 28: Review: Mongolian Language Scholarship on the Mongols of the Gansu-Qinghai Region

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    Mátyás Balogh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available QINGHAI AND GANSU MONGOLS The majority of China's Mongol population (estimated at 3.5-4 million live in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR. Some also live in the adjacent provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and Hebei. A significant number of Mongol communities also exist in northwest China, notably in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR, and in Qinghai and Gansu provinces.1 The Mongols of these administrative regions are predominantly Oyrat-Mongols (Weilate, otherwise known as western Mongols. The four major tribes of the Oyrats – the Dörböt, Torguud, Hoshuud, and Choros – established the Jungharian Empire (1630-1758 in the seventeenth century in the north part of what is now the XUAR. When the Choros began gaining the upper hand in the struggle for hegemony in the late 1620s, many Dörböts and Torguuds left the region and migrated to the Volga delta, where they established their own khanate under Russian protectorate, and became known as the Kalmyks. In 1736, another group of Oyrats, under the Hoshuud Güüshi Han's leadership, left the area for the Kuku-Nor region, roughly present-day Qinghai Province, in order to aid the fifth Dalai Llama and expel the Halh Tsogt Taiji's Mongols, enemies of the Dge lugs pa order of Buddhism.

  13. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

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    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  14. Type 2 diabetes: how do Thai Buddhist people with diabetes practise self-management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes practice self-management. The importance of diabetes self-management is recognized in the literature. However, research on self-care management in Thailand, in particular concerning Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes, is scarce. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and thirty men and women with diabetes, aged 28-79 years, participated. Data were collected from June to August 2009 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Five themes of self-management among Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes were identified: cultural influence on disease control, Buddhism and Thai culture, struggle for disease control, family support and economy a high priority. Even though the Buddhist people with diabetes had certain self-management capabilities, many had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to Buddhist moderation can be an effective means of helping the people with diabetes better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. In addition to cultural and religious traditions, family, economy and social environment should be taken into account both in the care and in interventions aimed at helping people with diabetes cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Unsur Tasawuf dalam Perupaan Wayang Kulit Purwa Cirebon dan Surakarta

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    Moh. Isa Pramana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wayang Kulit Purwa—based on Indian epics and original Javanese myths—is considered as the media link between the Hindi-Buddhism era (Kabudan and the Islamic era (Kewalen of the Indonesian traditional arts. It is assumed that wayang kulit holds a relationship role to these two eras. The effort to understand this relationship can only be explained through Sufism that was practiced by the Nine Apostles of Java (Wali Sanga who has contributed a great deal to the Wayang Kulit Purwa adaptations. It is obvious that there are Sufistic meanings in the visualizations of the figure in Wayang Kulit Purwa as shown by differences of dimensions and intensities in its manifestations, even with the same local area (gagrak. Differences are range from visual details among different figure appearances of the similar character, called wanda, to the different figure appearances of different characters. This is particularly more obvious in the differences between the gagrak of Cirebon and Surakarta. This study focuses on the analysis of various characters figures such Bima, Mintaraga, Semar, Cakil, Rahwana, Duryudhana and Dursasana from both gagraks of wayang kulit. The Cirebon gagrak shows a Sufistic understanding which looks to the medium not in a serious matter, being more straight forward, more egalitarian and more focused. On the other hand, Surakarta gagrak shows a Javanese Sufistic understanding that put the importance of visualizing elegance and grace-ness in manners and spirituality, as a proof of harmony between the world of physique and spirituality.

  16. Relationship between Values and Religious Identity in Buddhist Adolescents

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    Shorokhova V.A.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.

  17. Near-Death Experiences in a Multi-religious Hospital Population in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradasa, Miyuru; Wijesinghe, Chamara; Kuruppuarachchi, K A L A; Perera, Mahendra

    2017-07-01

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) are a wide range of experiences that occur in association with impending death. There are no published studies on NDEs in general hospital populations, and studies have been mainly conducted on critically ill patients. We assessed the prevalence of NDEs and its associations in a multi-religious population in a general hospital in Sri Lanka. A randomised sample of patients admitted to the Colombo North Teaching Hospital was assessed using the Greyson NDE scale and clinical assessment. Out of total 826 participants, NDEs were described by 3%. Compared to the NDE-negative participants, the NDE-positive group had a significantly higher mean for age and a ratio of men. Women reported deeper NDEs. Patients of theistic religions (Christianity, Islam and Hinduism) reported significantly more NDEs compared to patients from the non-theistic religious group (Buddhism). NDE-positive patient group had significantly higher reporting of a feeling 'that they are about to die', the presence of loss of consciousness and a higher percentage of internal medical patients. This is the first time that NDEs are assessed in a general hospital population and NDEs being reported from Sri Lanka. We also note for the first time that persons with theistic religious beliefs reported more NDEs than those with non-theistic religious beliefs. Medical professionals need to be aware of these phenomena to be able to give an empathic hearing to patients who have NDE.

  18. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Konsep Kehidupan Dalam Ruang Pada Kelenteng Sam Kouw Di Surakarta Studi Kasus : Kelenteng T’ien Kok Sie, Kelenteng Poo An Kiong Dan Cetiya Ksiti Garbha

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    Dyah Susilowati Pradnya Paramita

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The kelenteng was used by three traditional religions brought by Chinese traders, namely Tao, Khonghucu and Buddhism which then together named Sam Kouw (Tri Darma The kelenteng Sam Kouw had many worshiped sculptures to which their worship ritualwas based. The kelenteng was taken care by a suhu acted as a mediator during the worship. Due to his role in worship, the Suhu and his family also stayed in the kelenteng.Based on that phenomenon, this research is focused on the rooms usage in kelenteng as a place of interaction of both worship and household routines. This research applies naturalistic qualitative methodology. The researcher played as the main instrument in collecting the data by observation, interview. The data gained during the research was formulated to some topics analyzed inductively before the researcher conducted an inter -topic dialog.. Thi s researched was conducted in three objects with cross sectional method to strengthen the data and sharpen the focus of observation. The three objects are: 1 Kelenteng T’ien Kok Sie in Ketandan; 2 Kelenteng Poo An Kiong in Coyudan, and 3 Cetiya Ksiti Garbha in Srambatan  The result of the research shows that kelenteng Sam Kouw has a public worship room in front of kelenteng , has a particular worship room in behind of kelenteng , and always has a meditation room that has always perpendicular a prominent god altar.

  20. Ethnic vs Math: The Secret inside Borobudur Temple, Indonesia

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    Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mostly in Eastern religions, particularly in Indonesia the ancient Imperial cults of Borobudur temple as Buddhism, ritually celebrate their beliefs as a congregation where prayer and religious addresses are a communal activity. This culture is interesting to study whether building a place of worship is built on the cultural elements or there is a correlation with formula or complicated calculations about how the building is erected . The mathematical study for Borobudur’s architectural design has once related to answer the question about the metric system used by ancient Javanese to build such giant buildings with good measurement. Fractal dimension is calculated by using the cube counting method and found that the dimension is , which is laid between the two-dimensional plane and three dimensional space. The applied fractal geometry and self-similarity of the building is emerged as the building process implement the metric rules, since there is no universal metric standard known in ancient traditional Javanese culture thus the architecture is not based on final master plan. The paper also proposes how the hypothetical algorithmic architecture might be applied computationally in order to see some experimental generations of similar building. The paper ends with some conjectures for further challenge and  insights related to fractal geometry in Javanese traditional cultural heritages.

  1. Religion, health beliefs and the use of mental health services by the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Pin; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chiam, Peak Chiang; Kua, Ee Heok

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated whether elderly people of particular religious affiliations were more or less likely to seek treatment for mental illness, and whether it was related to their health beliefs. In the National Mental Survey of Elderly Singaporeans in 2004, data were collected on reported religious affiliations, and 1-year prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV diagnoses of psychiatric disorders) from diagnostic interviews using the Geriatric Mental State schedule, self-report of treatment for mental health problems, and health beliefs about the curability of mental illness, embarrassment and stigma, ease in discussing mental problems, effectiveness and safety of treatment, and trust in professionals. Compared to those with no religious affiliation, elderly people of all religious affiliations showed higher prevalence of mental health problems, yet reported less frequent treatment by healthcare professionals. In multivariate analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of association with seeking treatment were for Christianity, 0.12 (0.02-0.57); Islam, 0.12 (0.01-1.31); Buddhism/Taoism, 0.59 (0.18-1.88); and Hinduism, 0.21 (0.02-2.56) versus no affiliation. Various religious affiliations differ from each other and from non-religious affiliation on some negative health beliefs, but they did not adequately explain why religious affiliates were less likely to seek treatment. Further studies should evaluate the lower tendency of elderly people with religious affiliations to seek treatment for mental health problems.

  2. 禮的「俗化」與「宗教化」--以現代中國的婚禮與喪禮為例 台灣 高雄師範大學 杜明德/“Secularization” and “Religion” of Ceremony––Modern Chinese Wedding and Funeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Te TU

    2012-09-01

    關鍵字:禮、婚禮、喪禮、俗化、宗教化 Although “etiquette” is the essence of traditional culture in China, due to the development of modern society, its perspective should include the requirement of human sympathy, transformation of objects, and the role or duty associated with one’s title so that an appropriate manner can be well maintained. The times have changed and if the traditional etiquette cannot follow the steps of civilization, it will be eliminated. Contemporary Chinese weddings have become popularized and funerals religionized; however, they cannot completely meet the expectations of the Confucianists, but rather follow the development of etiquette, while conforming to the principles underlying the legislation and implementation of the rules of etiquette. Furthermore, integration can be found in the phenomenon of popularized weddings and religionized funerals, fully making it obvious that religious behavior has combined with the local wedding ceremonies. Because of the influence of Taoism and Buddhism, local folklore characteristics can be seen in funeral rites. As a result, if the connotations of the etiquette are maintained, whether it is a popularized or religionized ceremony, such etiquette can still be accepted by the society.

  3. An Asian perspective on organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Michael Cheng-tek

    2009-01-01

    The organ transplantation seems to have become a route practice of modern medical treatment when a patient's organ fails providing that she/he can afford the cost and a suitable organ is found. This practice, however, was not without scepticism and reservation at least to some Asians, for instance, Japan has been reluctant to launch a brave search for organs to save any patient whose organs fail. The western world including Vatican has seen donating one's organ for transplantation to save others as an act of love. Compassion is one of the main teachings in Asian tradition too, therefore culturally, Asians should be in favour of this modern medical treatment. But the ancient teachings of Asia also call for respecting parents by carefully safeguarding the gift of body that they gave and abiding in Tao to follow the flow of nature. What will the Asian ancient sages say to this new modern medical technology? This article will examine the teachings of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism to find out how they respond to the procedures of organ transplantation.

  4. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  5. Writing a love letter to your (perceived enemy: Thích Nhất Hạnh and the rhetoric of nonviolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael PHILLIPS-ANDERSON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist Thích Nhất Hạnh has been a leading figure in the promotion of nonviolent practice throughout the world. We examine his concept of engaged Buddhism, theories of nonviolence, and intersections with rhetorical and communication studies. His approach takes nonviolence beyond the realm of refusing to use physical violence to the recognition that language itself can be violent. In order to understand this approach we detail the concepts of interbeing, loving speech, and deep listening. We examine the role of love in Nhất Hạnh’s theory of nonviolence, comparing it with approaches taken by Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Examples are given from many of Nhất Hạnh’s speeches and writings with particular attention paid to a love letter he wrote to US President George W. Bush during the Iraq War. Thích Nhất Hạnh offers the practice of writing a love letter to one’s perceived enemy as a means to persuade for a turn to nonviolence.

  6. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae

    2011-01-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline

  7. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae [KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline.

  8. Initiations in the Burmese Ritual Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Brac de la Perrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Buddhist Burma, a variety of ritual has been found pertaining to quite differentiated aspects of religion. This rich ritual landscape remains under-examined due partly to the Buddhist-studies bias of most of the scholars looking at religion in Burma. In this paper, I develop comparative analysis of a class of ritual, namely that of initiation, in three components of Burmese religion: Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist esotericism, and spirit worship. At least from the present analytic perspective, the three components considered could be taken as encompassing the entire Buddhist religious sphere in Burma. Looking at initiation rituals in these three ‘paths’ is a means of understanding how they frame contrasting kinds of differently valued religious practice, and of showing that, although not often discussed, rituals do matter in Burma because they help distinguish categories of action according to their relative religiosity. By doing so, I aim to give a sense of the real diversity of the Burmese ritual landscape, which until recently was rarely taken into account, and to contribute to the on-going debate in the field of Buddhist studies on what could be encapsulated as the question of Buddhism and spirit cults in Southeast Asian Theravada.

  9. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The spirit of safety: oriental safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J. [Science Council of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Failure of a large system causes disasters. However, after an accident, the causes are frequently attributed to human error when the operators do not survive the accident. It might be difficult to prove that the real cause of the accident is human error. Process decision program chart (PDPC) would be a useful tool in indicating the causes of an accident since it can clearly show that if the operator made the correct choice, the safety of the system could be maintained. The case of the incident of the nuclear reactor at Mihama unit 2 is indicated by PDPC in which the sequence of events and the operations are indicated in this paper together with the safe operation. One can easily understand the cause of the incident and the way to avoid it. Also, PDPC for the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident is shown. Initially, in order to prevent an accident, mental training and safety culture is most important. The oriental safety culture based on Zentoism, a school of Buddhism is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes contains particulate matter (PM, gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  12. Skill and wisdom of craftsman of gold leaf; Kinpaku shokunin no waza to chie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, K. [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-01-05

    In the mid-sixth century, Buddhism was introduced from the Chinese Continent and accompanying therewith, gold leaves began to be used for large dry-japanned images of Buddha and artifacts. Also japan has been used widely for improvement of durability of wooden products and for the purpose of decoration, since japan is the best adhesive for the gold leaf and the gold leaf has an effect to retard deterioration of japan. In this article, technological elucidation has been made on the leaf making technique using Japanese papers unrivaled in the world. The traditional technique of manufacturing a gold leaf in Japan is the technique to manufacture extremely thin gold leaves, each of or less than 0.1 {mu}m thick, in an unit of 1500-1600 sheets at one time manually by the craftsman`s skill using Japanese papers, which are viscoelastic substances, as media and is unique among the traditional industries in Japan. Even by the currently available highest metal rolling technique, it is impossible to prepare metal leaves, each of which has a thickness of an order of submicron. The present leaf making processes are divided roughly into 3 processes and the gold leaf making method is described in detail together with the really skillful hunch and wisdom of the ancestors. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The spirit of safety: oriental safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1996-01-01

    Failure of a large system causes disasters. However, after an accident, the causes are frequently attributed to human error when the operators do not survive the accident. It might be difficult to prove that the real cause of the accident is human error. Process decision program chart (PDPC) would be a useful tool in indicating the causes of an accident since it can clearly show that if the operator made the correct choice, the safety of the system could be maintained. The case of the incident of the nuclear reactor at Mihama unit 2 is indicated by PDPC in which the sequence of events and the operations are indicated in this paper together with the safe operation. One can easily understand the cause of the incident and the way to avoid it. Also, PDPC for the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident is shown. Initially, in order to prevent an accident, mental training and safety culture is most important. The oriental safety culture based on Zentoism, a school of Buddhism is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Piercing to the Pith of the Body: The Evolution of Body Mandala and Tantric Corporeality in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Erin Dachille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist tantric practitioners embrace the liminal status of the human body to manifest divine identity. In piercing to the pith of human embodiment, the tantric practitioner reconfigures the shape and contours of his/her reality. This article investigates the evolution of one particular technique for piercing to the pith of the body on Tibetan soil, a ritual practice known as body mandala [lus dkyil Skt. deha-maṇḍala]. In particular, it uncovers a significant shift of emphasis in the application of the Guhyasamāja body mandala practice initiated by champions of the emerging Gandenpa [Dga’ ldan pa] or Gelukpa [Dge lugs pa] tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 and Mkhas grub rje (1385–1438. This article reveals some of the radical implications of ritual exegesis, ranging from the socioreligious aspects of securing prestige for a tradition to the ultimate soteriological goals of modifying the boundaries between life and death and ordinary and enlightened embodiment.

  15. Xu Guangqi’s Thought On Supplementing Confucianism With Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Seo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xu Guangqi is one of the most influential Chinese scholars who accepted Christian faith during the late Ming dynasty. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism and replacing Buddhism by Christianity” had great impact on the development of Christianity in China. His idea, however, has often been accused of syncretism, and genuineness of his Christian faith has been put into question. Some argue that his theology lacks Christology. Others suggest that his ultimate goal was to achieve the Confucian political ideals through adopting some of the Christian moral teachings. Through the analysis of Xu Guangqi’ works and life, we find that he accepted all the essential Christian doctrines and Christology is the core of his understanding of “Tianzhu”. His view on Confucianism itself istransformed through Christian perspective. In his new understanding, the ultimate goal of Confucianism is to serve and to worship “Tianzhu”,same as Christianity. The ultimate problem of life is to save one’s soul.Xu Guangqi considered his scientific works as a way to propagate Christian faith,since science was seen as an integral part of Christian thought and practice. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism by Christianity” integrated Confucianism into the overarching framework of Christian thought.

  16. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  17. Einstein Universe Revisited and End of Dark ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgaliev, Ildus S.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the earliest general relativistic cosmological solution was received by Einstein himself as homogenous, isotropic one. In accordance with European cosmology it was expected static. The Eternal Universe as scientific model is conflicting with the existed theological model of the Universe created by God, therefore, of the limited age. Christianity, younger Islam, older Judaism are based on creationism. Much older oriental traditions such us Hinduism and Buddhism are based on conceptions of eternal and cyclic Universe which are closer to scientific worldview. To have static universe Einstein needed a factor to counteract gravity and postulated cosmological term and considered it as a disadvantage of the theory. This aesthetic dissatisfaction was amplified by interpretation distance-redshift relationship as a cosmological expansion effect. Emerged scientific cosmological community (excluding Hubble himself - almost always) endorsed the concept of expanding Universe. At the same time, as it is shown in this report, a natural well known factors do exist to counteract gravity. They are inertial centrifugal and Coriolis forces finding their geometrical presentation in the relativity theory.

  18. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  19. Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A New Method of Treatment for Major Depression in Patients With Chronic Medical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle J.; Koenig, Harold G.; Robins, Clive J.; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F.; Cohen, Harvey J.; King, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies have found that psychotherapeutic interventions that explicitly integrate clients’ spiritual and religious beliefs in therapy are as effective, if not more so, in reducing depression than those that do not for religious clients. However, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of religiously (vs. spiritually) integrated psychotherapy, and no manualized mental health intervention had been developed for the medically ill with religious beliefs. To address this gap, we developed and implemented a novel religiously integrated adaptation of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in individuals with chronic medical illness. This article describes the development and implementation of the intervention. First, we provide a brief overview of CBT. Next, we describe how religious beliefs and behaviors can be integrated into a CBT framework. Finally, we describe Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (RCBT), a manualized therapeutic approach designed to assist depressed individuals to develop depression-reducing thoughts and behaviors informed by their own religious beliefs, practices, and resources. This treatment approach has been developed for 5 major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), increasing its potential to aid the depressed medically ill from a variety of religious backgrounds. PMID:25365155

  20. Legal Policy of Interfaith Marriage in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathol Hedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in the 1974 Marriage Law, because: First, the rejection of the majority of Muslims and the faction in Parliament because the interfaith marriage is against the aqidah (matters of faith of Islam; Second, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the marriage culture in Indonesia, because marriage contains legal, sociology and religious aspects; Third, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the theological teachings of religions in Indonesia that do not want interfaith marriages, such as Islam, Christianity, Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Furthermore, the interfaith marriage is inconsistent with the philosophical purposes of marriage in Indonesia where the purpose of marriage forms a happy and eternal family based on the One Supreme God.

  1. ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN AND MALAY THEATRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest times, traditional theatre in Southeast Asia has been shaped by a wide range of religious and cultural influences—those deriving from animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, as well as from Chinese and western traditions. The overwhelming influences, especially of Hinduism, have had the tendency to obscure contributions from the Middle- and Near-East. The view that Islam, with rare exceptions, prohibits performing arts has resulted in a negligence of these arts forms in Muslim societies with the possible exception of Indonesia. This paper highlights significant elements of Islamic culture that have shaped Indonesian and Malay traditional theatre through the adaptation of borrowed genres such as taziya, as well as locally created styles of shadow play (wayang kulit and the doll-puppet theatre (wayang golek; the use of important themes from Islamic literature, in particular thosederived from Hikayat Amir Hamza; as well as esoteric interpretationsof certain episodes originally derived from pre-Islamic sources,including the Mahabharata, in terms of Sufism to make them both highly meaningful and acceptable to Muslim audiences.

  2. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

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    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  4. PROFESI SEBAGAI TAREKAT

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    Ahmad Munji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Generally in the teachings of any religion, both divine religions such as Islam, Christianity and Judaism, or earth religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism there is a polarization between religion and economic activity. So that all activities which seeking riches is viewed negatively and not in accordance with the lofty ideals of spirituality. In the teachings of Islamic religion there is also tendency that sees economic activity as an activity that is in appropriate for a religious. By using content analysis, the studies illustrate that everyone can make his profession as a path to God. Provided that each profession held by Islamic guidance, according to the Qur'an and the Hadith. Abstrak: Dalam ajaran keagamaan secara umum, baik agama-agama samawi seperti Islam, Kristen dan Yahudi, maupun agama bumi seperti Hindu, Buddha dan lain sebagainya terdapat anti-nomi antara agama dan kegiatan ekonomi. Sehingga seluruh kegiatan yang mencari kekayaan dipandang negatif dan tidak sesuai dengan cita-cita luhur spiritualitas. Dalam ajaran Agama Islam juga terdapat tendensi yang cukup kuat yang memandang kegiatan ekonomi sebagai aktifitas yang tidak pantas bagi manusia yang taat beragama. Dengan menggunakan analisis isi (content analysis, setudi ini menggambarkan bahwa, setiap orang bisa menjadikan profesinya sebagi jalan menuju kepada Allah. Asalkan setiap apa yang menjadi aktifitas keseharianya dilaksanakan berdasarkan tuntunan Islam, sesuai dengan al-Qur’an dan hadis Nabi Muhammad. Keywords: profesi, wirid, al-Quran, hadis, tarekat.

  5. A Dialogue on Menstrual Taboo

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    Manju Kaundal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today in the 21st century, we may boast of gender equality and women empowerment but the truth is somewhat implausible. Today women may have excelled in many spheres of life but, somewhere, she is still struggling to get out of her veil. In the name of tradition a women is always told to follow the rules what the society has set for her. A look at major religions of the world shows that, without exception, they have placed restrictions on menstruating women. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have all made statements about menstruation and its negative effect, leading to prohibitions about attending places of worship, cooking, physical intimacy and sometimes requiring women to live separately at this time. Present paper is a compilation of the information available on the menstrual taboo and various practices regarding it. For this extensive search was done on internet along with personal observations. The present study is carried out in order to provoke the need for increased research on the psychosocial aspects of menstruation by exploring the attitudes of society toward this monthly event.

  6. Living Prayer: Its Contributions for the World’s Ecosystems and Interreligious Harmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Butler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the Assisi Declarations on man and nature were initially created by leaders from Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism at an interreligious meeting convened by World Wildlife Fund in Assisi, Italy in September 1986 and the first World Day of Prayer for Peace attended by representatives of many more faiths and ethnic religions in October 1986 in Assisi, a contemporary environmental movement that clearly encompasses spiritual as well as social dimensions has been growing exponentially. However, given the acceleration of global warming and environmental crises differentially affecting parts of the earth, we have now to ask, what is the application of the Assisi Declarations and peace prayers for facing the needs of today and in the future? This article thus aims to convey some ideas on the contributions of living prayer and associated creative practices in Indonesia in general, and Bali in particular, by discussing three dimensions: (a the ways in which living prayer is embodied in customary ritual arts as well as in new forms of artistic expression; (b its contributions to environmental, socio-cultural, and economic well-being; and (c the means by which it fosters intercultural and interreligious dialogue and creativity. To illustrate this, I draw on examples of prayers and art from public participatory intercultural Sharing Art events held in Bali and Java as well as in other countries.

  7. Increased affluence explains the emergence of ascetic wisdoms and moralizing religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Morris, Ian; Boyer, Pascal

    2015-01-05

    Between roughly 500 BCE and 300 BCE, three distinct regions, the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Ganges Valley, saw the emergence of highly similar religious traditions with an unprecedented emphasis on self-discipline and asceticism and with "otherworldly," often moralizing, doctrines, including Buddhism, Jainism, Brahmanism, Daoism, Second Temple Judaism, and Stoicism, with later offshoots, such as Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam. This cultural convergence, often called the "Axial Age," presents a puzzle: why did this emerge at the same time as distinct moralizing religions, with highly similar features in different civilizations? The puzzle may be solved by quantitative historical evidence that demonstrates an exceptional uptake in energy capture (a proxy for general prosperity) just before the Axial Age in these three regions. Statistical modeling confirms that economic development, not political complexity or population size, accounts for the timing of the Axial Age. We discussed several possible causal pathways, including the development of literacy and urban life, and put forward the idea, inspired by life history theory, that absolute affluence would have impacted human motivation and reward systems, nudging people away from short-term strategies (resource acquisition and coercive interactions) and promoting long-term strategies (self-control techniques and cooperative interactions). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stressors and coping methods among chronic haemodialysis patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, E; Tam, B

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the stressors and coping methods of chronic haemodialysis patients in Hong Kong. Relationships among treatment-related stressors, coping methods and length of time on haemodialysis were explored. Fifty subjects completed the Haemodialysis Stressor Scale (HSS) and Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS). Results revealed that limitation of fluid was the most frequently identified stressor, followed by limitation of food, itching, fatigue and cost. The most common coping methods are 'accepted the situation because very little could be done', followed by 'told oneself not to worry because everything would work out fine' and 'told oneself that the problem was really not that important.' It was found that the traditional philosophies of the Chinese--Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism--share an approach to the understanding and management of life stressors as different from that adopted by Western philosophies. The findings of this study can further facilitate nurse practitioners in providing support, information, and alternative solutions when assisting patients in coping with long-term haemodialysis.

  9. The Life as the Meaning (An investigation on the meaning of life in Zen and the comparison of it with theistic religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Khoshaghani

    a design of life to humans.Now we focus on the comparison of Zen and theistic religions views on what would make the meaning of life; but we primarily present a summary of criteria of Zen’s school: A-In Zen, the discerning mind causes humans’ suffering and labor. B–The path of salvation from suffering, raised from distinction, is non-action and natural life. C-Afterwards, the person can achieve to sudden enlightenment in his life. D-The morality in Zen is named Te which related to natural and spontaneous behavior. A person in Zen practice according to the same conduct that is natural and explicit. E-Hence, the freedom from suffering (which is the aim of all schools of Buddhism, the path, the morality, and the enlightenment, the all are sought in the same life, no beyond this life.In the case of comparison of Zen to theistic religions, it is worth mentioning some cases:-The key concept in Buddhism and its schools, such as Zen, is suffering (Dukkha, which forms all of their ontology, anthropology, and soteriology, but in theistic religion, the concept of God plays the same role.-In theistic religions, ultimate Being is the only worthwhile and meaningful aim of the Faithful man; unlike Buddhism schools which seek the meaning in liberation from life’s sufferings.-For believers there is only one design to live and it is that design which usually exists in sacred texts. Believer’s life is arranged according to this design. But in Zen, person comes near meaningful life via simply and freely life, not via prescriptive commands of a transcendental Being.- The morality in Theistic religions is based on the sacred texts and related to plural behavior and social standards; unlike Zen which neglects plural and prescriptive morality and emphasizes on natural behavior (Te.-In theistic religions, sufferings and pains in world are not meaningless, but there is an optimistic view on them, while sufferings in Buddhism and Zen are more pessimistic and do not have a certain

  10. The Life as the Meaning (An investigation on the meaning of life in Zen and the comparison of it with theistic religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabbas Alizamani

    2013-08-01

    presented a design of life to humans. Now we focus on the comparison of Zen and theistic religions views on what would make the meaning of life; but we primarily present a summary of criteria of Zen’s school:    A-In Zen, the discerning mind causes humans’ suffering and labor. B–The path of salvation from suffering, raised from distinction, is non-action and natural life. C-Afterwards, the person can achieve to sudden enlightenment in his life. D-The morality in Zen is named Te which related to natural and spontaneous behavior. A person in Zen practice according to the same conduct that is natural and explicit. E-Hence, the freedom from suffering (which is the aim of all schools of Buddhism, the path, the morality, and the enlightenment, the all are sought in the same life, no beyond this life. In the case of comparison of Zen to theistic religions, it is worth mentioning some cases: -The key concept in Buddhism and its schools, such as Zen, is suffering (Dukkha, which forms all of their ontology, anthropology, and soteriology, but in theistic religion, the concept of God plays the same role. -In theistic religions, ultimate Being is the only worthwhile and meaningful aim of the Faithful man; unlike Buddhism schools which seek the meaning in liberation from life’s sufferings. -For believers there is only one design to live and it is that design which usually exists in sacred texts. Believer’s life is arranged according to this design. But in Zen, person comes near meaningful life via simply and freely life, not via prescriptive commands of a transcendental Being. - The morality in Theistic religions is based on the sacred texts and related to plural behavior and social standards; unlike Zen which neglects plural and prescriptive morality and emphasizes on natural behavior (Te. -In theistic religions, sufferings and pains in world are not meaningless, but there is an optimistic view on them, while sufferings in Buddhism and Zen are more pessimistic and do not

  11. The Life as the Meaning (An investigation on the meaning of life in Zen and the comparison of it with theistic religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Khoshaghani

    2013-09-01

    presented a design of life to humans. Now we focus on the comparison of Zen and theistic religions views on what would make the meaning of life; but we primarily present a summary of criteria of Zen’s school:    A-In Zen, the discerning mind causes humans’ suffering and labor. B–The path of salvation from suffering, raised from distinction, is non-action and natural life. C-Afterwards, the person can achieve to sudden enlightenment in his life. D-The morality in Zen is named Te which related to natural and spontaneous behavior. A person in Zen practice according to the same conduct that is natural and explicit. E-Hence, the freedom from suffering (which is the aim of all schools of Buddhism, the path, the morality, and the enlightenment, the all are sought in the same life, no beyond this life. In the case of comparison of Zen to theistic religions, it is worth mentioning some cases: -The key concept in Buddhism and its schools, such as Zen, is suffering (Dukkha, which forms all of their ontology, anthropology, and soteriology, but in theistic religion, the concept of God plays the same role. -In theistic religions, ultimate Being is the only worthwhile and meaningful aim of the Faithful man; unlike Buddhism schools which seek the meaning in liberation from life’s sufferings. -For believers there is only one design to live and it is that design which usually exists in sacred texts. Believer’s life is arranged according to this design. But in Zen, person comes near meaningful life via simply and freely life, not via prescriptive commands of a transcendental Being. - The morality in Theistic religions is based on the sacred texts and related to plural behavior and social standards; unlike Zen which neglects plural and prescriptive morality and emphasizes on natural behavior (Te. -In theistic religions, sufferings and pains in world are not meaningless, but there is an optimistic view on them, while sufferings in Buddhism and Zen are more pessimistic and do not

  12. Volunteering among older people in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Kang, Jeong-Han; Lee, Min-Ah; Lee, Yongmo

    2007-01-01

    Faced with aging societies, there is an immense need to better understand the nature of volunteering outside advanced Western industrial countries. As a case of a rapidly aging society, we identify robust factors associated with elderly volunteering in Korea in terms of a resource framework. Data were derived from the Social Statistics Survey conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office in 1999 (N = 7,135) and 2003 (N = 8,371). We first determined overall and age-related volunteer rates for Korea compared to the United States. Using logistic regression, we then examined the effects of human, cultural, and social capital variables on volunteering. Approximately 6% of Koreans aged 65 years and older participate in volunteer programs. All human capital variables are positively related with volunteering. For cultural capital, those who identify their religion as Buddhism or Catholicism are more likely to volunteer than those who have no religion. But surprisingly, Protestantism does not consistently promote volunteering across both years. For social capital, older adults who live alone or with a spouse are more likely to volunteer than those living with both a spouse and children. In contrast to human capital, cultural and social capital on elderly volunteering appears to be contoured by social contexts.

  13. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

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    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  14. [Euthanasia through history and religion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice.

  15. Ecological extension of the theory of evolution by natural selection from a perspective of Western and Eastern holistic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment; (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among the types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not clearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist with, others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy of Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of component populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions. In particular, I employ what I call the scientific principle of dependent-arising (SDA), which is tailored for scientific use and is based on Buddhism principle called "pratītya-samutpāda" in Sanskrit. The SDA principle asserts that there exists a higher-level system, or entity, which includes a focal process of a system as a part within it; this determines or generates the conditions required for the focal process to work in a particular way. I conclude that the ecosystem generates (1) selective environments for component species through ecosystem dynamics; (2) new genetic types through lateral gene transfer, hybridization, and symbiogenesis among the component species of the ecosystem; (3) mechanistic processes of replacement of an old type with a new one. The results of this study indicate that the ecological extension of the theoretical model of adaptive evolution is required for better understanding of adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DINAMIKA ISLAM KULTURAL: Studi atas Dialektika Islam dan Budaya Lokal Madura

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    Paisun Paisun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, it is well-known that the ingress and the progress of Islam in Indonesia, especially in Java and Madura, were held almost without any tension and conflict. Even in the societies with some former belief systems such as Animism and Buddhism, Islam was easily accepted as a religion that brings peace within its teachings. During periods, Islam and local cultures perform a dialectical relationship and give rise to local variances of Islam, such as Javanese Islam, Madurese Islam, Sasak Islam, Sundanese Islam, etc. Those variances of Islam are the result of an acculturation process between Islam with the local cultures. In other word, this process is also called as “inculturation”. These local variances of Islam, further termed as the “cultural Islam” in this paper, have become a characteristics of Indonesian Islamic societies phenomenon which are different from Middle-East’s Islamic society and European Islamic society. This paper discusses about the Madurese Islam, one of these cultural Islam’s variances. Dialectical process between Islam and the local culture of Madura in turn generates a unique Madurese Islam, which is distinctive and esoteric. In its further developments, Islam and Madurese tradition are seen as unity and inseparatable, though people can still distinguish one another. This study seeks to uncover and expose the Islamic cultural dynamics that exist and grow in Madura: how big is the change that occurred, in which part, and what factors underlie these changes. This study provides benefit in enriching our scientific study about Indonesian cultural heritage, especially about the dialectical relationship between Islam and Madurese local culture.

  17. Silla Art and the Silk Road

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    Kwangshik Choe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Western and Indian features found in Silla art, whether they came from the Western border regions of China or through a connection with China, it is recognized that there was both a direct and indirect a relationship between Silla, the West, and India. Many scholars have been interested in these aspects, conducting various studies as these factors played a large part in defining the origin of ancient culture and the process of harmonization between cultures. Through the Silk Road scholars are able to identify how Western cultures and civilizations were introduced to the Silla Dynasty. As the Korean peninsula has been a nexus for exchange between the East and the West, this paper aims to understand the meaning of the “Silk Road” and examines the actual state of cultural exchange at this historical site. Through artifacts excavated from Hwangnamdae-ch’ong (especially glass products, it has been determined that the Western and Western bordering countries of China culturally influenced the art of Silla. They also clearly prove that Buddhist sculptures from India and the Western bordering countries of China had a great impact on Silla art as well. Through these findings, it can be confirmed that from ancient times the influence of many cultures including China, the West, and the Western bordering countries of China had an impact on Korean culture. Particularly, Indian Buddhism which flowed into China and the Korea peninsula participated in the development of Silla culture and also played a significant role in the formation of traditional Korean culture.

  18. Niedualna uważność a stan samādhi w kontekście badań neurofenomenologicznych

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    Piotr PŁANETA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare various meditative states, such as Buddhist dhyāna‑s, yogic nirbīja samādhi and nondual awareness (Tib. gñis‑med. The primary source texts I refere to are Yogasūtras of Patañjali, Ānāpānasmṛtisūtra (MN 118, Samādhisūtra (AN 4.41, The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. I also discuss some relevant claims of contemporary empirical studies. First, I define the key terms used in Eastern meditation studies as well as in neurophenomenology, a contemporary method applied to examining the meditative states of mind, such as samādhi, dhyāna, and śamatha. Inspired by Shinzen Young, I distinguish three groups of meditative states that might be identified with nondual awareness. These three groups are: (1 the second, the third and fourth Buddhist dhyāna being equivalent to nirvicāra samādhi and nirānanda samādhi in the classical Indian yoga; (2 nirbīja samādhi and (3 nondual awareness, typical to the Mahayāna contemplative traditions. I explain why we can recognize each of the above states as nondual awareness and how they differ from each other. Then, I make a comparison between meditation practice explained in Ānāpānasmṛtisūtra and nondual awareness presented in the Tibetan Buddhism. Besides, I discuss the above kinds of mental states in terms of recent neurophenomenological findings. While doing so, I am trying to demonstrate that our understanding of meditation can benefit from the empirical studies which help us to objectify this kind of subjective experience, to some degree, if they are given an adequate place in our study.

  19. COVERING RACE AND RELIGION: THE MOORTHY AND NYONYA TAHIR CASES IN FOUR MALAYSIAN NEWSPAPERS

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    Ngu Teck Hua

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on issues like race and religion in a multi-racial and multi-religious society is not an easy media responsibility. In a country like Malaysia where racial and religious sensitivities abound, the media have to constantly tread on precarious ground, balancing between what to write and how to write it. Much of the concern over the reporting of sensitive issues stems from the belief that a wrong move may have dire consequences, as seen in the recent controversy and furore over the Prophet Muhammad caricature published in the Danish newspaper, Jyllands-Posten.This study analyses two recent racial/religious issues – M. Moorthy and Nyonya Tahir cases – as reported in the New Straits Times (NST, Utusan Malaysia (UM, Malaysia Nanban (MN and Sin Chew Daily (SCD. The former case caused a stir when there was a tussle between Moorthy’s Indian/Hindu family and the Federal Territory Islamic Affairs Council which argued that Moorthy had converted to Islam when he was alive without the family’s knowledge. The latter was a case of a Malay/Muslim woman who, while alive, had denounced Islam and lived as a Chinese practising Buddhism.This study analyses how the two race and religion-related controversial issues were treated in the various language newspapers in Malaysia. A preliminary finding showed that, true to the communal nature of the Malaysian press, there was an apparent slant in how the ethnic press covered these two issues. For instance, in terms of prominence given to the stories, SCD, while downplaying the Moorthy story, dedicated more space to the Nyonya Tahir case. Similarly, MN highlighted the Moorthy story and downplayed the Nyonya Tahir case. The different newspapers were also seen to ''favour'' the subject they covered according to the ethnicity.

  20. Body of a Monk with Gorgeous Expressions: Monk Poet Huihong the Person and His Ci Poetry in North Song Dynasty%身本缁徒 好为绮语——论北宋诗僧惠洪其人其词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶友珍

    2012-01-01

    Monk poet Huihong of North Song Dynasty had a legendary life full of twists and turns. As a monk, he lived dissolutely, not abiding by the Buddhism regulations. He rushed about in the doors of dignitaries like Zhang Shangying and Guo Tianxin. He had quick and witted imagination and wrote many works, especially fond of gorgeous expressions. Although he didn't leave many ci poems, they are still important materials to un- derstand his thought. His ci poems can be divided into two types, the one reflected the hard and lonely life of monks, the other described the longing and attachment of the vanity world of mortals. They are contradictorily and harmoniously unified in his works, clearly demonstrating a soul of both devoting to the Buddhist doctrine and not forgetting the world of mortals.%宋代诗僧惠洪一生历经坎坷,充满了传奇色彩,他身为缁徒,却放浪不羁,不守佛门戒律。奔走于张商英、郭天信等权贵门下。他虽才思敏捷,著述丰富,但又好为绮语。他的词虽不多,但仍是了解其思想的重要材料。他的词可以分成两类,一类写的是僧侣生活的清苦孤寂,另一类写的是对红尘俗世的向往和眷恋。它们矛盾而和谐地统一在惠洪的作品中,昭示了一个潜心佛法又不忘红尘的灵魂。

  1. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Mahatma Gandhi’s Doctrine of Ahimsa: Implication on Noted Filipino Students’ Values

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    Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aimed to analyze Mahatma Gandhi’s doctrine of ahimsa and its implication on noted Filipino students’ values. This paper employed the qualitative philosophical method of research in analyzing the tenets of ahimsa in the representative literary works chosen. This involved the science of textual criticism and hermeneutics supported by the researcher’s analysis and insights with reference to the content of the textsto bring about the philosophical treatment ofthe identified works. The analysis and interpretation revealed that: 1 Ahimsa refers to the principle of nonviolence based on the sacredness of all living creatures and an important tenet of ancient Indian religions specifically Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism; 2 Gandhi is one of the writer-thinkers who philosophizes that ahimsa is the ontological core of existence; 3 The salient points of the doctrine find their noblest expressions and exemplifications on his life and works; 4 While leading nationwide campaigns to ease the humanitarian issues of poverty, women’s rights, religious and ethnic harmony and injustices of the caste system which are quite evident in his works, Gandhi applied the principles of nonviolent civil disobedience, playing a key role in freeing India from foreign domination, (http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/voices-for-humanrights/champions/mahatma-gandhi.html and 5 Gandhi’s writings can inspire the Filipino students to turn to the transcendental diversion of humanity and to change the way they think and review their values through the tenets of literature supplied by the re-examined nonviolence advocate and his commitment to life here and thereafter.

  3. Marriage and family patterns in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T

    1997-08-01

    This article presents a statistical profile of marriage patterns and family size in Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 China Census. At 30%, Tibet has a higher proportion of unmarried women, aged 15-69 years, than any other nationality or province in China, including Han women and all other ethnic women, at 24.3% and 23.5%, respectively. 53% of women aged 20-24 years, and 7-9% of women aged 30-49 years, were unmarried. High rates of unmarried women are attributed to an imbalanced sex ratio favoring women, the existence of polyandry, and strict rules among the dominant Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The overall percentage of married women aged 15-69 years was 56.6%. In Lhasa City, 60.4% were married; in other towns, 55.4%; and in counties, 55.4%. In 1990, the mean age at first marriage was 23.1 years. The overall divorce rate of Tibetan women aged 15-69 years was 3.8%; 2.5% in Lhasa city, 2.4% in towns, and 3.9% in counties. Divorce declined with an increase in education. Divorce increased from younger to older ages. Divorce is attributed to maltreatment by drunk husbands, a lack of mutual understanding before marriage, disputes over household duties, and extramarital love affairs. The average family size was 5.20. Family size was lower in Lhasa city (3.67) and towns (3.68). 7.74% of Tibetan families were 1-child families. 20.37% had 8 or more family members. Discrepancies exist in family size between Tibetans and ethnic Han.

  4. Factors and features of the religious modernization in Taiwan: socio–historical retrospective (part 1

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    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the religious modernization in Taiwan. It has been concluded by the author that the modernization in traditional societies, as it comes from the analysis of key religious communities of Taiwan, to a limited extent can be implemented by means of traditional religions – Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The modernisation is possible only on the basis of syncretic religious cults, which allow putting rationalist values on the first place together with values of the enrichment and self–promotion. For the social morality of Thai society, this means crisis situation and the emergence of numerous conflicts on the grounds of the incompatibility of goal-orientation with the principles of legitimation of traditional social action, suggested by Weber. At the same time, there is reason to pre–approve the highly probable poor compatibility of traditional Thai religions with the modernization vector. However, a small percentage of the Thai population (5% are representatives of Christianity and Islam, through which it becomes possible to broadcast the modified project of modernity. However, this idea requires further proof, as there are quite ambiguous concepts on strengthening of the authority of science, secular world-view, the capitalist–type accumulation among scientists and experts in the sphere of the religious sociology. However, the common denominator in the assessment of the discourse of Thai society’s modernization prospects is the optimistic point of view, which supposes significant changes in the social structure and culture of Taiwan by means of the latent secularisation, which is implemented through Christian missionary work.

  5. Ritual, tiempo y espacio sagrado en el budismo zen argentino

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    Catón Eduardo Carini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El budismo zen es una religión oriental que desde hace varias décadas se ha esparcido en numerosos países occidentales, incluido la Argentina. Una característica notable de su vida comunitaria es la compleja ritualización de sus prácticas cotidianas. En nuestra aproximación a la dimensión ritual del zen indagaremos la forma en que ésta contribuye a crear un tiempo y un espacio sagrado y observaremos cómo estas prácticas son consideradas por los propios miembros del grupo como un recurso pedagógico que posibilita entrenarse en una diferente manera de estar en el mundo, de vivirse y percibirse tanto a ellos mismos como a los demás. De modo que algunos elementos del complejo ritual zen juegan un rol de primera importancia como una tecnología del ser.Zen Buddhism is an oriental religion that since several decades has expanded in various western countries, Argentina being one of them. The complex ritualization of its everyday practices is a considerable characteristic of Zen Buddhist community life. In our exploration of the ritual dimension of Zen, first we will investigate how this contributes to the creation of a sacred time and place. After this, we will show how ritual practices are considered a pedagogic recourse by group members; a means to make possible their training of a different way of being in the world, of experimenting, living and perceiving both themselves and others in a different way. Some elements of the often complex Zen ritual play a highly important part as technologies of the self.

  6. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

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    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.

  7. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross-cultural examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T.; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recently proposed that “moralistic” religions—those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual—emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with “slow life history” strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with “fast life history” strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies. Our sample includes individuals from a wide range of traditions, including world religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, but also local traditions rooted in beliefs in animism, ancestor worship, and worship of spirits associated with nature. We first test for the presence of associations between material security, years of formal education, and reproductive success. Consistent with popular life history predictions, we find evidence that material security and education are associated with reduced reproduction. Building on this, we then test whether or not these demographic factors predict the moral concern, punitiveness, attributed knowledge-breadth, and frequency of ritual devotions towards two deities in each society. Here, we find no reliable evidence of a relationship between number of children, material security, or formal education and the individual-level religious beliefs and behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of why life-history theory is an inadequate interpretation for the emergence of factors typifying the moralistic traditions. PMID:29513766

  8. Atheist spirituality: a follow on from New Atheism?

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    Teemu Taira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Books about well-being, self-improvement, life management and spirituality have been popular for many years. It is not news to anybody that such topics sell. However, books on atheism have never become bestsellers until the early years of the twenty-first century. Now the so-called New Atheist books have altogether sold millions. It may sound surprising, but atheism sells. It may have been the idea of a publishers’ marketing department to put the two selling points together, but in recent years a number of books about atheist spirituality, spiritual atheism and atheist self-help have been published. That has been one aspect of the increased visibility of atheism and spirituality in public discourse. Atheist discourse which is combined with ‘spirituality’ might be called ‘post-secular’ as it does not fit easily into the neat binary classification between religious and non-religious secular. This article examines this hybrid area in atheist discourse in relation to three aspects: monotheism, spirituality and meditation. Atheist discourse situates itself against monotheism, but some spokespersons combine atheism with spirituality and meditation. This works as an example of a wider and recent trend in society where a blurring of the earlier normative boundaries between religion and non-religion has become fairly common, not necessarily in terms of beliefs, but of practices. Even though there is a long tradition of non-theistic and atheistic readings of Buddhism, for example, they have rarely been combined with an explicit criticism of monotheistic traditions and atheist consciousness-raising.

  9. THE ART OF NOT BEING GOVERNED: ORALITY, WRITING, AND TEXTS

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    Дж Скотт

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a fragment of the book by J. Scott devoted to Zomia - an expanse of 2.5 million square kilometers containing about one hundred million minority peoples of truly bewil-dering ethnic and linguistic variety; what makes it interesting is its ecological variety as well as its relation to states. Zomia is the largest remaining region of the world whose peoples until recently have not been fully incorporated into nation-states. Its days are numbered. Not so very long ago, however, such self-go-verning peoples were the great majority of humankind. Today, they are seen from the valley kingdoms as “our living ancestors,” “what we were like before we discovered wet-rice cultivation, Buddhism, and civiliza-tion.” On the contrary, hill peoples are best understood as runaway, fugitive, maroon communities who have, over the course of two millennia, been fleeing the oppressions of state-making projects in the val-leys - slavery, conscription, taxes, corvee labor, epidemics, and warfare. Virtually everything about these people’s livelihoods, social organization, ideologies, and (more controversially even their largely oral cul-tures, can be read as strategic positionings designed to keep the state at arm’s length. Their physical disper-sion in rugged terrain, their mobility, their cropping practices, their kinship structure, their pliable ethnic identities, and their devotion to prophetic, millenarian leaders effectively serve to avoid incorporation into states and to prevent states from springing up among them. Most of the peoples dwelling in the massif seem to have assembled a comprehensive cultural portfolio of techniques for evading state incorporation while availing themselves of the economic and cultural opportunities its proximity presented. Their broad reper-toires of languages and ethnic affiliations, their capacity for prophetic reinvention, their short and/or oral genealogies, and their talent for fragmentation all

  10. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

  11. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  12. From self to nonself: The Nonself Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jong eShiah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance/strength of self is a very core concept in Western psychology and is particularly relevant to egoism, a process that draws on the hedonic principle in pursuit of desires. Contrary to this and based on Buddhism, a nonself-cultivating process aims to minimize or extinguish the self and avoid desires, leading to egolessness or selflessness. The purpose of this paper is to present the Nonself Theory (NT. The universal Mandala Model of Self (MMS was developed to describe the well-functioning self in various cultures. The end goal of the self is to attain ultimate wholeness or authentic and durable happiness. Given that the nonself is considered a well-functioning self and ultimate wholeness, the MMS is suitable for constructing the NT. The ego and nonself aspects of psychological self-functioning and their underlying processes are compared, drawing on the four concepts of the MMS: biology, ideal person, knowledge/wisdom and action. The ego engages in psychological activities to strengthen the self, applying the hedonic principle of seeking desire-driven pleasure. In contrast, a nonself approach involves execution of the self-cultivation principle, which involves three ways: giving up desires, displaying compassion, practicing meditation and seeking understanding Buddhist wisdom. These three ways have the goal of seeing through and overcoming the illusion of the self to achieve a deep transformation integrally connected to the experience of eliminating the sense of self and its psychological structures. In addition, the NT provides a comprehensive framework to account for nonself-plus-compassion-related activities or experiences such as altruism, mindfulness, mediation, mysterious/peak experiences, elimination of death anxiety and moral conduct. The NT offers possible answers that might lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human beings and the deeper meaning of life, toward the ultimate goal of ultimate wholeness. An

  13. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn’s P’ungnyudo and Present-day Hallyu

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    Kwangshik Choe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available P’ungnyudo, originating from the ancient societies, was based on belief in the heavens and native beliefs, but it was also open to and accepting of the teachings of foreign religions such as Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. In the process of teaching this to and transforming the people, it became the central principle of ancient Korea. The hwarang and kuksŏn, who modeled themselves on this guiding ideology, were the leading forces of Silla and the key figures in the unification of the three kingdoms of Silla, Kokuryŏ, and Paekche. During the later years of Silla, however, they underwent some changes. In Koryŏ, there were efforts to revitalize sŏnp’ung; however, only the recreational aspects were emphasized. It continued as the p’ungnyu of music and poetic music of the sŏnbi in Chosŏn, with hwarang deteriorating into one of the eight despised social groups as a male shaman. Since the mid-1990s as Hallyu such as Korean drama and K-pop started to garner popularity, Korean pop culture has been receiving international attention. There has been a renewed interest in Korean enjoyment, talent, and style, as well as in traditional culture of Korea. P’ungnyudo, mentioned early on by Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn in Nallangbisŏ, grounded itself on traditional culture at the same time it was open and accepting towards foreign culture. Hallyu should be developed in the same way. Korea accepted culture from China and its western regions as well as from the West through the Silk Road and further developed it anew. In the same way, it will be possible to revitalize p’ungnyudo by being open minded and accepting of one another and maintaining a spirit of harmony and mutual prosperity.

  15. Dynamism of Ballet in Isan

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    Sirimongkol Natayakul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isan is a region with diverse dancing art forms, such as Fon (Northertern-Thai-style-dance, Serng (Northestern-Thai-style-dance, and Ram (Central-Thai-style-dance which are attached to important traditions associated with Buddhism and spiritual beliefs. Ballet is a unique cross-cultural dance that has spread into Isan society over a long period of time. This qualitative research aims to study the history of ballet in Isan from 1976 to 2012 and the factors that have led to the dynamism of ballet in Isan. Research methods used for data collection include document study, fieldwork and researcher experience. In this study, the population and area samples are in seven provinces: Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Udon Thani, Ubon Ratchathani, Maha Sarakham, Chaiyaphum and Buriram. Ballet first appeared in Isan in 1976 when Khunying Genevieve Damon, a French national, Ekachai Kaikaew and Kanoknat Homasawin set up as ballet teachers. Ballet schools are found in 12 public schools, 21 private schools and one school of the local administrative organization. Ballet shows take two forms, which are either Conventional Ballet and Non-Conventional Ballet. Seven factors affect the dynamism of ballet in Isan: government policy, education, economy, ballet teachers, parents of ballet students, communications and overseas organizations. Ballet teachers have a multidimensional role in educational society and are thus very important to the ballet shows in the Isan area. Moreover, ballet teachers in the Northeast also create, design, choreograph and direct the shows. The dynamism of education and economy are the second and the third most important factors

  16. Wayang Kulit Cirebon: Warisan Diplomasi Seni Budaya Nusantara

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    Moh. Isa Pramana Koesoemadinata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The wayang kulit (shadow puppet theatre is a traditional art form that has thrived in Southeast Asia for a long time. In Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, apart from local stories, wayang kulit presents Indian epics, such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata, as a medium for Hindu-Buddhist teachings. When Islam spread in this region, the Javanese and Malay wayang kulit still kept developing, even when it was being repurposed for Islamic preaching. In its development in the Islamic era, the Javanese wayang kulit incorporated the role and influence of Sufi scholars and local rulers. The visual form, composition, and creation of the wayang kulit puppets along with the prose and musical arrangements were directly inspired by the Wali Sanga (Nine Apostles and the following Javanese kings themselves. This paperng Kulit of Cirebonural Diplomacy of Nusantara ion in the pasteration, presents the historic wayang kulit of Cirebon and discusses its unique visual features, which reflect acculturation between ethnicities (Javanese, Chinese as well as beliefs (local animism, Hindu-Buddhism, Islam. The historic wayang kulit of Cirebon proved that a peaceful, cross-cultural and religious diplomacy took place through the medium of art since the early stages of deployment of Islam in Java. This traditional art is a legacy for current and future younger generations, not only because of the aesthetical aspect, but also as a cross-cultural diplomacy strategy and philosophy that must be acknowledged, understood, and practiced. In accordance with the meaning of the word, ‘wayang’ (reflection reflects a successful diplomacy of the past that can potentially be applied in the present, hoping harmonic relationships can emerge from cultural diversity in the midst of rapid globalization.

  17. The Impact of Self-directed Voice of Love Messages on Anger: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvieli, Arie; Zaig, Tamar; Ayal, Igal; Thieberger, Gil; Rothschild, Sarit; Barak, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Context • Buddhist texts direct practitioners to generate a feeling of love to stop the affliction of anger. Modern self-help practices and clinical psychology have demonstrated that generating emotions of love can reduce anger. More studies are needed, however, to identify the active components of interventions and their applicability in clinical populations. Objective • The study investigated the hypothesis that enhancing self-love through frequent listening to recorded self-loving messages can reduce anger. Design • The pilot study was designed to measure changes in anger level between baseline and postintervention in the course of 12 wk. Setting • The study occurred at Moa Oasis, Israel. Participants • Participants were adults enrolled in a program of study on advanced Tibetan Buddhism. Intervention • Participants were directed to record statements expressing love and appreciation of themselves in their own voices, inserting their names as the recipients of the messages. Participants listened to their recording for 2 min every morning, for 12 wk. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, the clinical anger score (CAS). Every 2 wk, they completed the short dimensions of anger reactions (DAR-5) scale to assess temporal changes in anger. Results • Eighty-six participants, 69 women and 17 men with a median age of 45 y and a range from 20 to 70 y, enrolled in the study. Fifty-six completed all designated tests. The mean CAS score decreased significantly, from 10.4 to 6.7 (P love and appreciation in reducing anger. The findings indicate that the technique merits replication in larger controlled studies. If supported, it could be applied in conflict resolution.

  18. From Self to Nonself: The Nonself Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance/strength of self is a very core concept in Western psychology and is particularly relevant to egoism, a process that draws on the hedonic principle in pursuit of desires. Contrary to this and based on Buddhism, a nonself-cultivating process aims to minimize or extinguish the self and avoid desires, leading to egolessness or selflessness. The purpose of this paper is to present the Nonself Theory (NT). The universal Mandala Model of Self (MMS) was developed to describe the well-functioning self in various cultures. The end goal of the self is to attain authentic and durable happiness. Given that the nonself is considered a well-functioning self, the MMS is suitable for constructing the NT. The ego and nonself aspects of psychological self-functioning and their underlying processes are compared, drawing on the four concepts of the MMS: biology, ideal person, knowledge/wisdom and action. The ego engages in psychological activities to strengthen the self, applying the hedonic principle of seeking desire-driven pleasure. In contrast, a nonself approach involves execution of the self-cultivation principle, which involves three ways: giving up desires, displaying compassion, practicing meditation and seeking understanding Buddhist wisdom. These three ways have the goal of seeing through and overcoming the illusion of the self to achieve a deep transformation integrally connected to the experience of eliminating the sense of self and its psychological structures. In addition, the NT provides a comprehensive framework to account for nonself-plus-compassion-related activities or experiences such as altruism, mindfulness, mediation, mysterious/peak experiences, elimination of death anxiety and moral conduct. The NT offers possible answers that might lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human beings and the deeper meaning of life, toward the ultimate goal of a well-functioning self. An examination of possible clinical applications and theoretical

  19. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  20. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.