WorldWideScience

Sample records for buddhism

  1. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  2. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    Zen Buddhist ideas and practices in many ways are unique within the study of religion, and artists, poets and Buddhists practitioners worldwide have found inspiration from this tradition. Until recent years, representations of Zen Buddhism have focussed almost entirely on philosophical, historical...... or "spiritual" aspects. This book investigates the contemporary living reality of the largest Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhist group, Myōshinji. Drawing on textual studies and ethnographic fieldwork, Jørn Borup analyses how its practitioners use and understand their religion, how they practice their religiosity...

  3. Buddhism of Japanese Immigrants within the framework of Brazilian Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Usarski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects upon Buddhism of Japanese immigrants, which is the historically and numerically most important sub-segment of the so-called “ethnic Buddhism” in Brazil. The latter represents - in distinction from the “Buddhism of converts” - one of the two principles analytical subcategories of Buddhist universe of the country. The text starts with a reconstruction of the trajectory of the religious sub-segment in question by relating it to other observable tendencies in Brazil’s Buddhist field in general. For analytical reasons, the history of Buddhism of Japanese immigrants is subdivided into four phases. In the second part of the article the aforementioned data are interpreted from a sociological point of view. This interpretation refers mainly to the statistics of the National Census from 1950 onwards conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The data indicate a gradual decline of Japanese Immigrant Buddhism during the last decades that has cumulated into general crises of the Buddhist segment in question. As for factors possibly responsible for this negative development, the article discusses aspects such as logistical failures on the side of the Buddhist institutions or the difficulties of the families of Japanese descendants in handing down their cultural and religious heritage to their children.  

  4. Japanese Buddhism, Relativization, and Glocalization

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    Ugo Dessì

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of study on Japanese religions, the issue of globalization tends to be associated with the missionary activities of some successful new religious movements, and there is a certain reluctance to approach analytically the dynamics of glocalization/hybridization and the power issues at stake. In this article, I address these and other related problems by taking my cue from the relativizing effects of globalization and a working definition of religion based on the concept of authority. To this aim, I focus on two case studies. The first concerns the ongoing greening of Japanese Buddhism. The second revolves around the adoption of meditational techniques by priests and lay practitioners in Hawaiian Shin Buddhism. My findings show that there are at least four factors underlying the glocalization of Japanese Buddhism, that is, global consciousness, resonance with the local tradition, decontextualization, and quest for power. Moreover, they indicate that it is possible to distinguish between two types of glocalization (glocalization and chauvinistic glocalization and two configurations of glocalization (juxtaposition and integration.

  5. Gaochang Buddhism and the Silk Road

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xin

    2014-01-01

    At the crossroads between the West and the East in ancient times, one point along the Silk Road was Gaochang (the Turpan basin in Xinjiang) which played an important role in cultural exchange and the spread of Buddhism. The bidirectional influence of Buddhism in Gaochang was achieved as Buddhism spread eastward, and through its westward transmission which resulted in Gaochang’s unique and significant position in the history of cultural interaction.

  6. Gaochang Buddhism and the Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At the crossroads between the West and the East in ancient times, one point along the Silk Road was Gaochang (the Turpan basin in Xinjiang which played an important role in cultural exchange and the spread of Buddhism. The bidirectional influence of Buddhism in Gaochang was achieved as Buddhism spread eastward, and through its westward transmission which resulted in Gaochang’s unique and significant position in the history of cultural interaction.

  7. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vegard Skirbekk; Setsuya Fukuda; Conrad Hackett; Marcin Stonawski; Thomas Spoorenberg; Raya Muttarak

    2015-01-01

    .... Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively...

  8. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  9. Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life.

    OpenAIRE

    Perrett, R W

    1996-01-01

    Damien and John Keown claim that there is important common ground between Buddhism and Christianity on the issue of euthanasia and that both traditions oppose it for similar reasons in order to espouse a "sanctity of life" position. I argue that the appearance of consensus is partly created by their failure to specify clearly enough certain key notions in the argument: particularly Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life. Once this is done, the Keowns' central claims can be seen to be e...

  10. Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, R W

    1996-10-01

    Damien and John Keown claim that there is important common ground between Buddhism and Christianity on the issue of euthanasia and that both traditions oppose it for similar reasons in order to espouse a "sanctity of life" position. I argue that the appearance of consensus is partly created by their failure to specify clearly enough certain key notions in the argument: particularly Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life. Once this is done, the Keowns' central claims can be seen to be either false or only restrictedly true.

  11. The Art of Buddhism. A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Krista; Benskin, Elizabeth

    While the art of Buddhism has an enduring tradition throughout Asia, this teaching guide focuses on the cultures of three countries in which the Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler Galleries' collections are particularly strong: India, China, and Japan. The guide identifies grade level appropriateness for some lessons and activities. It contains 15…

  12. The Adulthood of Buddhahood: Buddhism, Lifelong Learning and the Education of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Buddhism as a philosophy of education is examined through discussion of the three trainings: ethics, meditative stabilization, and special wisdom. Tantric Buddhism and Protestant Christianity are compared. (SK)

  13. Warriors of Buddhism: Buddhism and violence as seen from a Vajrayana Tibetan Buddhist perspective

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    Christina Gillberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism is considered by many today as the non-violent religion par excellence. The concept of ahimsa (non-violence coupled with the notion of pratityasamutpada (i.e. that everything is casually interconnected, with the implication that pain inflicted upon others is therefore really done to oneself and thus to be avoided seems to be one of the main arguments for promoting Buddhism as an excellent method for promoting world peace. However this non-violent, serene picture of Buddhism is not the only picture. Buddhists on occasion speak of a need to use violence, and employ it. Buddhists kill. Sometimes they also kill each other. The history as well as the present of Buddhist Asia is bloodstained. How do Buddhists justify approving of and using violence? How do they legitimise their pro-violent utterances and actions when such actions ought to result in excommunication? What are they saying? There are several answers to this, some of which are presented in this article, with the primary focus on Buddhist Tibet.

  14. "Christianity is for rubes; Buddhism is for actors": U.S. media representations of Buddhism in the wake of the Tiger Woods' scandal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott A Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Critical analysis of U.S. media representations of Buddhists and Buddhism can reveal American attitudes toward this minority religion as well as how Buddhism is being spread in Western, non-Buddhist cultures...

  15. Buddhism in the United States: an Ethnographic Study

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    Jaeyeon Choe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Buddhism in America, an neglected area of inquiry in anthropological study. There is a need for modern ethnographic studies to shed light on historical issues, paradigms for comparative inquiry, and thus, explore the impact of Buddhism on modern American society (Glazier, 1997. The enormous growth of Buddhism in the last quarter century (Smith, 2002 makes this an especially pertinent topic in American anthropology. We utilize Glazier’s model to add Buddhism as a topic in the area of modernity studies. This is a preliminary study of the nature of Buddhism in America. We conducted participant observation with a Buddhist meditation group in a north eastern state in the US for four months in the spring of 2010. Based on our preliminary ethnographic data, we believe that a unique perspectives of Buddhism in America can be identified: non-religious and therapeutic involvement or use of Buddhism. Also, new forms of practice become evident, for example, ‘walking meditation’ and ‘bowing to other Buddhists,’ are identified as characteristics of Buddhism in America. It is interesting to note that at the end of meditation sessions, participants not only bow to the Buddha statue, but also bow to each other. This is a unique ritual dynamic which appears to be consistent with the worldview of American people - being equal and individual. The meditation group also practiced ‘walking meditation’ which is easy to do in everyday life. Additionally, we observed that American meditation rooms provide additional cushions to sit on which are a further element, along with walking meditation, which help American beginners to meditate more easily. These study observations shed light on the current situation by providing new lenses from which to understand and focus on different ritual performances/interpretations of Buddhism, and their meanings and functions in society. The most important reflection is that religious change is not an

  16. Buddhism as a Support System for Southeast Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Edward R.; Phaobtong, Thitiya

    1992-01-01

    Used ethnographic participant-observation research methodology to determine human services available through three Buddhist mutual assistance associations for Southeast Asian refugees living in Midwest. Found that Buddhism was linked to both traditional lifestyle and current efforts to overcome effects of war and trauma. Identified physical,…

  17. Building More Solid Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugamura, Genji; Haruki, Yutaka; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2007-01-01

    Introducing the ways of cultivating mental balance, B. A. Wallace and S. L. Shapiro attempted to build bridges between Buddhism and psychology. Their systematic categorization of Buddhist teachings and extensive review of empirical support from Western psychology are valuable for future study. However, it remains a matter of concern that some more…

  18. the centuries-old dialogue between buddhism and christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the pre-history of today's dialogue between Buddhists and Christians. Contrary to what one might think, pre-modern Europeans did have some understanding of Buddhism, however limited and distorted it might have been. Asians during the same period had a far better chance of understanding ...

  19. "Christianity is for rubes; Buddhism is for actors": U.S. media representations of Buddhism in the wake of the Tiger Woods' scandal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical analysis of U.S. media representations of Buddhists and Buddhism can reveal American attitudes toward this minority religion as well as how Buddhism is being spread in Western, non-Buddhist cultures. This paper examines such representations in the wake of revelations of Tiger Woods' sexual scandal, a time when Buddhism was much in the news. I argue that Buddhism was here deployed in the service of a pre-existing narrative of conflict between conservatives and liberals and, by making appeals to secular scholars to define Buddhism, Buddhist voices were obscured or ignored. Finally, despite having their own media outlets, U.S. Buddhists were unable to effectively counter such representations either by perpetuating pre-existing media narratives or by ignoring them altogether.

  20. Macho Buddhism: gender and sexualities in the Diamond Way

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Western Tibetan Buddhist movements have been described as bourgeois and puritanical in previous scholarship. In contrast, Ole Nydahl’s convert lay Karma Kagyu Buddhist movement, the Diamond Way, has drawn attention for its apparently hedonistic style. Focussing on the interpretation of Nydahl’s approach to gender and sexualities, this paper addresses the wider issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. Nydahl’s pre-modern gender stereotypi...

  1. Non-Buddhist Buddhism and non-Christian Christianity in Japan

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    Harry Thomsen

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Religions in Japan, is in disguise a real renascence of Buddhism. That, for one thing, it forces Buddhism into accommodating and streamlining for the new age at a much more rapid pace than would otherwise have been possible, and that, for another, the New Religions themselves in reality represent Buddhism with its fantastic ability to change. It may to some extent be said that Buddhism is a religious idea in constant movement more than a religion as such—and some observers might be tempted to say that Buddhism, as represented by the New Religions, has moved so far that it has been cut off from its roots and no more is master of its development. The Buddhist will probably answer that this is exactly the main pride of Buddhism, that it always accommodates, that it thrives on syncretism and religious cocktails, that it is always in evergreen renascence, modern to all times.

  2. Between Buddhism and Science, Between Mind and Body

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    Geoffrey Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism has been seen, at least since the Theravāda reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as particularly compatible with Western science. The recent explosion of Mindfulness therapies have strengthened this perception. However, the 'Buddhism' which is being brought into relation with science in the context of the Mindfulness movement has already undergone extensive rewriting under modernist influences, and many of the more critical aspects of Buddhist thought and practice are dismissed or ignored. The Mind and Life Institute encounters, under the patronage of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, present a different kind of dialogue, in which a Tibetan Buddhism which is only beginning to undergo modernist rewriting confronts Western scientists and scholars on more equal terms. However, is the highly sophisticated but radically other world of Tantric thought really compatible with contemporary science? In this article I look at problem areas within the dialogue, and suggest that genuine progress is most likely to come if we recognise the differences between Buddhist thought and contemporary science, and take them as an opportunity to rethink scientific assumptions.

  3. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  4. Macho Buddhism: Gender and Sexualities in the Diamond Way

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    Burkhard Scherer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Western Tibetan Buddhist movements have been described as bourgeois and puritanical in previous scholarship. In contrast, Ole Nydahl’s convert lay Karma Kagyu Buddhist movement, the Diamond Way, has drawn attention for its apparently hedonistic style. Focussing on the interpretation of Nydahl’s approach to gender and sexualities, this paper addresses the wider issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. Nydahl’s pre-modern gender stereotyping, the hetero-machismo of the Diamond Way and the mildly homophobic tone and content of Nydahl’s teaching are interpreted on the background of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist sexual ethics and traditional Tibetan cultural attitudes on sexualities. By excavating the emic genealogy of Nydahl’s teachings, the paper suggests that Nydahl’s and the Diamond Way’s view on and performance of gender and sexualities are consistent with his propagation of convert Buddhist neo-orthodoxy.

  5. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

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    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  6. Shadow of Buddhism and Shintoism in neurosurgical practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, almost all culture and civilization were introduced from abroad; in the past from China and now from U.S. and European countries, owing to her geographical features circumscribed by oceans and separated from the continents. Neurosurgical science and practice have been received in the same way as other activities. However, there are some exceptions such as organ transplantation from the brain dead and brain-dock, which means a brain check-up system of asymptomatic brain diseases. Reasons why these are practised or not in Japan are considered from the viewpoint of Buddhism and Shintoism. If our special practises could appeal to people in other countries, our neurosurgical philosophy might become widespread and welcome worldwide. Organ transplantations from brain dead have routinely been performed in many countries, while only 37 cases have been executed in Japan, after the Japanese government accepted its application in 1997. In contrast, brain-dock is widely practised without any national insurance systems, while this is rarely practised in other countries. It seems to me that Buddhism and Shintoism have influenced on these special situations, due to extreme fear and impurity of the dead body and a way of comprehending the oneness of body and mind, and also deep concern for the impact of their diseases to their families rather than for themselves. We neurosurgeons should realize that our profession is directly related to ultimate human sufferings such as aging, disease, and death, as pointed out by Gautama Buddha. We are in fact in a position to study the real way for resolution of the human sufferings, mentally and physically. Based on our experiences, the foundation of a new academic discipline like "cultural medical science" should urgently be considered in all parts of the world and in light of individual cultural, economical, geographical, and population problems.

  7. Aloha Buddha-the secularization of ethnic Japanese-American Buddhism

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    Jørn Borup

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The relations between religion, migration, transnationalism, pluralism, and ethnicity have gained increasing focus in religious, cultural, sociological, and anthropological studies. With its manifold transfigurations across time and location, Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues. Hawaii, with its long migration history and religious pluralism, is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion and ethnicity. By analyzing contemporary religious life and the historical context of two Japanese American Zen temples in Maui, it is argued that the ethnic and cultural divide related to spirituality follow a general tendency by which the secularization of Japanese Americans' communal Sangha Buddhism is counterbalanced by a different group's spiritualization of Buddhism

  8. Social and Engaged Buddhism: The CEBB Experience and Lama Padma Samten

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    Deyve Redyson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to make a historical recovery of the emergence of CEBB (Centro de Estudos Budistas Bodisatva and his experiences as a vehicle for dissemination of Tibetan Buddhism in Brazil, as well as the very trajectory of Lama Padma Samten, its founder, and current religious leadership of this tradition. We intend to demonstrate that the CEBB experience set in a form of social and engaged Buddhism where prospects facing on education, social welfare and the preservation and respect for human rights are elements that approach the Brazilian reality. The lived experience of CEBB also binds to work at great social risk communities, but always connected with Brazilian identities of Buddhism that mirror the altruistic action, based on generosity and contemplation. Linked to CEBB it is also, in large part, the history and development of Buddhism in Brazil that link growth statistics and expansion as a result of social work engaged and universal responsibility with human beings.

  9. Analysis of Scholarly Communication Activities in Buddhism and Buddhist Studies

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    Edoardo Magnone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge regarding the exchange of academic information on religious contexts. The objective of this informational study was to perform an overall analysis of all Buddhism-related communications collected in the Web of Science (WoS from 1993 to 2011. The studied informational parameters include the growth in number of the scholarly communications, as well as the language-, document-, subject category-, source-, country-, and organization-wise distribution of the communications. A total of 5407 scholarly communications in this field of study were published in the selected time range. The most preferred WoS subject category was Asian Studies with 1773 communications (22.81%, followed by Religion with 1425 communications (18.33% and Philosophy with 680 communications (8.75%. The journal with the highest mean number of citations is Numen: International Review for the History of Religions—with 2.09 citations in average per communication. The United States was the top productive country with 2159 communications (50%, where Harvard University topped the list of organization with 85 communications (12%.

  10. Post-religional perspective and secular Buddhism: Stephen Batchelor and the post-metaphysical religion

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    Leandro Durazzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present one of the contemporary trends on Buddhism, specially from the last decades in West, for its encounter with the globalized and dynamic context of present societies. This Buddhist trend, the progressive secularization of its traditions and practices, not to mention its increasing acceptance of historical-textual refutation, finds in Stephen Batchelor - a former monk in two different Buddhist traditions, Tibetan and Korean Zen - a catalyzer and a well-known advocate of secular perspective to the contemporary Buddhism. Here we will present the potential dialogue between the Secular Buddhism - besides the secularizing perspectives over orthodox cultural traditions - and the post-religional subject, as proposed by Marià Corbí and the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. For the purposes of this paper we will focus on the modernizing and secular hermeneutics on Dharma practice, as defended by Stephen Batchelor and others.

  11. [The relevance of zen-buddhism for dialectic-behavioral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy is a specific psychotherapeutic approach to answer the needs of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. It uses concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Humanistic Psychotherapies. For a deeper understanding, it is necessary to include also its Zen-Buddhistic background. The experience of Zen-meditation and the basic philosophy of Zen-Buddhism will be explained. In the context of the historical relation between Zen-Buddhism and Psychotherapy, the position of the DBT will be specified. Finally it will be demonstrated how Zen-Buddhism inspired the practice of DBT and what kinds of problems arise when a modern psychotherapy uses the concept of a premodern conception of the world and human existence.

  12. Buddhism-as-a-meaning-system for coping with late-life stress: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianbin

    2018-01-01

    Religion is increasingly conceptualized as a meaning system for adjustment and coping. Most of the conceptualizations are grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition. They may thus not be applicable to Buddhism, which provides a distinct tenor of meaning for coping. This article seeks to construct a conceptual framework of Buddhism-as-a-meaning-system for coping with late-life stress. Literature review and conceptualization were employed. Under this framework, Buddhism functions as a meaning system involving existential meaning, cognitive meaning, and behavioral meaning. There is reason to believe that this framework promises to offer a holistic conceptual map of Buddhist coping in late life. Thus, it could serve as a guide for further empirical and theoretical exploration in the uncharted terrains of Buddhist coping in old age. In addition, gerontological practitioners could use this framework as a frame of reference when working with elderly Buddhist clients who are in stressful circumstances.

  13. Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in "Negative Capability" in Light of Buddhism and Levinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to "negative capability" and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering…

  14. The Ethics of the "Real" In Levinas, Lacan, and Buddhism: Pedagogical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unstated ethics that exist in the silent space between teacher and students, highlighting Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Buddhism. The paper uses the juxtaposition of west and east to help illuminate ethical pedagogy, and it argues that there is an unknowable dimension which raises the question of ethics in human relations that…

  15. The Pedagogy of Happiness and Death: From the Perspectives of Buddhism and Christianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the pedagogy of happiness and death from the perspectives of Buddhism and Christianity. To discuss this study logically, three research questions are addressed. First, what are the concepts of happiness and death? Second, what is the relevance between happiness and death? Last, what are the meanings of…

  16. Feminist Debate in Taiwan's Buddhism: The Issue of the Eight Garudhammas

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    Chiung Hwang Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules, regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas and situates the debate within Taiwan's cultural terrain as well as the worldwide Buddhist feminist movement. I argue that while Zhaohui's call resulted in the abolishment of the rules neither at home nor abroad, it profoundly affected nuns' position in Buddhism and contributed to broader discussions on women and religion. In making this argument, I revisit the impact of Western feminism (and Western Buddhist feminists on Eastern religions and reconsider the tensions this relationship encompasses.

  17. Black Buddhists and the Body: New Approaches to Socially Engaged Buddhism

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    Rima Vesely-Flad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deconstructs how Buddhist practitioners of African descent acknowledge racism and challenge predominantly white, affluent Buddhist sanghas that embrace the tenets of Socially Engaged Buddhism. It argues that practitioners of African descent directly acknowledge the social constructs of the black body that result in violent practices such as police brutality and disproportionate black incarceration. To support this argument, I rely on primary texts published by Socially Engaged Buddhists. The results conclude that black Buddhists not only highlight the suffering wrought by racism in the West, they also challenge white sangha members to reckon with the depth of racism in society and in their sanghas. I conclude that black Buddhists, in their acknowledgement of the socially constructed meanings of the black body, offer an important challenge to Socially Engaged Buddhism.

  18. Buddhism as a resource of “soft power” of China

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    Tatyana Ivanovna Ponka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Now the concept of “soft power” introduced by the American political scientist Joseph Nye Jr., is of particular interest in the theory of international relations. Among the Asian countries special attention paid to China, which currently has not only extensive economic and political resources, but also sources of non-power influence. In the article, the authors explore a concept as “Buddhist diplomacy” and its role in China's foreign policy activities. It also examined the historical formation of Buddhism and its development as a resource of “soft power” by way of the one of state Chinese religions that is part of the syncretic complex, along with Confucianism and Taoism, in different periods of Chinese civilization, from the pre-imperial period to the modern framework. In this study were examined the views of Russian and foreign experts on the directions and spheres of the definition of the “Buddhism diplomacy” and the peculiarities of its implementation by the Chinese government. This research based on the using on using the historical approach and general scientific methods, such as analysis, synthesis, deduction, etc. In the article, the authors revealed the current state of religion on the example of Buddhism in China's foreign policy strategy both on the world stage and at the regional level and main aspects within which Chinese Buddhist diplomacy is developing.

  19. The Analysis of Confucian Followers’ Understanding of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island - Indonesia

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    Sugiato Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-culture, and multi-faith country. This piece of land combines a lot of ethnic elements into one. For example, Confucianism in Indonesia is combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism characteristic in many ways. Aim of this paper is to find out the features of Confucianism as a religion or a belief for its followers in Bangka. In addition, this paper also focuses on finding out the followers view towards their Gods in their perspectives. In this article, classification of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism is presented based on direct social observation. In this paper, analysis of Confucian followers understanding towards Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island Indonesia is presented respectively. In conclusion, characteristics of these three religions have blended perfectly and there is no more distinction in Confucius, Buddhist or Taoism Gods in Confucian followers’ community in Bangka Island. 

  20. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

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    Antariksa Antariksa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This study will discuss the philosophy and architectural aspects of the Zen monastery arrangement plan. Zen Buddhism is syncretism from Taoism and Confucianism.The layout plan of the Zen monastery temple principally was placed on a single axis and facing south. The typical layout plan was borrowed from the architecture of the Chinese monastery.

  1. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

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    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  2. [Influences of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism on Chinese Medical Formulas in Jin-Tang Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-xiang

    2006-04-01

    In the Jin-Tang Dynasties, when Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism contended, conflicted and well blent, forming a state of mingled thoughts of the three sects. It exerted profound influences on Chinese Medical Formulas and promoted the academic fashion of compiling books about medical formulas characterized by collecting various formulas especially the simple and proved recipes. This plays a role in the formation of the formulas used in the Jin-Tang Dynasties, featuring simplicity, convenience, cheapness, and effectiveness, different from those of other periods.

  3. Won-Buddhism and a Great Turning in Civilization: The Role of Religion

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    Paik Nak-chung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the theme of a great turning in civilization, this essay focuses on the Korean religion Won-Buddhism with its founding motto, “With this Great Opening of matter, let there be a Great Opening of spirit.” Both its doctrine and practice arguably possess great potential. Unlike the traditional Buddhist view of enlightenment, Won-Buddhism’s “Great Opening of spirit” starts from a specific diagnosis of the current time as an age of “Great Opening of matter” and proposes a double project of at once adapting to and overcoming modernity. In this way, it carries on the tradition of Korea’s indigenous religious movements since the mid-nineteenth century, but by combining that strain with Buddhism as its core doctrine, it achieves a fuller global significance than its predecessors. The essay examines Roberto Unger’s The Religion of the Future for both parallels and divergences, sympathizing with Unger’s emphasis on a religious revolution, but finding his thought essentially confined within the limits of Western metaphysics. Martin Heidegger is brought in to elucidate this point, as is Karl Marx, for comparison and contrast with Won-Buddhism’s diagnosis of and response to modernity. In closing, the essay takes up two Won-Buddhist agendas that are also of global concern: gender equality and the “church and state” relation.

  4. Skeptic Spirituality or the Accidental Buddhism of Machado de Assis's O Segredo do Bonzo

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    Dilip Loundo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to support the idea that Machado de Assis’ work conforms well to what may be called a non-religious spirituality. For that, the article’s main focus is the analysis of the short story “O Segredo do Bonzo: Capítulo Inédito de Fernão Mendes Pinto”, published in 1882’s collection titled Papéis Avulsos, where the main principles of that spirituality, which is spread all over his work,  are given in a nutshell. In a first moment, we analise the intertextuality between Machado’s short story “O Segredo do Bonzo” and Portuguese Renaissance writer’s travelogue Peregrinação and the Machado’s nineteen century critique of the west’s main universalizing proposals: Christianity, scientificity and Enlightenment. In a second moment, we analise the philosophical implications of the primacy given to ‘opinion’ as an existential foundation and as a constitutive element of reality, in a context of close proximity with the soteriological traditions of ancient Greek skepticism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other. A critic of religion, specially of Christian religion, Machado’s  ‘accidental’ association with Buddhism is symptomatic of a very peculiar form of non-religious spirituality.

  5. Os intelectuais e o budismo japonês no Brasil / Intellectuals and Japanese Buddhism in Brazil

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    Eduardo Basto de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste ensaio trata da história da descoberta do Budismo japonês por intelectuais brasileiros, como um conjunto de práticas e sabedorias espirituais, realizada através de leituras e encontros com monges budistas japoneses e/ou imigrantes japoneses. Devido a isso, estes intelectuais defendem uma experiência religiosa baseada numa noção universalista de representações do Budismo japonês, que lhes proporcionam reflexão filosófica não-dualista e experiência psicológica única. Tais intelectuais, através de experiências espirituais inovadoras, romperam a tensão criada pela disputa entre secularização via ciência e a hegemonia católica, predominantes no panorama intelectual.AbstractThis study concentrates on the discovery of Japanese Buddhism by Brazilian intellectuals as a group of spiritual practices and as a body of spiritual wisdom. The study has been realized through readings and meetings with Japanese Buddhist monks and/or Japanese immigrants. These intellectuals defend a religious experience based on a universal notion of representations of Japanese Buddhism, which provides them with a non-dualistic philosophical perspective and a unique psychological experience. Through innovative spiritual experiences these intellectuals have broken the tension created within the dispute between secularized science and the Catholic hegemony, both predominant in the intellectual panorama.

  6. Validity and Reliability of a Revised Scale of Attitude towards Buddhism (TSAB-R

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    Phra Nicholas Thanissaro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical properties of a revised 24-item instrument called the Thanissaro Scale of Attitude towards Buddhism (TSAB-R designed to measure Buddhist affective religiosity are described. The instrument was tested on adolescents and teenagers in the UK. Discriminant validity of the instrument was found satisfactory in relation to Buddhist affiliation and content validity in relation to religious involvement with temple attendance, scripture reading, meditation, having had a religious or spiritual experience and religious style. Unlike Christians, for Buddhists, affective religiosity was found to vary independently from age and sex. The differential between heritage and convert religious style of Buddhism was linked to the perceived affective religiosity of the Buddhist features of the home shrine and bowing to parents. Factor analysis revealed two subscales within the instrument for intellectual and affective components. With confirmation of the validity and reliability of the revised scale, the instrument is commended for measurement of Buddhist affective religiosity with adults and children down to the age of 13 years.

  7. Loving-kindness brings loving-kindness: the impact of Buddhism on cognitive self-other integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; Zech, H.; Hommel, B.; Verdonschot, R.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Hsieh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Common wisdom has it that Buddhism enhances compassion and self-other integration. We put this assumption to empirical test by comparing practicing Taiwanese Buddhists with well-matched atheists. Buddhists showed more evidence of self-other integration in the social Simon task, which assesses the

  8. The practice of mindfulness: from Buddhism to secular mainstream in a post-secular society

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    Liselotte Frisk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the practice of mindfulness, which has migrated from being part of a religion, Buddhism, to being an integral part of Western psychology. Mindfulness is especially used in cognitive behavioural therapy, but also in, e.g., dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT. In Sweden several doctors, psychologists and psychiatrists use and recommend mindfulness for therapeutic purposes. Mindfulness is used today in many segments of mainstream medical and therapeutic care. Mindfulness is also used outside the mainstream medical and therapeutic sector, in the area of personal development or spirituality, as well as in more traditional Buddhist groups and innovative Buddhist groups such as vipassana groups. This paper investigates the migration of mindfulness from a religious to a secular sphere, and discusses whether mindfulness is a religious practice or not.

  9. Loving-kindness brings loving-kindness: the impact of Buddhism on cognitive self-other integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Zech, Hilmar; Hommel, Bernhard; Verdonschot, Rinus; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hsieh, Shulan

    2012-06-01

    Common wisdom has it that Buddhism enhances compassion and self-other integration. We put this assumption to empirical test by comparing practicing Taiwanese Buddhists with well-matched atheists. Buddhists showed more evidence of self-other integration in the social Simon task, which assesses the degree to which people co-represent the actions of a coactor. This suggests that self-other integration and task co-representation vary as a function of religious practice.

  10. Declínio do budismo "amarelo" no Brasil The decline of "yellow buddhism" in Brazil

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    Frank Usarski

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas empíricas indicam que o chamado "budismo de cor amarela", sobretudo associado ao budismo de imigração japonesa, está em um declínio constante no que diz respeito a adeptos explícitos. Depois de algumas considerações metodológicas, o artigo aborda os dados estatísticos relevantes. Na parte final são discutidas possíveis razões da dinâmica negativa, em conformidade com três níveis de explicação, a saber: motivos relacionados com instituições budistas; constelações dadas na comunidade étnica; fatores no âmbito do indivíduo.Empirical research shows that 'Yellow Buddhism,' primarily associated with Japanese immigrants in Brazil, is steadily declining in terms of its 'explicit' followers. After some methodological observations, the article examines the relevant statistical data. The final part of the text discusses possible reasons for this negative dynamic at three levels of explanation: namely, internal motives related to Buddhist institutions, configurations within the ethnic community, and factors at individual level.

  11. Buddhism and the formation of the religious body: a Foucauldian approach

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    Malcolm Voyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poststructuralist debates around the body have demonstrated how our knowledge of the body is constituted in specific cultural and historical circumstances and in the context of particular relations of power. This article develops this approach to the body in Buddhism and thus attempts to show how the body has been represented within different discourses in Buddhist texts. Implicit in this account is the remedying of the failure in some Buddhist scholarship to recognise different types of bodies (negative and positive and to show how these aspects of the body, as enumerated by texts, operate together to constitute forms of identities capable of being constituted within different historical moments out of the pressure of new social and material changes. At the same time the body is seen as being capable of self modification in terms of that discourse. The term ‘body’ is used here in the sense that it implies not only a physical aspect (flesh, bones, liquids etc., but that it is connected to various cognitive and emotional capacities as outlined in the khandhas (see below explanation of the human constitution. The author's concern in his treatment of the body is to avoid the problems of psychological analysis, as this form of analysis often implies the existence of a psyche or soul along with the ideas of complete individual self-determination.

  12. Buddhist Contribution to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953

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    Xue Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by Chinese Buddhists, especially the so-called "progressive Buddhists," in the socialist transformation of the sangha at the early stage of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. I concentrate on the case of Ven. Juzan (1908–1984. While the focus on one individual does not reveal the whole story about Chinese Buddhists’ involvement in the Chinese Communist Party’s project of reshaping the sangha, the career of Juzan does provide a window on the issue. By exploring various sources, including Modern Buddhist Studies (Xiandai foxue and government documents, I investigate how Juzan urged his fellow Buddhists to work with the Communist leadership, and how he justified government policies on Buddhism by reinterpreting Buddhist doctrines. In so doing, this study intends to show that Chinese Buddhists’ collaboration with the Communist regime was a significant dimension of the socialist transformation of the Chinese sangha, a process that laid the foundation for full-scale persecution of Buddhism during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976.

  13. Retrospective and modern views on modernization and alternative modernization components of shinto and zen buddhism

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    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2016-03-01

    . For Japanese Buddhism, this dichotomy remains irrelevant, since in this religious system as, by the way, Shintoism, no opposition secular / social and religious rationality, which means no distinction between intellectuals, clergy and social stratum administrators who form a social cluster higher death and rationality are the bearers of traditional Weber.

  14. "All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha": Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States

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    Jeff Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that there are three factors in particular—institutional, historical, and theological elements of American Shin Buddhism—that must be attended to as contributing reasons why ministers were supportive of same-sex marriage.

  15. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  16. Målar författare till religionsläromedel med bred pensel? : - En kritisk undersökning av fyra gymnasieläromedels framställning av buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on qualitative and hermeneutic methods. The investigation summarises how four textbooks present Buddhism in (school) subject Religion, such as texts and images. Two of them are used in Religious studies A, the rest is used in Religious studies 1. The study rests on the theories of orientalism and christocentrism, where both can be related to the concept of making secondary. In the research background there are descriptions of how the western world looks upon Buddhism in a ...

  17. A Non-Referential and Non-Cognitive Theory of Truth, in Vijñānavāda Buddhism

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    Ovidiu Nedu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vijñānavāda Buddhism claims all kind of experience, including knowledge, is “mere ideation” (vijñaptimātra, being devoid of any objective counter-part, of any objective value. The experience of knowledge is determined solely by the individual predispositions of the knowing subject (his “imprints of the linguistic constructions – abhilāpavāsanā and not by an alleged “external reality”. Nevertheless, the school is able to claim the existence of a “truth”, even in the absence of an objective reality that could account for this “truth”. The truth of Vijñānavāda philosophy does not mean, in an Aristotelian or realistic manner, the concordance between subjective representation and objective reality but a mere consonance of the various subjective knowledge experiences. What determines such a truth are the so-called “shared” (sādhāraa seeds (bīja of experience, which inflict a certain degree of similarity to the experiences of various individual subjects. Hence, the truth has no cognitive value, being rather a state of Karmic tuning, i.e. the consonance of the experiences engendered by the “shared” part of the Karmic imprints of each individual being.

  18. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event.

  19. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Na Tang

    Full Text Available The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.. Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event.

  20. HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

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    G V Ozhiganova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data. Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.

  1. Buddhism at Crossroads: A Case Study of Six Tibetan Buddhist Monks Navigating the Intersection of Buddhist Theology and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin

    Recent effort to teach Western science in the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries has drawn interest both within and outside the quarters of these monasteries. This novel and historic move of bringing Western science in a traditional monastic community began around year 2000 at the behest of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism. Despite the novelty of this effort, the literature in science education about learners from non-Western communities suggests various "cognitive conflicts" experienced by these non-Western learners due to fundamental difference in the worldview of the two knowledge traditions. Hence, in this research focuses on how six Tibetan Buddhist monks were situating/reconciling the scientific concepts like the theory of evolution into their traditional Buddhist worldview. The monks who participated in this study were engaged in a further study science at a university in the U.S. for two years. Using case study approach, the participants were interviewed individually and in groups over the two-year period. The findings revealed that although the monks scored highly on their acceptance of evolution on the Measurement of Acceptance of Theory of Evolution (MATE) survey, however in the follow-up individual and focus group interviews, certain conflicts as well as agreement between the theory of evolution and their Buddhist beliefs were revealed. The monks experienced conflicts over concepts within evolution such as common ancestry, human evolution, and origin of life, and in reconciling the Buddhist and scientific notion of life. The conflicts were analyzed using the theory of collateral learning and was found that the monks engaged in different kinds of collateral learning, which is the degree of interaction and resolution of conflicting schemas. The different collateral learning of the monks was correlated to the concepts within evolution and has no correlation to the monks' years in secular school, science learning or their

  2. Eski Uygurca Metinlere Göre Budizmin Manihaizme Etkisi The Effect Of Buddhism On Manichaeism In Old Uighur Texts

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    Hacer TOKYÜREK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mani's Buddhism, Zurvanizm, Christianity and Manichaeism which was formed by his own thoughts has created a strong followers group in the east and west. These teachings spread rapidly as a result of being adopted especially by Soğds and Tochars in the east, and then by Chinese and Uighurs. But this teaching, which has spread rapidly, faced with other religions or teachings in its regions. Thus, Manichaeism which lived together with many religions or teachings, hasbeen affected by them and later disappeared for various reasons. AmongUighurs, it is known that Bögü's Manichaeism was declared as theofficial state religion in 762/3 for political reasons.Along with defending this religion, Uighurs have demonstratedmany religious works but not as much as the Buddhist works focusingon this faith. In this context, when we compare the texts of BuddhistUighurs and Manihaist Uighurs we can see that many terms arecommon. In the texts of Buddhist Uighurs and Manihaist Uighurs someterms which are fundamental in both doctrine such as Buddhas, theteachings of Buddha and Mani, the world of the Gods, the world of theliving, morality, agony, fate and the idea of time show resemblance orare in common. These terms are compared in both teachings and theirmeanings are given. Thus, it has been identified that these twoteachings show similarities and the terms are used not entirely butapproximately in the same way. Mani’nin Budizm, Zurvanizm, Hristiyanlık ve kendi düşüncelerinden oluşturduğu Manihaizm, doğuda ve batıda güçlü bir taraftar kitlesi yaratmıştır. Doğuda özellikle Soğud ve Toharların ve daha sonra da Çin ve Uygurların bu öğretiyi sahiplenmeleri sonucunda bu öğreti hızla yayılmıştır. Fakat bu hızlı bir yayılma alanına sahip olan öğreti gittiği, yerlerde de başka dinlerle ya da öğretilerle karşılaşmıştır. Böylece pek çok din ya da öğretilerle yan yana yaşayan Manihaizm, çeşitli nedenlerden dolay

  3. 台灣佛教數位典藏資料庫之建置 Digital Archives for the Study of Taiwanese Buddhism

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    Jen-Jou Hung

    2011-09-01

    culture. As part of this program a number of digital archives specifically concerning the history and development of Buddhism in Taiwan have been created. Supported at various stages by the Taiwan eLearning and Digital Archives Project, the Haoran Foundation and the National Science council these archives preserve a wide range of texts and images pertaining to Buddhism in Taiwan from its inception in the 17th century to the present day. This paper describes the creation principles and scope of these digital collections.

  4. SOME TERMS RELATED TO NUMBER AND TIME BELONGING TO MAHĀYĀNA BUDDHISM MAHĀYĀNA BUDİZMİNE AİT SAYI VE ZAMANLA İLGİLİ BAZI TERİMLER

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    Özlem AYAZLI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it was attempted to identify some terms that are created with numbers like three, four, five, etc. and words related to time in Uyghur language. The aim was to reveal the translation differences of Chinese equivalents of these terms. The examples were taken from Altun Yaruk, the book on Mahayana Buddhism. Bu makalede, Uygurcada üç, dört, beş vb. (üç ätöz, beş ažun, tört törlüg terin kuvrag rakamlarla oluşturulmuş bazı terimler ve zamanla ilişkili kelimeler tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu terimlerin Çince denklikleri ile olan çeviri farklılıklarını ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Örnekler, Mahāyāna Budizmine ait bir eser olan Altun Yaruk’tan alınmıştır.

  5. Theravada Buddhism and Thai Luxury Fashion Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory

  6. Theravada buddhism and thai luxury fashion consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features

  7. Buddhism and the Perils of Advocacy

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    Ian Reader

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article raises problems with the use of advocacy in Buddhist Studies, and critiques those who bring their Buddhist beliefs into the classroom and into their research. It argues that the foundations of the academic discipline (Religious Studies within which Buddhist Studies is located are grounded in the search for an objective, non-confessional approach to the study of religion, one that distinguishes Religious Studies from Theology, and that this perspective is what gives the field its integrity. It cites examples of the problems that occur in teaching and research when such objectivity is replaced by confessional approaches, and provides an example from another field (the study of new religious movements in which immense problems have occurred because some scholars have become advocates rather than analysts, to warn of the problems that can arise when confessional approaches become a dominant field paradigm.

  8. Killing, karma and caring: euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, D; Keown, J

    1995-10-01

    In 1993 The Parliament of the World's Religions produced a declaration known as A Global Ethic which set out fundamental points of agreement on moral tissues between the religions of the world. However, the declaration did not deal explicitly with medical ethics. This article examines Buddhist and Christian perspectives on euthanasia and finds that in spite of their cultural and theological differences both oppose it for broadly similar reasons. Both traditions reject consequentialist patterns of justification and espouse a 'sanctity of life' position which precludes the intentional destruction of human life by act or omission.

  9. Killing, karma and caring: euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.

    OpenAIRE

    Keown, D.; Keown, J

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 The Parliament of the World's Religions produced a declaration known as A Global Ethic which set out fundamental points of agreement on moral tissues between the religions of the world. However, the declaration did not deal explicitly with medical ethics. This article examines Buddhist and Christian perspectives on euthanasia and finds that in spite of their cultural and theological differences both oppose it for broadly similar reasons. Both traditions reject consequentialist pattern...

  10. The Concept of Self in Buddhism and Brahmanism: Some Remarks

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    Andrej ULE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I contrast briefly the Buddhist concept of Self as a process and a conditional reality with the concept of the substantial metaphysical concept of Self in Brahmanism and Hinduism. I present the criticism of the Buddhist thinkers, such as Nāgārjuna, who criticize any idea of the metaphysical Self. They deny the idea of the Self as its own being or as a possessor of its mental acts. However, they do not reject all sense of Self; they allow a pure process of knowledge (first of all, Self-knowledge without a fixed subject or “owner” of knowledge. This idea is in a deep accord with some Chan stories and paradoxes of the Self and knowledge.

  11. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Spencer A.

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  12. Understanding Buddhism through Pali in India and Thailand

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    Upender Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pali plays a vital role in the history and culture of India. It preserves the Indian culture in a systematic way. Hence an attempt of understanding the Indian culture without Pali cannot fulfil the complete purpose. In fact Pali was an important source for understanding ancient Buddhist culture and philosophy which are integral part of Indian culture. In ancient India there were Buddhist universities and people from many countries used to visit India to learn the Indian culture including Buddhist philosophical expositions. Indian languages and literatures were highly influenced by Pali language and literature.

  13. Kingship, Buddhism and the Forging of a Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Medieval Pilgrimage in West Nepal West Nepal provides a unique space to think about pilgrimage in the past. For many centuries, this central Himalayan region lay at the fringes of neighboring states. During the 13th century CE, the Khasa Malla dynasty established a kingdom here with seasonal capitals at Sinja and Dullu, which soon grew to encompass the entire region as well as parts of India and Tibet (Adhikary 1997; Pandey 1997) (Figure 1). With these developments, the region becam...

  14. Buddhism in Sarnath: An Account of Two Chinese Travellers

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    Dr Anuradha Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw the religious life in Sarnath (and Varanasi as accounted by the Chinese travellers—Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang. The accounts not only talk about the stupas, pillars, statues built by King Ashoka; vihars and monks (bhikshus living in those vihars but also contain the first preachings of Lord Buddha, establishment of Sangha and the story of Mrigajataka that remain significant. With the increased popularity of Buddha dharma in China, the Chinese were attracted towards travelling to India. They came to India mainly with the intentions to visit the places related to the fond memories of Lord Buddha, to study the Buddha religion and philosophy and carry the copies of the Buddhist compositions. Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang occupy significant places among these Chinese travellers. These accounts can be associated with ancient history as well as with historical geography, religion and philosophy. While Fa-hien in his journey details had described about the Buddha Empire, Hiuen-tsang highlighted the civilisation of India and its cultural landscape, albeit it has been often accepted by the historians that these accounts of their journeys should be considered as significant only when they are backed by historical evidences. They opine that these travellers were mainly influenced by the Buddha dharma and therefore, their accounts are liable to containing exaggerated journey details. It is true that the journey details contain few imaginary instances; nevertheless, these accounts have been validated by the remnants, stupas and vihars at the sites.

  15. ABORTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN RELIGIONS: HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Constantin-Iulian Damian

    2010-01-01

      Considering that contemporary society becomes increasingly pluralistic from the religious viewpoint, non-Christian religions' view on bioethical issues as abortion should concern not only historians...

  16. Buddhism, Copying, and the Art of the Imagination in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Taylor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article theorizes new urban religio-scapes in metropolitan Bangkok, a city space of contradictory modernities. Here, I look at two contrasting Buddhist monastic spaces of sanctity from periods of fieldwork between 1998 and 2002. Firstly, as found in the modern semblance of order and discipline at the radically neo-conservative Dhammakaya Movement (lit. “Body of Dhamma”. Secondly, the chaotic, disordered flamboyant and kitsch space of the Sanam Chan Monastery on the outskirts of the ever-expanding Thai post-metropolis, which has similarities with the consumerist contemporary “Buddhist” feature art of the arcades and shopping centres. I argue that Wat (Monastery Sanam Chan is a postmodern representation of sanctity; it is a response to modernity, while Dhammakaya, aside from its immense spectacle, reflects more the essentialist conditions inherent in modernity. Nevertheless, it is clear that both spaces of sanctity challenge the established religious hierarchy, its perceived orthodoxy, legitimation and the ethical bases of civic religion in Thailand.

  17. Broadening the Scope of Ethical Consumer Behaviour: A Study on Five Precepts of Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Dushan Chaminda; Nilanthi Ratnayake

    2013-01-01

    Consumption is an essential everyday process. By very nature, it is a means of expressing our moral identities and an outlet for ethical obligations. In more recent years, ethical aspects of consumption have come under greater scrutiny with the emergence of ethical consumption discourses, and are currently associated with a range of consumer behaviours and responsible business practices. To this end, religion is an undeniably powerful and concurrently the most successful marketing force that ...

  18. Charisma, Power(s), and the Arahant Ideal in Burmese-Myanmar Buddhism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiroko Kawanami

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the notion of charisma and moral power in contemporary Myanmar and focus on the qualities of charismatic monks who have become the object of public worship in recent decades...

  19. The emergence of the ecological mind in Hua-Yen/Kegon Buddhism and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambray, Joe

    2017-02-01

    The complexity associated with deep interconnectedness in nature is beginning to be articulated and elaborated in the field of ecological studies. While some parallels to the psyche have been made and the field of Eco-psychology has been developing, Jung's explicit contribution by way of the image of rhizomes has not been considered in detail. Philosopher Gilles Deleuze acknowledges borrowing the term from Jung, though he disagreed with Jung's Empedoclean use of the term. The paper presents some fundamental properties of rhizomes along with contemporary scientific research on mycorrhizal (fungal) networks. Comparisons are made, first with classical symbolic forms, demonstrating some overlap but also some differences. Then comparison of rhizomal networks is made to those found both in mammalian brains and in recent images of the 'cosmic web'. While no hard conclusions can be drawn from these images, their remarkable similarities are suggestive of a need to reconsider what is meant by 'intelligence'. The cosmic web is one of the largest structures in the known universe (clusters of galaxies which form into filaments and walls) with empty spaces in between. Exploration of the structure of this web leads to a discussion of dark matter and dark energy, current hot topics in science, probing into the mysteries of our 'Big-Bang' cosmology. An additional comparison of the emerging image of the universe as a whole with the ancient Chinese Buddhist cosmological vision from the Hua-Yen School (Kegon in Japan) again reveals profound parallels. The potential convergence of aspects of subjective, or meditative, explorations with objective scientific constructions is striking and offers links between East and West, as well as potential confirmation of the objective aspects of empathy. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. The Path to attain al-Fana’ in Islam and Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masitoh Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quran is a primary resource for Islamic scientists and researchers. As a divine revelation of heaven and the source of legislation, it guides towards "sirat al-mustaqim”. The holy Quran dominates the work of great writers and scholars and has attracted their minds with the finest literary features which have been embarked in the study and have dived into the secrets, in "aagash of Quran” by Shykh Abdul Al-Qahir El-Gorjani. This study examined the miraculous Quran in Risalah Syafiah. He thwarted those who said (purely the eloquence of Quran is non-miraculous, Even the KufrQuraisy could not perform or create Quran because Allah swt has blocked their hearts and their indictment to say that Quran is eloquence and rhetoric. This research has emphasized on "aaghash” (miracle or extraordinary in "Risalah Syafiah” of Abdul Al-Qahir El-Gorjani, trying to explain general matters and El-Gorjani’s theory about "aaghash”, in which could be summarized that defy ‘purely’, as the main topic to be discussed. This research emphasized one of the topics related with a citation from the Quran (nas in which could be developed and most valuable. Hence, in comparison between Al-Jurjaani opinion and Abd Al-Jabbar’s opinion is to determine that Abd El-Jabbar had influenced El-Gorjani for his view and theory about "purely”.

  1. Blending Buddhism, Shinto, and the Secular: Japanese Conceptualizations of the Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Bruce, Jessica L.; Salmon, Ptamonie Y.; Eich, R. Tony; Brandewie, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interview study investigated Japanese understandings of spirituality, religion, and The Divine. Thirteen native Japanese living in central Ohio (6 male, 7 female) answered open-ended questions about spiritual or religious activities they engaged in, motivations for engaging in them, what constitutes sacredness, why humanity and…

  2. Vietnamese Buddhism in Ferment. Part 2. The Buddha, The Dharma and the Sangha

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-06-01

    of the insect or of man., receiving temporary consciousness of self (Itman) at birth . In earthly life the soul builds a good or bad character and...canon called The Lotus of the Wonderful Law, but there is very little emphasis on the study of doctrines. Ceremonies concentrate on prayers and devotion

  3. Buddhism and Legislative Measures on Theft in Mongolia (The 18th Century–the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of theft as addressed in two legal texts—the Khalkha Regulations and the Laws and Regulations to Actually Follow—which functioned as the customary and statutory laws for Khalkha Mongolia at different periods, and which governed the life of lay and monastic Buddhists. The article approaches the concept of theft as a broader category that encompasses both the direct and indirect modes of theft that involve various types of deception and fraud, whereby a person can defraud the another of his rightful belongings. The analysis of the given topic in this paper is based on the two texts from that administered the conduct of monks and laity who belonged to the personal estate, or Great Shavi, to Jebtsundamba Khutukhtus of Mongolia, the record of actual course cases dealt by the Ministry of Great Shavi, and the Mongol Code of Law instituted by the Qing administration for its Mongolian colony. Although a comparative analysis of these laws with the minor banner laws or those instituted among Oirats may reveal some important differences, it is beyond the scope of the article and deserves a through study.

  4. The meaning of suffering in drug addiction and recovery from the perspective of existentialism, Buddhism and the 12-Step program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the current article was to examine the meaning of suffering in drug addiction and in the recovery process. Negative emotions may cause primary suffering that can drive an individual toward substance abuse. At the same time, drugs only provide temporary relief, and over time, the pathological effects of the addiction worsen causing secondary suffering, which is a motivation for treatment. The 12-Step program offers a practical way to cope with suffering through a process of surrender. The act of surrender sets in motion a conversion experience, which involves a self-change including reorganization of one's identity and meaning in life. This article is another step toward understanding one of the several factors that contribute to the addict's motivation for treatment. This knowledge may be helpful for tailoring treatment that addresses suffering as a factor that initiates treatment motivation and, in turn, treatment success.

  5. HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY)

    OpenAIRE

    G V Ozhiganova

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, in...

  6. Environmental Reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and Its Bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-Na Tang; Xiao Li; Yi-Feng Yao; David Kay Ferguson; Cheng-Sen Li

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the envi...

  7. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  8. Strategy for a Military Spiritual Self-Development Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    Shinto , the “Sino-Japanese group,” in China (Confucius lived during this period, and Lao-tse, legendary author of the Tao-Te-ching, may have been his...various religions), Zen Buddhism (combining Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism), and a Japanese syncretistic Buddhism (combining Buddhism and Shinto

  9. The Justifications for War and Peace in World Religions: Part II: Extracts, Summaries and Comparisons of Scriptures in Indic Religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    test suggests that leaders learn from the cock when to “take a bold stand and fight” (6.18). “Of a rascal and a serpent, the serpent is the better of...enemy comes to grief, and engage your friends in dharma. 4. Of a rascal and a serpent, the serpent is the better of the two, for he strikes only

  10. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  11. Педагогическое значение аксиологических идей буддизма

    OpenAIRE

    Костюкова, Т.

    2004-01-01

    The article is devoted to the pedagogical analysis of values, content, and methods of one of four traditional spiritual Russian practices Buddhism. Philosophical ideas of liberation are considered here as well as original understanding of life and nature, laying in the basis of Buddhism pedagogical tradition. In the article pedagogical interpretation of Buddhism methods (concentration in inner life, special diet, limitation, meditation etc. are regarded. The article Is of interest for scienti...

  12. The Jesuits: History’s Most Effective Special Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    traders, Hindu, Hinduism, Buddhist, Buddhism , Confucianism, Taoism, proselyte, political influence, secular, religious, politics, foreign society...OUTCOME The turbulent “Christian Century” in Japan ended unfavorably in 1640, and along with Japanese monarchs’ concomitant subjugation of Buddhism ...approach: “with respect to clothing, diet , style of housing, habits of bathing, and conformity to the incredibly elaborate patterns of Japanese

  13. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  14. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  15. Elder Gongga 貢噶老人 (1903-1997) between China, Tibet and Taiwan : Assessing Life, Mission and Mummification of a Buddhist Woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Elder Gongga (1903-1997), a Chinese Buddhist woman native of Beiping, played a crucial role in the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in China and Taiwan, bridged Dharma traditions, and merged Buddhist and cultural identities; she also became an eminent nun in the history of female Buddhism for life

  16. Jigten Gönpo on meat and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism.......A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism....

  17. AN Analysis of the Relationships Between Korean Culture and Electronic Mail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    15 Background ....................... 15 Religions ..................... 16 Buddhism ................ 16 Shamanism .............. 17 Confucianism...to the south Chinese nor the Polynesian peoples of Southeast Asia. Their language is an Altaic tongue closely related to Turkic, Hungarian and...religion from neighboring China. Among these Korean religious and philosophical adaptations were Buddhism, Shamanism , and Confucianism ( 1:40

  18. On detailed and condensed rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    How the tantric rituals of Tibetan Buddhism relate to the different faculties and abilities of tantric adepts in the view of 'Jig-rten-gsum-mgon.......How the tantric rituals of Tibetan Buddhism relate to the different faculties and abilities of tantric adepts in the view of 'Jig-rten-gsum-mgon....

  19. Buddhizmus a médiában. Az amerikai, brit és az angol nyelvű kínai újságok értelmezési keretei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sükösd, Miklós Áron

    2017-01-01

    How does international media represent Buddhism? This paper provides a quantitative framing analysis of American, British and Chinese (English language) newspapers between 2001 and 2013. Although the most frequently used frames (cultural, religious, political) are the same in all three countries......, there are major differences between as well as within countries. In the Western press, the subject of meditation-centered Western Buddhism enters the media. In Hong Kong, the press emphasizes the everyday, practical issues of traditional Buddhism. Beijing’s party press relates Buddhism to Chinese national...... identity and represents an official propaganda line regarding Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism. The logic of religion conflicts media logic as religious concepts and practices do not fit newspaper sections and media frames. The frames used by journalists brake down into parts and decontextualize religious...

  20. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakening as an aspect of Buddhist thought. The second section locates it in the history of Buddhist thought, demonstrating that it is not a modern conceptualization of the path, not one created in response to Euro–American religio-therapeutic culture. Locus of awakening is, instead, part of the continuity of the Buddhist tradition, and does not fall on one side or the other of the sometimes overdrawn dichotomy between Asian and American Buddhisms.

  1. ALAM SEMESTA (LINGKUNGAN DAN KEHIDUPAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF BUDHISME NICHIREN DAISHONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Wilujeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Buddhism taught by Sidhartha Gautama in India about two thousand years B.C. has spread throughout the world. From India to Tibetan Buddhism evolved, China and into Japan. Buddhism in Japan has distinct characteristics compared to Buddhism elsewhere. In Japan, Buddhism is mixed with a strong Japanese spirituality. This paper is the result of a brief research on the book, as well as the Buddhists by means of dialogue. The general objective of this paper is to get a general idea of ​​the concept of Nichiren cosmology, particularly on the subject of the universe (environment and life. The specific objective of this paper is the growing awareness to be open to understand other religions. It takes an attitude to want to investigate a  religion without fanaticial attitude or prejudice. Key words: Nichiren Daishonin, Universe, Life

  2. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  3. Diversification in the Buddhist Churches of America: Demographic Trends and Their Implications for the Future Study of U.S. Buddhist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C. Spencer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of U.S Buddhism often divide Buddhist groups into categories using a system called "Two Buddhisms." These groups are "Heritage," founded by immigrants, and "Convert," founded by Americans of European descent. As cultural pressures force U.S. Buddhist groups to adapt, the resulting changes challenge our existing categorization systems. This paper uses 2011 survey data to show that the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA is becoming demographically more diverse and its practices more Americanized. With these adaptations, the BCA no longer fits easily into either Heritage or Convert categories, suggesting that the Two Buddhisms system in its current form is inadequate for evaluating U.S. Buddhist groups. To aid the future study of U.S. Buddhism, I use the data from the BCA to provide an alternative, more nuanced, rubric for assessing the adaptation of Buddhist groups which will enhance the existing Two Buddhisms system.

  4. A polêmica sobre supostos “empréstimos” do Budismo ao Cristianismo e sua relevância para a fase inicial da Ciência da Religião institucionalizada (The polemics on alleged “borrowings” of Christianity from Buddhism. DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n31p914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Usarski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda década do século XX iniciou-se um debate polêmico sobre a possibilidade de que fontes budistas tenham influenciado escrituras cristãs. Nas décadas seguintes, o assunto tornou-se um tópico intensamente debatido em círculos acadêmicos da época, mas a controversa se acalmou ainda antes da Primeira Guerra Mundial. O presente artigo oferece um resumo sistemático do debate em questão e possibilita a hipótese de que em dois sentidos a discussão era sintomática para os Estudos da Religião da época. Primeiro, o debate era expressão de um interesse comparativo nas religiões que começou a se articular ainda antes da institucionalização da Ciência da Religião em universidades europeias. Segundo, após a incorporação oficial da Ciência da Religião nos currículos acadêmicos, as conquistas teóricas e instrumentais no âmbito da disciplina sensibilizaram para o caráter especulativo dos argumentos a favor da chamada “hipótese da dependência” e contribuíram para o declínio da discussão sobre supostos “empréstimos” do Budismo ao Cristianismo. Palavras-chave: Fontes budistas. Textos cristãos. Estudos Comparados da Religião. História da Ciência da Religião.   Abstract The second half of the 20th century witnessed the upswing of a polemic debate about the possibility that Buddhist sources may have influenced Christian scriptures. For the next decades, the issue became an intensely debated topic within certain academic circles, until the controversy lost its momentum before World War I. The present article offers an overview of the debate and argues that the controversy was in a twofold sense symptomatic for Religious Studies in the time under investigation. Firstly, the debate was an expression of the comparative impetus, which became prominent even before its institutionalization in European universities. Secondly, after the official incorporation of Religious Studies into the academic curriculum, the discipline’s theoretical and instrumental conquests shed a light on the speculative character of the arguments in favor of the so called “dependency-hypothesis” and contributed to the decline of the debate about the possibility that Christian scriptures could have borrowed material from Buddhist sources. Keywords: Buddhists sources. Christian scriptures. Comparative Religion. History of Science of Religion 

  5. Through a Green Gaze: Tentative Indicators of a Green 'Text'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dreaming of a. Green Christmas .... emotion, mind against body, the 'male' against the 'female', for example. Thus thirdly, on the ..... A Green 'TexT' 117. Eastern lifeways such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism; Earth or goddess worship; animism, and.

  6. Tantryczne ciało rosyjskiego prezydenta – oświecony umysł czyngisydów. Polityka i nacjonalizm w buddyzmie buriat/mongolskim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szmyt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tantric body of the Russian president – chingisids’ enlightened mind. Politics and nationalism in Buryat / Mongolian Buddhism This paper is devoted to the role of Buddhism in the construction of ethnonational identity in Buryatia and Mongolia. On the case of the phenomenon of deification of Russian presidents by Buryat lamas I have analyzed: historically conditioned compounds of Buddhism and politics of the Mongolian groups, the role of Buddhism in ethnic mobilization in Buryatia and Mongolia after the fall of Communism and features of ethnonational model of Buddhism in two neighboring regions. In post-socialist period Buddhism was involved in ethnonational political projects. As a result, an attempt was taken to restore the monastic model of Buddhism, which had functioned in the pre-revolutionary period. Local peculiarities of Mongolian Buddhism were reinforced in order to produce the difference between the (national Mongolian/Buryat and tibetan Buddhism. In Buryatia, Buddhism became a distinctive element used for ethnic differentiation of Buryats – in opposition to the Orthodox Russians. In Mongolia, traditionalist position of Buddhism was opposed in some way to Christianity, the various factions of which are distributed together with “agendas of modernity” from Western countries. In tantric union with the president Buryat lamas produce harmony between two national identities: Russian – civic and Buryat – ethnonational. Deification of the state power and giving it the attributes of loving femininity is a practice obliging the authority to generosity, which is attributed to the White tara. It is a strategy of the weak, who agree to a game of domination, but they try to define its rules themselves. Looking more broadly it can be said that the Buryats as a national community appeared just as a result of this fusion with the Russian power. Because of this they were separated from the pre-national family of Mongolian peoples

  7. Patterns of Urban Health Utilization in Patan, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the plethora of religious Fhrines, some of which date back centuries. In their daily religious practices, shrine offerings become routine. Buddhism and...may involve reciting a mantra (verse), changing a diet , or giving a medicinal potion. There is a 50 bed ayurvedic hospital in Patan. * Community Health...13; s.d. 2.0). Hinduism was the family religion of 223 (72%) of the households. Except for one Christian, Buddhism was practiced by the remainder

  8. China QIUSHI SEEKING TRUTH no 4, 16 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-26

    living. We should appropriately guide consumption and fix a consumption structure and diet structure suited to our national conditions. At the...the essence of Confucianism in young children. In so doing, he could reduce the influ- ence of Taoism and Buddhism . We can see that the ancients were...about Taoism and Buddhism but returned to the Confucian classics afterwards. By the "people of textbook culture" I refer to the following type of

  9. Aloha Buddha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    , Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues, just as Hawaii with its long migration history and religious pluralism is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion......The relations between religion, migration, transnationalism, pluralism, and ethnicity, not least in a late modern and globalized world, have gained increasing focus in religious, cultural, sociological, and anthropological studies. With its manifold transfigurations across time and location...

  10. Common Interests of the United States and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in Southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    enlarged Japanese strategic economic assis- tance program. (17:222) Pak-China Link. The U.S. should support China’s plan to revive the ancient " Silk Road ...ious group; Khashatry, the fighter; Waish, the laborer; and Shooder, the untouchable. Then came the era of Guatma Bu- dha who founded Buddhism ...Asoka, the most famous emperor of the Mauryan empire (320-180 BC.), did a lot for the spread of Buddhism . This was followed by several different dynasties

  11. Application of Technology Transfer Process Model for Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Islam 3. Christianity 4. Hinduism S. Sikhism Doctrines 1. Confucianism 2. Taoism 3. Shintoism 4. Animism 5. Others "Buddhism, especially Theravada...Bateson, in "Creed (Buddhist)," Encyclopedia of Religions and Ethics , Edinburg, T.’ & T. Clark (1911) 30 summarizes the teaching of Buddhism in five...essentially ethical religion, akin in modern humanism or ethical culture. c. Nihilism The doctrine of no-soul is intimately associated with a second

  12. Culture in Japanese Labor Relation: A Comparison with Western Industrial Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    by Shinto priests. At Shinto shrines, visitors can draw sacred lots by paying manly and buying copies of the almanac to look up their stars. All these...accelerating the process, and in promoting the success of Japanese. K D. SUMMARY The Japanese blended the religious elements of Shinto , Buddhism, and...size self-reliance and the welfare of the individual. In Japan, an amalgamation of Shinto , Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism produced a homogeneity

  13. Cosmic design from a Buddhist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, T X

    2001-12-01

    The Buddhist view of the origin of the universe is discussed. One of the basic tenets of Buddhism is the concept of interdependence which says that all things exist only in relationship to others, and that nothing can have an independent and autonomous existence. The world is a vast flow of events that are linked together and participate in one another. Thus there can be no First Cause, and no creation ex nihilo of the universe, as in the Big Bang theory. Since the universe has neither beginning nor end, the only universe compatible with Buddhism is a cyclic one. According to Buddhism, the exquisitely precise fine-tuning of the universe for the emergence of life and consciousness as expressed in the "anthropic principle" is not due to a Creative Principle, but to the interdependence of matter with flows of consciousness, the two having co-existed for all times.

  14. From Buddhist Hippies to Buddhist Geeks: The Emergence of Buddhist Postmodernism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Gleig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on discourse analysis and ethnography, this paper will critically examine the effects of generational differences emerging in North American Buddhism through an analysis of the Buddhist Geeks network. Buddhist Geeks is an online Buddhist media company and community that launched in 2007. It consists of a weekly audio podcast and a digital magazine component and since 2011, has hosted an annual conference. I will discuss the main characteristics and concerns of the Buddhist Geeks community and explore how it can be situated both in relationship to traditional Buddhism and Buddhist modernism. In conclusion, I reflect on whether Buddhist Geeks signals the emergence of a new, distinctly postmodern stage in the wider assimilation of Buddhism in America.

  15. Exorcising the Mandala: Kālacakra and the Neo-Pentecostal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrington

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s, the Dalai Lama's "Kalachakra for World Peace" initiation has emerged as a central site where Tibetan Buddhism and its relationship to the West have been imagined and acted upon by a movement within evangelical Christianity called Spiritual Mapping. In Mapping understanding, the Kālacakra is a vehicle by which the current Dalai Lama prepares for the end times by seeking to transform America into "a universal Buddhocracy" called the Kingdom of Shambhala. Tibetan Buddhism is, in short, a missionary competitor for global religious domination. Here, the Tibetan-evangelical encounter is presented as the by-product of the simultaneous globalizations of Tibetan Buddhism and Evangelicalism with the human rights discourse in late twentieth century America. The "exorcism of the mandala" is read as both by-product and critique of globalization, and to engender a thoughtful re-evaluation of long-standing Buddhist Studies analytics.

  16. Buddhist Revival under State Watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laliberté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party has shown tolerance, if not direct support, for the growth of Buddhism over the last few decades. Three explanations for this lenient attitude are explored in this article. The flourishing of Buddhism is encouraged by the state less for its propaganda value in foreign affairs than for its potential to lure tourists who will, in turn, represent a source of revenue for local governments. Buddhist institutions are also establishing their track record in the management of philanthropic activities in impoverished area where local governments lack the resources to offer specific social services. Finally, the development of such activities has contributed to enhance cooperation between China and Taiwan, whose governments have a vested interest in the improvement of relations across the Strait. The article concludes that the growth of Buddhism in China results from the initiatives of Buddhists themselves, and the government supports this growth because it serves local politics well.

  17. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  18. The phenomenon of the self-identification in ancient eastern traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stoiano

    2015-04-01

    By majority of ancient Indian sages (in the Vedas, the Upanishads the Self was conceived as invariant and unchanging core of essence of the soul (Atman, the managing body and which is the organic part of the universal whole (Brahman. In Buddhist philosophy, the concept of ‘I’ is movable, unknowable, because it is a continuous process of choosing vital values, reincarnations and suffering on the way to finding the true Self in Nirvana. Like Buddhism, Taoism conceives the Self as a set of states of the soul and body, but unlike Buddhism, asserts the possibility of self­knowledge, at least on an intuitive level.

  19. One or many Buddhas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga).......According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga)....

  20. http://englishkyoto-seas.org/2014/02/vol-1-no-3-takahiro-kojima/

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Kojima

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore the religious practices of Theravada Buddhists in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. The data presented were gathered by the author during a year of fieldwork in a village outside the city of Ruili. Dehong Prefecture is located on the China-Myanmar border. One of the main groups in this area is the Dai (Tăi), who follow Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism was brought into Dehong mainly from Myanmar. Local religious practices have much in common with...

  1. Quranic Miracles in the Book of "Syafiah" written by Abdul Qaher Jurjaani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuslina Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight points of convergency and dissimilarities in the teachings of Buddhism and Sufism in the aspect of spirituality. It describes the path of a wayfarer in his spiritual journey to attain fana’, the highest achievement and the final state of spiritual experiences in the teachings of Islamic Mysticism, and also Buddhist paths to attain Nirwana, the ultimate goal of Buddhist life. The practices and the strict code of ethics in the process of self-purification or purification of the soul, in the spiritual path to attain the ultimate goal in the teachings of both Sufism and Buddhism are also discussed.

  2. Shi Cihang 航慈釋. The First Case of Mummified Buddhist in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Travagnin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shi Cihang 航慈釋 (1895-1954, is one of the eminent figures in the so-called Modern Buddhism in Taiwan. Engaged in improving education and training of Buddhist monks and nuns, and promoter of the so-called renjian fojiao 教佛間人 (Buddhism for the Human Realm, which refuses any sort of superstitious understanding and practice of Buddhism and calls for the return to the original and pure essence of the Dharma, Cihang is also the first Buddhist monk in Taiwan who attempted to, and eventually succeeded in, preserving his body afterdeath. Nowadays, the gilded relic-body of Cihang is enshrined and venerated in Xizhi, Taipei county, as well as being included in the list of the roushen pusa 薩菩身肉 (flesh-body Bodhisattvas who appeared in the history of Chinese Buddhism. This paper analyses Cihang’s relic-body as case-study of Chinese mummified Buddhist in the scene of contemporary Taiwan and modern Taiwanese Buddhim, discussing the Buddhist significance, sociological implications and eventual impact of mummification within the reality of the new renjian fojiao.

  3. Fundamental symmetry principles in quantum mechanics and its philosophical phases

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Asao

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental symmetry principle in quantum mechanics is formulated in the framework of the standard axiomatic quantum mechanics and a new philosophical interpretation for quantum mechanics, which dissolves "difficulties" in the conventional interpretations for quantum mechanics, is presented. Moreover, philosophical phases of the fundamental symmetry principle are discussed in connection with Plato's philosophy and Oriental philosophies, in particular, Zen Buddhism.

  4. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linguistic landscape of Sanskri t, Arabic, Urdu, Japanese, Tamil,. Telugu and Kannada. It held sway over the religious landscape through trade and other interactions of Hinduism, Buddhism,. Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Islam and Christianity. This is unique as no other advanced material can display this mutifaceted splendour.

  5. Visual Literacy with Picture Books: The Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner Lee

    2007-01-01

    The ancient Silk Routes connecting China to Europe across the rugged mountains and deserts of central Asia are one of the primary examples of transculturation in world history. Traders on these routes dealt not only in goods such as silk and horses but also made possible the spread of art forms as well as two major religions, Buddhism and Islam. …

  6. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  7. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  8. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several…

  9. Dealing with diversity, Sri Lankan discourses on peace and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Klem, B.

    2004-01-01

    Dealing with Diversity: Sri Lankan Discourses on Peace and Conflict Georg Frerks and Bart Klem [eds] What is the conflict in Sri Lanka? An ethnic problem? A historical threat to Buddhism? A liberation struggle? Or the unfortunate outcome of political mismanagement? Dealing with Diversity bundles

  10. 唯識の今日的意義について―『唯識のすすめ』を中心に―

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 昭良; 筒井, 健雄

    2000-01-01

    Focusing on the idea of 'Yuishiki'-spiritualism, which is the depths Psychology Rooted in large-vehicle Buddhism, I consider how human beings should live in the 21 st century by searching the problems which lie behind under human consciousness.

  11. The Terrorism Threat and U.S. Government Response: Operational and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Aum Shinrikyo represents the range of "new religions," hybrids of traditional elements of Buddhism and either other traditional religions or unique...a slate of candidates for seats in the Japanese Diet . So Aum blended the "new" religious motivation to action with the political core that has

  12. Korean Affairs Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-07

    business administration: V 5 (Night); accounting: V 5 (Night). //School of Buddhism : Arts: 10 (Incr). //School of Law and Administration: law...pledged to Korean President Chon Tu-hwan that he would present a bill to the Diet to amend the alien registration act. Under the amendment, alien

  13. Overview of religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  14. China Report, Red Flag, Number 8, 16 April 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-02

    Chinese law stipulated that citizens enjoy freedom to believe in religion and freedom not to believe in religion. Buddhism , Taoism, Islam...prayers, preaching sermons, hearing mass, having baptisms, being initiated into monkhood or nunhood, adopting a vegetarian diet ,’ holding religious

  15. Advice for Advisors: Suggestions and Observations from Lawrence to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    turn they blamed on an inadequate diet . 3. Attitudes Toward Preventive Measures The wisdom and economy of prevention, as manifested in preventive...on the cult of the ancestors (and the related concept of death) and their place in Vietnamese life, and on aspects of Buddhism , with particular

  16. USCINCPAC: Now and in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    formation of Japanese civilization. Buddhism was introduced before the sixth century. A feudal system, with locally powerful noble families and their samurai...claims to divinity, and the Diet became the sole law-makins authority. The US and 48 other non-communist nations signed a peace treaty and the US a

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Problems of the Far East, No. 2, March-April 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-29

    the unexpected y high level oi in frZn^ such as the norm of accumulation, the calorie value of the diet . file average leil of literacy, life...resurrection or immortality of the spirit, which came only with Buddhism . A. S. Martynov’s articles "The Confucian Individual and Nature" and "Buddhist

  18. Play Your City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    The concept of the Botanic garden 1. Five squares of the five monotheistic religions introduced: Christianity, Buddhism, Islam Judaism and Hindu. 2. The two islands contain parts of Greek mythology and Shinto. 3. Nordic mythology is a part of the Crystal Forest. 4. "The writer's path" leads from ...

  19. Mindfulness: Reconnecting the Body and Mind in Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W. Jack

    2008-01-01

    Derived from Buddhism, mindfulness is a unique approach for understanding human suffering and happiness that has attracted rapidly growing interest among health care professionals. In this article I describe current thinking about the concept of mindfulness and elaborate on why and how mindfulness-based interventions have potential within the…

  20. Discord or Harmonious Society: China in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    horses for the imperial stables. The arti- sans of the time memorialized these animals with mass-produced paintings and porcelain figures. Buddhism...asymmetric effects when targeted against enemy “ acupuncture points.”27 China’s short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) are often cited as having an assassin’s

  1. Meditation and Education: India, Tibet, and Modern America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert A. F.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores Asian traditions of meditation, with particular attention to Buddhism as it was developed in ancient India. It delineates a core curriculum, initially developed in monastic institutions of higher education, that has been most fully preserved in Tibet. It then explores how this curriculum might be adapted so that it can help…

  2. Tradition and Modernity: India's Quantum Leap into the 21st Century. Independent Curriculum Project. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elise

    This lesson on India is suggested as a culminating activity to bring together previously taught units about infrastructure, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, ancient India, and contemporary India. The lesson's goals are to examine how a country's cultural background can influence change and to study the development of modern infrastructure. The students…

  3. Self-compassion : A closer look at its assessment, correlates and role in psychological wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Suffering is an inevitable part of life, but the way we deal with it can make the difference. Nowadays, mindfulness, a practice rooted in Buddhism, is helping lots of people to bring acceptance into their lives and to experience more fully their present moment. In this way, mindfulness has shown to

  4. Publications | Page 549 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5481 - 5490 of 6380 ... About 90% of Cambodia''s population of 13 million adhere to Buddhism by custom and tradition. This study provides evidence for policy makers on the current stance of Buddhist Leaders and Buddhist doctrine regarding... Disaster prevention and management : innovative research programme ...

  5. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dung Hue

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  6. Facing the Grand Challenges through Heuristics and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powietrzynska, Malgorzata; Tobin, Kenneth; Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We address the nature of mindfulness and its salience to education generally and to science education specifically. In a context of the historical embeddedness of mindfulness in Buddhism we discuss research in social neuroscience, presenting evidence for neuronal plasticity of the brain and six emotional styles, which are not biologically…

  7. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  8. Kinesisk Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Nielsen, Klaus Bo

    Bogen Kinesisk Religion omhandler kongfuzianisme, daoisme, buddhisme, maoisme, folkereligion og nye religioner i ind- og udland. Den indeholder klassiske myter og magiske ritualer, historiske milepæle og moderne udfordringer, politisk religion og levende folkereligiøsitet. Bogen henvender sig...

  9. Chinese Philosophy. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.3. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.3 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structure of the civilizations of China in the middle ages." Seventh-grade students focus on the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism;…

  10. The evolution of hospitals from antiquity to the Renaissance | Retief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... BC in ancient Mesopotamia. In India the monastic system created by the Buddhist religion led to institutionalised health care facilities as early as the 5th century BC, and with the spread of Buddhism to the east, nursing facilities, the nature and function of which are not known to us, also appeared in Sri Lanka, China and ...

  11. Mindful Teaching: Laying the Dharma Foundations for Buddhist Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted in the first mainstream school in Australia being guided by Buddhist philosophy. It focuses on a group of teachers, examining the impact of Buddhism on their teaching, exploring the challenge for them of bringing together their professional knowledge with Buddhist worldview. The major conclusion is that the…

  12. Mindful Eating: The Art of Presence While You Eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joseph B

    2017-08-01

    IN BRIEF Mindfulness, a practice based on Zen Buddhism, has become popular as a way of self-calming and as a method of changing eating behaviors. Mindful eating is being incorporated into behavior change programs along with recommended dietary behavior changes. This article describes mindful eating and offers ideas for how to teach the basics of this practice.

  13. A Mandala's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A Tibetan Buddhist monk, Lama Tenzin, spent a week at the Manhattan private school where the author of this article was the middle school director. Lama Tenzin did not come to introduce students to Buddhism or to explain the plight of the Tibetan people. Instead, he came to create a piece of art that is a specialty of his and his brother monks': a…

  14. PSICOANÁLISIS Y BUDISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Uribe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism as a philosophical and religious worldview does not coincide with psychoanalysis as a clinical practice and research method. Nevertheless, the intervention techniques that Buddhist masters use with their pupils can be compared with interpretation and transference since paradox, silence, and contradiction are used, but with different purposes. This paper aims to show that relationship by keeping the differences

  15. Die plek van Empedokles in die metafisies-mistieke tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Peter Kingsley which seems to draw Empedocles closer to. Buddhism, but without explicating this implication of his reception. 1. PROBLEEM EN BENADERING ... fragmente (ongeveer 450 reëls). Dit is nie bekend in welke volgorde hierdie twee gedigte ontstaan het nie. Wat wel vas staan, is dat die eerste (esoteriese.

  16. A Brief History of the Current Reemergence of Contemplative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of the current reemergence of a contemplative orientation in education. While referencing an ancient history, it primarily examines the history of contemporary contemplative education through three significant stages, focusing on the third. The first was arguably initiated by the introduction of Buddhism to the…

  17. Why Culture Should Be a Key Factor in Studying Marketing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenich, Kathryn

    Three historically significant religions of Japan and the corresponding cultural norms are examined as they affect consumer behaviors and, consequently, marketing in that country. The religions are Buddhism, Shintoism, and Confucianism. The fundamental doctrines, attitudes, and social patterns associated with each religion are outlined and their…

  18. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  19. World Religions for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy Arnett

    This teaching and resource guide contains ideas appropriate for teaching junior and senior high school students about the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Individual sections discuss general approaches to teaching the religious philosophies and rituals, and exemplary…

  20. A Manual for Teachers of Indochinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phap, Dam Trung

    This is a manual for teachers of Indochinese students. The manual begins with brief cultural, linguistic, and historical descriptions of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodian people. The tenets of animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Christianity, as practiced in Indochina are reviewed. Also discussed are Indochinese attitudes toward learning and…

  1. Sunshine Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdrege, Craig; And Others

    Hinduism, yoga, transcendental meditation, traditional American Indian philosophies, far-Eastern philosophies (Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and Zen concepts), macrobiotics, and Judeo-Christian teachings are the topics discussed in this student developed book. Designed for use by both elementary and high school students, it was written with two major…

  2. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  3. USSR Report, International Affairs, Peoples of Asia and Africa,No 6, November-December 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-05

    with Taoism and making fully possible its integration in the spirit of a rejection of the state and any power at all. When the concept of "freedom...ideological life of Chinese society" of many traditional teachings and faiths: Confucianism, Legism, Buddhism and Taoism . The author also notes the

  4. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); Z. Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society.

  5. The web of life a new synthesis of mind and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Capra, Fritjof

    1996-01-01

    Capra argues that at the end of the 20th century we are shifting away from the mechanistic world of Descartes and Newton to a holistic, ecological view. He establishes patterns between ideas from such diverse fields as Buddhism and quantum physics.

  6. The Importance of Kōden in the Establishment of Identity : The Title of the Dainichikyō in the Opening Sequence of the Hizōki .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veere, van der H.

    2017-01-01

    The various lineages of Esoteric Buddhism in Japan all have their identity based on tradition, history, and selected preferences in doctrine and ritual. This article describes how identity-definition may take place in the instrcution courses of the priests called koden. As example, the mention of

  7. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  8. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  9. Religion in Japan and a Look at Cultural Transmission, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit focuses on the periods in Japanese history up to the reign of Prince Shotoku (A.D. 592-622) and his role in the transmission of Chinese culture to Japan. A special focus is made on the joint practice of Buddhism and Shinto in Japan. Each lesson's materials and format are described in detail with specific objectives noted and the…

  10. [The tradition of healing with magical spells as seen in Buddhist texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yukio; Yamashita, Tsutomu

    2009-03-01

    Although India has its own traditional medical systems such as Ayurveda, healing through magic spells was also practiced. After the systematization of Ayurveda, these healing spells almost lost their significance and only the spells for specific diseases were further transmitted. On the other hand, Indian Buddhism partially accepted the healing spells, and Buddhist texts which include the healing spells began to appear after the 4th century. These texts were brought into other Asian countries and became popular therein. However, these Buddhist healing spells have not been studied enough by Buddhism scholars and therefore their meaning in the history of medicine in India is not yet sufficiently understood. In this article, we discuss on the origin of these Buddhist healing spells, and thereafter we list and summarize the existing Buddhist texts involving these healing spells.

  11. Renewed Optimism in Persons through South-East Comparative Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Ashton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the term “comparative philosophy” often brings to mind the relatively recent “East-West” encounter, the experience of cultural difference has helped to invigorate philosophical inquiry throughout human history. Doug Berger’s Encounters of Mind highlights this. Over the course of six chapters, Berger follows “the trek of [Vijñānavāda] Buddhism from South to East Asian worlds,” tracing the development of the idea of luminous mind and its centrality to the question of personhood in Chinese Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism (5. Rather than simply rehash antiquated debates, he reveals nuances of a thriving dialogue that is pertinent to contemporary discussions of personal identity.

  12. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  13. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics.

  14. Kumārajīva’s Meditative Legacy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhante Dhammadipa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that in China and other Far East countries, where Chinese Buddhism spread at the early stages of Mahāyāna Buddhism, traditional methods of Buddhist practice, as explained in the Āgamas, were in practice, but reinterpreted from the Mahāyānistic understanding. Eventually, in the periods following the decline of the Tang Dynasty those practices were mostly abandoned and replaced by pure Mahāyānistic meditation practices, especially those of the Chan (Zen and Pure Land schools. It can be clearly seen from the meditation treatises discussed in this article, which are attributed to Kumārajīva, the most popular translator of Indian Buddhist literature in China. Actually, as Western researchers show, these treatises are likely to be notes of Kumārajīva’s disciples, introduced into meditation by him.

  15. Easternization of the East? Zen and Spirituality as Distinct Cultural Narratives in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Borup

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zen Buddhism has for decades fascinated the West, and the former elitist tradition has in contemporary times become part of broad popular culture. Zen is for Buddhists, but it is also part of a general “Easternization” and alleged “spiritual revolution” narrative. In Japan, both Zen and “spirituality” are important factors in both media and the lived religious environment. This article aims to investigate how and to what extent “Zen” and “spirituality” are related as narratives and religious practices in a contemporary Japanese context. While there are overlaps, it is argued that the two domains are separate and that such a division is based on general differences in culturally constrained narratives (Western/Japanese, Zen/spirituality. Besides focusing on a concrete Japanese context, the article also contributes to research on global and transnational (Zen Buddhism as well as to the field of comparative spirituality.

  16. O dharma verde-amarelo mal-sucedido: um esboço da acanhada situação do Budismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Usarski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available EMBORA a mídia venha freqüentemente afirmando que o Budismo é uma das religiões mais crescentes no Brasil, as pesquisas, inclusive os dois últimos censos nacionais, revelam o contrário. O artigo confronta a imagem pública exagerada com a realidade empírica e discute de maneira sistemática os problemas e desafios principais com os quais o Budismo brasileiro contemporâneo é confrontado.CONTRARY to the positive image maintaned by the mass media there is no evidence for the claim that Buddhism is one of the most dramaticaly growing religions in Brazil. From the empirical point of view, rather the opposite is true. The article confronts the public image with the results of academic research including the last two national census, and dicusses the main problems and challenges the contemporary Brazilian Buddhism is confronted with.

  17. Funeral rituals in Taiwan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, I M

    1998-01-01

    To explore the diversity of rituals and attitudes surrounding death in the context of the Asian cultures of China and Korea. Published books and journal articles; author experience. The death of any family member can evoke a myriad of emotional responses, and the bereavement processes and the expression of grief may vary among cultures. In the Chinese and Korean cultures, the principles of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Christianity strongly influence many aspects of daily living, including bereavement. The most prominent example is displayed in the complexity of funeral rituals and postfuneral ceremonies. Integral to the tenets of Confucianism and Buddhism are the notions of dignity and harmony. The funeral ritual is vitally important because it ensures safe passage of the deceased into the afterlife. As healthcare professionals in a culturally diverse nation, nurses should begin to understand what takes place during funeral rituals as well as increase their sensitivity to the underlying cultural contexts.

  18. 教団法(戒律)と心掛け(戒) : 日本人の気づかなかった区別

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 信彦; Nobuhiko, Kobayashi; 桃山学院大学文学部

    2000-01-01

    In ancient India, the Buddhist samgha as a self-governing community maintained order by means of its own law called "vinaya." Violators were punished according to vinaya. On the other hand, all Buddhists, whether monks or laymen, were expected to follow particular customs called "sila." Unlike vinaya, this was not compulsory and did not carry penalties. In Japan far away from the original land of Buddhism, no one paid attention to the distinction between vinaya and sila, because temples were ...

  19. Vliv všímavosti na afektivitu: fenomenologický výklad buddhistické meditace vipassanā

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puc, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2016), s. 1-11 ISSN 1336-6556 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10832S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : passive synthesis * affection * attention * mindfulness * Husserl * vipassanā * meditation * Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.ostium.sk/sk/vliv-vsimavosti-na-afektivitu-fenomenologicky-vyklad-buddhisticke-meditace-vipassana1/

  20. ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN AND MALAY THEATRE

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

    2010-01-01

    From the earliest times, traditional theatre in Southeast Asia has been shaped by a wide range of religious and cultural influences—those deriving from animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, as well as from Chinese and western traditions. The overwhelming influences, especially of Hinduism, have had the tendency to obscure contributions from the Middle- and Near-East. The view that Islam, with rare exceptions, prohibits performing arts has resulted in a negligence of these arts forms in Muslim s...

  1. Diet, Lifestyle, Ideology: Vegetarians in Modern Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    The new century saw the development of a new kind of vegetarianism in Beijing. Unlike the conventional vegetarians who chose the diet out of religious belief, the new generation of vegetarians and vegans in Beijing incorporated multiple new motivations including health, environment and animal welfare which were generally imported from the 'West'. By combining the 'western' vegetarianism with local Buddhism, the ideology was well fitted into local context. Commercial entities such as vegetaria...

  2. World religions and their importance for travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Hrušková Reinová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Hinduism-characterized with a variety of uniform components passing through different traditions. Of the many gods, the most important are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Religion is the most widespread of the Indian peninsula. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian medicine, which in essence is a balance of body and soul. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance by living and eating habits, medication and preventive measures. Food is very diverse and aromatic. Beef is prohibited. Buddhism-the science...

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    beans, and chickpea balls. Have you put addi- tional items on their menu? [Sha’ul] "The terrorists’ diet reflects their requests. They want beans...expensive than that of penal prisoners because of the nature of their diet . They came to me and asked for beans—give a terrorist beans for breakfast and...which the state religion, a branch of Mahayana Buddhism , plays a central role. To protect the traditional way of life, the government has imposed

  4. Forty-Five Years of Frustration: America’s Enduring Dilemma of Fighting Insurgents with Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    despite all of its high-tech wizardry—has significantly increased the probability of collateral damage, and every occurrence of it diminishes the pros...For most, though, restraint is probably the prudent course of action. The emphasis on kinetic airpower helped doom America’s pursuit of broad...war, an estimated 2.9 million were Roman Catholics. The remainder subscribed to a blend of Buddhism, animism, and astrology ; Confu- cian principles

  5. Mindfulness: Reconnecting the Body and Mind in Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeski, W. Jack

    2008-01-01

    Derived from Buddhism, mindfulness is a unique approach for understanding human suffering and happiness that has attracted rapidly growing interest among health care professionals. In this article I describe current thinking about the concept of mindfulness and elaborate on why and how mindfulness-based interventions have potential within the context of geriatric medicine and gerontology. Upon reviewing definitions and models of the concept, I give attention to the unique role that the body p...

  6. Landscape, water and religion in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Shaw

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As Buddhism spread into central and western India from its centre of origin in the central Gangetic Plain, how did this change the ways in which the landscape was perceived and organized? In this study of the regional setting of the great site of Sanchi and of other important sites in central and western India, religious, political, economic and agricultural changes are integrated in an holistic approach to archaeological landscapes.

  7. The Marriage of the Media and Religion: For Better or Worse

    OpenAIRE

    Phuntsho, Karma

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly explores the 'relationship' between Buddhist spirituality and the various forms of media during the 2500 years of Buddhist history. In doing so, it highlights the flexibility of Buddhism in taking the multiple forms of media as useful means for a spiritual end that culminates in the state of enlightenment. The article also raises the problems and prospects of the new encounter between Bhutan’s ancient Buddhist heritage and modern mass media. It goes on to argue that the med...

  8. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a ...... that are inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....

  9. East Europe Report: Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2193

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-06

    published many materials which reviewed uncritically therapeutical methods of hatha yoga and try to distinguish the so-called ’purely sport aspects* of...karate. But Zen Buddhism serves as that ideological basis, and yoga is not merely a physical exercise system but a complex teaching regarding the...of whom are. union members. It is the loaders, drivers and city building employees that are the group that form the back- bone of the union. In

  10. [Euthanasia/assisted suicide. Ethical and socio-religious aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, V; Chiriţă, Roxana; Duică, Lavinia; Talau, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide are viewed differently by moral and religious references. In a religious way, cardinal confessions (Christianity, Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism) condemn euthanasia/assisted suicide and, in the same time have a more relaxed attitude regarding passive euthanasia. Other aspects of euthanasia regard financial/economic and ethical-medical considerations. All these contradictory standpoints are expressed in some legal acts that make specifications on the concept of "euthanasia"--Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (1994) and Netherlands's Euthanasia Law (2001).

  11. ‘Mysterious People of Central Asia’: SogdiansSogdiana and Sogdian Language

    OpenAIRE

    Süer EKER

    2016-01-01

    Historical Sogdiana and its capital Samarkand were the centers of Eastern Iranian languages and culture. Master merchants, diplomats the monks of Central Asia, and mysterious Sogdian people traversed the Silk Road along centuries and caried their cultures and religions such as Buddhism, Manihaizm, Zooroastrianism etc. In this paper I will deal with the history, culture and language of the historical Sogdian people of Central Asia.

  12. " 'Mysterious People of Central Asia': Sogdians Sogdiana and Sogdian Language"

    OpenAIRE

    Süer EKER

    2012-01-01

    Historical Sogdiana and its capital Samarkand were the centers of Eastern Iranian languages and culture. Master merchants, diplomats the monks of Central Asia, and mysterious Sogdian people traversed the Silk Road along centuries and caried their cultures and religions such as Buddhism, Manihaizm, Zooroastrianism etc. In this paper I will deal with the history, culture and language of the historical Sogdian people of Central Asia.

  13. RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF COMPUTER GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...

  14. Hukan Fabian: Japan's First Encounter with Christianity

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAUCHI, Tomosaburô

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the ethical background of Edo-era Japan, let me present an eccentric thinker named Hukan Fabian (1565-1621) who criticized Christianity from the traditional, syncretistic view of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Shintoism. He was called Fabian the apostate, because, having reached the highest position of all Japanese leading Christians in the Catholic Church, he later renounced Christianity and wrote a book attacking Christianity. It is remarkable that there was a th...

  15. Battle Analysis, Wonsan, Rear Area Operations, Rear Area Security, (3d Infantry Division, Korea, November 1950)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    MARINE ’ DIVISION WERE EVACUATED BY SEA FROM WONSAN DUE TO THE MASSIVE INTERVENTION BY THE COTMMUNIST CHINESE FORCES, 7 A COMPARISON OF THE PRINCIPAL...DISPARATIES, AS WELL AS SIMILARITIES., EXISTED BETWEEN THE TWO KOREAS, BUDDHISM AND SHAMANISM WERE THE MAJOR RELIGIONS, ALTHOUGH SOVIET INFLUENCE AND THE...VETERANS OF THE COMMUNIST CHINESE AND SOVIET ARMIES TO RETURN TO KOREA TO FORM THE NUCLEUS OF " HIS INMINGOON, OR PEOPLE’S ARMY, 13 By 1950, THE ARMY HAD

  16. Buddhismus, rostliny a environmentální etika

    OpenAIRE

    Kocurek, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the problem of Buddhist approach to plants through its history and all its lands. Scientific literature and translations of primary sources translated into western languages are the main sources I use. I particularly focus on the question whether Buddhism considers plants as sentient beings and ascribes them the ability to achieve enlightenment. I also deal with pre-Buddhist ideas concerning plants in each particular region. In the case of India I especially focus on Jai...

  17. A question of ethics : the creative orthodoxy of Buddhist monks in the Mongolian gold rush

    OpenAIRE

    High, Mette M.

    2017-01-01

    Funding for this work was generously provided by the ESRC (PTA-030-2003-00784), the Wenner-Gren Foundation [Gr. 7376] and British Academy (PDF/2009/423). Addressing the intersections of economic opportunities and scriptural interpretation, this article examines how Buddhist monks involved in the Mongolian gold rush view the ethics of mining. Commonly regarded an act of theft and violence within Mahāyāna Buddhism, mining is locally subject to strong ethical denunciations. Drawing on histori...

  18. Tai Buddhist Practices in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore the religious practices of Theravada Buddhists in DehongDai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. The data presented weregathered by the author during a year of fieldwork in a village outside the city of Ruili.Dehong Prefecture is located on the China-Myanmar border. One of the maingroups in this area is the Dai (Tăi), who follow Theravada Buddhism. Buddhismwas brought into Dehong mainly from Myanmar. Local religious practices havemuch in common with Buddh...

  19. Homegrown Terrorism Inside of Democratic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    field sewn with hemp , which meant connection in Buddhism and Shoko translated to bright light. The change of name coupled with the growth of his...possible apocalyptic future of the sect (Jones 2008, 75). Even though this was published it was not prohibited or even investigated by the authorities. It...have to tell their home country the details of what they did while they were overseas and the UK was prohibited from tracking them, as they had no

  20. Misreading and re-reading: interpretation in comparative religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Religion should no longer only be equated with a doctrine or philosophy which, although important, is but one aspect or dimension of the phenomenon religion. Apart from presenting the intellectual or rational aspects of Buddhism, we should aim at a balanced view by also focusing on the mythical or narrative axioms of the Buddhist doctrines, as well as on the practical and ritual, the experiential and emotional, the ethical and legal, the social and institutional, and the material and artistic dimensions of the religious phenomenon known as Buddhism. This will help us to arrive at a balanced, unbiased and holistic conception of the subject matter. We must be careful not to impose the ethnocentric conceptions of our time, or to fall into the trap of reductionism, or to project our own idiosyncratic or personal beliefs onto the subject of our research. For example, according to Marco Polo, the Sinhalese Buddhists were 'idolaters', in other words worshippers of idols. This interpretation of the Sinhalese custom of placing offerings such as flowers, incense and lights before the Buddha image is quite understandable, because it is one of the most conspicuous feature of Sinhalese Buddhism even today. However, in conceiving of Buddhists as 'idolaters', Polo was uncritically using the concept of the then prevailing ethnocentric Christian discourse, by which the worshippers of other religions used idols, images or representations of God or the divine as objects of worship, a false God, as it were. Christians, on the other hand, worshipped the only true God.

  1. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  2. Parallels between Mindfulness and First-person Research into Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga MARKIČ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights some of the parallels encountered in the areas of mindfulness and first-person scientific approaches to research into consciousness. It thus considers the possibilities of using mindfulness as a scientific method in the area of cognitive science. We are well aware that both first-person research approaches in cognitive science and mindfulness as a type of Buddhist practice are intertwined with certain conceptual frameworks. This calls for a careful consideration of their individual characteristics, which may gain completely different meanings outside of their primary contexts. Since the concept of mindfulness has been a part of Western thinking for some time now, especially in the area of therapy, we believe it is necessary for a critical reflection on the possibilities of both of these areas to inspire each other. We touch upon some of the important epistemological and methodological questions, and point out some of the problems common to both empirical first-person research and Buddhist methods of contemplation of experience. More specifically, this work examines the problem of limited scope of insight, the subject-object split and excavation fallacy, the problem of researching everyday experience, and the issue of horizon. We also consider the question of research intention in both science and Buddhism. The conclusion gives some suggestions as to how these two areas might mutually benefit one another. We also point out the ethical aspects that Buddhism might contribute to scientific research, and the open-endedness that science could contribute to Buddhism and other spiritual practices.

  3. Spiritualitet som coping hos tibetanske torturoverlevere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Husum, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    interviewed about their coping mechanisms in overcoming trauma. In all, 36 of these survivors were receiving counselling and both the clients and their 16 professionals were interviewed after the treatment with open-ended questions about what was helpful and not helpful. RESULTS: The torture survivors had...... symptoms of severe traumatisation (Hopkin's Symptom Checklist), but probably not as extensive as torture survivors from other cultures. CONCLUSION: The Tibetan torture survivors use Tibetan Buddhism as an important coping mechanism. Most clients expressed satisfaction with counselling, but criticised...

  4. 研究発表 インドに於ける俳句の享受

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Imran

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Japan and India has a long history. However, it seems that the exchange has been rather one-sided. Buddhism, philosophy and foreign-made articles via the Silk Road were introduced from India into Japan. It has not been very long, a century at the longest, since Indian scholars started studying Japan. It was at the beginning of the 20th century when India, which had just reached the modern period, came into contact with Japan. Tagore was the first person to receive a ...

  5. Analysis on an illusion unexpected occurred on a moving statue leaving in fact but approaching by environmental judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Youwu; Li, Zhifang; Qiu, Yishen; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Earlier this year we visited Sanya, Hainan Province, China. There is a huge statue, the South Sea Avalokitesvara (南海观世音菩萨), at Sanya Nanshan Buddhism Cultural Tourism Resort. When we were gazing at the statue on a leaving car on gradually rising road, an unexpected visual illusion took place in which the statue seemed running after us. In this presentation, an optical model is developed to explain the illusion occurred on a moving object leaving in fact but approaching by environmental judgement. Such an interesting illusion analysis will play a significant role in having students understood the main principles in geometrical optics.

  6. The influence of religious affiliation on heavy drinking, heavy smoking and heavy betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamism of Ballet in Isan

    OpenAIRE

    Sirimongkol Natayakul; Surapone Virunrak; Vutthipong Roadkhasermsri

    2015-01-01

    Isan is a region with diverse dancing art forms, such as Fon (Northertern-Thai-style-dance), Serng (Northestern-Thai-style-dance), and Ram (Central-Thai-style-dance) which are attached to important traditions associated with Buddhism and spiritual beliefs. Ballet is a unique cross-cultural dance that has spread into Isan society over a long period of time. This qualitative research aims to study the history of ballet in Isan from 1976 to 2012 and the factors that have led to the dynamism of b...

  8. A Look at Stephen Eskildsen: Daoism, Meditation, and the Wonders of Serenity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. Sørensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This piece is in the form of a review article of Stephen Eskildsen’s recent study Daoism, Meditation, and the Wonders of Serenity, which deals with the history of contemplative traditions in Daoism including a detailed survey of their various direct and indirect links with Buddhism. While this essay presents a critical evaluation of this author’s work and its findings, it also seeks to place it within the wider research-frame of Daoist studies and Chinese religions.

  9. A Comparison of Japanese and British Colonial Policy in Asia and their Effect on Indigenous Educational Systems Through 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    form by introducing the use of Chinese ideographs. The Chinese writing system was simultaneously introduced with Mahayana Buddhism via Korean scribes.34...of the Japanese Diet and considered a pioneer among the tairiku r6nin.4 In his renowned work, Dait6 gapp6 ron (Discussion 6 Donald F. Roden...3:4; 5:6. "Minister Komura Defines Japan’s Policy of Annexation to Diet ." New York Times 25 January 1911: 4:1 "Elevation of Japanese Premier Katsura

  10. 古代日本の牛乳・乳製品の利用と貢進体制について

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 健太郎

    2012-01-01

    Milk and its by-products are naturally nutritious food, and people in ancient Japan enjoyed tasting them as foods, drinks, or medicines. On the other hand, milk and its by-products were closely related to the philosophy of Buddhism and were often supplied at Buddhist rituals. There have been many studies on ancient diets including milk and its by-products and we have obtained useful knowledge on nutritious foods in ancient Japan. Among the milk products, "So" (蘇), a type of dairy product made...

  11. China Debates the Future Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Japan’s population, to oppose it. Liu notes the significance of the Diet members who voted against the resolution, including a number of"second...generation heredity, Diet members" who are "influenced by their fathers in their perception of war." Liu is also concerned that Japanese right-wing...might be imagined that Chma’s riv~dt T with India may ,also be based on other historical factors, like tile ch~llenge of Buddhism to Chinese core

  12. A Study to Determine the Ambulatory Quality Assurance Impact of a Computer-Stored Medical Records System Upon the Family Practice Clinic, Silas B. Hays Army Community Hospital, Fort Ord, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    PrescribedStandards E.g.: For prenatal care Deviation 1. Blood group & type? 2. Serology? 3. Counseling? 4. Diet ? Yes Deviation Initiate Correction during Current...include Aleut G 0 Baptist - Other Groups H 0 Brethren H 0 Aleut 1 0 Buddhism J 0 Christian Science 1 0 Cuban-American K 0 Church of Christ L 0 Church of...months if on insulin or hypoolycemics; every 6-12 months if diet controlled . Basic laboratory data: Renal function test, lytes, CBC, urine, urine

  13. Sanctuaries of urban sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    of the national power elite. The second part of the paper has its focus upon religious sanctuaries of the utopian early phase of modernism, more precisely Edo-Tokyo during the Tokugawa era (1600-1863). Today, it is acknowledged that citizens of post industrial societies attach themselves to religions in response...... sanctuaries were reinvented during Tokugawa. In this historical period Buddhism and Shinto were thoroughly intertwined (Reader 2005). People of Edo ‘picked and mixed’ from both religions. The focus is on issues of practice and on levels of engagement in a variety of events as indices of religiosity....

  14. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  15. The Sinicization of Dunhuang Mogao Cave Buddhist Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ōhashi Katsuaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Indian Buddhism in China occurred around the Christian era. However, Indian Buddhism was not directly accepted by the Han Chinese as they could not rival the philosophical religions which were already in existence. The existing philosophical religions were Confucianism and Taoism; therefore Indian Buddhism was not a necessity for the Han Chinese. Large volumes of Indian Buddhist scriptures, written in ancient Hindustani, began to be translated into Chinese, known as the ‘Chinese Translation Project.’ Accordingly, Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures appeared. As for the Chinese translations, it was clear that ancient Chinese philosophies were instilled into these translations in order to make them more easily acceptable by the Han Chinese. It took a long period of time, around 200 years, for Indian Buddhism to assimilate into Chinese culture. Once Indian Buddhism was embraced by East Asia’s largest developed country, the foundations of Chinese civilization such as Chinese characters, paintings, sculptures, crafts, architecture, construction, and casting methods, then were transformed by Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Buddhist art. In the instance when one developed civilized country adopts features of another developed civilization, it takes a long period of time for harmonization to occur. However, within a short period of time, Chinese Buddhism became a significant culture within the East Asia region, and was accepted in the surrounding regions of China, such as the Korean Peninsula and islands of Japan. However, soon after the collapse of the Han Dynasty in 220A.D, the country was divided into three parts and the troubled time of 5 Hu 16 Guo began. Most aristocrats, bureaucrats and people in Chang’an became refugees, escaping towards the southern area of the Gansu River. Among them, painters and sculptors from Chang’an created splendid wall paintings and produced luxurious clay statues in the Mogao Caves. At

  16. 女人禁制に見る女への穢れ観 ――神祇信仰を中心に

    OpenAIRE

    湯, 麗

    2009-01-01

    It is thought that women are dirty by nature, so women are prohibited from taking part in some social activities or events in Japan, and it is called as women taboo usually. What caused the women taboo? It caused not only by the influence of Buddhism, but also by the“jingi”faith of Japan. This is a paper on the views of “kegare” to women in the “jingi” faith of Japan. In this paper it will be discussed that how the views of “kegare” affected women taboo, and it is also tried to make a further...

  17. Comparison of Spiritual Traditions in the Context of Universality of Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Gálik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors study similarities in mysticism of Western Christian tradition and selected Eastern spiritual traditions based on comparative analysis of prayer degrees (mansions in The Interior Castle in Teresa of Avila and Yogic psychical centres (the so-called chakras that are known also in other Eastern spiritual traditions (Taoism and Buddhism. The authors note that especially higher degrees – from the fourth to the seventh – show formal similarities, while the seventh degree also reveals similarities in contents. They speak of importance of revealing these similarities in the perspective of understanding of human being, his further spiritual development, and also interreligious dialogue.

  18. モンゴル帝国期東トルキスタンの宗教 : 新疆イスラム教小史2

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 鋼二

    2008-01-01

    After Islam was brought into the west area of the Eastern Turkistan (Xinjiang) by the Qara-Khan Dynasty in the 10th century, it took 500 years until the establishment of Islamization in the Eastern Turkistan when the Buddhism power was expelled from Hami (the east of Xinjiang) in 1513. At the beeginning of the 12th century, the Qara-Khan Dynasty was driven away from the eastern Central Asia by non-Islam Qara Khitay. From the beginning of the 13th century the eastern Central Asia was also unde...

  19. 新疆におけるイスラム教の定着 : 東チャガタイ汗国 : 新疆イスラム教小史 3

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 鋼二

    2009-01-01

    In 1513, when the Buddhism power was expelled from Hami(the eastern end of Xinjiang),Islamization in the Eastern Turkistan was completed. However, there was a time of big stagnation before. After Kara-Khan Dynasty was driven away from the eastern Central Asia by a non-Islam regime Kara Khitai at the beginning of the 12th century, Islam lost its superiority in the central part of the Silk-Road(Central Asia) for two hundred years. Islam confronted with the biggest crisis because of the prosperi...

  20. Shamanistic practice in Northern Nepal

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    Toni Schmid

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sherpas—in Tibetan śar-pa or "men of the east"—live mainly in Northern Nepal, in the Darjeeling district, in India and Northern Sikkim, in the regions bordering on Tibet, and on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. The Sherpas are of Tibetan stock. Among the Tibetan racial groups two religions can be broadly distinguished. One is a form of Buddhism, usually called Lamaism. The other religion is called in the Lhasa pronunciation Bon. Among the Sherpas both the religion and its priests are called "bombo", spelt: bongo.

  1. Psicoanálisis y budismo

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe Echeverry, Juan Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    El budismo como cosmovisión filosófica y religiosa, no coincide con el Psicoanálisis, como práctica clínica y método de investigación. No obstante, las técnicas de intervención de los maestros budistas con sus alumnos, pueden ser comparadas con la interpretación y la transferencia en tanto se usa la paradoja, el silencio y la contradicción, pero con propósitos diferentes. El escrito trata de mostrar esa relación manteniendo las diferencias. Buddhism as a philosophical and religious worldvi...

  2. Peircean Cosmogony's Symbolic Agapistic Self-organization as an Example of the Influence of Eastern Philosophy on Western Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Charles S. Peirce developed a process philosophy featuring a non-theistic agapistic evolution from nothingness. It is an Eastern inspired alternative to the Western mechanical ontology of classical science also inspired by the American transcendentalists. Advaitism and Buddhism are the two most...... science, which leads to the info-computational view of nature, mind and culture. However, this theory lacks a phenomenological foundation. David Chalmers' double aspect interpretation of information attempts to overcome the limitations of the info-computational view. Chalmers supplements Batesonian...

  3. The perspective of psychosomatic medicine on the effect of religion on the mind-body relationship in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2014-02-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is time for traditional religions to play an active role in helping those seeking psychological stability after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the ongoing crisis related to the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, to maintain a healthy mind-body relationship.

  4. Developing perspectives on Korean nursing theory: the influences of Taoism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K R

    2001-10-01

    Nursing theory provides a systematic explanation and description of nursing phenomena. Western nursing theories have widely influenced Korean nursing. And yet, although nursing theory has universal aspects, the differences in philosophy and culture that are unique to each country need to be considered. This inquiry seeks to investigate the Korean cultural heritage, which integrates Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and how it provides a unique worldview of human beings, the universe, health, and nursing. Essential principles and therapies consistent with Taoist philosophy are also identified. This framework is proffered as the basis for establishing understanding between Korean nurses and patients.

  5. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent.

  6. KESEDERHANAAN WABICHA DALAM UPACARA MINUM TEH JEPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajria Noviana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese tea ceremony is called chanoyu in Japanese. It is a multifaceted traditional activity strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism, in which powdered green tea, or matcha, is ceremonially prepared and served to the guests. Wabicha is a style of Japanese tea ceremony particularly associated with Sen no Rikyū that emphasizes simplicity. He refined the art of Japanese tea ceremony equipment and tea house design, with a preference for very simple and very small tea rooms, and natural materials with simpler decoration

  7. ガンダーラ仏と蓮華座

    OpenAIRE

    安田, 治樹; Kanada, Margaret Miller

    2005-01-01

    In the religious thought and arts of India from early times we find references to and the visual depiction of lotus flowers. The lotus often carries the symbolic meanings of "birth" or "creation" for example in such important early canonic traditions as the Mahabharata and the Rgveda. In Buddhism as well, especially in the teachings of the Mahayana, the lotus and this symbolism continues to play a prominent role. The graceful and pure lotus is often compared to the heart unsullied by the corr...

  8. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  9. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  10. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan.

  11. The Meeting with Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy: A Case Study of Syncretism in the Hmong System of Beliefs

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    Kao-Ly Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to shed light on the identity of the spirit of fertility called Lady Kaying –Niam Nkauj Kab Yeeb—, its religious origin and the general processes of borrowing her fromother cultures within the Hmong culture. Hmong popular beliefs pertaining to Kaying reveal that Kaying is in fact the Chinese Goddess of Mercy Guanyin. She was imported from MahayanaBuddhism by the Hmong people of China who had retained her roles of the “Bestower of Children", the “Guardian Angel” or the "Conductor of the Dead Children". An analysis of the process of borrowing of the Chinese deity into the Hmong pantheon shows that Lady Kaying overlaps with an ancient spirit, the “Ancestor Spirit of Fertility” or Niam Poj Dab Pog. This case study demonstrates that the processes of borrowing are selective, integrative and comprehensive: some traits or fragments were taken from Buddhism and incorporated into the Hmong beliefs through a superimposing of a Hmong pre-existing system of beliefs.

  12. A lemma science of mind: the potential of the Kegon (Flower Ornament) Sutra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shin'ichi

    2017-02-01

    The paper argues for a new perspective on the relationship between Buddhism and European psychology, or sciences of the mind, based in the Kegon Sutra, a text that emerged in the early stages of Mahayana Buddhism (3rd - 5th century CE). The basis of European science is logos intellection, formalized by Aristotle as following three laws: the law of identity, the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Logic in the Buddhist tradition, by contrast, is based in lemma (meaning to understand as a whole not with language, but with intuition). Lemma-based science born in the Buddhist tradition shows that rational perception is possible even without the three laws of logos. The Kegon Sutra, which explains what Buddha preached only a week after he attained enlightenment, is unified under the logic of lemma and can be seen as an effort to create a 'lemma science of the mind'. The fundamental teaching of the Kegon Sutra is explored, and its principles are compared with primary process thinking and the unconscious as outlined by Freud and Jung. Jung's research of Eastern texts led him to create a science of the mind that went further than Freud: his concept of synchronicity is given by way of example and can be seen anew within the idea of a lemma-based science. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. Practicantes del dharma en Andalucía (Practitioners of Dharma in Andalusia

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    Clara Macías Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El pluralismo religioso en Andalucía (España se ha intensificado en los últimos años pero no puede ser explicado exclusivamente con los flujos migratorios sino que también es el resultado de la sinergia de diversos factores. Un ejemplo de ello es el budismo cuya llegada puede fecharse en la década de los ochenta. El objetivo de este texto es profundizar en la situación actual de la implantación de esta confesión en un territorio determinado. El mejor conocimiento de los diferentes tipos de grupos budistas, las escuelas dispares a las que se adscriben, sus modos de organización y sus actividades, servirá para conocer mejor estos budismos que hablan el español.Abstract: The religious pluralism in Andalusia (Spain has been intensified in the last years, but it cannot be explained exclusively with the migratory flows but also is the result of the synergy of several factors. An example of this is Buddhism which arrivals can be dated in the eighties. The aim of this text is look in depth at the currently situation of this confession in a certain territory. The better knowledge of the different kinds of Buddhist groups, the diverse schools that they are affiliate, their ways of organization and their activities, will come in useful for know better this Buddhism that speaks Spanish.

  14. Religious experiences in epileptic patients with a focus on ictus-related episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, A; Miyakawa, T

    1998-06-01

    Two hundred thirty-four epileptic patients were examined for ictus-related religious experiences. Of the 234 cases, three (1.3%) were found to have had such religious experiences. All three cases had temporal lobe epilepsy with post-ictal psychosis, while one exhibited a simple partial seizure. At the same time, interictal experiences with hyperreligiosity were recognized in all three cases. The incidence of religious experiences while in a state of post-ictal psychosis was 27.3%, which is regarded as high, indicating some influence by the religions that the patients had faith in. Patients who had ictus-related or interictal religious experiences did not believe solely in Buddhism, a traditional religion in Japan, but rather in a combination of Buddhism and Shintoism, new Christian sect, contemporary Japanese religions and/or other folk beliefs. This indicates that these experiences had some connection not only with the personality characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy, but also with the general lack of religious conviction and activity in Japan. In addition, the cases having ictus-related religious experiences also had interictal religious experiences and an interaction was seen between them. In this paper, the importance of taking bio-psycho-social aspects into consideration is pointed out in the discussion of epilepsy and religion.

  15. Mulheres budistas como líderes e professoras Buddhist women as leaders and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M. Gross

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available No budismo, o papel do professor de dharma (religioso é a função mais prestigiosa, e o professor de dharma tem mais autoridade do que qualquer outro líder. Apesar de os ensinamentos budistas não conterem nenhuma doutrina que limite essa função ao homem, na prática, em toda a história budista, foram pouquíssimas as mulheres que se tornaram conhecidas como professoras de dharma. Algumas pessoas acham que essas práticas não prejudicam as mulheres, porque estas podem, ainda assim, receber os ensinamentos, fazer as práticas mais avançadas e obter altos níveis de esclarecimento espiritual. Contudo, eu afirmo que o fato de não haver professoras de dharma reconhecidas foi nocivo seja para as mulheres budistas, seja para o próprio budismo. Isso tem a ver com o legado das comunidades de monjas em muitas partes do mundo budista, com os baixos padrões de educação para as mulheres, com o fraco prestígio de que gozam as praticantes mulheres, com a falta de modelos para as mulheres e com a perda da sabedoria feminina na herança do pensamento budista. Até que as professoras de dharma não forem amplamente reconhecidas e honradas, o budismo continuará sendo perseguido por seu passado patriarcal, com o prejuízo de todos.In Buddhism, the role of the dharma (religious teacher is the most prestigious role, and dharma teachers have more authority that any other leaders. Though the Buddhist teachings contain no doctrines that limit this role to men, in practice throughout Buddhist history, very few women have been publicly acknowledged as dharma teachers. Some people claim that this practice does not harm women because women can, nevertheless, receive teachings, do advanced practices, and attain high states of spiritual realization. However, I claim that the practice of not recognizing women as dharma teachers has been very harmful both to Buddhist women and to Buddhism itself. It has lead to the demise of the nuns' community in many parts of

  16. Ritual y poder en los centros budistas zen argentinos

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    Catón Eduardo Carini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo es un estudio de los grupos budistas zen argentinos desde la perspectiva de la antropología política. El objetivo es, en primer lugar, explorar las distintas posiciones sociales que los miembros pueden ocupar al interior de un grupo zen y los sistemas nativos de clasificación social, es decir, las categorías que nombran y crean distinciones rituales. En segundo lugar, analizar la estructura de autoridad y de poder al interior de una comunidad zen, indagando los vínculos entre el sistema ritual de posiciones sociales y la distribución del poder y la autoridad. La investigación etnográfica se efectuó siguiendo una metodología cualitativa, que incluyó la observación participante en los encuentros que los centros zen organizan periódicamente y la realización de entrevistas semi-estructuradas e historias de vida a sus miembros. Las conclusiones giran en torno a la importancia del ritual para la vida política de la comunidad, y la centralización del poder en la figura del maestro zen mediante la particular dinámica que evidencia la estructura de autoridad. Palabras clave: Argentina; Budismo zen; Política; Poder. Abstract The present anthropological study takes a political approach to the Argentinean Zen Buddhism groups. The first objective is to explore the variety of native social classification systems, that is to say the categories naming and creating rituals. Secondly, we try to analyze the authority and power system within a Zen community, investigating the relation between the ritual system of social positions and the distribution of power and authority. This article is based on qualitative research, which included periodic participant observation in gatherings organized by the Zen Buddhism centres and semistructured interviews with and life histories of their members. The conclusions focus on the importance of ritual for the community’s political life, and the centralization of power in the

  17. Zen Buddhist Spirituality (A espiritualidade zen budista - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p704en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Luiz Couto Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of mysticism and inter-religious spirituality has gained more space in universities and research centers that radiate everywhere. They are also research involving Eastern religions, in its peculiar mystical trait. Also in the context of Buddhism one can talk on spirituality, understood as a search path of liberation. This article presents the theme of Zen Buddhist spirituality based on the reflection of Eihei Dogen Zenji (1200 – 1253, one of the most important and prominent teachers of the Soto Zen Tradition.  This text aims to show the richness of spirituality and its peculiarity concerning the everyday reality. To promote understanding of the central question presented, the theme of spirituality was situated within the historical context of the birth of Zen Buddhism and the insertion of the presence of Dogen in its field of action. The theme of Zen spirituality was becoming evident in the approach to the problem of search of the Dharma in Dogen and his attention to small signs of everyday life. Keywords: Spirituality. Buddhism. Zen. Daily life. Religions. ResumoOs estudos de mística comparada e de espiritualidade interreligiosa vão ganhando espaço cada vez mais singular nas universidades e núcleos de pesquisa que se irradiam por toda parte. São pesquisas que envolvem também as religiões orientais, em seu traço místico peculiar. Também no âmbito do budismo pode-se falar em espiritualidade, entendida como um caminho de busca da libertação. Esse artigo visa apresentar o tema da espiritualidade zen budista, com base na reflexão de Eihei Dôgen Zenji (1200-1253, um dos mais importantes e destacados mestres da tradição Soto Zen. O objetivo é mostrar a riqueza dessa espiritualidade e sua peculiaridade de adesão à realidade cotidiana. Para favorecer a compreensão da questão central apresentada, visou-se situar a temática no âmbito do contexto histórico do nascimento do zen budismo e da inserção da

  18. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent. PMID:20926170

  19. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  20. What works for whom in mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danelund, Jakob Rindum; Bihal, Tina; Flyger, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness flows over the West. It is often branded as a method rooted in Buddhism, but in academical research its relations to a series of Buddhist and spiritual concepts remain undefined. We've conducted a systematic reading of 63 self-presentations from women with breast cancer that have...... participated in mindfulness intervention. Through a simple count of words and meaning units we find that patients describe the effect as becoming more attentive of the present moment and not worrying about the past or the future as much as before. But in a linguistic analysis we find that beginner...... a better understanding of how the mindfulness-phenomenology is related to neuroscience, spirituality and religion...

  1. Qualitative content analysis of suicidal ideation in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong Ju; Sohn, Ki-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate for ages 15-24 increased recently in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicidal ideation using the qualitative content analysis in South Korean college students. The data were collected with non-structured open questions in 134 college students and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified 2 categories, 6 themes, and 21 theme clusters. Two categories are emerged: (1) facilitators of suicidal ideation, and (2) inhibitors of suicidal ideation. This study identified that the facilitators of suicidal ideation are physical, psychological and societal concerns, and suggested that the inhibitors of suicidal ideation are influenced by religious and cultural context. These results presented that Buddhism and Confucianism had influence on reasons to not attempting suicide behavior as the inhibitor of suicidal ideation. In conclusion, cultural context should be considered to develop strategies for the suicide prevention in South Korean college student.

  2. Culture-centered engagement with delivery of health services: co-constructing meanings of health in the Tzu Chi Foundation through Buddhist philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Sydney J; Dutta, Mohan; Sun, Wei-San

    2014-01-01

    The shift in health communication scholarship from the narrow focus on curing to the complexly intertwined spaces of health, illness, healing, and curing attends to the dynamic cultural contexts within which meanings and practices are negotiated, directing scholarship toward alternative spaces of health care delivery. This study utilized the culture-centered approach as a theoretical lens for providing a discursive space for understanding meanings of health constituted in the practices of the Tzu Chi Foundation, an organization that offers biomedical services within the larger philosophical understandings of Buddhism with 10 million members in over 50 different countries. The emerging perspective promotes non-biomedical meanings of health through selfless giving and assistance founded in Buddhist principles, simultaneously seeking purity of the mind, body, and soul holistically. Through the negotiation of the principles driving Buddhist philosophy and the principles that shape biomedical health care delivery, this study seeks to understand the interpretive frames that circulate among foundation staff and care recipients.

  3. Suicide and the afterlife: popular religion and the standardisation of 'culture' in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Mary

    2012-06-01

    For an overwhelming majority of commentators, including many anthropologists, 'Japanese culture' is still associated with a positive view of suicide. Western-language writings have contributed by feedback loop to perpetuate this stereotype. Besides the local 'samurai ethic', Japanese Buddhism is also said not to prohibit taking one's life. However, the most popular examples of heroic self-sacrifice, from the Edo period to WWII, are fraught with covert contradictions. From ancient times to the present religious practitioners of all sorts have maintained that suicide creates unhappy, resentful spirits who harm the living. This article discusses many examples of a diverse series of narratives, from spirit medium's séances to drama to contemporary films, in which the anguished spirits of suicides are allowed to express themselves directly. After the figures rose alarmingly in the late 1990s various religious organisations have attempted to fight the stigma suffered by bereaved family members and have introduced new interpretations and new rituals.

  4. National Theatre of China's Romeo and Juliet and Its Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the “Chinese-ness” of this brand new production of Romeo and Juliet by the National Theatre of China, from a ritual perspective. Three main areas were discussed. Firstly, this play has got several religious connotations. The absence of religion in this play’s setting is relevant to China’s current high percentage of atheists. Despite that, several religions, such as Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity, are mentioned in this play. Secondly, the play has also incorporated several Chinese culture and traditions. The use of bicycles as one of the main props can be linked to the cultural significance of bicycles in China. The play also incorporated other cultural and traditional elements such as wedding customaries in China, Xinjiang dance, as well as the Chinese tongue twisters. Finally, the play has incorporated multiple Brechtian moments. Perhaps the Brechtian moments can lead audience to think about the current religious and cultural developments in modern China.

  5. Law of the leading digits and the ideological struggle for numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Benford's law states that occurence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but follows a logrithimic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Bhah'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits conform to the Benford's law. We found that the adherent data on all the religions, except Christianity, excellently conform to the Benford's law. Further, unlike data on Christainity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obey the law. The study indicates that Benford's law can be used as a statistical tool to test the integrity of the available world religion adherent data which is bound to be suspicious due to infancy of religious demography research.

  6. Spiritual perspectives and practices at the end-of-life: A review of the major world religions and application to palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer-Wu S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care professionals promote well-being and ease suffering at the end-of-life through holistic care that addresses physical, emotional, social and spiritual needs. The ways that individuals cope with serious illness and prepare for death are often done so within a religious context. Therefore, it is essential that palliative care practitioners are sensitive to and have an appreciation of different religious perspectives and rituals to meet the unique needs of their patients and families. This paper provides a brief overview of the five major world religions - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism - with particular emphasis of the respective perspectives on suffering, death and afterlife. Despite wide variation in these traditions, an understanding of common rituals surrounding death, funerals and bereavement can improve care for patients, families and communities facing the end-of-life.

  7. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome.

  8. "A place for mutual reconciliation and peace?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    between garden, architecture, artefacts, media, discourses, embodied interaction and learning in educational environments, we as architects and urban planners must investigate and analyse the links between leisure, learning, architecture, narrative and interaction. The first part will look...... into the history of the illusive, illuminated towers and gardens of  "Luna city", "Tivoli" and "Disney World", a world of illusion, simulation and experience described and analysed through the two French philosophers Baudrillard and Foucault, and into the origin of the multiform garden through Borges' novel "The...... in experience for embodied learning and cross-cultural understanding. The park is an attempt to create a modern, contemporary and spiritual green heart for the city of Aalborg. The six conceptual parts are: 1. Square of the four religions introduced: Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and Hindu. 2. The two Islands...

  9. Mindfulness and Self-deliverance to Pure Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary (Western literature on mindfulness many authors present it as only a mental practice, which may bring one to a more successful and effective working of the mind, as well as different kinds of mental concentration. However, at least in part of Buddhist literature mindfulness is taken as an inseparable part of the Eightfold Way, and not as a means to achieve a separate mental aim. Another important emphasis of Mahayana Buddhism is that mindfulness does not aim at something new, but instead leads our awareness towards a deeper origin, which has already been present with us. While the initial form of mindfulness clings to various methods and achievements, the higher form lies bare in the present moment, always ready to reveal itself. When we are ready to let go of all that we achieve and do, we can surrender our being to the here and now.

  10. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Irwin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more current theoretical influences, based in paranormal science research. The paper demonstrates that current theories of reincarnation are increasingly less dependent upon religious support and increasingly based in direct personal experience, paranormal research, and new therapeutic models. The paper concludes with some reflections on the complexity of reincarnation theory and raises questions concerning the future development of such theory.

  11. Islamic Nuance in Decorative-Ornament Architecture Art in Nusantara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yusof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of Islam in Nusantara sparked new phenomena or changing not only in structure of building construction of religious places, residency and houses but also ornaments and decoration expressing value of beauty of that building. The result of this research tries to reveal how far Islamic influence is working without undermining local aspects of architecture and how Islamic architecture was influenced by other characters in ornament and decorative-ornament artwith various design and sense. Islamic nuances are substantially showed in traditional and contemporary mosque architecture, graveyard, residencies, palaces, historical building and soon and so forth. Although local elementsare clear, and so with Hinduism and Buddhism, animism, colonial influence and other foreign influences including Middle East, Africa, India and China, Islam shows its prominence in interior and exterior ornament as well as its tools.

  12. Instances of belief in fate in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Gustav Diehl

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Man's life is predetermined by Karma. The deeds of an earlier existence bear their fruits in the present life. That is why the poor man is poor and the rich is happy with his wealth and good fortune. One man is born a brahman and another spends his days as a pariah. The law of Karma has spread in the wake of Buddhism all over the Indian continent and far beyond, whereas its complement and presupposition Samsara for the most part appears as an intellectual conception with little foundation in popular belief. But Karma is not blind. On the contrary it is absolutely just, and for that very reason inescapable. This is, however, modified in so far as good deeds are both possible and profitable. The fatal consequences of the Karma of previous births end with this span of existence. Life hereafter will depend on the fruits of accumulated Karma here and now.

  13. Comparative Theology and Religious Studies in a Non-religious Environment

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    Jacques Scheuer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.

  14. Application of Digital Survey Mapping Technology in the Investigation of Colored Wood Statue in the Caoxi Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The colored wood statues in the CaoXi Temple represent the Sandashi(Manjushri, Samantabhadra , Avalokitesvar) in the Buddhism.These statues with great value were carved in Dali kingdom of the Song dynasty. Because of natural and man-made reasons, disease has become very seriously both in the painted layer on the surface and the structure inside. So it is very important to record the current situation, analyze the structure, craft and material, and detect the cause of disease. This paper takes the colored wood statues as the research object, and kinds of digital survey technology were applied in the process. The Research results will play an important role in the protection, explanation and display.

  15. Promoting resilience and recovery in a Buddhist mental health support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Bethany

    2014-04-01

    Communities of faith are important arenas for psychiatric mental health nurses to promote emotional well-being and support recovery for persons with mental health problems. This article describes an innovative faith-based mental health group, based on Buddhist philosophy and practice and established by an advanced practice psychiatric nurse, that uses psychoeducation, peer support, and faith encouragement to help participants find hope and meaning in the experience of mental health problems. A brief overview of Buddhism and selected concepts relevant to the philosophical framework of the Buddhist mental health support group is followed by a review of the common themes of the group discussions. These include: finding value in the illness experience; differentiating the proper role of treatment from that of Buddhist practice in optimizing mental health; and experiencing a deeper sense of joy, despite current suffering.

  16. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  17. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

  18. [The art of nursing management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meei-Shiow

    2005-10-01

    It is often said that management is a science as well as an art. Nursing managers have to master the science of management and make management an art, which is the goal of nursing leadership. The purpose of this paper was to integrate the views of Eastern and Western scholars and propose a combination of science and art in nursing management, to include the following components: the art of management and leadership; the art of to manage or not to manage, the art of leadership, and the art of delegation. The concept of "government by doing nothing that goes against nature," of Taoism, "Zen management," from Buddhism, and "situational leadership" have also been considered in this paper in the hope of providing guidance for nursing management.

  19. KERINDUAN PADA YANG REAL DALAM NOVEL AKAR KARYA DEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Hiasa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to describe how the author’s desire manifested through Akar’s novel. There was a relationship between the story of Akar’s novel, which has a Buddhism background, with Dee’s interest as the author’s toward buddha’s teachings that became an indication about the relation between author’s desire and Akar’s novel. To answer this indication, the writer used Lacan’s Psychoanalysis method through the mechanism of metaphor and metonymy by analyzing a series of signifiers on Akar’s novel, so it will discover what exactly the desire of “being” and “having” of the author.

  20. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Daemi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Self-esteem appears to play a central role in the spiritual life and ethical behaviour of the typical Iranian. For example, for many Iranians, humankind is believed to be the crown of creation, and each person is believed to be individually valued by God. Previous empirical studies also indicate that in Iran spirituality is positively associated with self-esteem. On this basis, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would be one of the mechanisms through which spirituality leads to increased mental well-being. Mediation analysis showed that self-esteem was a partial mediator of the spirituality-well-being relationship. Moreover, results of moderated mediation analysis revealed that this mediation was not significantly moderated by gender, and that the indirect path through self-esteem was significant in both genders. Implications of the results and their relevance to other western and eastern religions (e.g. Christianity and Buddhism) are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. The mystery of reincarnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence.

  2. Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: Cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cortland J.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research highlights the central role of specific psychological processes, in particular those related to the self, in various forms of human suffering and flourishing. This view is shared by Buddhism and other contemplative and humanistic traditions, which have developed meditation practices to regulate these processes. Building on a previous paper in this journal, we propose a novel classification system that categorizes specific styles of meditation into attentional, constructive, and deconstructive families based on their primary cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that meta-awareness, perspective taking and cognitive reappraisal, and self-inquiry may be important mechanisms in specific families of meditation and that alterations in these processes may be used to target states of experiential fusion, maladaptive self-schema, and cognitive reification. PMID:26231761

  3. Meditation, Mindfulness, Psyche and Soma: Eastern, Western Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Jordanov, Daniel; Autrup, Mads

    This presentation focuses on the genesis of meditation and mindfulness in the East for comprehension of these phenomena, which are increasingly applied and adapted in the current Western context. Their very origin from the East, particularly Buddhism and Yoga practices, directs our attention...... to the three major assumptions about human nature; the monoism between mind and body, the centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct. The mainstream Western understandings promoting the body-mind dualism are challenged by invoking the bodily experiences and consciousness emphasising...... is perceived as a way of resisting dualisms and binaries regarding psychological, physical, social and spiritual realities. We conclude that without a holistic, integrated understanding of the basic principles and assumptions in which meditation and mindfulness are embedded, there is a risk for these phenomena...

  4. The Healing Spirituality of Eastern Orthodoxy: A Personal Journey of Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos C. Markides

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally assumed by western scholars and spiritual seekers that mystical, experiential religion and spirituality are primarily a hallmark of the far East, as exemplified by Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, and tribal religions like native American shamanism. In this overview, based on thirty years of field research as a sociologist, I have tried to show that such mystical practices and spiritual approaches exist in Eastern Christianity among groups of lay people, as well as in ancient monasteries like those found on Mt. Athos in northern Greece. It is argued that these thousand-year-old practices in the Christian East may contribute to what some thinkers have called the “eye of contemplation”, namely the cultivation of the intuitive, spiritual side of human beings that has been repressed over the centuries because of the dominance of rationalism and scientific materialism.

  5. AHP 37: A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from Geo-political, economic, and archaeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level. ...

  6. Hermann Oldenberg and the Historical Imperative: Writing a Biography of Gautama Buddha from Nineteenth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Eduardo García Fernández

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century Buddhism was well known as a religion among academic and literary circles in Europe. However, the variety of doctrinal versions and texts from different Buddhist schools posed a dilemma for the pioneering scholars in the field: which one was the real history and teaching of the Buddha? Although there were numerous studies and biographical versions of the life of Buddha, the one written by German Orientalist Hermann Oldenberg is noted for its historicist reconstruction and its claim to have used the original source. This article discusses how Oldenberg’s work represented an effort to reconstruct a hagiography through the lens of a modern rational society that demanded consistency with respect to religious events, imposing a holistic perspective to a heterogeneous material which in itself is fragmented, and thus contributing to the “construction” of the life of Gautama Buddha as a coherent whole.

  7. Philosophy on Stage: Theatricality, Ritual and Logic in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Arnau

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the public debates in ancient India, distinguishing the different modalities of these practices as they appear in the compendiums of logic (Nyāyasūtra and in the medical Sanskrit literature (Carakasamhitā. A special attention is paid to one of these kinds of debate, called vitandā, which allows a dialectic limited to refutation and dismissed the defence of the own point of view. This type of dialectic, exercised by different schools of thought in which the negative argument would acquire a fundamental role, would find its scope of development in religious traditions as Madhyamaka Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta. The justification of such practices, in which the logic is represented as in a theatre, will give way to an ironic philosophy which found many points of contact with contemporary thought.

  8. Deepening psychoanalytic listening: the marriage of Buddha and Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2009-06-01

    Freud (1912) delineated the ideal state of mind for therapists to listen, what he called "evenly hovering" or "evenly suspended attention." No one has ever offered positive recommendations for how to cultivate this elusive yet eminently trainable state of mind. This leaves an important gap in training and technique. What Buddhism terms meditation-non-judgmental attention to what is happening moment-to-moment-cultivates exactly the extraordinary, yet accessible, state of mind Freud was depicting. But genuine analytic listening requires one other quality: the capacity to decode or translate what we hear on the latent and metaphoric level-which meditation does not do. This is a crucial weakness of meditation. In this chapter I will draw on the best of the Western psychoanalytic and Eastern meditative traditions to illuminate how therapists could use meditation to cultivate "evenly hovering attention" and how a psychoanalytic understanding of the language and logic of the unconscious complements and enriches meditative attention.

  9. Memorial stones for the souls of animals killed for human welfare in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, A

    1994-05-01

    In Japan, at the old ports of the whaling industry, at all 365 slaughterhouses of the country, at some of the more than 90 wholesale markets of marine products, and at most of the about 170 testing facilities using laboratory animals, there are memorial stones for the souls of the animals killed for human welfare. Except at the whaling ports, where the memorials often can be dated back to the 17. century, all stones have been erected in the 20. century, most of them during the last 2 decades. The roots of this Japanese folk custom are probably in the prehistoric times of Shintoism. With the introduction of Buddhism in the 6. century, the killing of animals was considered sinful. Following the opening of the country in 1860, slaughterhouses were established.

  10. Bushido dalam Masyarakat Jepang Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wibawarta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushido is most often translated as the way of the warrior caste in Japan. Bushirefers to warriors in feudal Japan while do means several things including: the correct way,the path, or the road. Another interpretation of Bushido could be the way of preserving peacethrough the use of force. Bushido comes out of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shintoism. Thecombination of these schools of thought and religions has formed the code of warrior valuesknown as Bushido. A key to our understanding of how the concepts of Bushido fit into Japanesemodern lives is to understand the historical and societal aspects of Bushido. Today, this meaningcan be modernized to include minimizing violent conflict. The code of Bushido, the Samurai'scode of honor, upholds loyalty, discipline, total dedication, honor and valor, and numerousexamples of these elements can be witnessed today or in recent history.

  11. Integration of religious traditions in Japanese children's view of death and afterlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-03-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked to draw and describe pictures of what "to live" and "to die" meant to them. Transcribed interviews were interpreted based on thematic analysis, incorporating paradigm cases and exemplars within the hermeneutical tradition. The children perceived life as an evolving process that leads to death, and regarded death as a transitional point to an afterlife. Some children perceived this process, or flow, as linear; others as circular. Their notions of death and the afterlife incorporated three main religious traditions in Japan (Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism) as well as Christianity, as illustrated by 3 case examples and children's drawings.

  12. Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of the Vietnamese Dementia Caregiving Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Jane NhaUyen; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of religion and spirituality in dementia caregiving among Vietnamese refugee families. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with nine Vietnamese caregivers of persons with dementia, then tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for emergent themes. Caregivers related their spirituality/religion to three aspects of caregiving: (1) their own suffering, (2) their motivations for providing care, and (3) their understanding of the nature of the illness. Key terms or idioms were used to articulate spiritual/religious dimensions of the caregivers’ experience, which included sacrifice, compassion, karma, blessings, grace and peace of mind. In their narratives, the caregivers often combined multiple strands of different religions and/or spiritualities: Animism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and Catholicism. Case studies are presented to illustrate the relationship between religion/spirituality and the domains of caregiving. These findings have relevance for psychotherapeutic interventions with ethnically diverse populations. PMID:20930949

  13. Religious beliefs along the suicidal path in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Hsin-Chin; Liu, Shen-ing; Sun, Yi-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the current inclinations toward depression and compulsion for members of four different religious groups, and to predict religious beliefs along the suicide path through analyzing the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts for members of these religious groups. Participants in this cross-sectional study, which adopted purposive sampling, were members of Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, and Taoism in northern Taiwan. In the case of suicide experiences, suicides among people one knows, and tendency toward compulsion and depression, there are statistical differences between the four religions. According to the results, some people with suicidal tendency will attend religious activities; therefore, we predict that religious beliefs play an important role in suicide prevention.

  14. To register emotions at school, a social and educational need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Buitrago Bonilla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, emotions have played a very discreet role in the school and affectivity in the classroom has been lacking in the relationships of teachers and students. With all of the above, since Mayer &, Salovey (1990 first coined the term Emotional Intelligence (EI in an academic journal, the number of researches and findings regarding the relationship of EI with different behaviors, with life success and academic achievement among others, have led to important progress, allowing repositioning of emotional management programs in educational institutions. It should be noted that various disciplines such as Psychology, Affective Neuroscience, Buddhism and Education, have given prominence to emotions and their impact on social and human development. For this reason we can identify several successful experiences in different educational contexts that have nurtured these findings, besides suggesting a focus for the development of emotional skills in teachers ‘trainee.

  15. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  17. The Use of Gemstones in The Chinese Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddin Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to provide documentation of information relating to local intelligence from the older generations, specifically the local intelligence of the Chinese community on gemstones.To better understand this issue, an informal interview had been conducted on an informant from the Chinese community who has vast experiences dealing with gemstone crafting. Literature reviews were also carried out to further understand the issue under discussion. It can be assumed that religion is the main factor influencing the use of gemstones among ancient Chinese. Although other aspects such as luck, prestige, and healing may also exist, the reasons would be solely based on the teachings of Buddhism. In summary, every God’s creations possess benefits and it is up to human to utilise them in either beneficial or adverse ways 

  18. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2013-01-01

    The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79) and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92) and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06). The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  19. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The Fourth Way in Finland

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    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  1. ANÁLISIS CRÍTICO DE LA EXPLICACIÓN DE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN MORAL EN EL BUDISMO NEURAL

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    Jeffrey R.Dickson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A medida que las argumentaciones no teístas se tornan cada vez más sofisticadas y complejas, se hace más difícil realizar una crítica sin antes admirar lo habilidoso de su diseño y casi maestría. Una de esas argumentaciones es una innovación relativamente reciente que es el hijo del naturalismo y la filosofía oriental: el budismo neural. Como dos diseñadores mundialmente famosos que trabajan juntos en una prenda nueva, el naturalismo y el budismo se unieron en este programa distintivo para ofrecer algo inventivo, especialmente en la explicación de la transformación moral. Por el contrario, este análisis va a develar al final que la explicación de la transformación moral del budismo neural es incapaz de ofrecer buenas respuestas a varias críticas convincentes. Abstract As non-theistic arguments for morality become increasingly sophisticated and complex, they are harder to criticize without first admiring their skillful design and near-artistry. One such argument involves a relatively new innovation that is the child of naturalism and eastern philosophy—Neural Buddhism. Like two world- renowned designers collaborating on a new garment, Naturalism and Buddhism have come together in this distinct program to offer something inventive, especially in its explanation of moral transformation. However, this critical analysis will ultimately reveal that Neural Buddhism’s explanation of moral transformation is incapable of providing good answers to several compelling criticisms.

  2. Toward A Buddhist Theory of Justice

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    James Blumenthal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For more than twenty years key thinkers of Engaged Buddhism have used terms like “justice” and “social justice” quite freely.  Yet despite more sophisticated discussions of other philosophical topics, Engaged Buddhists have  not clearly defined what they mean by the term justice. Given that the term is one with a rich philosophical history in the West and has no direct parallel in Buddhist thought, it is incumbent upon Engaged Buddhist theorists to define what they mean when they use this term if they are to engage in any sort of meaningful dialog on justice and related issues in the international community. In this paper, to illustrate how Engaged Buddhists might begin this important line of work, I would focus on two cases. First, I will discuss John Rawls' theory of "justice as fairness" and compare that with some traditional Buddhist ideas and explore potential Buddhist thinking, responses, and adaptations. Second, I will discuss a relatively new model known as restorative justice in opposition to the pervasive use of retributive models implemented around the globe and consider the ways that Buddhism seems to lend itself quite well to "restorative" models, particularly with regard to criminal justice.  Both examples are merely beginning points for discussion used to illustrate how and why Engaged Buddhists ought to participate more directly in global philosophical discourse on justice.

  3. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

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    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.

  4. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

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    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  5. ANTONIO DE MONTSERRAT – LA RUTA DE LA SEDA Y LOS CAMINOS SECRETOS DEL TANTRA

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    Oscar R. Gómez

    2016-01-01

    article presents Antonio de Montserrat’s biography to insert him in Buddhist critical thinking as whom is considered the first Westerner initiated into tantric philosophy and who became a driver thereof in the West through the Society of Jesus. To do so, a historical review is first presented to focus on the way Buddhism was removed from India and found refuge among the peoples of Central Asia such as the Uyghurs in present-day Turkistan, how it was then adopted by Chinese emperors and spread throughout the Silk Road. The combination of Indian Buddhism and Western influences (Greco-Buddhism gave rise to several Buddhist schools in Central Asia and China. Then, the esoteric form Buddhism took (tantra is briefly described, which was consolidated as Vajrayana (tantric Buddhism in Tibet in the eighth century. That is the Buddhist form rulers have adopted, which promotes full social and gender equality, the idea of the subject as a cultural construction and the notion of metaphorical deities —useful to model people’s character but completely non-existent— in addition to the Buddhist principle of relative truth (not absolute. This non theistic view —or transtheistic, as Gómez would rather call, was projected in the absolute religious tolerance within the Chinese, Uyghur, and Mongolian empires, which ensured safety and free exchange on the Silk Route. Such standpoint of people not divided into castes or differentiated by reason of bloodline is what amazes de Montserrat when saying Tibetans "have no kings among them" and what encourages those who made a journey (based on de Montserrat’s writings especially to receive initiation into Tibetan Tantric Buddhism such as Jesuits Antonio de Andrade and John de Brito. Finally, the article jumps in Antonio de Montserrat’s biography and it shows its connection with tantrism.

  6. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

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    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  7. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

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    Jui-Kun Chiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR. METHODS: We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. RESULTS: The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79 and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76 compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92 and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997, for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06. CONCLUSION: The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  8. Contemporary ethnic processes in Tuvan population in the south of Krasnoyarskii Krai

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    Viktor P. Krivonogov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the contemporary ethnic trends in the group of Tuvans who for a long time have been residing in Krasnoyarskii Krai, near the border with the Republic of Tuva, along the river Us. They are habitually referred to as the ‘Usinsk Tuvans’. Since early 1990s, due to the decay of cattle farming and mass unemployment, almost all of them have relocated to two Russian villages, where they now form a minority. After the move, the Tuvan population, especially its youngest age groups, have had specific ethnic experience which was investigated by an ethnographic expedition the author took part in in 2014. The Usinsk Tuvans were surveyed with the help of an ethnographic questionnaire. In addition, informant and expert discussions were held, and available statistical materials studied, as well as household books for a number of years from the local village council archive. Our study has found that even those whose mother tongue is Tuvan commonly have to communicate in Russian. Linguistic assimilation was most conspicuous in the youngest age group, where children are increasingly often given Russian names. Youth increasingly often sing only Russian song. While the elder generation still remembers several Tuvan fairy tales, there are fewer children and teenagers with such knowledge. Tuvans still preserve only some elements of the traditional wedding rites, but funeral rites are better known and kept. Dualist religious self-identification can be observed (Buddhism-Shamanism, Orthodox Christianity – Buddhism, or Orthodox Christianity – Shamanism. Over a third of Usinsk Tuvans identify as atheists. Ethnic closing is habitually worn mainly by elderly women, while the majority of Usinsk Tuvans (64.5% never wear it. Dishes belonging to Tuvan national cuisine are cooked in most families. 31.7% of households are mixed-marriage families, with women marrying a non-Tuvan more frequently than men. This significant proportion of mixed marriages

  9. Abiding by the sufficiency economy philosophy to develop the quality of life of teachers and educational personnel in the central region

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    Khumkhong, Tippawan

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to 1) study the ideas and procedures of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) to make it fully implemented to develop the quality of life of teachers and educational personnel in the central region, 2) study the results of implementing the SEP and 3) offer some guidelines in implementing the SEP to develop the quality of life. The samples were the teachers and educational personnel, the cremation service welfare members of 2015 in 9 provinces of the central region namely Bangkok, Sing Buri, Saraburi, Chai Nat, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pha Nakhon Si Ayuttaya, Lop Buri and Ang Thong. The qualitative research's samples were the 6 key informants selected purposely, collected by depth-interview, analyzed using inductive method, checked by the methodological triangulation and the key informants. The quantitative research's samples were the 398 offered obtained by stratified random sampling having regard to the ratio, collected by questionnaire with the reliability value of 0.982, analyzed by percentage, mean and standard deviation. The findings were as follows: 1) As for the ideas towards the SEP and the ethical principles of Buddhism are one and the same thing. All levels of people can follow this philosophy. The procedures towards the SEP to develop the quality of life by performing in harmony with their daily lives regarding to the moderation, the reasonableness, building self-immunity with knowledge and ethical qualification. 2) The SEP helps develop the better quality of life, happiness, sound life, sound economy with great satisfaction of the living. 3) On offering some guidelines in implementing the SEP to develop the quality of life: 3.1) the performers must have good understanding in the philosophy and accept to bring it into use 3.2) lead a life according to the ethical principles of Buddhism or to the ones of the religion you believe. 3.3) members of the family had to cooperate in leading lives according to the SEP and 3.4) save money

  10. Book Reviews

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    J. van Baal

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available - W. Ph. Coolhaas, António Galvao, A treatise on the Moulccas (c. 1544, probably the preliminary version of António Galvao’s lost História das Molucas, edited, annotated and translated into English from the Portugese manuscript in the Archivo de Indias, Seville by Hubert Th. Th. Jacobs, S.J.; Sources and Studies for the History of the Jesuits: Volume III; Jesuit Historical Institute, Rome 1971. 402 pp., 4 plates, 2 maps. - H.J. de Graaf, Generale missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. Deel IV, 1675-1685. Uitgegeven door Dr. W. Ph. COOHAAS. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën Grote Serie 134, ‘s-Gravenhage 1971. 893 blz. - R.S. Wassing, Norbert Mylius, Kulturhistoriche Abhandlungen. Gé Nabrink, Amsterdam 1970. 46 + 53 + 93 blz., 30 + 36 platen. - R.S. Wassing, Jeune Scott-Kemball, Javanese shadow puppets. The Trustees of the British Museum, Londen 1970. 66 p., 30 plates. - James J. Fox, Maurice Bloch, Placing the dead. Seminar Studies in Anthropology No. 1. Seminar Press, London 1971. 214 pp., 16 plates, maps, figs. - L.F.B. Dubbeldam, Karl G. Heider, The Dugum Dani, a Papuan culture in the highlands of West New Guinea. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, 1970. 334 pp. - P. van de Velde, Raymond Firth, Tikopia string figures. Royal anthropological institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Occasional paper no. 29, London 1970. 64 p., 54 figs., 1 plate., Honor Maude (eds. - E. Schlesier, Glynn Cochrane, Big men and cargo cults. Oxford monographs on social anthropology. Clarendon Press. Oxford 1970, XXIX und 187 p., 4 maps, 3 figs, index. - J. van Baal, Rose Schubert, Methodologische Untersuchungen an Ozeanischem Mythen-material. Bd. 24 der Studien zur Kulturkunde. Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH, Wiesbaden, 1970; 237 S., broschiert, D.M. - M. Ondei, S.J. Tambiah, Buddhism and the spirit cults in Northeast Thailand. Cambridge studies in social anthropology 2. Cambridge University Press, 1970

  11. Analisis Sosiologis terhadap Sistem Pergantian Sultan di Kesultanan Palembang Darussalam

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    Muhammad Syawaluddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One task of being a umaro sultan, that he was a religious adviser to the government. The existence of the Sultanate of Palembang is not only the cultural but also the existing political elements. In this study it was found that the process of appointment of kings or sultans who ruled in Palembang no different from those in other sultanates that ever existed on earth this archipelago. Despite having Islamic political unity, but actually still continue what has been there in the past, the concept of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam simply as a shirt while outside. The same is true for aspects of legality. As a maritime empire that is absolute, it seems referrals can be directed only remaining absolute monarchy in Southeast Asia was the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. However, the origin of the empire was not of royal birth agrarian civilization as a palace, but of an empire in estuaries and the sea like, the kingdoms in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and others.   One task of being umaro sultan, that he was a religion adviser to the government. The existence of the Sultanate of Palembang was not only the cultural but also the existing elements of political. In this study it was found that the process of appointment of kings or sultans who ruled in Palembang not different from people of other sultanates that ever existed on this archipelago earth. Despite having Islamic political unity, but actually still continued what had been there in the past, the concept of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam was only as a temporary shirt outside. The same thing was prevail for the aspects of legality. As a maritime empire that was absolute, it seemed directive could be directed only remaining absolute monarchy in Southeast Asia was the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. However, the origin of the empire was not born the empire of agrarian civilization as a palace, but from an empire in estuaries and the sea like, the Kingdoms in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and others.

  12. The Terracotta Plaques of Pagan: Indian Influence and Burmese Innovations

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    Vinay Kumar Rao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available    Since its inception Buddhist art aimed to make the Buddhist disciples well aware with the life and teachings of Buddha. The Buddhist followers had a belief that the attainment of Buddhahood was not an outcome of a single birth but was a successive effort and practice of ten pāramitās in his previous births. Though the origin of Jātakas was in India but its final and complete compilation was finalised in Sri Lanka by the scholars of Buddhaghoṣa School. The life scenes of Buddha in form of Jātakas depictions are ever preferred theme in Buddhist art and were carved with equal enthusiasm and potential elegance in every period irrespective to any political and social limitations. Buddhism entered Myanmar in three inflows, first in 5th Century CE through north-eastern India, secondly during 7th century CE through religious transformation from Sri Lanka and finally in 10–12 century CE through eastern India.  The period between 8th-12th centuries CE in India has been considered as a cradle of encouraging heterodox creeds and sects representing both Hinduism and Buddhism which were found to exist side by side. The art practiced during this period was flourished on well designated artistic paradigms of Gupta period but had a deep influence of Pāla art. The intense trade activities between eastern India and South East Asia and unstable political condition of India encouraged the Indian artist to look for new territories where he can easily perform his art. Pagan in central Myanmar provided suitable political and religious environment to these sculptors. As result the art and architecture performed in terracotta plaques of Pagan and its Buddhist religious monumental architecture attained deep influence of eastern India but the art of central Myanmar was not a mere repetition of its Indian neighbourhood but is evident with many local experiments and innovations.  The paper is intended intends to make present a brief analysis of the artistic

  13. Christian and Buddhist approach to religious exclusivity. Do interfaith scholars have it right?

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    Daniel J. McCoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist-Christian interfaith scholars1 are quick to denounce what they perceive as religious exclusivity. So when it comes to the major views on just how true and salvific the religions can be, it is no surprise that Exclusivism is ruled out automatically. What is surprising is how inevitable it is that when Buddhist-Christian interfaith scholars commit to any view – whether Inclusivism, Pluralism, or Relativism – they themselves end up committing the sin of exclusivity. Whatever view they entertain turns out to be too exclusivistic for somebody, by having too particular a saviour (Exclusivism, too particular a salvation (Inclusivism, too particular a metaphysics (Pluralism, or too sceptical a religious outlook (Relativism.2 To make matters worse, the further the interfaith scholar cycles away from Exclusivism in an attempt to elude exclusivity, the further she wanders not only from Christianity, but from Buddhism as well. Thus, by attempting to unite the two religions, the interfaith scholar finds herself at odds with both sides. Truly, it seems the interfaith scholar has no place to lay her head. By consulting interfaith scholars’ own writings, this paper describes their dilemma in finding such a place.

  14. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context.

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    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships.

  15. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Writing a love letter to your (perceived enemy: Thích Nhất Hạnh and the rhetoric of nonviolence

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    Michael PHILLIPS-ANDERSON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist Thích Nhất Hạnh has been a leading figure in the promotion of nonviolent practice throughout the world. We examine his concept of engaged Buddhism, theories of nonviolence, and intersections with rhetorical and communication studies. His approach takes nonviolence beyond the realm of refusing to use physical violence to the recognition that language itself can be violent. In order to understand this approach we detail the concepts of interbeing, loving speech, and deep listening. We examine the role of love in Nhất Hạnh’s theory of nonviolence, comparing it with approaches taken by Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Examples are given from many of Nhất Hạnh’s speeches and writings with particular attention paid to a love letter he wrote to US President George W. Bush during the Iraq War. Thích Nhất Hạnh offers the practice of writing a love letter to one’s perceived enemy as a means to persuade for a turn to nonviolence.

  17. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

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    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  18. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

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    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  19. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

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    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  20. FromUndang-undang Melakato federal constitution: the dynamics of multicultural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Abdullah, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is a multicultural state comprising three main races: Malays, Chinese and Indians. The three main religions are Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. Other religions such as Sikhism and Christianity are also practised. Muslims are the majority comprising 67 % of the population. This paper is qualitative in nature. It applies historical comparative method in presenting its data. The Undang - undang Melaka (Malacca Laws) was obtained from the monograph available at National Library of Malaysia under the name of Hukum Kanun Melaka. Analysis was done on selected examples from this document. This paper highlights that had there been no introduction to a common law system, Malaysia would have remained with its traditional laws influenced by Islam and its local customs as evident from Undang - undang Melaka (Malacca laws). The Undang - undang Melaka was practised from 1422 to 1444 and the law of the country was developed to accommodate the introduction of civil law during the colonial period. One of the unique aspects of multicultural Malaysia is the fact that it has a parallel legal system: sharia and civil law. This paper examines histo-cultural development of the Islamic law as practised in pre-independent Malaysia, as well as the coexistence between these two laws after the independence of Malaya in 1957. This paper concludes that Islamic law in Malaysia is confined to Muslim family matters, while civil law covers all other matters.

  1. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguo Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.

  2. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  3. [The Application of Body-Mind-Spirit Integrated Psychotherapy in Nursing Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu

    2017-06-01

    Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy reflects the core value of nursing by emphasizing the inseparable concept of body, mind, and spirit and caring for the holistic needs of the patient. Body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was developed based on Western psychotherapy (positive psychology and forgiveness therapy), traditional Chinese medicine, and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. The present paper describes the holistic concepts that underpin this therapeutic approach. Physical health is sustained through proper nutrition, physical relaxation, and harmonized breathing; psychological well-being helps maintain inner peace and harmony in interpersonal relationships; and spiritual well-being helps develop an optimistic and meaningful life. We report on several cases in which body-mind-spirit integrated psychotherapy was applied to the care of clients with depressive disorders and of breast cancer survivors and their partners as well as the related efficacy of this intervention in these cases. Finally, we discuss the potential for culturally-enriched psychotherapy to help clients transform illness suffering into life-growth experiences.

  4. Medicine's missing dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    In medicine we tend to restrict practice to using a purely intellectual understanding grounded in science to conceptualize patients and their illnesses. This approach is radically different from the experientially rich healing practices found throughout the world that presumably date to the beginning of humanity. Shamanistic healing is often typified as involving magical thinking and communication with beings other than human. These aspects of traditional healing are difficult to merge with science, the backbone of our medical practice. However, we can also describe traditional healing as meeting patients beyond the conventional self and beyond conceptual filters to directly face sickness and death in a larger context. There are a variety of traditions for learning to live our lives in this larger context, including contemplative religious practices and secular mindfulness practice. Although self discipline, effort and courage are likely to be required to take these paths, they can transform the practice of medicine into a richer experience. Using Zen Buddhism as an example of a contemplative spiritual approach, I will explore how it is possible to preserve a respectful relationship to science while engaging in healing as what the African Bushmen called "a life thing, a death thing".

  5. ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL INDONESIAN AND MALAY THEATRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest times, traditional theatre in Southeast Asia has been shaped by a wide range of religious and cultural influences—those deriving from animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, as well as from Chinese and western traditions. The overwhelming influences, especially of Hinduism, have had the tendency to obscure contributions from the Middle- and Near-East. The view that Islam, with rare exceptions, prohibits performing arts has resulted in a negligence of these arts forms in Muslim societies with the possible exception of Indonesia. This paper highlights significant elements of Islamic culture that have shaped Indonesian and Malay traditional theatre through the adaptation of borrowed genres such as taziya, as well as locally created styles of shadow play (wayang kulit and the doll-puppet theatre (wayang golek; the use of important themes from Islamic literature, in particular thosederived from Hikayat Amir Hamza; as well as esoteric interpretationsof certain episodes originally derived from pre-Islamic sources,including the Mahabharata, in terms of Sufism to make them both highly meaningful and acceptable to Muslim audiences.

  6. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Yue, Caizhen; He, Weijie; Yu, Jia-yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept—the “mindful self”—and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one’s self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time. PMID:29081754

  7. Using process drama to enhance pre-service teachers' understanding of science and religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan

    2010-03-01

    I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a course, Philosophy of Science, taught by the researcher in Semester A, academic year 2007. Process drama is the teaching strategy employed. The students were fully engaged in the process drama; doing research, producing, distributing, and criticizing the drama. Focus group, student journal, and observation were used to gather the data and the data was analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. The focus groups revealed that the drama could help students reflect on the complexity and sensitivity of the issue. They found there was no inherent conflict between science and religion since they answered different questions and used different methods to achieve their results. However, the conflicts occurred when people were not aware of the basic differences between the two so they justified one on the basis of purpose and method of one another. The pre-service teachers also found consistency between science and Buddhism. They thought that the teachers of science should respond to the conflicts in a respectful, compromising, and neutral manner.[InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

  8. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  9. Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J F; Lan, S J; Yang, C Y; Wang, P W; Yao, W J; Su, L H; Hsieh, C C

    1997-03-01

    This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the measurements to subjects characteristics including age, body mass, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice. A total of 258 postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women participated in the study. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-photon absorptimetry. BMD measurements were analyzed first as quantitative outcomes in multiple regression analyses and next as indicators of osteopenia status in logistic regression analyses. Among the independent variables examined, age inversely and body mass index positively correlated with both the spine and femoral neck BMD measurements. They were also significant predictors of the osteopenia status. Energy intake from protein was a significant correlate of lumbar spine BMD only. Other nutrients, including calcium and energy intake from nonprotein sources, did not correlate significantly with the two bone density parameters. Long-term practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21-12.82). Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.

  10. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  11. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  12. The Life as the Meaning (An investigation on the meaning of life in Zen and the comparison of it with theistic religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Khoshaghani

    2013-09-01

    presented a design of life to humans. Now we focus on the comparison of Zen and theistic religions views on what would make the meaning of life; but we primarily present a summary of criteria of Zen’s school:    A-In Zen, the discerning mind causes humans’ suffering and labor. B–The path of salvation from suffering, raised from distinction, is non-action and natural life. C-Afterwards, the person can achieve to sudden enlightenment in his life. D-The morality in Zen is named Te which related to natural and spontaneous behavior. A person in Zen practice according to the same conduct that is natural and explicit. E-Hence, the freedom from suffering (which is the aim of all schools of Buddhism, the path, the morality, and the enlightenment, the all are sought in the same life, no beyond this life. In the case of comparison of Zen to theistic religions, it is worth mentioning some cases: -The key concept in Buddhism and its schools, such as Zen, is suffering (Dukkha, which forms all of their ontology, anthropology, and soteriology, but in theistic religion, the concept of God plays the same role. -In theistic religions, ultimate Being is the only worthwhile and meaningful aim of the Faithful man; unlike Buddhism schools which seek the meaning in liberation from life’s sufferings. -For believers there is only one design to live and it is that design which usually exists in sacred texts. Believer’s life is arranged according to this design. But in Zen, person comes near meaningful life via simply and freely life, not via prescriptive commands of a transcendental Being. - The morality in Theistic religions is based on the sacred texts and related to plural behavior and social standards; unlike Zen which neglects plural and prescriptive morality and emphasizes on natural behavior (Te. -In theistic religions, sufferings and pains in world are not meaningless, but there is an optimistic view on them, while sufferings in Buddhism and Zen are more pessimistic and do not

  13. The Life as the Meaning (An investigation on the meaning of life in Zen and the comparison of it with theistic religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabbas Alizamani

    2013-08-01

    presented a design of life to humans. Now we focus on the comparison of Zen and theistic religions views on what would make the meaning of life; but we primarily present a summary of criteria of Zen’s school:    A-In Zen, the discerning mind causes humans’ suffering and labor. B–The path of salvation from suffering, raised from distinction, is non-action and natural life. C-Afterwards, the person can achieve to sudden enlightenment in his life. D-The morality in Zen is named Te which related to natural and spontaneous behavior. A person in Zen practice according to the same conduct that is natural and explicit. E-Hence, the freedom from suffering (which is the aim of all schools of Buddhism, the path, the morality, and the enlightenment, the all are sought in the same life, no beyond this life. In the case of comparison of Zen to theistic religions, it is worth mentioning some cases: -The key concept in Buddhism and its schools, such as Zen, is suffering (Dukkha, which forms all of their ontology, anthropology, and soteriology, but in theistic religion, the concept of God plays the same role. -In theistic religions, ultimate Being is the only worthwhile and meaningful aim of the Faithful man; unlike Buddhism schools which seek the meaning in liberation from life’s sufferings. -For believers there is only one design to live and it is that design which usually exists in sacred texts. Believer’s life is arranged according to this design. But in Zen, person comes near meaningful life via simply and freely life, not via prescriptive commands of a transcendental Being. - The morality in Theistic religions is based on the sacred texts and related to plural behavior and social standards; unlike Zen which neglects plural and prescriptive morality and emphasizes on natural behavior (Te. -In theistic religions, sufferings and pains in world are not meaningless, but there is an optimistic view on them, while sufferings in Buddhism and Zen are more pessimistic and do not

  14. The Life as the Meaning (An investigation on the meaning of life in Zen and the comparison of it with theistic religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Khoshaghani

    a design of life to humans.Now we focus on the comparison of Zen and theistic religions views on what would make the meaning of life; but we primarily present a summary of criteria of Zen’s school: A-In Zen, the discerning mind causes humans’ suffering and labor. B–The path of salvation from suffering, raised from distinction, is non-action and natural life. C-Afterwards, the person can achieve to sudden enlightenment in his life. D-The morality in Zen is named Te which related to natural and spontaneous behavior. A person in Zen practice according to the same conduct that is natural and explicit. E-Hence, the freedom from suffering (which is the aim of all schools of Buddhism, the path, the morality, and the enlightenment, the all are sought in the same life, no beyond this life.In the case of comparison of Zen to theistic religions, it is worth mentioning some cases:-The key concept in Buddhism and its schools, such as Zen, is suffering (Dukkha, which forms all of their ontology, anthropology, and soteriology, but in theistic religion, the concept of God plays the same role.-In theistic religions, ultimate Being is the only worthwhile and meaningful aim of the Faithful man; unlike Buddhism schools which seek the meaning in liberation from life’s sufferings.-For believers there is only one design to live and it is that design which usually exists in sacred texts. Believer’s life is arranged according to this design. But in Zen, person comes near meaningful life via simply and freely life, not via prescriptive commands of a transcendental Being.- The morality in Theistic religions is based on the sacred texts and related to plural behavior and social standards; unlike Zen which neglects plural and prescriptive morality and emphasizes on natural behavior (Te.-In theistic religions, sufferings and pains in world are not meaningless, but there is an optimistic view on them, while sufferings in Buddhism and Zen are more pessimistic and do not have a certain

  15. The scientific and spiritual implications of psychic abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targ, R; Katra, J

    2001-01-01

    Since ancient times, spiritual teachers have described paths and practices that a person could follow to achieve health, happiness, and peace of mind. Considerable recent research has indicated that any sort of spiritual practice is likely to improve one's prognosis for recovering from a serious illness. Many of these approaches to spirituality involve learning to quiet the mind rather than adhering to a prescribed religious belief. These meditative paths include the mystic branches of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity; Kabalistic Judaism; Sufism; and many others. What is hinted at in the subtext of these teachings is that as one learns to quiet his or her mind, one is likely to encounter psychic-seeming experiences or perceptions. For example, in The Sutras of Patanjali, the Hindu master tells us that on the way to transcendence we may experience all sorts of amazing visions, such as the ability to see into the distance, or into the future, and to diagnose illnesses and to cure them. However, we are told not to get attached to these psychic abilities--they are mere phenomena standing as stumbling blocks on the path to enlightenment. In this article, we describe the laboratory evidence for some of these remarkable phenomena and their implications for science, mental health, and peace of mind.

  16. Consciousness and Reality in Western and Oriental Tradition. Relationship between Human and Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P. Suprun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stating the main principles of Buddhist philosophy and psychology is usually going with help of ancient categories and metaphors, which had been developed since the fifth century B.C. till the tenth century A.C That means they were worked out by quite different kind of mentality (culture, language, traditions.... That makes those categories and metaphors almost untranslatable on European languages properly and unequivocally. In its turn, that situation makes difficult any kind of modern scientific research of the phenomena, discovered inside Buddhism, as well as ideas, developed in it. In this article we set a question of possibility to select such basic concepts of modern natural science, which can effectively translate main oriental ideas about Reality into modern scientific paradigm and discover the meaning of psychological phenomena from the transpersonal psychology sphere of interest. We take a look on some comparisons between pictures of Reality in modern physics and in Buddhist paradigm, allocating two sides of Reality, called Nirvana and Samsara.

  17. Seafaring Archaeology of the East Coast of India and Southeast Asia during the Early Historical Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Tripati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of trade in ancient India was quite different from modern times. In olden day’s mariners, artisans, traders, Buddhist monks and religious leaders used to set sail together and this trend continued till the advent of modern shipping. The representation of art on the walls of the caves, stupas and temples enlighten us regarding their joint ventures, experiences and problems faced during the sea voyages. The finding of varieties of pottery, punch marked and Roman coins, Brahmi and Kharoshti inscriptions along the ports, trade centres and Buddhist settlements suggest the role played by them in maritime trade during the early historical period and later. Mariners of India were aware of the monsoon wind and currents for more than two thousand years if not earlier. Furthermore, the study shows that the maritime contact with Southeast Asian countries was seasonal and no changes of Southwest and Northeast monsoon have been noticed since then. This paper details the types of pottery, beads, cargo found at ports, trade routes and Buddhist settlements along the east coast of India and the role of monsoons in maritime trade. The impact of Buddhism on trade and society of the region are also discussed.

  18. Tolerance of Religious People in Nusa Jaya Villages, District III of Belitang, South East Regency, South Sumatera Province at 1961-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Susilo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research described how life tolerance of religion in Nusa Jaya Village Belitang District III Regency OKU East Sumatera Selatan, besides to know the factors that cause success tolerance of religion in Nusa Jaya Village Belitang District III Regency of OKU East of South Sumatera. Tolerance is a problem that often arises throughout the time, especially tolerance among religious people. Historically, the religious nature of tolerance does not just appear. This research aims to determine the factors that lead to the success of religious, between Islam, Catholicism, Protestant Christianity, and Buddhism in the Nusa Jaya village, District III of East Belitang, District of OKU, South Sumatra. The method used in this study is the historical method, obtained through in-depth interviews, documentation and literature study. The results showed that normatively the basic values that form the basis of the establishment of tolerance among religious people is the value of religion and cultural Javanese descendants. While empirically composed of human values, nationalism, historical, exemplary public religious leaders and the value of patience.

  19. Public Willingness to Pay for Transforming Jogyesa Buddhist Temple in Seoul, Korea into a Cultural Tourism Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ye Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jogyesa Buddhist Temple (JBT, located in Seoul, Korea, is the chief temple of the Jogye Order, which represents Korean Buddhism. The Seoul government plans to transform the JBT into a cultural tourism resource and a historical site. This study attempts to analyze the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing the transformation, which includes building a new shopping arcade for Buddhist culture and tourism, constructing a museum for the teaching of history and an experience center for Korean traditional culture in the precincts of JBT, and making an open space for domestic and/or foreign visitors. To this end, the study looks into the WTP for the implementation, reporting on a contingent valuation (CV survey that was conducted with 500 Seoul households. The single-bounded dichotomous choice CV model and a spike model were applied to derive the WTP responses and analyze the WTP data with zero observations, respectively. The mean yearly WTP was computed to be KRW 7129 (USD 6.30 per household for the next five years, with the estimate being statistically significant at the 1% level. Expanding the value to the Seoul population gives us KRW 25.4 billion (USD 22.5 million per year. The present value of the total WTP amounts to KRW 114.6 billion (USD 101.3 million using a social discount rate of 5.5%. We can conclude that Seoul households are ready to shoulder some of the financial burden of implementing the transformation.

  20. How Peircean semiotic philosophy connects Western science with Eastern emptiness ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-12-01

    In recent articles in this journal I have discussed why a traditional physicalist and mechanist, as well as an info-computationalist, view of science cannot fulfil the goal of building a transdisciplinary science across Snow's two cultures. There seems to be no path proceeding from mechanistic physicalism to views that encompass phenomenological theories of experiential consciousness and meaning-based cognition and communication. I have suggested, as an alternative, the Cybersemiotic framework's integration of Peirce's semiotics and Luhmann's autopoietic system theory. The present article considers in greater depth the ontological developments necessary to make this possible. It shows how Peirce avoids materialism and German idealism through his building on a concept of emptiness similar to modern quantum field theory, positing an indeterminist objective chance feeding into an evolutionary philosophy of knowing based on pure mathematics and phenomenology that is itself combined with empirically executed fallibilism. Furthermore, he created a new metaphysics in the form of a philosophical synechist triadic process philosophy. This was integrated into the transcendentalist view of process view of science and spirituality developed from Western Unitarianism by Emerson (agapism), and featuring a metaphysics of emptiness and spontaneity (tychism) that are also essential for the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism and Vedanta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facing the grand challenges through heuristics and mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powietrzynska, Malgorzata; Tobin, Kenneth; Alexakos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    We address the nature of mindfulness and its salience to education generally and to science education specifically. In a context of the historical embeddedness of mindfulness in Buddhism we discuss research in social neuroscience, presenting evidence for neuronal plasticity of the brain and six emotional styles, which are not biologically predetermined, but are responsive to adaptation through life experiences. We raise questions about the role of science education in mediating the structure and function of the brain. Also, we discuss interventions to increase Mindfulness in Education, including meditation and heuristics, that act as reflexive objects to heighten awareness of characteristics of mindfulness and increase the likelihood of changes in the conduct of social life—increasing the mindfulness of those who engage the characteristics included in the heuristic. We present mindfulness and the development of a toolkit for ameliorating emotions when and as necessary as a component of a science curriculum that orientates toward wellness and sustainability. We advocate for changes in the nature of science education to reflect the priorities of the twenty first century that relate to sustainability of the living and nonliving universe and wellness of sentient beings.

  2. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  3. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  4. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

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    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  5. Astronomical Knowledge in Holy Books

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    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate religious myths related to astronomy from different cultures in an attempt to identify common subjects and characteristics. The paper focuses on astronomy in religion. The initial review covers records from Holy books about sky related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. The purpose of this study is to introduce sky related religious and national traditions (particularly based on different calendars; Solar or Lunar). We carried out a comparative study of astronomical issues contained in a number of Holy books: Ancient Egyptian Religion (Pyramid Texts), Zoroastrianism (Avesta), Hinduism (Vedas), Buddhism (Tipitaka), Confucianism (Five Classics), Sikhism (Guru Granth Sahib), Christianity (Bible), Islam (Quran), Druidism (Mabinogion) and Maya Religion (Popol Vuh). These books include various information on the creation of the Universe, Sun and Moon, the age of the Universe, Cosmic sizes, understanding about the planets, stars, Milky Way and description of the Heavens in different religions. We come to the conclusion that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture, and from religion to religion and preastronomical views had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on religious diversities. We prove that Astronomy is the basis of cultures, and that national identity and mythology and religion were formed due to the special understanding of celestial objects.

  6. A body-mind-spirit model in health: an Eastern approach.

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    Chan, C; Ho, P S; Chow, E

    2001-01-01

    Under the division of labor of Western medicine, the medical physician treats the body of patients, the social worker attends to their emotions and social relations, while the pastoral counselor provides spiritual guidance. Body, mind, cognition, emotion and spirituality are seen as discrete entities. In striking contrast, Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism and traditional Chinese medicine adopt a holistic conceptualization of an individual and his or her environment. In this view, health is perceived as a harmonious equilibrium that exists between the interplay of 'yin' and 'yang': the five internal elements (metal, wood, water, fire and earth), the six environmental conditions (dry, wet, hot, cold, wind and flame), other external sources of harm (physical injury, insect bites, poison, overeat and overwork), and the seven emotions (joy, sorrow, anger, worry, panic, anxiety and fear). The authors have adopted a body-mind-spirit integrated model of intervention to promote the health of their Chinese clients. Indeed, research results on these body-mind-spirit groups for cancer patients, bereaved wives and divorced women have shown very positive intervention outcomes. There are significant improvements in their physical health, mental health, sense of control and social support.

  7. Asceticism and the Pursuit of Death by Warriors and Monks

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    Ken Jeremiah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong connection between martial arts and religious practices in Japan. Martial art practitioners, in an effort to utilize inner energy (ki and to eliminate fear, often turn to ascetic discipline. Mountain ascetics called yamabushi are known for their extreme, life-threatening training methods. Some of them, after ten years of mental and physical preparation, buried themselves alive, aspiring to become living Buddhas. This is the relatively unknown practice of self-mummification: a tradition that originated with Kukai, the founder of Shingon Buddhism. Approximately twenty individuals in Japan have successfully mummified themselves by means of ascetic discipline and special diets. The frame of mind developed while preparing for their deaths is the same mind-set that warriors strive to attain. Single-minded determination, the complete absence of fear, and the nonexistence of self are demonstrated in the actions of these individuals. These are the same qualities that are found in any master of the martial arts.

  8. Possibilities and Limits of Religion in the Cyberspace of Digital Media

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    Slavomír Gálik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper study possibilities and limits of religion in the cyberspace of digital media, especially in the World of Warcraft videogame. Basing on various research cases, they claim that videogames can saturate religious needs of the hypermodern human. Nevertheless, they cannot substitute them totally, since there is the humans’ body, a barrier between virtual and traditional religion. In the first case (the so-called external limitation, the body is irreplaceable in religious ritual such as Baptising in Christian religion or Mindfulness of Breathing (ānāpānasati in Buddhism. In the second case (the so-called internal limitation, when the body (or its nerve centre is linked to technologies, the boundary lies in the depth and validity of spiritual experience. The authors state that even if positive cyber-spiritual experience could be reached, it would still be necessary to plant it into broader moral and cognitive frames. Only in such case it could represent a positive stimulus for the spiritual journey.

  9. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

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    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  10. Caveat Emptor: The Dalai Lama’s Proviso and the Burden of (Scientific Proof

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    Rob Hogendoorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A more complete understanding of the Dalai Lama’s intellectual milieu and mental framework serves to contextualize and appraise his contributions to the discourse on Buddhism and Science in general, and the so-called Mind and Life Dialogues in particular. In addition to providing indispensable background information, a fuller expression of his foundational views and motives sheds light upon the idiosyncratic way the Dalai Lama engages new fields of knowledge. Thanks to the Dialogues’ format and the transparency of the Dalai Lama’s scholastic mentality, the way in which Mind and Life participants meet various challenges in practice offers enough traction to retrieve and critically appraise real-time patterns of engagement and innovation. This should prove to be instrumental in determining the Dialogues’ measure of success, at least by its own standards and stated purpose. Following this approach, the Dalai Lama’s long-time use of a proviso derived from Tsongkhapa’s reading of Middle Way philosophy as a methodological distinction that delineates the scope of Science warrants specific attention.

  11. Piercing to the Pith of the Body: The Evolution of Body Mandala and Tantric Corporeality in Tibet

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    Rae Erin Dachille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist tantric practitioners embrace the liminal status of the human body to manifest divine identity. In piercing to the pith of human embodiment, the tantric practitioner reconfigures the shape and contours of his/her reality. This article investigates the evolution of one particular technique for piercing to the pith of the body on Tibetan soil, a ritual practice known as body mandala [lus dkyil Skt. deha-maṇḍala]. In particular, it uncovers a significant shift of emphasis in the application of the Guhyasamāja body mandala practice initiated by champions of the emerging Gandenpa [Dga’ ldan pa] or Gelukpa [Dge lugs pa] tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 and Mkhas grub rje (1385–1438. This article reveals some of the radical implications of ritual exegesis, ranging from the socioreligious aspects of securing prestige for a tradition to the ultimate soteriological goals of modifying the boundaries between life and death and ordinary and enlightened embodiment.

  12. Drastic Aridification Caused the Decline of Oasis Civilizations on the Silk Route during the Eighth Century

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    Wei, K.; Song, S.; Huang, C.

    2003-12-01

    Availability of water, and response to shortage of it, plays an important role in shaping human history. Near a century ago, Ellsworth Huntington (1907) suggested that the developments of ancient civilizations in Inner Asian and their invasions into China and Europe were pulsed by climatic changes. In revisiting this proposition, here we present a paleoclimatic record of the past 5000 years deduced from carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon and percentage of aragonite in bulk sediments of a radiometrically dated sedimentary core of Lake Bosten, Xinjiang, China. Together the two proxies of aridity provide a detailed record of climatic fluctuation of the Inner Asia. The arid periods are well characterized by high content of authigenic aragonite and heavier values of carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon in the bulk sediments (implying dominance of C4 plants which thrived under arid condition). Conversely, the humid/wet periods are marked by lighter carbon isotopic values (indicating presence of C3 plants of humid climateœcand absence of aragonite. The Western Region (Xi-Y"1) area of China enjoyed a long period of stable and humid condition from 2nd century B.C. to the 8th century when many oasis city-states were established and Buddhism spread from India. A drastic deterioration of climate during the eighth century appears to cause the decline of those once strived ancient civilizations in the eastern side of the Tarim Basin along the Silk Routes.

  13. 禮的「俗化」與「宗教化」--以現代中國的婚禮與喪禮為例 台灣 高雄師範大學 杜明德/“Secularization” and “Religion” of Ceremony––Modern Chinese Wedding and Funeral

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    Ming-Te TU

    2012-09-01

    關鍵字:禮、婚禮、喪禮、俗化、宗教化 Although “etiquette” is the essence of traditional culture in China, due to the development of modern society, its perspective should include the requirement of human sympathy, transformation of objects, and the role or duty associated with one’s title so that an appropriate manner can be well maintained. The times have changed and if the traditional etiquette cannot follow the steps of civilization, it will be eliminated. Contemporary Chinese weddings have become popularized and funerals religionized; however, they cannot completely meet the expectations of the Confucianists, but rather follow the development of etiquette, while conforming to the principles underlying the legislation and implementation of the rules of etiquette. Furthermore, integration can be found in the phenomenon of popularized weddings and religionized funerals, fully making it obvious that religious behavior has combined with the local wedding ceremonies. Because of the influence of Taoism and Buddhism, local folklore characteristics can be seen in funeral rites. As a result, if the connotations of the etiquette are maintained, whether it is a popularized or religionized ceremony, such etiquette can still be accepted by the society.

  14. On Matteo Ricci’s Interpretations of Chinese Culture

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    Chen Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On the contribution to introducing Western learning to China by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610, the 16th -century Italian Jesuit missionary to the Ming Dynasty, abundant research has been done; however, not so on his contribution to introducing Chinese learning to the West, and if so, not profoundly. Though Ricci‟s understandings of Chinese culture were found in every aspect of Ming Dynasty lives, this essay focuses on four important and representative aspects, and analyzes the political system of a government guided by philosophers, the confused outlooks of religious sects, Chinese ethics compared to Christian tenets, and the unique qualities of the Chinese language. It discloses Ricci‟s moderate (middle-of-the-road attitude toward Chinese culture, especially his efforts to reconcile Confucianism and Christianity as well as his prejudice against Buddhism and Taoism, which shows on the one hand his broad-mindedness as a humanistic missionary, and on the other the historical or rather religious limitations of his absolute faith as a pious Catholic. Narrow-minded or broad-minded, Ricci‟s role as the first scholar who introduced Chinese learning to the West should not be neglected. One should bear in mind that it is Ricci who laid the foundation for European sinology.

  15. Konsep Kehidupan Dalam Ruang Pada Kelenteng Sam Kouw Di Surakarta Studi Kasus : Kelenteng T’ien Kok Sie, Kelenteng Poo An Kiong Dan Cetiya Ksiti Garbha

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    Dyah Susilowati Pradnya Paramita

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The kelenteng was used by three traditional religions brought by Chinese traders, namely Tao, Khonghucu and Buddhism which then together named Sam Kouw (Tri Darma The kelenteng Sam Kouw had many worshiped sculptures to which their worship ritualwas based. The kelenteng was taken care by a suhu acted as a mediator during the worship. Due to his role in worship, the Suhu and his family also stayed in the kelenteng.Based on that phenomenon, this research is focused on the rooms usage in kelenteng as a place of interaction of both worship and household routines. This research applies naturalistic qualitative methodology. The researcher played as the main instrument in collecting the data by observation, interview. The data gained during the research was formulated to some topics analyzed inductively before the researcher conducted an inter -topic dialog.. Thi s researched was conducted in three objects with cross sectional method to strengthen the data and sharpen the focus of observation. The three objects are: 1 Kelenteng T’ien Kok Sie in Ketandan; 2 Kelenteng Poo An Kiong in Coyudan, and 3 Cetiya Ksiti Garbha in Srambatan  The result of the research shows that kelenteng Sam Kouw has a public worship room in front of kelenteng , has a particular worship room in behind of kelenteng , and always has a meditation room that has always perpendicular a prominent god altar.

  16. Gender culture in Hinduism, traditionalist and modernization issues

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    I. O. Svyatnenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relationship between the traditional and the modernization of gender dimensions in the culture of Hinduism. The author concludes that women in classical Hindu texts, so often perceived as being of a lower order, sometimes reduced to Sudra level, regardless of their actual caste. On the other hand, images of women positioned in a variety of goddesses, which is obviously positive prototypes dharmichnyh women. However, the traditional gender roles of women in Hindu household in India has changed over the past fifty or a hundred years. Western countries have influenced these changes. The continued recovery of the social status of women has led to significant changes concern a wide range of issues: education, health measures, rural and industrial schemes of social security, the problems of early marriage, wearing the burqa, the status of widows, suffrage, women, women’s representation in government. Positioning social status of women improved substantially thanks to Buddhism. Women and men are equal in ethics that has been softened significantly in terms of expanding the number of women’s rights. While patriarchal society and patriarchal and sexist gender culture Brahmanism remained unchanged in the Buddhist society women have gained more freedom and considered as independent - they were allowed to become nuns and religious and be social and active individuals.

  17. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view.

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    Xiao, Qianguo; Yue, Caizhen; He, Weijie; Yu, Jia-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes studies of mindfulness and the self, with the aim of deepening our understanding of the potential benefits of mindfulness and meditation for mental health and well-being. Our review of empirical research reveals that positive changes in attitudes toward the self and others as a result of mindfulness-enabled practices can play an important role in modulating many mental and physical health problems. Accordingly, we introduce a new concept-the "mindful self"-and compare it with related psychological constructs to describe the positive changes in self-attitude associated with mindfulness meditation practices or interventions. The mindful self is conceptualized as a mindfulness-enlightened self-view and attitude developed by internalizing and integrating the essence of Buddhist psychology into one's self-system. We further posit that the mindful self will be an important intermediary between mindfulness intervention and mental health problems, and an important moderator in promoting well-being. More generally, we suggest that the mindful self may also be an applicable concept with which to describe and predict the higher level of self-development of those who grow up in the culture of Buddhism or regularly engage in meditation over a long period of time.

  18. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

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    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. OS DIREITOS HUMANOS SOB A ÓTICA DAS DIFERENTES TRADIÇÕES RELIGIOSAS

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    Giselle Marques de Araújo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A doutrina contemporânea dos direitos humanos vem sendo construída a partir de consensos estabelecidos entre os países integrantes da Organização das Nações Unidas, que possibilitaram a Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos de 1948, aceito como mais importante documento em relação ao tema. Neste artigo, retratamos a análise de cientistas sociais que procuram verificar se existiria uma base comum entre esta doutrina e as diferentes tradições religiosas por eles professadas: islamismo, budismo, confucionismo e hinduísmo.Defendemos a idéia de que as identidades tradicionais precisam ser explicitadas e valorizadasno espaço público, onde a dimensão espiritual do ser humano merece ser contemplada. // The contemporary doctrine of human rights has been constructed from the consensus established among the member countries of the United Nations, which allowed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, accepted as the most important document in this regard. In this article we have depicted the analysis of social scientists who seek to verify whether there was common ground between this doctrine and the different religious traditions which they professed: Islam, Buddhism, Confucianism and Hinduism. We support the idea that identities need to be spelled traditional and valued in the public space, where the spiritual dimension of human being deserves to be considered.

  20. Where East meets West: in the house of individuation.

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    Stein, Murray

    2017-02-01

    The psychological process of individuation as experienced in Jungian work may lead to states of consciousness that resemble advanced spiritual developments across religious traditions and cultures. This is where Westerners may reach a common ground with the East. In the essentials and with respect to the final goal there is little difference among the many ways to the self, even if the cultural features in the landscape are disparate. In late stage Jungian analysis and individuation and in what Erich Neumann calls 'centroversion', the personal and the impersonal aspects of the personality accumulate around the ego-self axis to form a composite identity. In this complex structure the ego does not vanish but is joined to the impersonal archetypal levels of the psyche and identity thus becomes at once individual and archetypal. This is the third stage of conjunction as described by Jung in Mysterium Coniunctionis and it is identical to the type of consciousness depicted in the final scenes of Zen Buddhism's Ten Ox-Herding Pictures. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. Making Sense of the Works of Amar Kanwar: A Phenomenological Perspective

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    Christine Vial Kayser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amar Kanwar (b. 1964 is an Indian video and installation artist whose stated concern is violence in the context of South Asia. This article will examine two works, 'A Season Outside' (1997 and 'The Lightning ­Testimonies' (2007, proposing that empathy, intersubjectivity and a search for ­harmony, influenced both by Gandhi and Buddhism, are key concepts relevant to their interpretation while the choice of images and the editing process convey an embodied, phenomenological experience that is coherent with these influences. In addition it will infer from some evidence given by the works and by the artist that this search for social and collective harmony also has a psychological and individual dimension. It will be argued that the latter constitutes the true power of the works as the spectator does not so much reflect upon the violence exercised by the various perpetrators and experienced by the victims in a rational and political manner, but, rather, witnesses the film-maker’s reaction to the experience of violence; a situation which Vivian Sobchack has characterised as phenomenological. Through this process the spectator can empathise with the narrator and reflect on the affects examined by the works: namely violence and loss, but also love and compassion.

  2. The Role of Religion in the Life of Zainichi Koreans in Japan

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    Nataša VISOČNIK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the many elements that define people’s identity is ethnicity, which refers mainly to a person’s or a group’s sociocultural heritage, based on characteristics such as common or shared national origin, language, religion, dietary preferences, dress and manners, and other traits that denote a common ancestry. Religious identity, especially if shared, can influence one’s socioeconomic adjustment within an ethnic boundary that promotes ethnic identity, and religious faith can be a source of ethnic and even inter-ethnic solidarity. Korean immigrants in Japan established numerous mutual aid organizations, religious institutions, and self-governing bodies that aimed to promote the welfare of Korean communities, and thus work to establish the Korean identity in Japan. The religious practice of Japan’s Korean minority represents Confucianism, Christianity, shamanism, and Buddhism, or even a combination of two or more of them. This paper asks whether religion worked as a strong homogenising and distinguishing factor in the case of Korean minority and how did this role change through the generations of Koreans in Japan?

  3. Initiations in the Burmese Ritual Landscape

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    Bénédicte Brac de la Perrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Buddhist Burma, a variety of ritual has been found pertaining to quite differentiated aspects of religion. This rich ritual landscape remains under-examined due partly to the Buddhist-studies bias of most of the scholars looking at religion in Burma. In this paper, I develop comparative analysis of a class of ritual, namely that of initiation, in three components of Burmese religion: Buddhist monasticism, Buddhist esotericism, and spirit worship. At least from the present analytic perspective, the three components considered could be taken as encompassing the entire Buddhist religious sphere in Burma. Looking at initiation rituals in these three ‘paths’ is a means of understanding how they frame contrasting kinds of differently valued religious practice, and of showing that, although not often discussed, rituals do matter in Burma because they help distinguish categories of action according to their relative religiosity. By doing so, I aim to give a sense of the real diversity of the Burmese ritual landscape, which until recently was rarely taken into account, and to contribute to the on-going debate in the field of Buddhist studies on what could be encapsulated as the question of Buddhism and spirit cults in Southeast Asian Theravada.

  4. AHP 28: Review: Mongolian Language Scholarship on the Mongols of the Gansu-Qinghai Region

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    Mátyás Balogh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available QINGHAI AND GANSU MONGOLS The majority of China's Mongol population (estimated at 3.5-4 million live in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR. Some also live in the adjacent provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and Hebei. A significant number of Mongol communities also exist in northwest China, notably in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR, and in Qinghai and Gansu provinces.1 The Mongols of these administrative regions are predominantly Oyrat-Mongols (Weilate, otherwise known as western Mongols. The four major tribes of the Oyrats – the Dörböt, Torguud, Hoshuud, and Choros – established the Jungharian Empire (1630-1758 in the seventeenth century in the north part of what is now the XUAR. When the Choros began gaining the upper hand in the struggle for hegemony in the late 1620s, many Dörböts and Torguuds left the region and migrated to the Volga delta, where they established their own khanate under Russian protectorate, and became known as the Kalmyks. In 1736, another group of Oyrats, under the Hoshuud Güüshi Han's leadership, left the area for the Kuku-Nor region, roughly present-day Qinghai Province, in order to aid the fifth Dalai Llama and expel the Halh Tsogt Taiji's Mongols, enemies of the Dge lugs pa order of Buddhism.

  5. The philosophy of nature as a springboard into social realism: about Ibsen's Emperor and Galilean and a post-secular interpretation of the drama by Hilda Hellwig

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    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich von Schelling was a significant cultural influence when Henrik Ibsen lived in Germany in the 1850s. However, because of Schelling’s Naturphilosophie, which stood out as irreconcilable with the scientific philosophy of the positivists, Schelling came to be more and more neglected after the mid-nineteenth century. His pronounced idealism, belief in God, and metaphysical comments were branded ‘old-fashioned’ soon after his death. Today, Schelling is mentioned in contexts where ideas about ‘mindfulness’ are of importance. In 1979 a clinic for Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR was founded and although originally articulated as an element of Buddhism, it is pointed out by committed practitioners that there is nothing inherently religious about mindfulness. It is however about integrating the healing aspects of Buddhist meditation practices with the concept of psychological awareness and healing. To a high degree in Western countries, psychotherapists have adapted and developed mindfulness techniques. When it comes to metaphysics, Schelling’s influence on the religious ideas that were accepted by Ibsen was never acknowledged. This text will throw some light upon Schelling as a source of inspiration for Ibsen and his milieu. Is it so, that Schelling’s ideas not until our ‘post-secular’ epoch have come into their own? Ibsen producers and actors are familiar with ‘New World Mindfulness’ and the history of mindfulness in the West.

  6. Einstein Universe Revisited and End of Dark ERA

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    Nurgaliev, Ildus S.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the earliest general relativistic cosmological solution was received by Einstein himself as homogenous, isotropic one. In accordance with European cosmology it was expected static. The Eternal Universe as scientific model is conflicting with the existed theological model of the Universe created by God, therefore, of the limited age. Christianity, younger Islam, older Judaism are based on creationism. Much older oriental traditions such us Hinduism and Buddhism are based on conceptions of eternal and cyclic Universe which are closer to scientific worldview. To have static universe Einstein needed a factor to counteract gravity and postulated cosmological term and considered it as a disadvantage of the theory. This aesthetic dissatisfaction was amplified by interpretation distance-redshift relationship as a cosmological expansion effect. Emerged scientific cosmological community (excluding Hubble himself - almost always) endorsed the concept of expanding Universe. At the same time, as it is shown in this report, a natural well known factors do exist to counteract gravity. They are inertial centrifugal and Coriolis forces finding their geometrical presentation in the relativity theory.

  7. Positive influence of traditional culture and socioeconomic activity on conservation: a case study from the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Tibet.

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    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Huo, Sheng; Xiao, Wen; Cui, Liang-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Found in the Trans-Himalayas of north-west Yunnan and south-east Tibet, the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) is one of the world's most endangered primates. A recent survey indicates that only 15 groups with 2500 individuals remain in the wild. However, the Tibetan Xiaochangdu group may be the only equilibrium group in the field since the last investigation in 1988. To evaluate the effects of traditional culture and socioeconomic activity on biodiversity conservation of R. bieti, we conducted a case study in the Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve in southeast Tibet from June 2003 to May 2005. Interviews, direct observations, and analysis of socioeconomic data indicated major advantages to the conservation of R. bieti, which included that: 1) traditional culture mainly depended on raising livestock and collecting non-timber products rather than forest planting of Tibetan highland barley; 2) religious beliefs, against to kill any wildlife living on the sacred mountain, were mainly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism; and 3) bigger household numbers were induced by the polyandrous marriage system, which resulted in lower per capita resource consumption than smaller ones.

  8. Beyond Emptiness: A Critical Review

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    Halla Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book, Jae-Seong Lee argues that not only Eastern thoughts but also Western philosophy lead us to transcend our ordinary, binary, reflexive thought and become one with the truth, namely, Emptiness, or the true self. But this aspect has not been thoroughly considered in Western metaphysics. After considering Heidegger’s failure to get to the bottom of transcendence through his “Dasein,” Lee looks to the French postmodern ethicists, in particular, Levinas, in this regard. Just like the Mahayana Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna did almost two thousand years earlier, Lee suggests that Levinas too may have hit upon the insight that genuine subjectivity can be reached through an openness to the Other as the wholly exterior. Throughout the entire book, Jae-Seong Lee shows a strong interest in postmodern ethics, Daoism, Buddhism, theology, and literature, but in the end, he concludes that Buddhist philosophy, with its focus on Emptiness, would be the best approach to a merging of Eastern and Western Ways of thinking in our search for the ultimate and absolute. Finally, Lee suggests that the general philosophical theory he introduces and develops actually works for literary works including the Book of Job, Count Dracula and Frankenstein.

  9. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  10. Characterizing PAH emission concentrations in ambient air during a large-scale joss paper open-burning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Der; Rau, Jui-Yeh; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Wey, Ming-Yen; Chu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Yu-Hao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2008-08-15

    Large-scale open burning of joss paper is an important ritual practice for deity worshipping during Buddhist and Taoist festivals. Since Buddhism and Taoism are two of the most popular religions in Chinese societies and some Asian countries, the impact of joss paper burning on the air quality needs further investigation. This study explores the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air during one of the most important festivals, in which large-scale burning of joss paper occurs in temples and in people's houses. The PAH concentrations were measured simultaneously at a temple site and a background site during both the festival and non-festive (ordinary) periods. Each ambient sample was extracted by the Soxhlet analytical method (for both particle-bound and gas-phase) and analyzed with gas chromatography. Experimental results indicate that the total PAH concentration during the festival period is approximately 4.2 times higher than that during the ordinary period (5384 ng m(-3) vs. 1275 ng m(-3)). This study also employed statistical methods including diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the possible PAH emission sources. Joss paper burning and vehicular emissions are identified as the principal sources of airborne PAHs during the large-scale open-burning event. The results of this work provide useful information for public awareness concerning PAH emission from the open burning of joss paper.

  11. An Asian perspective on organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Michael Cheng-tek

    2009-01-01

    The organ transplantation seems to have become a route practice of modern medical treatment when a patient's organ fails providing that she/he can afford the cost and a suitable organ is found. This practice, however, was not without scepticism and reservation at least to some Asians, for instance, Japan has been reluctant to launch a brave search for organs to save any patient whose organs fail. The western world including Vatican has seen donating one's organ for transplantation to save others as an act of love. Compassion is one of the main teachings in Asian tradition too, therefore culturally, Asians should be in favour of this modern medical treatment. But the ancient teachings of Asia also call for respecting parents by carefully safeguarding the gift of body that they gave and abiding in Tao to follow the flow of nature. What will the Asian ancient sages say to this new modern medical technology? This article will examine the teachings of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism to find out how they respond to the procedures of organ transplantation.

  12. Factors and features of religious modernization in Taiwan: socio-historical retrospective (part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of religious modernization in Taiwan. It has been concluded by the author that the modernization in traditional societies, according to the analysis of key religious communities of Taiwan, can be implemented to a limited extent by means of traditional religions - Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. It is possible only on the basis of syncretic religious cults, which allow placing rationalist values at the first place next to the enrichment of values and self-promotion. For the social morality of Thai society this means crisis situation and the emergence of numerous conflicts on the grounds of incompatibility with the principles of legitimation of traditional social action by Weber. Therefore, there is reason to predict highly probable poor compatibility of modernization vector with traditional Thai religions. However, a small percentage of the Thai population (5% has the congregation of Christianity and Islam, through which it becomes possible to promote the modified project of modernity. However, this idea requires further proof, as there are some quite ambiguous concepts of strengthening the authority of science, secular world, the capitalist-type accumulation among scientists and experts in the field of sociology of religion. However, the common denominator in the assessment of the discourse of modernization prospects of Thai society has optimistic point of view, allowing significant changes in the social structure and culture of Taiwan by the latent secularization, which is implemented through Christian missionary work.

  13. Type 2 diabetes: how do Thai Buddhist people with diabetes practise self-management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes practice self-management. The importance of diabetes self-management is recognized in the literature. However, research on self-care management in Thailand, in particular concerning Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes, is scarce. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and thirty men and women with diabetes, aged 28-79 years, participated. Data were collected from June to August 2009 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Five themes of self-management among Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes were identified: cultural influence on disease control, Buddhism and Thai culture, struggle for disease control, family support and economy a high priority. Even though the Buddhist people with diabetes had certain self-management capabilities, many had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to Buddhist moderation can be an effective means of helping the people with diabetes better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. In addition to cultural and religious traditions, family, economy and social environment should be taken into account both in the care and in interventions aimed at helping people with diabetes cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A cross-cultural study of employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder: implications for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Angell, Beth; Corrigan, Patrick W; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Shi, Kan; Lam, Chow S; Jin, Shenghua; Fung, Kevin M T

    2007-09-01

    Employment discrimination is considered as a major impediment to community integration for people with serious mental illness, yet little is known about how the problem manifests differently across western and non-western societies. We developed a lay model based on Chinese beliefs and values in terms of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and folk religions which may be used to explain cross-cultural variation in mental illness stigma, particularly in the arena of employment discrimination. In this study, we tested this lay approach by comparing employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder for entry-level jobs in US and China. One hundred employers (40 from Chicago, 30 from Hong Kong, and 30 from Beijing) were randomly recruited from small size firms and interviewed by certified interviewers using a semi-structured interview guide designed for this study. Content analysis was used to derive themes, which in turn were compared across the three sites using chi-square tests. Analyses reveal that employers express a range of concerns about hiring an employee with mental illness. Although some concerns were raised with equal frequency across sites, comparisons showed that, relative to US employers, Chinese employers were significantly more likely to perceive that people with mental illness would exhibit a weaker work ethic and less loyalty to the company. Comparison of themes also suggests that employers in China were more people-oriented while employers in US were more task-oriented. Cultural differences existed among employers which supported the lay theory of mental illness.

  15. Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Management Through Buddhist Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fung Kei

    2017-04-24

    Dealing with physical pain represents a huge public health expenditure, especially for cancer-induced bone pain, one of the most difficult health issues, which impairs appetite, sleep, and mobility, negatively impacting quality of life and evoking mental problems. Although some literature has reported positive correlation between religion and pain management, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of Buddhism on this topic. This study investigates the usefulness of Buddhist beliefs in managing cancer-induced bone pain through a case example. It illustrates how an advanced cancer patient, with the assistance of a counsellor, perceived pain and coped with it and pain-induced mental problems via Buddhist teachings and practices, including the four noble truths, the law of dependent origination, and karma. It offers alternative perspectives for helping professionals (such as physicians, nurses, counsellors, social workers, hospice and palliative service providers, and pain management practitioners) who are keen to equip themselves with a wider worldview and life view to better serve their clients.

  16. Influence of urbanity on perception of mental illness stigma: a population based study in urban and rural Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Zieger, Aron; Schomerus, Georg; Cao, Tien Duc; Dettling, Michael; Do, Xuan Tinh; Mungee, Aditya; Diefenbacher, Albert; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Hahn, Eric

    2016-12-01

    To examine, for the first time in Vietnam, whether urbanity of respondents among other socio-demographic factors affects the public perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness in Hanoi. A general population-based survey was carried out in 2013 in the greater Hanoi area. The perception of stigma attached to people with mental illness was elicited using Link's perceived discrimination and devaluation scale (PDDS) carried out in Vietnamese language. The survey sample (n = 806) was stratified for gender, urban/rural location, age, household size and marital status, in accordance with the 2013 Vietnamese census. Comparing the total score of the PDDS and its single items, we found less perceived stigma and discrimination among the rural population of Hanoi and in respondents who reported religious attainment to either Buddhism or Christianity. Logistic regression analyses found no significant influences of gender, age, household size or marital status regarding the perceived stigma toward persons with mental illness. Less negative perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness that was observed among the rural population in the Hanoi area may be interpreted in the light of possibly more demanding living conditions in modern urban Vietnam with less opportunities for mentally ill patients and points toward a dynamic interaction with rapidly changing living conditions in Asian megacities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. CULTURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

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    Wijitapure Wimalaratana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has recorded a tremendous growth in the past and this trend will continue further uninterruptedly. Sri Lanka has been one of the major tourist attractions since antiquity. The end of a protracted civil war has been a blessing for the tourist industry and the consequent rapid expansion of tourist infrastructure in the island. Although the island is a small one, it is rich in religious and cultural diversity. Buddhism is the main religion of the majority of people, while Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are also practiced by portions of the population. The resultant rich cultural heritage of the island has been constructed around religious practices, historical monuments and ancient cities, meditation, yoga, folk music and dances, festivities, ceremonies and rituals. Special sites with multi religious attractions reflect the diversity and uniqueness of a rich culture. The North Central Province of Sri Lanka is especially rich in cultural resources owing largely to it housing two cities that served as the island’s capital for more than 1000 years in ancient times. Only a small fraction of this vast amount of resources has been utilized by the tourism industry so far. The paper argues that the promotion of religious and cultural tourism products in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka will open up new avenues of engagement for tourists and income generation for the island. Ancient monuments and religious sites, segments of culture tourism, would be magnates to overseas archeologists and Buddhist communities.

  18. A Dialogue on Menstrual Taboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Kaundal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today in the 21st century, we may boast of gender equality and women empowerment but the truth is somewhat implausible. Today women may have excelled in many spheres of life but, somewhere, she is still struggling to get out of her veil. In the name of tradition a women is always told to follow the rules what the society has set for her. A look at major religions of the world shows that, without exception, they have placed restrictions on menstruating women. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have all made statements about menstruation and its negative effect, leading to prohibitions about attending places of worship, cooking, physical intimacy and sometimes requiring women to live separately at this time. Present paper is a compilation of the information available on the menstrual taboo and various practices regarding it. For this extensive search was done on internet along with personal observations. The present study is carried out in order to provoke the need for increased research on the psychosocial aspects of menstruation by exploring the attitudes of society toward this monthly event.

  19. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes contains particulate matter (PM, gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  1. Relationship between Values and Religious Identity in Buddhist Adolescents

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    Shorokhova V.A.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.

  2. Reflections Around the Conservation of Sacred Thangkas

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    Sabine Cotte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan thangkas (Buddhist scroll paintings are created as religious ritual objects. The fact that they are mainly considered as artworks in the Western world impacts on the decisions made for their display and conservation. This article explores the current approach to thangkas in Australian public collections and compares it with the views of contemporary Tibetan Buddhism practitioners. It underlines a few misconceptions at the source of conservation decision-making, and discusses practical outcomes of integrating the sacred dimension into professional practice against the backdrop of conservation’s Codes of Ethics. Conserving living religious heritage requires that professional ethical standards are adaptable to the needs of users. Existing frameworks for the conservation of sacred objects of pre-colonised, indigenous cultures provide useful models for the conservation of thangkas. This article argues that engaging with contemporary cultural groups to conserve religious significance is part of the mission of conservators. This is viewed as an expansion of conservation practice into the social realm, in a search for purposeful conservation that establishes the social relevance of our profession.

  3. Mottainai: a Japanese sense of anima mundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuriko

    2017-02-01

    The Japanese expression 'Mottainai!' can be translated as 'What a waste!' or 'Don't be wasteful!' However, mottainai means much more than that. It expresses a sense of concern or regret for whatever is wasted because its intrinsic value is not properly utilized. Buddhism and Japan's indigenous religion, Shinto, are integral to the Japanese psyche, accordingly the other-than-human world is also experienced and lived in daily life. In the Japanese worldview everything in nature is endowed with spirit, every individual existence is dependent on others and all are connected in an ever-changing world. Mottainai offers a glimpse of the anima mundi inherent in this worldview. This contrasts with our anthropocentric Zeitgeist, which manifests outwardly as environmental crisis and inwardly as fixation upon social interactions, especially through communication technologies, to the exclusion of all else. Jung's statement, 'The decisive question for man is: Is he related to something infinite or not? That is the telling question of his life', has never been more pertinent. Encounters beyond the human world could be understood as touching this 'something infinite', and the apparent benefits of such experiences in the analytical process are illustrated with clinical vignettes from the author's practice. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Xu Guangqi’s Thought On Supplementing Confucianism With Christianity

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    Anna Seo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xu Guangqi is one of the most influential Chinese scholars who accepted Christian faith during the late Ming dynasty. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism and replacing Buddhism by Christianity” had great impact on the development of Christianity in China. His idea, however, has often been accused of syncretism, and genuineness of his Christian faith has been put into question. Some argue that his theology lacks Christology. Others suggest that his ultimate goal was to achieve the Confucian political ideals through adopting some of the Christian moral teachings. Through the analysis of Xu Guangqi’ works and life, we find that he accepted all the essential Christian doctrines and Christology is the core of his understanding of “Tianzhu”. His view on Confucianism itself istransformed through Christian perspective. In his new understanding, the ultimate goal of Confucianism is to serve and to worship “Tianzhu”,same as Christianity. The ultimate problem of life is to save one’s soul.Xu Guangqi considered his scientific works as a way to propagate Christian faith,since science was seen as an integral part of Christian thought and practice. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism by Christianity” integrated Confucianism into the overarching framework of Christian thought.

  5. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

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    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  6. Zen-Boeddhistiese selfloosheid as sentrale interteks van die Breytenbach-oeuvre

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    M. Sienaert

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold:•\tTo postulate the Buddhist notion of selflessness as central to the art and writing of Breyten Breytenbach.•\tTo provide an overview of the philosophy this implies and of the way in which it offers a reading of the Breytenbach-oeuvre.The Buddhist concept of selflessness as expressed in the work of Breytenbach is by way of contrast firstly set against the background of the more familiar Western philosophical tradition, and then analysed within the context of Buddhist experiences such as Sunyata, Satori, Zazen and the Taoist principle of relativity to which it is inexorably linked. In doing so an attempt is made to fulfil a need that became apparent from discussions with colleagues and (postgraduate students: Although Zen -Buddhism in general has long been accepted as a primary intertext of the Breytenbach oeuvre, and although it is common practice to refer to notions such as Satori, Zazen and the Void when studying his work, it is not always clear in which way the Buddhist philosophy is pertinent to the creative process as such, be it that of creative writing or painting. To construe the presence of Buddhist terminology in the Breytenbach text as a mere tool for the unfolding of plot or as an attempt to define his writing as moralistic or mystical is an unfortunate misconception. In addition to the focus on Buddhist selflessness and the way in which it is reflected in Breytenbach’s work, this article therefore offers some suggestions on the way in which an understanding of Buddhist principles can serve as elucidation of the nature of the Breytenbach oeuvre and the creative experience as such.

  7. From Self to Nonself: The Nonself Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance/strength of self is a very core concept in Western psychology and is particularly relevant to egoism, a process that draws on the hedonic principle in pursuit of desires. Contrary to this and based on Buddhism, a nonself-cultivating process aims to minimize or extinguish the self and avoid desires, leading to egolessness or selflessness. The purpose of this paper is to present the Nonself Theory (NT). The universal Mandala Model of Self (MMS) was developed to describe the well-functioning self in various cultures. The end goal of the self is to attain authentic and durable happiness. Given that the nonself is considered a well-functioning self, the MMS is suitable for constructing the NT. The ego and nonself aspects of psychological self-functioning and their underlying processes are compared, drawing on the four concepts of the MMS: biology, ideal person, knowledge/wisdom and action. The ego engages in psychological activities to strengthen the self, applying the hedonic principle of seeking desire-driven pleasure. In contrast, a nonself approach involves execution of the self-cultivation principle, which involves three ways: giving up desires, displaying compassion, practicing meditation and seeking understanding Buddhist wisdom. These three ways have the goal of seeing through and overcoming the illusion of the self to achieve a deep transformation integrally connected to the experience of eliminating the sense of self and its psychological structures. In addition, the NT provides a comprehensive framework to account for nonself-plus-compassion-related activities or experiences such as altruism, mindfulness, mediation, mysterious/peak experiences, elimination of death anxiety and moral conduct. The NT offers possible answers that might lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human beings and the deeper meaning of life, toward the ultimate goal of a well-functioning self. An examination of possible clinical applications and theoretical

  8. Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn’s P’ungnyudo and Present-day Hallyu

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    Kwangshik Choe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available P’ungnyudo, originating from the ancient societies, was based on belief in the heavens and native beliefs, but it was also open to and accepting of the teachings of foreign religions such as Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. In the process of teaching this to and transforming the people, it became the central principle of ancient Korea. The hwarang and kuksŏn, who modeled themselves on this guiding ideology, were the leading forces of Silla and the key figures in the unification of the three kingdoms of Silla, Kokuryŏ, and Paekche. During the later years of Silla, however, they underwent some changes. In Koryŏ, there were efforts to revitalize sŏnp’ung; however, only the recreational aspects were emphasized. It continued as the p’ungnyu of music and poetic music of the sŏnbi in Chosŏn, with hwarang deteriorating into one of the eight despised social groups as a male shaman. Since the mid-1990s as Hallyu such as Korean drama and K-pop started to garner popularity, Korean pop culture has been receiving international attention. There has been a renewed interest in Korean enjoyment, talent, and style, as well as in traditional culture of Korea. P’ungnyudo, mentioned early on by Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn in Nallangbisŏ, grounded itself on traditional culture at the same time it was open and accepting towards foreign culture. Hallyu should be developed in the same way. Korea accepted culture from China and its western regions as well as from the West through the Silk Road and further developed it anew. In the same way, it will be possible to revitalize p’ungnyudo by being open minded and accepting of one another and maintaining a spirit of harmony and mutual prosperity.

  9. From Self to Nonself: The Nonself Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance/strength of self is a very core concept in Western psychology and is particularly relevant to egoism, a process that draws on the hedonic principle in pursuit of desires. Contrary to this and based on Buddhism, a nonself-cultivating process aims to minimize or extinguish the self and avoid desires, leading to egolessness or selflessness. The purpose of this paper is to present the Nonself Theory (NT). The universal Mandala Model of Self (MMS) was developed to describe the well-functioning self in various cultures. The end goal of the self is to attain authentic and durable happiness. Given that the nonself is considered a well-functioning self, the MMS is suitable for constructing the NT. The ego and nonself aspects of psychological self-functioning and their underlying processes are compared, drawing on the four concepts of the MMS: biology, ideal person, knowledge/wisdom and action. The ego engages in psychological activities to strengthen the self, applying the hedonic principle of seeking desire-driven pleasure. In contrast, a nonself approach involves execution of the self-cultivation principle, which involves three ways: giving up desires, displaying compassion, practicing meditation and seeking understanding Buddhist wisdom. These three ways have the goal of seeing through and overcoming the illusion of the self to achieve a deep transformation integrally connected to the experience of eliminating the sense of self and its psychological structures. In addition, the NT provides a comprehensive framework to account for nonself-plus-compassion-related activities or experiences such as altruism, mindfulness, mediation, mysterious/peak experiences, elimination of death anxiety and moral conduct. The NT offers possible answers that might lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human beings and the deeper meaning of life, toward the ultimate goal of a well-functioning self. An examination of possible clinical applications and theoretical

  10. Atheist spirituality: a follow on from New Atheism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Taira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Books about well-being, self-improvement, life management and spirituality have been popular for many years. It is not news to anybody that such topics sell. However, books on atheism have never become bestsellers until the early years of the twenty-first century. Now the so-called New Atheist books have altogether sold millions. It may sound surprising, but atheism sells. It may have been the idea of a publishers’ marketing department to put the two selling points together, but in recent years a number of books about atheist spirituality, spiritual atheism and atheist self-help have been published. That has been one aspect of the increased visibility of atheism and spirituality in public discourse. Atheist discourse which is combined with ‘spirituality’ might be called ‘post-secular’ as it does not fit easily into the neat binary classification between religious and non-religious secular. This article examines this hybrid area in atheist discourse in relation to three aspects: monotheism, spirituality and meditation. Atheist discourse situates itself against monotheism, but some spokespersons combine atheism with spirituality and meditation. This works as an example of a wider and recent trend in society where a blurring of the earlier normative boundaries between religion and non-religion has become fairly common, not necessarily in terms of beliefs, but of practices. Even though there is a long tradition of non-theistic and atheistic readings of Buddhism, for example, they have rarely been combined with an explicit criticism of monotheistic traditions and atheist consciousness-raising.

  11. Buddyjskie pojęcie pradźńapti i jego wykładnia w filozofii Nagardźuny [The Buddhist concept of prajñapti and its interpretation in Nāgārjuna’s philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szymański

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Buddhism the word prajñapti traditionally refers to unreal objects, which are referents of names without any real referents. The word was important because Buddhists thought the realisation of the status of some unreal objects (primarily one’s own substantial self as a basis for personal identity is a condition for attaining nirvāṇa. The tendency to consider objects called prajñapti to be products of intentional acts of consciousness is not unexpected. However, the objects created by acts of consciousness were not clearly distinguished from acts of consciousness themselves, names and their meanings, or real compositions of dharmas. Sarvastivadins gave some class of prajñapti objects a special mode of being, which is equivalent to that of Ingarden’s purely intentional objects. The Theravadin thinker Anuruddha II distinguished between attha-paññattis and names and understood the first as objects created by acts of consciousness. Attha-paññattis should not be identified with purely intentional objects because they were not clearly contrasted with cognitive acts creating them. According to Nāgārjuna every object is prajñapti because it is unavoidably a product of an act of consciousness. It is an effect of imposition of some concept on cognitive data. Acts of consciousness, conceptualization and language create false impression of reality unless we clearly know they are essentially defective and the way they are defective. The view of Nāgārjuna seems to be a result of his processual beliefs about reality.

  12. Dynamism of Ballet in Isan

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    Sirimongkol Natayakul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isan is a region with diverse dancing art forms, such as Fon (Northertern-Thai-style-dance, Serng (Northestern-Thai-style-dance, and Ram (Central-Thai-style-dance which are attached to important traditions associated with Buddhism and spiritual beliefs. Ballet is a unique cross-cultural dance that has spread into Isan society over a long period of time. This qualitative research aims to study the history of ballet in Isan from 1976 to 2012 and the factors that have led to the dynamism of ballet in Isan. Research methods used for data collection include document study, fieldwork and researcher experience. In this study, the population and area samples are in seven provinces: Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Udon Thani, Ubon Ratchathani, Maha Sarakham, Chaiyaphum and Buriram. Ballet first appeared in Isan in 1976 when Khunying Genevieve Damon, a French national, Ekachai Kaikaew and Kanoknat Homasawin set up as ballet teachers. Ballet schools are found in 12 public schools, 21 private schools and one school of the local administrative organization. Ballet shows take two forms, which are either Conventional Ballet and Non-Conventional Ballet. Seven factors affect the dynamism of ballet in Isan: government policy, education, economy, ballet teachers, parents of ballet students, communications and overseas organizations. Ballet teachers have a multidimensional role in educational society and are thus very important to the ballet shows in the Isan area. Moreover, ballet teachers in the Northeast also create, design, choreograph and direct the shows. The dynamism of education and economy are the second and the third most important factors

  13. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Informed consent: cultural and religious issues associated with the use of allogeneic and xenogeneic mesh products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Eric D; Yip, Michael; Melman, Lora; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D

    2010-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the views of major religions and cultural groups regarding the use of allogeneic and xenogeneic mesh for soft tissue repair. We contacted representatives from Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Scientology, and Christianity (Baptists, Methodists, Seventh-Day Adventists, Catholics, Lutherans, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Evangelical, and Jehovah's Witnesses). We also contacted American Vegan and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Standardized questionnaires were distributed to the religious and cultural authorities. Questions solicited views on the consumption of beef and pork products and the acceptability of human-, bovine-, or porcine-derived acellular grafts. Dietary restrictions among Jews and Muslims do not translate to tissue implantation restriction. Approximately 50% of Seventh-day Adventists and 40% of Buddhists practice vegetarianism, which may translate into a refusal of the use of xenogeneic tissue. Some Hindus categorically prohibit the use of human tissue and animal products; others allow the donation and receipt of human organs and tissues. PETA is opposed to all uses of animals, but not to human acellular grafts or organ transplantation. Some vegans prefer allogeneic to xenogeneic tissue. Allogeneic and xenogeneic acellular grafts are acceptable among Scientologists, Baptists, Lutherans, Evangelicals, and Catholics. Methodists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints leave the decision up to the individual. Knowledge of religious and cultural preferences regarding biologic mesh assists the surgeon in obtaining a culturally sensitive informed consent for procedures involving acellular allogeneic or xenogeneic grafts. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Jung, Evans-Wentz and various other gurus.

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    McGuire, William

    2003-09-01

    How did Jung become deeply concerned with Asian religions and particularly with the Tibetan Buddhism of a Welshman from Trenton, New Jersey? Could that man be considered one of Jung's gurus? This essay begins six years after Jung, at twenty, was admitted to the medical school of Basel University and became a member of the Zofingiaverein, a student society. The next year he gave the first of a series of lectures on the interpretation of Christ as the model of the 'god-man', like the Apostle Paul, Confucius, Zoroaster and the Buddha, who was 'drummed into the Hindu boy'. (Jung's Zofingia Lectures were discovered only after his death, in 1961, and were published in English in 1983). The present essay discusses Jung's early Buddhist interest as displayed in The Psychology of the Unconscious (finally, in a revision, entitled Symbols of Transformation), in Psychological Types and later in his foreword of the Wilhelm translation of the I Ching. Jung was influenced by the gurus Richard Wilhelm and his son Hellmut, the scholar J. W. Hauer (with whom he later broke off relations because of Hauer's Nazi politics), the indologist Heinrich Zimmer, and the Zen master D. T. Suzuki. Walter Yeeling Wentz was born in Trenton in 1878 and brought up in his family's theosophist faith. The Wentzes moved to San Diego in 1900, and Walter added his mother's Celtic surname, Evans, to the German Wentz. He was educated at Stanford University and travelled in Europe, studying Celtic folklore, and widely in the Near East, Tibet, India, and Oxford--studying religions everywhere and editing Tibetan books. He lived his last decades in San Diego and conducted a correspondence with Jung, while living in a cheap hotel, or in an ashram.

  16. From self to nonself: The Nonself Theory

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    Yung-Jong eShiah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance/strength of self is a very core concept in Western psychology and is particularly relevant to egoism, a process that draws on the hedonic principle in pursuit of desires. Contrary to this and based on Buddhism, a nonself-cultivating process aims to minimize or extinguish the self and avoid desires, leading to egolessness or selflessness. The purpose of this paper is to present the Nonself Theory (NT. The universal Mandala Model of Self (MMS was developed to describe the well-functioning self in various cultures. The end goal of the self is to attain ultimate wholeness or authentic and durable happiness. Given that the nonself is considered a well-functioning self and ultimate wholeness, the MMS is suitable for constructing the NT. The ego and nonself aspects of psychological self-functioning and their underlying processes are compared, drawing on the four concepts of the MMS: biology, ideal person, knowledge/wisdom and action. The ego engages in psychological activities to strengthen the self, applying the hedonic principle of seeking desire-driven pleasure. In contrast, a nonself approach involves execution of the self-cultivation principle, which involves three ways: giving up desires, displaying compassion, practicing meditation and seeking understanding Buddhist wisdom. These three ways have the goal of seeing through and overcoming the illusion of the self to achieve a deep transformation integrally connected to the experience of eliminating the sense of self and its psychological structures. In addition, the NT provides a comprehensive framework to account for nonself-plus-compassion-related activities or experiences such as altruism, mindfulness, mediation, mysterious/peak experiences, elimination of death anxiety and moral conduct. The NT offers possible answers that might lead to a more comprehensive understanding of human beings and the deeper meaning of life, toward the ultimate goal of ultimate wholeness. An

  17. Silla Art and the Silk Road

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    Kwangshik Choe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Western and Indian features found in Silla art, whether they came from the Western border regions of China or through a connection with China, it is recognized that there was both a direct and indirect a relationship between Silla, the West, and India. Many scholars have been interested in these aspects, conducting various studies as these factors played a large part in defining the origin of ancient culture and the process of harmonization between cultures. Through the Silk Road scholars are able to identify how Western cultures and civilizations were introduced to the Silla Dynasty. As the Korean peninsula has been a nexus for exchange between the East and the West, this paper aims to understand the meaning of the “Silk Road” and examines the actual state of cultural exchange at this historical site. Through artifacts excavated from Hwangnamdae-ch’ong (especially glass products, it has been determined that the Western and Western bordering countries of China culturally influenced the art of Silla. They also clearly prove that Buddhist sculptures from India and the Western bordering countries of China had a great impact on Silla art as well. Through these findings, it can be confirmed that from ancient times the influence of many cultures including China, the West, and the Western bordering countries of China had an impact on Korean culture. Particularly, Indian Buddhism which flowed into China and the Korea peninsula participated in the development of Silla culture and also played a significant role in the formation of traditional Korean culture.

  18. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    For millennia, humans have sought and found purpose, solace, values, understanding, and fellowship in religious practices. Buddhist nuns performed variolation against smallpox over 1000 years ago. Since Jenner developed vaccination against smallpox in 1796, some people have objected to and declined vaccination, citing various religious reasons. This paper reviews the scriptural, canonical basis for such interpretations, as well as passages that support immunization. Populous faith traditions are considered, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Subjects of concern such as blood components, pharmaceutical excipients of porcine or bovine origin, rubella strain RA 27/3, and cell-culture media with remote fetal origins are evaluated against the religious concerns identified. The review identified more than 60 reports or evaluations of vaccine-preventable infectious-disease outbreaks that occurred within religious communities or that spread from them to broader communities. In multiple cases, ostensibly religious reasons to decline immunization actually reflected concerns about vaccine safety or personal beliefs among a social network of people organized around a faith community, rather than theologically based objections per se. Themes favoring vaccine acceptance included transformation of vaccine excipients from their starting material, extensive dilution of components of concern, the medicinal purpose of immunization (in contrast to diet), and lack of alternatives. Other important features included imperatives to preserve health and duty to community (e.g., parent to child, among neighbors). Concern that 'the body is a temple not to be defiled' is contrasted with other teaching and quality-control requirements in manufacturing vaccines and immune globulins. Health professionals who counsel hesitant patients or parents can ask about the basis for concern and how the individual applies religious understanding to decision-making about

  19. [Meat diet and use of milk in the history of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed the Japanese race was formulated from multiple ethnic groups, with a strong influence from so-called "hunting people." The prohibition of a meat diet, however, was not a result of the dissemination of Buddhism, but was because of orders from the rulers at the time. Animal meat and milk are ideal protein sources for humans, which most likely contributed to the physical buildup and stamina of caucasians. Many heroes in the Japanese warring states period including Iyeyasu Tokugawa, Soun Hojo and Motonari Mori lived long with numerous offspring. In addition to good luck and inborn physical strength, it appears they were particularly careful with their daily habits including diet. Since around the Fifth Century AD, Japanese rulers began building government-run pastures in many places to raise horses and cattle, from which meat and dairy products were regularly supplied. As this episode portrays, beef-eating was practiced since ancient times, the popularity of which was so high that the Tokugawa Shogunate often attempted to control its consumption with prohibitive orders. The Imperial Court also tried to discourage a meat diet as it did not want rice-growing peasants to consume meat. Samurai, the warrior-class people, however, regularly hunted for wild animals for their own consumption. Many samurai of the warring states generally kept manufacturing facilities for weapons and armor, and such facilities regularly produced fresh meat as byproducts. A meat diet was essential for the success of warlords of the era. The production of butter, on the other hand, was introduced through Kudara in Seventh Century AD, and butter was a popular gift to provincial governors. Milk and dairy products became popular in the 15th Century along with the introduction of Christianity to Japan, and in the 18th Century, Yoshimune, the Shogun of the time, created retail stores for milk. Milk never became popular, however, probably because it does not go very well with

  20. Initial Validation of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale in Chinese Immigrants With Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Graciete; Chen, Jack; Wasser, Thomas; Portenoy, Russell; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-02-01

    Evaluating religious/spiritual influences in the growing Chinese-American population may inform the development of culturally relevant palliative care interventions. We assessed the psychometric properties and acceptability of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale-Chinese (DSES-C) in Chinese Americans with cancer-related pain. The translated 16-item DSES-C was administered as part of a symptom intervention for Chinese-American cancer patients. Patients were recruited from four New York community oncology practices. Of 321 patients, 78.7% were born in Mainland China, 79.1% spoke Cantonese, and 70.2% endorsed a religious affiliation (Ancestor worship, 31.7%; Chinese God worship, 29.8%; Buddhism, 17.1%; Christianity, 14.0%). In total, 82.6% completed the DSES-C (mean age = 57.7 years; 60.8% women) and 17.4% declined (mean age = 59.3 years; 52.0% women). Reasons for declining included low religiosity or perceived relevance of the scale items and difficulties separating spirituality from religiosity terms. Individuals having a religious affiliation were more likely to complete the DSES-C, whereas those not engaging in individual spiritual/religious practices or frequent group spiritual/religious practices tended to decline (all P 0.40) across items except Item 14 ("Accept others"). Construct validity was suggested by a positive association between DSES-C scores and having a religious affiliation (P < 0.05). In Chinese Americans with cancer pain, the DSES-C demonstrated acceptable psychometrics. Some participants experienced linguistic or cultural barriers preventing completion. Future investigations should provide additional validation in different Asian subgroups and those with varied medical conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Community health nurses' HIV health promotion and education programmes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M; Turale, S; Klunklin, A; Supamanee, T

    2014-12-01

    Globally, nurses practice in many settings with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), taking an increasing share of the professional burden of care and helping to reduce morbidity and mortality. International literature is sparse about Thai community nurses providing primary healthcare programmes for people with HIV. This study aimed to describe background, experiences and strategies of community nurses regarding their design and delivery of programmes for people living with HIV and AIDS in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. This study used a qualitative mixed-methods study employing a qualitative survey and in-depth interviews. Twenty community health nurses from 18 small community hospitals completed a survey comprising demographic data and 13 open-ended questions. Four of them later engaged in in-depth interviews using the same questions. Survey, interview data and field notes were analysed using interpretive content analysis. Four themes and six sub-themes portrayed participants' rich experiences and knowledge of HIV health promotion and education; challenges of daily work, discrimination and ethical issues; success through programme diversity comprising promotion of community volunteerism, networking and relationships; and holistic connections with Thai cultural traditions and Buddhism. Findings help to recognize the diversity, uniqueness and contributions of Thai community nurses regarding culturally appropriate health promotion and education programmes for people living with HIV and AIDS. Findings inform nurses and health officials in and outside of the country to complement innovation in future HIV health promotion and education programmes. Our sample came from one province of Thailand. Findings might not be reflective of nurses elsewhere. Three decades of collective experience in providing holistic and multifaceted HIV and AIDS nursing care, education and health promotion by community health nurses have

  2. The Lay Public’s Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation

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    Wai Jia Tan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public’s perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods: A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%. Latent class analysis (LCA was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results: The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%, 65 years or older (71.1%, and ethnic Chinese (88.1%. LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude, Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude, and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude, in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1 were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion: Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions.

  3. The lived experiences of spiritual suffering and the healing process among Taiwanese patients with terminal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chung-Ching; Shih, Fu-Jin; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Lin, Hsiao-Wei; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the lived experiences of spiritual suffering and the change mechanism in healing processes among Taiwanese patients with terminal cancer. The approach to this study was phenomenological-hermeneutic. Twenty-one patients with terminal cancer were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview that dealt with their experiences of spiritual suffering and the healing process. This study was conducted in the inpatient unit of the oncology department in two general hospitals. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and later analysed using the approach of narrative analysis. According to the results of case narration, the causes of spiritual suffering included cancer, known as a life-threatening illness, physical pain, treatment complications, uncertain illness progression, disability problems and lack of support. Patients turned to internal resources (including regarding the suffering as a life challenge, volunteering to help other cancer patients and searching for life wisdoms) and external resources (including peer support groups and family support) as they endured spiritual suffering. Taiwanese patients turned to Eastern and Western philosophies of Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and Christianity as methods to interpret their spiritual suffering. Patients' positive views of misfortune because of cancer and sufficient social supports were the key elements of the healing process to alleviate spiritual suffering. Nurses who learn to participate in suffering assessment are better able to understand spiritual needs of cancer patients. Cancer patients' views on the change mechanism in healing processes could provide essential information for nurses in developing an effective intervention programme. If nurses consider cultural factors that shape patients' experiences of spiritual suffering and the healing process, they could learn how to meet the needs of patients better from different cultural backgrounds.

  4. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

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    Mahin Arab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times the belief in the rise of the Reformer has been a fundamental principle. Many of the holy prophets have announced the advent of new prophet. Moreover in the announcements and indications of predecessors there are always allusions to "the Last Promised" and "the Savior of Last Days" under such titles as "Kalki", "Fifth Buddha", "Soshyans", "Messiah", "The Son of Man" and so on and so forth. Of course there are different types of belief in the last reformer in religions. In one place the Savior is merely a social reformer while in another place he is only after the spiritual salvation of people and even sometimes he undertakes both tasks. On the other hand, the Last Promised is once nationalist and once seeks to save the whole world.    This essay seeks to assay the views of pre-Islamic great religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism as to the Promised Savior. This essay is an analytico-descriptive research which has based itself on the first hand works comprising the sacred scriptures of religions and proceeds through the typological analyses of idea of the Promised in religions.    Zoroastrianism: the idea of the Promised has been tied to the notion of Soshyant. Generally speaking, this notion alludes to a group of people who periodically emerge at the end of every millennium of the last three millennia of world's age so as to uproot evil and renew the world, the last one of these reformers is Soshyans. According to the aforementioned typology, Zoroastrian idea of Last Savior is among the Promised who saves the whole world. Moreover Zoroastrian Promised cannot be declared only a social savior as he is not wholly detached from people's spirituality too. From another point of view, Zoroastrian idea of the Promised represents a universal and not nationalist savior who is relatively a human and not divine entity who emerges in the last millennium of world's age.    Judaism: in the

  5. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Arab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times the belief in the rise of the Reformer has been a fundamental principle. Many of the holy prophets have announced the advent of new prophet. Moreover in the announcements and indications of predecessors there are always allusions to "the Last Promised" and "the Savior of Last Days" under such titles as "Kalki", "Fifth Buddha", "Soshyans", "Messiah", "The Son of Man" and so on and so forth. Of course there are different types of belief in the last reformer in religions. In one place the Savior is merely a social reformer while in another place he is only after the spiritual salvation of people and even sometimes he undertakes both tasks. On the other hand, the Last Promised is once nationalist and once seeks to save the whole world.    This essay seeks to assay the views of pre-Islamic great religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism as to the Promised Savior. This essay is an analytico-descriptive research which has based itself on the first hand works comprising the sacred scriptures of religions and proceeds through the typological analyses of idea of the Promised in religions.    Zoroastrianism: the idea of the Promised has been tied to the notion of Soshyant. Generally speaking, this notion alludes to a group of people who periodically emerge at the end of every millennium of the last three millennia of world's age so as to uproot evil and renew the world, the last one of these reformers is Soshyans. According to the aforementioned typology, Zoroastrian idea of Last Savior is among the Promised who saves the whole world. Moreover Zoroastrian Promised cannot be declared only a social savior as he is not wholly detached from people's spirituality too. From another point of view, Zoroastrian idea of the Promised represents a universal and not nationalist savior who is relatively a human and not divine entity who emerges in the last millennium of world's age.    Judaism: in the

  6. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  7. Ecological extension of the theory of evolution by natural selection from a perspective of Western and Eastern holistic philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment; (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among the types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not clearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist with, others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy of Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of component populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions. In particular, I employ what I call the scientific principle of dependent-arising (SDA), which is tailored for scientific use and is based on Buddhism principle called "pratītya-samutpāda" in Sanskrit. The SDA principle asserts that there exists a higher-level system, or entity, which includes a focal process of a system as a part within it; this determines or generates the conditions required for the focal process to work in a particular way. I conclude that the ecosystem generates (1) selective environments for component species through ecosystem dynamics; (2) new genetic types through lateral gene transfer, hybridization, and symbiogenesis among the component species of the ecosystem; (3) mechanistic processes of replacement of an old type with a new one. The results of this study indicate that the ecological extension of the theoretical model of adaptive evolution is required for better understanding of adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Peircean cosmogony's symbolic agapistic self-organization as an example of the influence of eastern philosophy on western thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-12-01

    Charles S. Peirce developed a process philosophy featuring a non-theistic agapistic evolution from nothingness. It is an Eastern inspired alternative to the Western mechanical ontology of classical science also inspired by the American transcendentalists. Advaitism and Buddhism are the two most important Eastern philosophical traditions that encompass scientific knowledge and the idea of spontaneous evolutionary development. This article attempts to show how Peirce's non-mechanistic triadic semiotic process theory is suited better to embrace the quantum field view than mechanistic and information-based views are with regard to a theory of the emergence of consciousness. Peirce views the universe as a reasoning process developing from pure potentiality to the fully ordered rational Summon Bonum. The paper compares this with John Archibald Wheeler's "It from bit" cosmogony based on quantum information science, which leads to the info-computational view of nature, mind and culture. However, this theory lacks a phenomenological foundation. David Chalmers' double aspect interpretation of information attempts to overcome the limitations of the info-computational view. Chalmers supplements Batesonian and Wheelerian info-computationalism - both of which lack a phenomenological aspect - with a dimension that corresponds to the phenomenological aspect of reality. However, he does not manage to produce an integrated theory of the development of meaning and rationality. Alex Hankey's further work goes some way towards establishing a theory that can satisfy Husserl's criteria for consciousness - such as a sense of being and time - but Hankey's dependence on Chalmers' theory is still not able to account for what the connection between core consciousness and the physical world is. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Valuing Diversity: Buddhist Reflections on Equity and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Hershock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Presented as the Keynote Address at the 2013 Annual ASIANetwork Conference in Bloomingdale, Illinois, this essay uses  three of Buddhism's central insights to forward a qualitatively robust conception of diversity and to substantially revise what we mean by equity. The first insight, is that all things arise and are sustained interdependently. Interdependence is not a contingent, external relation among essentially separate entities; it is internal or constitutive. As Fazang (643-712, one of the leading Chinese Buddhist philosophers of the 7th and 8th centuries put it: interdependence entails interpenetration. A second, core Buddhist insight is that our conflicts, troubles and suffering can only be sustainably addressed on the basis of things 'yathabhutam' or “as they have come to be,” and not simply as they are at present. This insight calls into question the “time-space compression” (Harvey: 1990 that characterizes the postmodern lifeworld, the contemporary fixation on immediacy, and the erasure of temporal depth that results from the near equal proximity granted to all information by the light-speed connections of the internet. Finally, the world of human experience is irreducibly dramatic or meaning-laden. Stated in more explicit Buddhist terms, our histories and the experiences out of which they are woven are at root a function of karma. According to this teaching, if we pay sufficiently close and sustained attention, we will witness a meticulous and dynamic consonance between the complexion of our own values, intentions and actions and the patterns of outcome and opportunity we experience.

  10. [Euthanasia through history and religion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice.

  11. Reincarnation: Mechanics, Narratives, and Implications

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    Christopher Key Chapple

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the mechanics associated with rebirth, noting differences between Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain narratives. It examines the concept of subtle body and the liṅgam in Sāṃkhya. According to the Hindu tradition, the remains of the departed person, when cremated, merge with clouds in the upper atmosphere. As the monsoon rain clouds gather, the leftovers mingle with the clouds, returning to earth and eventually finding new life in complex biological cycles. According to Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism, the remains of a person take a ghostly form for 49 days until taking a new birth. According to Jainism, the departed soul immediately travels to the new birth realm at the moment of death. According to Jain karma theory, in the last third of one’s life, a living being makes a fateful choice that determines his or her next embodiment. The 20th century Hindu Yoga teacher Paramahamsa Yogananda, in his commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, provides an alternate description of a twofold astral and causal body. One hallmark of the Buddha and of the 24 Jain Tīrthaṅkaras was that they remembered all the lives they had lived and the lessons learned in those lives. The Buddha recalled 550 past lives and used these memories to fuel many of his lectures. Mahāvīra remembered his past lives and also the past lives of others. Patañjali’s Yoga Sūtra states that through the perfection of giving up all things, including psychological attachments, one spontaneously will remember past lives. In the Yogavāsiṣṭha, a Hindu text, Puṇya remembers the past lives of his grieving brother as well as his own prior experiences.

  12. Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances.

  13. DINAMIKA ISLAM KULTURAL: Studi atas Dialektika Islam dan Budaya Lokal Madura

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    Paisun Paisun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, it is well-known that the ingress and the progress of Islam in Indonesia, especially in Java and Madura, were held almost without any tension and conflict. Even in the societies with some former belief systems such as Animism and Buddhism, Islam was easily accepted as a religion that brings peace within its teachings. During periods, Islam and local cultures perform a dialectical relationship and give rise to local variances of Islam, such as Javanese Islam, Madurese Islam, Sasak Islam, Sundanese Islam, etc. Those variances of Islam are the result of an acculturation process between Islam with the local cultures. In other word, this process is also called as “inculturation”. These local variances of Islam, further termed as the “cultural Islam” in this paper, have become a characteristics of Indonesian Islamic societies phenomenon which are different from Middle-East’s Islamic society and European Islamic society. This paper discusses about the Madurese Islam, one of these cultural Islam’s variances. Dialectical process between Islam and the local culture of Madura in turn generates a unique Madurese Islam, which is distinctive and esoteric. In its further developments, Islam and Madurese tradition are seen as unity and inseparatable, though people can still distinguish one another. This study seeks to uncover and expose the Islamic cultural dynamics that exist and grow in Madura: how big is the change that occurred, in which part, and what factors underlie these changes. This study provides benefit in enriching our scientific study about Indonesian cultural heritage, especially about the dialectical relationship between Islam and Madurese local culture.

  14. From Revolutionary Culture to Original Culture and Back: “On New Democracy” and the Kampucheanization of Marxism-Leninism, 1940-1965

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    Matthew Galway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mao Zedong’s 1940 essay “On New Democracy,” he states that the Chinese Communists fought to build a new China with new politics, a new economy, and, most crucially, a new culture. Decades later, Saloth Sar (Pol Pot, nom de guerre read French translations of Mao’s works in Paris, and drew from the Khmer past and Buddhism to call for democratic reform of a Khmer cultural type. While he had read and appreciated Mao Zedong Thought before, it was not until he visited Beijing in 1965–1966 that Sar awoke fully to Mao’s ideas, returning to Cambodia a Maoist convert. In Democratic Kampuchea (DK, 1975–1979, Sar, like Mao, sought to create a new culture, but this time through the lens of Maoism (exported Mao Zedong Thought. Party documents and speeches show how he sought to create a “Kampucheanized” Marxism-Leninism along the lines of Mao’s “Sinified” Marxism and with a “clean” revolutionary culture. This article argues that by tracking Pol Pot’s approaches to rebranding Cambodia, from his earliest political writing to his experiences abroad to the grotesque human experiment of DK, we can uncover the underlying problems of “Kampucheanizing” ideas from Maoist China. As the article shows, despite some similarities, Mao’s application of Marxism to the Chinese case—as he outlined in “One New Democracy”—and his vision for a new revolutionary culture were vastly different from Pol Pot’s efforts in Kampuchea.

  15. Ritual, tiempo y espacio sagrado en el budismo zen argentino

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    Catón Eduardo Carini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El budismo zen es una religión oriental que desde hace varias décadas se ha esparcido en numerosos países occidentales, incluido la Argentina. Una característica notable de su vida comunitaria es la compleja ritualización de sus prácticas cotidianas. En nuestra aproximación a la dimensión ritual del zen indagaremos la forma en que ésta contribuye a crear un tiempo y un espacio sagrado y observaremos cómo estas prácticas son consideradas por los propios miembros del grupo como un recurso pedagógico que posibilita entrenarse en una diferente manera de estar en el mundo, de vivirse y percibirse tanto a ellos mismos como a los demás. De modo que algunos elementos del complejo ritual zen juegan un rol de primera importancia como una tecnología del ser.Zen Buddhism is an oriental religion that since several decades has expanded in various western countries, Argentina being one of them. The complex ritualization of its everyday practices is a considerable characteristic of Zen Buddhist community life. In our exploration of the ritual dimension of Zen, first we will investigate how this contributes to the creation of a sacred time and place. After this, we will show how ritual practices are considered a pedagogic recourse by group members; a means to make possible their training of a different way of being in the world, of experimenting, living and perceiving both themselves and others in a different way. Some elements of the often complex Zen ritual play a highly important part as technologies of the self.

  16. COVERING RACE AND RELIGION: THE MOORTHY AND NYONYA TAHIR CASES IN FOUR MALAYSIAN NEWSPAPERS

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    Ngu Teck Hua

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on issues like race and religion in a multi-racial and multi-religious society is not an easy media responsibility. In a country like Malaysia where racial and religious sensitivities abound, the media have to constantly tread on precarious ground, balancing between what to write and how to write it. Much of the concern over the reporting of sensitive issues stems from the belief that a wrong move may have dire consequences, as seen in the recent controversy and furore over the Prophet Muhammad caricature published in the Danish newspaper, Jyllands-Posten.This study analyses two recent racial/religious issues – M. Moorthy and Nyonya Tahir cases – as reported in the New Straits Times (NST, Utusan Malaysia (UM, Malaysia Nanban (MN and Sin Chew Daily (SCD. The former case caused a stir when there was a tussle between Moorthy’s Indian/Hindu family and the Federal Territory Islamic Affairs Council which argued that Moorthy had converted to Islam when he was alive without the family’s knowledge. The latter was a case of a Malay/Muslim woman who, while alive, had denounced Islam and lived as a Chinese practising Buddhism.This study analyses how the two race and religion-related controversial issues were treated in the various language newspapers in Malaysia. A preliminary finding showed that, true to the communal nature of the Malaysian press, there was an apparent slant in how the ethnic press covered these two issues. For instance, in terms of prominence given to the stories, SCD, while downplaying the Moorthy story, dedicated more space to the Nyonya Tahir case. Similarly, MN highlighted the Moorthy story and downplayed the Nyonya Tahir case. The different newspapers were also seen to ''favour'' the subject they covered according to the ethnicity.

  17. Breastfeeding in Japan: historical perspectives and current attitudes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M

    1992-07-01

    1. We took an extensive overview of the history of breastfeeding in Japan. Japanese people, especially farming villagers have lived with a mixed religious atmosphere including primitive religion, Shintoism and Buddhism during more than 1,000 years. In such circumstances, they had three kinds of traditional practices for inadequate breast milk production, that is, praying to God or Buddha, foods or medicines based on their experiences and wet nursing. 2. Farm villagers used to primarily feed their babies by their own breasts and some who couldn't supply adequate milk, compensated with their neighbor's milk until a century ago, because most villagers' wives had plenty of milk at that time. 3. The characteristics of farm villagers' customs were: A. irregular breastfeeding. B. a mother's keeping skinship with her baby all day. C. sleeping in the posture of KAWA's character. D. late weaning. E. EJIKO was popular nursing tool. 4. Instead of wet nursing, bottle feeding was initiated in Japan after 1867. As a result, many infants suffered from malnutrition. On the other hand, some breast-fed infants suffered from beriberi and lead encephalopathy. 5. Until 1974-75, when the recommendations of WHO and Japanese Government were announced, there had been a steady decline in breastfeeding throughout Japan. Thereafter, physicians supported breastfeeding and made efforts to diminish the disadvantages of breastfeeding in the medical field. 6. According to the report of the Japanese Government, difficulty to supply sufficient milk and obstacles against working were the most important complaints of breastfeeding mothers. I suggested strategies for solution of these complaints: A principles at puerperium in our maternity ward include effect of my low-calorie diet, and Japanese methods of massage for the breasts. B my proposals for working mothers who want to breastfeed. &. I have discussed some results of Japanese breastfeeding research. 8. Some results of our Breastfeeding Promotion

  18. Factors and features of the religious modernization in Taiwan: socio–historical retrospective (part 1

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    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the religious modernization in Taiwan. It has been concluded by the author that the modernization in traditional societies, as it comes from the analysis of key religious communities of Taiwan, to a limited extent can be implemented by means of traditional religions – Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The modernisation is possible only on the basis of syncretic religious cults, which allow putting rationalist values on the first place together with values of the enrichment and self–promotion. For the social morality of Thai society, this means crisis situation and the emergence of numerous conflicts on the grounds of the incompatibility of goal-orientation with the principles of legitimation of traditional social action, suggested by Weber. At the same time, there is reason to pre–approve the highly probable poor compatibility of traditional Thai religions with the modernization vector. However, a small percentage of the Thai population (5% are representatives of Christianity and Islam, through which it becomes possible to broadcast the modified project of modernity. However, this idea requires further proof, as there are quite ambiguous concepts on strengthening of the authority of science, secular world-view, the capitalist–type accumulation among scientists and experts in the sphere of the religious sociology. However, the common denominator in the assessment of the discourse of Thai society’s modernization prospects is the optimistic point of view, which supposes significant changes in the social structure and culture of Taiwan by means of the latent secularisation, which is implemented through Christian missionary work.

  19. Tibetan medicine: a complementary science of optimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J; Blackhall, Leslie J; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2009-08-01

    Traditional medical systems are challenging because their theories and practices strike many conventionally trained physicians and researchers as incomprehensible. Should modern medicine dismiss them as unscientific, view them as sources of alternatives hidden in a matrix of superstition, or regard them as complementary sciences of medicine? We make the latter argument using the example of Tibetan medicine. Tibetan medicine is based on analytic models and methods that are rationally defined, internally coherent, and make testable predictions, meeting current definitions of "science." A ninth century synthesis of Indian, Chinese, Himalayan, and Greco-Persian traditions, Tibetan medicine is the most comprehensive form of Eurasian healthcare and the world's first integrative medicine. Incorporating rigorous systems of meditative self-healing and ascetic self-care from India, it includes a world-class paradigm of mind/body and preventive medicine. Adapting the therapeutic philosophy and contemplative science of Indian Buddhism to the quality of secular life and death, it features the world's most effective systems of positive and palliative healthcare. Based on qualitative theories and intersubjective methods, it involves predictions and therapies shown to be more accurate and effective than those of modern medicine in fields from physiology and pharmacology to neuroscience, mind/body medicine, and positive health. The possibility of complementary sciences follows from the latest view of science as a set of tools--instruments of social activity based on learned agreement in aims and methods--rather than as a monolith of absolute truth. Implications of this pluralistic outlook for medical research and practice are discussed.

  20. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

  2. The Role of Islamic Faith-Based Organization in Building Solidarity and Resilience among People of Different Faiths in Northeast Thailand: A Case Study of Foundation for Education and Development of Muslims in Northeast Thailand-FEDMIN

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    Mr.Imron Sohsan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to examine the role of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience between Muslims and Buddhists and to find a model of peaceful coexistence among people of different faiths in northeast Thailand called “Isan region”. The research area was focused on the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Buddhist in particular in Ban Nong Muen Tao village, Mueang, Udon Thani province. The study found that there were four important roles of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience among people of different faiths. Firstly, demonstrating the real image of Islam and Muslims to the other people of different faiths through the FEDMIN leaders’ role and personality in practicing peaceful coexistence, FEDMIN’s Santhitham Wittaya School, Muslim village model, which were described as “an intellectual contribution of Muslim community for the public”, FEDMIN Muslim area as a field trip attraction to the Authorities. Secondly, encouraging Muslims and Buddhists to set up a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action based on socially engaged Islam and Buddhism concept which was demonstrated by the faith-based community forum as “comfort space” in which a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action can exist. Third, empowering religious institution to play a vital role in preaching the principles of peaceful coexistence to believers becoming citizen of the society through Islamic sermon- Khutbah, Islamic class, establishing Santhitham Wittaya school as a substantive contribution from Muslim community to the public, and Community Radio Station project as a positive media which supported to create an atmosphere of citizenship among people of different faiths in the village.

  3. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; Psexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, Pminority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  4. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.

  5. Chassé-croisé des visibles et des invisibles dans le panthéon japonais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Yamaori

    2005-02-01

    dans les kami. The nature of the early historical interchange between the native divinities of Japan (kami and buddhas that were introduced in the middle of the first millennium c.e. demonstrates a particular form of the syncretism which consists of two « polytheistic » systems : the « invisible » polytheistic of the original Japanese religion (Shinto and the « visible » polytheistic of the Buddhism, which exhibit contrasting modes of divine movement. The invisible kami are concealing themselves in wood or hills, but capable of endless bisection and division without diminution, and present simultaneously in widely disparate locales : their basic power of self-transmission is called « possession ». On the other hand, in the Buddhist tradition, according to the Indian concept of avatara or « divine descent », transcendent divinities manifested themselves to humans in physical form: this movement from formlessness into form is called « incarnation ». The initial attraction of Buddhism in Japan was related to the pictorial and sculptural representations of celestial buddhas and bodhisattvas, that were alien to the native tradition which had assumed the anonymity and self-concealment of the sacred. These two opposing vectors, one towards hiddenness in the kami, and the other towards physical manifestation in the buddhas formed the foundation for the later development in the « fusion of Shinto and Buddhism » in Japan. Examples of their interaction and overlap are the kami, depicted in statues (the historical transformation of the Inari deity, and statues of buddhas withdrawn from human sight as « hidden buddhas » ( Amida at Zenkoji . These represent the drama of the mutual mediation and the particular characteristics lying in the depths of the Japanese people's faith in kami.

  6. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1968-07-01

    Full Text Available - C. von Fürer-Haimendorf, Bernard Pignède, Les Gurungs. Une population himalayenne du Népal. École pratique des hautes études-Sorbonne. Le monde d’outre-mer passé et présent. Études XXI. Mouton & Co. Paris - La Haye 1966. 414 pp., illustrated. - C. von Fürer-Haimendorf, Matthias Hermanns, Die religiös-magische Weltan-schauung der Primtivstamme Indiens. Band II. Die Bhilala, Korku, Gond, Baiga. Franz Steiner Verlag. Wiesbaden 1966. 571 pages, 70 illustrations, 1 map. - J. Gonda, Vidyanand “Videh”, The exposition of the Vedas, vol. I (translated from Hindi, Veda-Samsthana, Ajmer, India, 1964. 133 p. - J. Gonda, Vidyanand “Videh”, The Vedic prayers, translated from Hindi by B. Bhushan Hajela, Veda-Samsthana, Ajmer, India, 1964. 108 p. - Edmund R. Leach, M. Nash et al., Anthropological Studies in Theravada Buddhism. Yale University: South East Asia Studies. Cultural Report Series No. 13 (1966. xiv, 236 pp., with maps, charts, glossary. - Frank M. le Bar, L.M. Hanks, Ethnographic notes on Northern Thailand. Cornell University Southeast Asia Program. Data Paper No. 58. Ithaca, 1965. xi, 94 pp., maps, tables., J.R. Hanks, Lauriston Sharp (eds. - Lorenz G. Löffler, Lucien Bernot, Les paysans arakanais du Pakistan oriental; l’histoire, le monde végétal et l’organisation sociale des réfugiés Marma (Mog. Le Monde d’Outre-Mer Passé et Présent, lère série: Études XVI, Mouton & Co, Paris-La Haye 1967, 793 pp. (en deux volumes. - C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Donn V. Hart, Southeast Asian birth customs, three studies in human reproduction. Behavior Science Monographs, Human Relations Area Files Press. New Haven, Connecticut 1965. 303 pp., Phya Anuman Rajadhon, Richard J. Coughlin (eds. - J.W. Minderhout, Charles F. Keyes, Isan: Regionalism in northeastern Thailand. Data Paper: nr. 65, Southeast Asia Program, Department of Asian Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, March 1967. 86 pp. - J.M. Pluvier, Truong Buu Lam, Patterns of

  7. Religious and Philosophical Justifications for War: A Synthesis of Selected Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martzen, E

    2000-08-15

    The Critical Issues Forum (CIF) is a cooperative education program supported in part by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The Science and Technology Education Program (STEP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory manages one component of this program. CIF engages high school students and teachers regarding issues of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, arms control, and international security. These issues are viewed in light of their scientific, economic, socio-cultural, and political/geopolitical influences and implications. This year CIF's focus is on chemical and biological weapons (CBW). CBW is becoming more of a threat today than ever before. Many countries are developing these weapons. CBW also presents certain ethical dilemmas for many individuals, especially if those individuals feel it is their religious duty to use or avoid the use of such weapons. Religion has become an important determining factor in international security because many cultures, and even governments make decisions based on religious traditions. This paper is an attempt to look at these religions and philosophical traditions with an emphasis on views of ''just war''. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to promote awareness about religion's influence on international security issues. This paper was written by Cadet Ernst ''Mitch'' Martzen, AFROTC. He is an intern with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Science and Technology Education Program, under the guidance of Dr. Stephen C. Sesko, the director of LLNL's CIF program. Every major religion and ethical system has developed a societal concept of ''just war''. Today, the world's largest religions include Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Each faith lays claim to a heritage rich with thousands of years of history, and the power of great minds to support its ethical and moral beliefs. These religions

  8. EASTERN SPIRITUAL TRADITIONS THROUGH THE LENS OF MODERN SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze Eastern spiritual traditions in the context of modern scientific worldview. Methodology. The author has used hermeneutical methodology, along with integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Modern perception of the world is undergoing drastic changes: it shifts towards plurality, temporality, and complexity. Increasingly, people feel that their familiar world of order and stability gives way to chaotic, unpredictable world, which exists under its own rules. Old scientific theories, ideologies, and values are destroyed. This leads to awareness of imbalance, ambiguity of human existence and, thus, to the new explanation and understanding of reality. Today the universe is perceived through the lens of syncretism: it is impossible to separate human from nature, consciousness from matter, subject from object. Humanity faces such a chaotic, uncertain worldview not for the first time. Duality and attempts to overcome it permeate the entire history: from traditional archaic cultures to modern civilized societies. M. Foucault, J. Derrida, R. Barthes, U. Eco, G. Deleuze, J.-F.Lyotard urged to abandon dogmatism, monologue perception and explanation, interpretation based on binary oppositions. The world, which is necessary to reach, occurs to be Nothing, Nothingness. In this world, people are seeking for reality regardless of any rules, regulations, notions, and concepts. Here artificial constructs of the human mind, such as Material – Ideal, Determinism - Indeterminism, Finiteness - Infinity, Necessity – Randomness, are united. Trying to reconcile continuity of being with discreteness of consciousness, they appeal to Eastern mystical teachings, in particular, to Zen Buddhism. The core concept of this school is also based on the unity of all things and the idea of the singularity of the world. The main goal of Eastern mystical traditions is to achieve the state of absolute unity through meditative techniques

  9. Eastern Spiritual Traditions Through the Lens of Modern Scientific Worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze Eastern spiritual traditions in the context of modern scientific worldview. Methodology. The author has used hermeneutical methodology, along with integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Modern perception of the world is undergoing drastic changes: it shifts towards plurality, temporality, and complexity. Increasingly, people feel that their familiar world of order and stability gives way to chaotic, unpredictable world, which exists under its own rules. Old scientific theories, ideologies, and values are destroyed. This leads to awareness of imbalance, ambiguity of human existence and, thus, to the new explanation and understanding of reality. Today the universe is perceived through the lens of syncretism: it is impossible to separate human from nature, consciousness from matter, subject from object. Humanity faces such a chaotic, uncertain worldview not for the first time. Duality and attempts to overcome it permeate the entire history: from traditional archaic cultures to modern civilized societies. M. Foucault, J. Derrida, R. Barthes, U. Eco, G. Deleuze, J.-F.Lyotard urged to abandon dogmatism, monologue perception and explanation, interpretation based on binary oppositions. The world, which is necessary to reach, occurs to be Nothing, Nothingness. In this world, people are seeking for reality regardless of any rules, regulations, notions, and concepts. Here artificial constructs of the human mind, such as Material – Ideal, Determinism - Indeterminism, Finiteness - Infinity, Necessity – Randomness, are united. Trying to reconcile continuity of being with discreteness of consciousness, they appeal to Eastern mystical teachings, in particular, to Zen Buddhism. The core concept of this school is also based on the unity of all things and the idea of the singularity of the world. The main goal of Eastern mystical traditions is to achieve the state of absolute unity through meditative techniques

  10. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

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    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    other parts of the former Soviet Union similar processes took place. Today, in post-Soviet Altai, as well as in many other parts of Siberia, shamanism exists in the same sense that there is Buddhism, Christianity and Islam in the region.

  11. Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manlan Zhu

    Full Text Available Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection (DAD and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga, delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh, delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside (Dp3acetylG and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh, one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (My7RhRh, quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh, quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga, kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh, myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga, kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 → 2-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh, myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh, kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga, isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga, isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy, kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside (Km3-3"acetylRh and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and yellow group

  12. Contemporary Youth Identity in the Republic of Tuva, Russia

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    Katherine Zeahan Leung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth of ethnic Tuvan heritage within the Tuvan Republic (part of the Russian Federation aged 6 to 24 represent a dynamic force which has been shaped by two factors. One is the ancient Turkic heritage of Tuvan culture. Contemporary Tuvans, including youth, display both Russian and Tuvan nationalist feelings, admire martial culture and explore their cultural uniqueness. They hold in high esteem contact sports, especially martial arts such as sambo or judo. Tuvan athletes successfully compete for Russia at international events, including the Olympics. The current Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation is half-Tuvan and extremely popular in the republic, where people see him as nothing short of a national hero. At the same time, young multi-lingual Tuvans, who also speak Russian, and, with access to foreign language education, Korean and English, are being influenced by mediums and through technologies that are international like never before. A special focus is made on the impact of East Asian pop-culture, specifically that of South Korea. Tuva is located in Asia’s geographical center, and is a place where for many centuries Tibetan Buddhism coexisted with Shamanism. Thus, Tuvans strongly identify themselves with Asian culture. They tend to believe in metempsychosis and often tell those who take interest in Tuvan culture that they were Tuvans in their past lives. In their view, Tuvan language has preserved the features of “original” Turkic. These and many other ideas and beliefs show that historical facts and myths are closely intertwined within Tuvan identity. Studying and speaking foreign languages helps prioritize the positive outlook in Tuvan youth, who eagerly study both English and Eastern languages.   In working with Tuvan youth, I was able to teach through games and informal conversation. I was able to meet community leaders who use language to foster lasting change in children’s perception of themselves, as an attempt to

  13. Eastern Tales for Western Readers: A Combination of Traditions within D. Mamin-Sibiryak’s Legends

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    Tuliakova, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Mamin-Sibiriak’s Legends (1898 cycle, which appeared at the time when legends in Russia were at the peak of popularity. The cycle is a masterful stylization of Asian folk tales belonging to some of the minorities of the Russian Empire, and it fuses together Oriental and Occidental literary and geopoetic traditions. The background of the cycle creation and an analysis of the Asian and European roots of the legends reveal the ways in which the two cultures are combined by the author. Mamin-Sibiryak uses Oriental stylization, typical of the folk-lore of minor ethnic groups of the Trans-Urals, on the levels of language and imagery. His artful employment of linguistic and poetic devices such as foreign words, alien names and realias, zoomorphic metaphors and similes, as well as concepts and sets of values not typical of European mentality, misled his contemporaries into thinking that he had published some collected folk material. However, the writer created his own plots, following patterns and motifs mostly characteristic of both Western and Eastern cultures. There are similarities between the plots and the motifs of the cycle and those of the European Romanticism, Buddhism, Indian epics, and Biblical scenes. Consequently, Mamin-Sibiryak’s choice of plots may be aimed at identifying some basic similarities between these traditions. A study of the cycle proves that the impact on the legends by A. Schopenhauer’s philosophy, which exploits ideas shared by Eastern and Western cultures, contributes to the interaction of Occidental and Oriental cultures within the cycle on the underlying levels, though the connotation of some Eastern motifs is contradictory to the Western tradition. While creating the legends, the author did not aim just at making the Russian reader acquainted with the folklore of minority groups. Rather, the chosen ‘alien’ form was intended to help the reader forget about everyday life and perceive some

  14. The Byanshi: an ethnographic note on a trading group in far western Nepal.

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    Manzardo, A E; Dahal, D R; Rai, N K

    1976-09-01

    The Byanshi who live in the district of Darchula are among the lesser known trading groups of Nepal. The Byanshi, close to the borders of Nepal, India, and Tibet, make their living trading wool, yak tails, salt, grain, and other commodities across the Himalayas and over the border into Pithoragarh district and even down into the Terai. The Byanshi live their lives in 2 separate areas. In the summer they live in their traditional homeland in Byana panchayat in the northern section of Darchula, close to Nepal's border with China. The major settlements in the area are Tinkar and Chhangru. The entire panchayat has a population of about 2000. In the winter, when snow makes life difficult in the high mountains, the Byanshi migrate down to Khalanga panchayat. Of greater importance than agriculture is animal husbandry, which is the backbone of trade in the Himalayas. Most important is that husbandry supports trade. The Byanshi social organization is somewhat confusing. An attempt is made to explain the clan structure as simply as possible. Upon the birth of a child the women from the village bring local beer, meat, and other food to the mother. Up to the 11th day after childbirth, the new mother and child are considered to be polluted. On the 8th day after delivery a ceremony known as "malengkho kormo" is performed, where the mother and child are ritually bathed. From this point, both the mother and child may enter the hearth area of their house, but the house itself is considered polluted. On the 11th day, all villagers are invited to attend the ceremony known as "chhyosimo" which purifies the house and the people. The Byanshi practice 3 forms of marriage: marriage by capture; love marriage, a form of elopmement; and the arranged marriage. The latter is becoming most common. Death rituals have always been the most exaggerated and costly ceremonies for the Bayanshi. The religion of the Byanshi combines features of Tibetan Buddhism, hill animism, and Hinduism in a very

  15. Status, ecology, and conservation of the Himalayan griffon Gyps himalayensis (Aves, Accipitridae) in the Tibetan plateau.

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    Lu, Xin; Ke, Dianhua; Zeng, Xianhai; Gong, Guohong; Ci, Ren

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic population crashes of 3 species of Gyps vulture have raised concerns about the status of their lesser-known congeners. Among these is the Himalayan griffon, G. himalayensis, an iconic vulture of the Tibetan plateau. The continued existence of this scavenger has not only ecological but also cultural implications because of their unique role in the centuries-old sky burial tradition that is followed by nearly 5 million Tibetan people. A lack of baseline information of the Himalayan griffon limits our ability to take conservation measures. The presented data, which were collected during 1996 and 2004 to 2007, indicate that this species is still widespread throughout the plateau and has not experienced a major population decline, likely as a result of protection by Tibetan Buddhism and limited disturbances from human activities largely due to the remoteness of the plateau. Both site and road counts showed that open meadow habitats had the highest griffon abundance, followed by alpine shrub and forest habitats. Estimates based on road transect counts showed that 229,339 Himalayan griffons (+/- 40,447) occupy the 2.5 million km2 Tibetan plateau. In contrast, the maximum carrying capacity of the plateau, on the basis of the total biomass of potential food resources, is 507,996 griffons, with meadow habitats accounting for about 76% of the total population. Griffons depend largely on livestock carcasses for food and forage in groups averaging 5.5 (range 1-100) individuals. Domestic yaks provide about 64% of the griffons' diet, while wild ungulates and human corpses provide 1% and 2%, respectively. Compared with its lowland congeners, this, the only high-elevation Gyps species, had both low population density and small group size, a likely response to the harsh environmental conditions. Although griffon abundance appears relatively stable in their fairly pristine environment, precautionary measures, including investigation of threats, monitoring of population

  16. Prevalence and predictors of help-seeking for women exposed to spousal violence in India - a cross-sectional study.

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    Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2017-11-03

    Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and

  17. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

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    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  18. Supporting students of diverse cultures and faiths - Experiences from a University perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jill; Thalitaya, Madhusudan Deepak

    2017-09-01

    University of Bedfordshire is a large University with over 24000 students from over 100 countries. The main religions recorded are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jewish and Sikhism amongst others. Around 45% of them do not have any recorded religion. The Mental Health Advisor will come across a wide range of students from different backgrounds each with their own unique presentation of mental health distress. It is well known that people of different communities and cultures experience signs and symptoms of mental distress in different ways. This is very important for clinicians to be aware of the nuances around cultures and traditions in the context of mental illness in order to assist clinicians more accurately diagnose, support and manage them. In an effort to improve diagnosis and care to people of all backgrounds, the 5th edition of the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) incorporates a greater cultural sensitivity throughout the manual. This includes a reflection of cross-cultural variations in presentations and cultural concepts of distress. The mental Health Advisor is available to help with practical support to assist students to manage their mental health and study. This includes support with an initial assessment, structures support, assisting with making reasonable adjustments under the Equality Act (2010), support students to access Disabled Student's Allowances and reasonable adjustments to enable them to study effectively and achieve their potential and where necessary, making appropriate referrals to internal and/or external services. One of the main roles of the advisor is to support students with mental health difficulties which are impacting on their studies. This support may include anxiety management, motivation, relaxation techniques, study plans and understanding the impact of medication. This paper will look at some of the experiences faced by the mental health advisor and will also reflect on understanding

  19. Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3"acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and

  20. AHP 27: A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood

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    Tsering Bum ཚེ་རིང་འབུམ།

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsering Bum (b. 1985 describes his early life in Amdo in terms of dreams, herding, punishment from a lama, schooling experiences, attending a Kalachakra teaching, a lhatzi gathering, irrigation, his grandfather, archery, and other important moments and influences. Another incredible production from Kevin Stuart's Tibetan English students! Tsering Bum gives us a series of intricately woven vignettes of his childhood and adolescence in a small Tibetan village in Qinghai Province. A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood takes readers into the social and material culture of Tsering's family and fellow villagers. We begin with a home scene on the heated brick hyitsi 'bed', where the family sleeps, meals are taken, and guests are entertained. Through Tsering's writing we taste the noodles his mother makes by hand, know the life of the herders, meet ritualists who communicate with the mountain deity, visit a Kalachakra for blessings, experience an archery contest that ends in singing and drink, swim naked in cold mountain rivers, celebrate Losar, or Tibetan new year festival, visit a nomad festival, enter the transformative world of a county primary school, and hear the accounts of three deaths. The stories take us through a landscape of mountains, rivers, and grasslands to new worlds that for the narrator end with a kindled sense of global vision and self-worth. Mark Bender, Ohio State University I highly recommend this exciting new work. Tsering Bum's account of his life is a quick and pleasant read, full of insights into many aspects of contemporary Tibetan culture. From village rituals associated with death and archery contests to the challenges of modern schooling in rural areas, Tsering Bum leads us quickly through a narrative that links past and present to hopes for the future. Tibetan Buddhism and mountain pilgrimage play a limited but significant role in the story. As a historian, I was most interested in the chapter 'Grandpa' that recounts the

  1. Analisis Unsur Matematika pada Motif Sulam Usus

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    Fredi Ganda Putra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with researchers sources said that the beginning of the intestine embroidery is an art of genuine crafts. Called the intestine embroidery because this technique is a technique of combining a strand of cloth resembling the intestine formed according to the pattern by means of embroidered using a thread. Intestinal embroidery techniques were originally used to create a cover of the women's customary wardrobe of Lampung or often referred to as bebe. But not many people in Lampung, especially people who live in Lampung are still many who do not know and recognize the intestine embroidery because most only know tapis only characteristic of Lampung, besides that there are other cultural results that is embroidered intestine. There are still many who do not know that the intestine motif there is a knowledge of mathematics. The researcher's problem formulation is whether there are mathematical elements contained in the intestine embroidery motif based on the concept of geometry. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are elements of mathematics contained in the intestine motif based on the concept of geometry. Subjects in this study consisted of 4 people obtained by purposive sampling technique. From the results of data analysis conducted by using descriptive analysis and discussion as follows: (1 Intestinal embroidery motif contains the meaning of mathematics and culture or often called Etnomatematika. On the meaning of culture there is a link between the embroidery intestine with a culture that has been there before as the existence of cultural linkage between Hindu belief Buddhism and there are similarities of motifs and decorative patterns contained in the motif embroidery intestine with ornamental variety in Indonesia. (2 The relationship between the intestine with mathematical motifs there are elements of mathematics such as geometry elements in the form of geometry of dimension one and dimension two, and the

  2. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2013-01-01

    Termorhuizen, Realisten en reactionairen: Een geschiedenis van de Indisch-Nederlandse pers 1905-1942 (Pieter Drooglever Tjien Oei (ed., Memoirs of Indonesian doctors and professionals 2; More stories that shaped the lives of Indonesian doctors (Vivek Neelakantan Tomomi Ito, Modern Buddhism and Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu: A social history (Justin McDaniel Geoff Wade and Li Tana (eds, Anthony Reid and the study of the Southeast Asian past (Henk Schulte Nordholt Roxana Waterson and Kwok Kian-Woon (eds, Contestations of memory in Southeast Asia (Kevin Blackburn

  3. THE SHAMANS AMONG THE UYGHUR TURKS AND THE SHAMANS’ TREATMENT METHODS UYGUR TÜRKLERİ ARASINDA ŞAMANLAR VE TEDAVİ YÖNTEMLERİ

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    Adem ÖGER

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Uyghur Turks, having a rich and deep-rooted culture, has adistinguished place among the Turkish tribes in terms of their socioculturallife due to their living in a central region and due to theiraccepting the belief systems such as Shamanism, Totemism and thevarious religions such as Maniheizm, Buddhism, Nestorianism, Islam,in the historical process. The Uyghur folk medicine and other practicesin this context that contain this rich cultural structure in themselvessurvive until today by being fed by different sources. Among the UyghurTurks the Shamans have a variety of functions such as treatment,geomancy, and witching. In this paper, the Shamans’ peculiaritiesamong the Uyghur Turks in our day and their magical treatmentsmethods will be introduced and evaluated. Zengin ve köklü bir kültüre sahip olan Uygur Türkleri, merkezî bircoğrafyada yaşamaları ve tarihî süreçte Şamanizm, Totemizm gibi inançsistemlerini ve Maniheizm, Budizm, Nasturilik ve İslamiyet gibi çeşitlidinleri kabul etmeleri nedeniyle sosyo-kültürel yaşamları açısındanTürk boyları arasında ayrı bir yere sahiptir. Bu zengin kültürel yapıyıiçinde barındıran halk hekimliği ve bu çerçevedeki uygulamalar, farklıkaynaklardan beslenerek günümüze kadar gelmiştir. Uygur Türkleriarasında şamanların tedavi etme, fala bakma ve büyü yapma gibi çeşitlifonksiyonları vardır. Bu makalede, günümüzde Uygur Türkleri arasındaşamanların özellikleri ve sihri-büyüsel işlemler içeren tedavi yöntemleritanıtılıp değerlendirilecektir.

  4. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan

  5. Desvendando a religião e as religiões mundiais em Max Weber (Revealing religion and the world religions in Max Weber - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p136

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    Arilson Silva Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos Max Weber como um dos sociólogos e historiadores mais importantes dentre aqueles que se dedicaram ao estudo do fenômeno religioso. Na verdade, é possível afirmar que a análise da religião compreende um dos aspectos mais fundamentais de sua obra sócio-histórica. De modo geral, esse tema aparece em seus textos de duas maneiras diferentes, quais sejam: enquanto um objeto analisado em sua singularidade e enquanto uma manifestação social que influencia de maneira significativa os demais aspectos da vida comunitária. Aqui, observamos como ele muniu-se de um método particular e o utilizou como parâmetro para compreender historicamente a religião. Ao se debruçar sobre as religiões mundiais (confucionismo-taoísmo, judaísmo-cristianismo e hinduísmo-budismo, Weber estuda a racionalização cultural de suas cosmovisões. Todavia, para ele, a influência da religião sobre a vida prática varia muito segundo o caminho da salvação/libertação que é prescrito e segundo a qualidade psíquica (ou imaginada da salvação que se pretende alcançar. Palavras-chave: Max Weber; Religião; Religiões Mundiais; Racionalização.   AbstractWe present Max Weber as one of the most important sociologists and historians among those who dedicated themselves to the study of the religious phenomenon. Actually, it is possible to say that the analysis of religion involves one of the most fundamental aspects of his socio-historical work. As a whole, this subject appears in his texts in two different forms, i.e., as an analyzed object in its particularities, and as a social manifestation which influences, in a significant way, the other aspects of communitarian life. Here, we observe how he equipped himself with a particular method, rescued Kantian rationality and applied it as a parameter to historically understand religion. While he dedicated himself to study world religions (Confucianism-Taoism, Judaism-Christianity, and Hinduism-Buddhism

  6. Radical Transformation in the Human - Nature Perception: Deep Ecology

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    Hasan YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    discussions. Besides, its conceptional and intellectual mosaic has led t o critics targeting its “potpourri - like” nature. This stems from the influences on the Deep Ecology from Christianity, Heidggerian philosophy, Taoism, Buddhism to the beliefs of hunters and gatherers and Western metaphysics. The traces of Injun culture, Eu ropean romanticism and Spinoza could also be chased. This study aims to evaluate Deep Ecology in general while briefly touches upon the critics in particular. In this framework, it discusses whether it is possible to reach a “grounded” ecological movement of thought through Deep Ecology or not. By doing this, how the balance between the veins of realistic and mystic units of the 21 st century environmentalism should be, forms the main axis of the study.

  7. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

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    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  8. Very Nice Indeed: Cyprian Latewood's Masochistic Sublime, and the Religious Pluralism of Against the Day

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    Michael Jarvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available My paper deals with mythological/religious imagery and syncretic soteriologies in Thomas Pynchon’s 2006 novel 'Against the Day', focusing in particular on the character of Cyprian Latewood, bisexual spy, Orpheus stand-in, and masochist par excellence. Cyprian’s path throughout the novel is specifically an Orphic descent/return myth, but it also deals with issues of mystical transcendence, metempsychosis, Dionysian 'ekstasis', and Buddhist 'nirvana'. These are represented at the macro level in themes such as retreat from the world, neo-monasticism, anarchic activism, or hope for transcendent knowledge, and also within specific images and scenes, such as those involving flight, self-negation, disembodied voices, and the final voyage of the Chums of Chance, a Manichaean allegory of escape. Cyprian’s final home at a Bogomil-Orphic monastery near Thrace serves to tie together disparate religio-political strands within the novel, including a syncretic teleology (Gnostic/Buddhist/Manichaean and countercultural activism. It is simultaneously a retreat from the world – a political move with relevance to the history of the Bogomils as both persecuted sect and social agitators – and also a move towards transcendence through gnostic ritual. There are a few important results of this reading, touching on religious, mythological, and Pynchon studies, and sexual and political discourse. Firstly, it challenges the ease with which Western, and specifically Christian, ideologies appropriate counter-discourses in acts of cultural hegemony, exemplified in one instance by Kathryn Hume’s early reading of the novel’s ethos as explicitly Roman Catholic, even in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary (“The Religious and Political Vision of 'Against the Day'”, 2007. Secondly, though other critics have gestured at the presence of Orphism and Buddhism in 'Against the Day', they have failed to convincingly tie these concerns to a larger

  9. Research on history of medicine in China in the last five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-ping

    2004-03-01

    Since 1999, progress has been made, to varying degrees, in numerous areas of medical history research in China including history of TCM, history of western medicine, history of integrated Chinese and western medicine, history of traditional medicine of Chinese minorities, history of medicine of foreign countries, history of medical exchanges between China and other countries, and history of comparative medical history. Among others, the number of articles on history of diseases, history of specific medical disciplines, modern medical history, medical biographies, medical works, contemporary medical history, and history of medical culture has increased dramatically. In the field of history of diseases, the papers deal with diseases in gynecology and obstetrics, plague, lanhousha (scarlet fever), and nephritis; articles in the field of specific disciplines deal with history of acu-moxibustion, history of prescription-forms, and history of gynecology, endoscopic surgery, and evidence-based medicine. There are even distinguished papers appeared in these aspects. In the aspect of modern medical history, there are papers dealing with the developement of TCM, the introduction of western medicine into China, with some specific researches in these fields. Medical biographies include Tan Yun-xian, Quan Shao-qing, Du Chong-ming etc. Papers on medical works deal with the ancient unearthed literature lost yet spread and extant abroad, medical classics, canons on material medica, cold-pathogenic diseases, and formularies. While papers on history of medical culture discuss basically the influence of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and I-discipline on Chinese medicine. During these five years, 300 original articles have been published in The Chinese journal of Medical History, with another 200 papers published in other Chinese journals. Forty monographs have been published and important ones are A General History of Chinese Medicine, Modern history of TCM, The Historical

  10. Paysages de l’hybridité en Birmanie Landscapes of Hybridity in Burma

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    François Robinne

    2012-10-01

    is basically shaped on the concomitant evolution of the religious circumnavigation of five Buddha images around the lake Inle and of the economic cycle based on “five days one market”. The articulation of these two religious and economic spheres not only contribute to organise the moving of the peoples and of the goods ; They institute also a political supremacy over the social lansdcape to those who control–at least symbolically–their evolution. This example could be extended to other comparable social landscapes where Buddhism operate as a federative vector (like in Thibaw Township as we shall see, where plural christianism is deeply embedded in plural ethnic revendications (as it the case in Kachin and Chin States, and finally anywhere I was able to make fieldworks in Burma, in remote areas or in urban contexts as well. In all cases the problematic to keeping apart, at least at first, the usual ethnic–or interethnic–over determinant, that is to focuse the analysis on transethnic crossroads rather than on territorial and cultural limits, such a problematic would contribute to demonstrate the inclusive dynamic of a social lanscape and the interest to take hybridity as object of study.

  11. Foundation and Management of the Joseon Dynasty: Revisiting Jeong, Do-jeon’s Political Philosophy Based on the Royal Record of Joseon Dynasty

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    Kwon Jong YOO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 요약문 정도전은조선왕조창업의실질적공헌자로평가된다. 그러나그의공은단지개국한것에만머물지않고나아가조선왕조가이후 500년간지속될수있는터전을제공한데에있다고보는것이이글의논점이다. 기존의한국역사학계의평가는그를왕조의설계자로간주하면서, 주로경제, 정치, 법제도의제공에한정된내용을논의하였다. 그러나이에동의한다고하더라도그의실질적공헌은유교국가로서조선왕조가자신의사회를지속해서성공적으로재생산할수있는기반을제공한데에있다고보고그증거로볼수있는내용, 즉수도공간과건축의유교적배치와명명, 불교적의례르폐지하고유교적의례를대체한사실, 불교이념의배제와유교이념의시행등의의미를논한것이이글의핵심이다. 핵심어: 정도전, 조선왕조창업, 유교적기반, 사회의재생산, 도시공간의유교적배치와명명, 유교의례, 유교이념 Abstract Jeong Do-jeon is the most substantial contributor to the establishment of the Joseon Dynasty. Most present Korean historians commonly regard him as Designer of the Dynasty and have discussed his contribution to establish the system of law, economy, and politics. However, his contribution is not limited in the establishment. This paper discusses his substantial contribution in supplying the basis of Confucian civilization for the Dynasty’s duration for 500 years, abolishing Buddhist rituals and providing Confucian ones, organizing the capital city and naming buildings and districts of the city according to Confucian humanities, excluding Buddhism from people’s routine lives as well as official or royal ceremonies, etc. Keywords: Jeong Do-jeon, Joseon Dynasty, Confucianism, reproduction of Confucian society, rituals, capital city

  12. The political suspension of ethics: proposals for a historical study of reversal of values in a situation of martial conflict in Lanka

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    Peter Schalk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this project is to focus on the general socio-economic and political conditions leading to martial conflict in relation to religious and secular values, value systems and ideologies in Īlam/Lankā, with special regard to their transformation. It deals with the extent of reversal and re-reversal in the course of the conflict and reconciliation respectively. These values are reversed through political decisions in a martial situation. It is true that martial conflicts arise over the distribution of resources and territory and not over theological issues. When, however, religion is placed in a martial context and related to the interests of one group, then even a sophisticated theology can take the form of an identity-bestowing ideology and adopt martial doctrines such as the concept of just war. Territorial and social definitions of citizenship are replaced by definitions relating to sacred boundaries. Christianity may turn into German Christianity or Serbian Christianity, Hinduism into Hindūtva and Buddhism into Sinhalatva. The overall martial context is finally symbolised in religion as an identity marker alongside sacralisation of language, history, and territory, etc. This martial context generates a religious surplus even within secular ideologies and leads both to a suspension and a reversal of values in established religions. The proponents are ideologues, including monks and priests, and politicians in the widest sense. They become warmongers in a martial situation, where they become ‘authentic’ and authoritative. In a non-war situation they are marginalised as extremists. During war, they suspend fundamental human values, but they ‘suspend’ in the specifically German (Hegelian sense of aufheben, meaning to elevate, to save and to call off. They do not annihilate these values, only to recall and retrieve them during truces and cease-fires, in situations of non-war, and diplomatic or ecumenical encounters, or

  13. [The introduction of Western psychiatry into Korea (II). Psychiatric education in Korea during the forced Japanese annexation of Korea (1910-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonyong; Lee, Nami; Rhi, Bou-Yong

    2006-12-01

    In the second report in our series on the historical investigation on the introduction of western psychiatry into Korea, authors deal with the status of psychiatric education during the Japanese forced annexation of Korea. The first lecture on psychiatry in Korea under the title "Mental Diseases" was held in Dae-han-eui-won around 1910. In 1913, the Department of Psychiatry branched off from the Department of Internal Medicine of Chosen-sotoku-fu-iing, the Colonial Governmental Clinic, the successor of Dae-han-eui-won. The chairman, Professor Suiju Sinji; and the Korean assistant Sim Ho-seop administered the psychiatric ward with 35 beds. Since 1913, an Australian missionary psychiatrist, Dr. McLaren began to teach neurology and psychiatry at Severance Union Medical College and established a Department of Psychiatry in 1923. Dr. McLaren was a faithful Christian and open minded toward Oriental religious thought such as in Buddhism and Taoism. He devoted himself to the humanitarian care of mentally ill patients and served there until 1937 when he had to leave the land due to Japanese persecution. His disciple, Dr. Lee Jung Cheol succeeded the chair of the Psychiatric Department of Severance Medical College and served until 1939. In 1916, Keijo (Seoul) Medical College was established and in 1928, Keijo Teikoku Daigaku (Imperial University). From 1929 to 1941, the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University grew under the chairmanship of Professor Kubo Kioji followed by Professor Watanabe until 1945. Many assistants including a few Koreans were gathered to the Department for training and research. The main textbook used for the psychiatric education for medical students in Korea was on Kraepelinian German Psychiatry translated and edited by Japanese psychiatrists. Lectures and clerkships for Neurology and Psychiatry were allocated generally in the curriculum for senior students for weekly 1-3 hours. Postgraduate professional training for the

  14. Asceticism from the Perspective of Hafez and Nietzsche

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    Ebrahim Rezaei

    2016-03-01

    asceticism, by supernatural asceticism a kind if philosophy is meant which tries to evade suffering by coining the house of ideas (Platonism, being unified with the light (the concept highlighted in Buddhism and offering the human stabilized cognition system (Kant's critical philosophy. By clerical asceticism, Nietzsche means, the approach of conflicting with the world and evading the living. The followers of this approach once were among the commanders and fighters and when they reached the old age, by coining the title of clerical class, became members of it. According to Nietzsche, such people, after losing their power and control over the others, they try to attack themselves and gain control over themselves, leading to creating another kind of asceticism. On the other hand, the positive asceticism which can provide a popper situation to train talented people is divided into two sections: the natural and pure philosophical asceticism. By natural asceticism, he means the hard and overwhelming practices which influence both soul and body and cause much suffering. Such asceticism, instead of destroying the instincts, will purge it and willingly accept the religious legal duties. The pure philosophical asceticism, on the other hand, is a philosophical approach in which the person would put the majority aside, providing a private atmosphere for himself observing the power in the history of philosophy and nature. According to Nietzsche the negative asceticism is an approach stemming from slaves morality, while the positive asceticism stems from the masters morality. It primarily seems that the kind of asceticism suggested by Hafez is similar to what Nietzsche calls it as clerical asceticism. Also, Hafez's definition of asceticism can match the one called by Nietzsche as pure philosophical asceticism. However, the asceticism suggested by Hafez must be considered the fifth kind, since, after all, Nietzsche's suggested form of asceticism is quite materialistic while that of Hafez

  15. An Aspect of the History of Medicine in Ancient Korea as Examined through Silla Buddhist Monks'Annotations on the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease"in the Sutra of Golden Light (Suvarnabhāsa-sūtra).

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    Oh, Chaekun; Jeon, Jongwook; Shin, Dongwon

    2016-12-01

    Yellow Emperor (Huangdi Neijing) but also Indian medicine of Buddhism coexisted in almost real time.

  16. 永樂大典數位化相關問題之探討:兼論資訊科技對古籍整理的影響 | Exploration of the Relating Problems in Digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia:the Impact of Information Technology to the Chinese Ancient Books

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    顧力仁 Li-Jen Ku

    2002-04-01

    ="color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt;" lang="EN-US"> Yung Lo Encyclopaedia is a collection all classical, historical, philosophical, and literary works that ever published; covering subjects like astronomy, geography, sciences, medicine, Buddhism, Taoism, and arts. It was mainly compilation of extracts that includes many complete works which had been lost for years.

    This paper explores the relating problems in digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia. The author first introduces several database systems of the Chinese ancient books for example to discuss the impact of information technology to the Chinese ancient books. Then he analyzes the encountered in this process. In conclusion, possible future developments and benefits in digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia are to be discussed further. problems

  17. Postmodernistlikke jooni eesti noore režissuuri lavastustes 1969–1975 / Postmodernist Traits in the Performances of Young Estonian Directors 1969-1975

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    Rein Heinsalu

    2015-06-01

    activities on stage were also transferred to the audience. All of these tendencies indicate a new approach to the theatre. Overthrowing, deconstruction, and the Zeitgeist of rebellion, a new spirit of play, homo ludens are reflected in many writings from the end of the 1960s. When describing the atmosphere of that time, Mati Unt uses Derrida’s term onto-theo-teleo-phallo-phonocentrism. This period is also characterized by the phrase „rebellion against old stereotypes“, with the goal of deconstructing them. According to the theory of Brian McHale, the most important marker of postmodernism is the ontological dominant. And yet such designations as placing objectivity totally in suspension, metatheatrical devices,  resistance, physicality, rejection, class and power as mystifications, confessionality – these key words also provide a multi-layered characterization of the postmodernist theatre of the 1960s–1970s both in the USA and Estonia. So far Estonian researchers of postmodernism have not produced a unified account of postmodernism in culture and literature. As the playwright Robert Patrick observes in retrospect, postmodernism set itself in opposition to the schemata of modernism, viewing them as irrelevant: „there was no manifesto, credo, or criteria. It just happened“. It was a rebellion against society as a structure. The abovementioned criteria correspond to a great extent with the traits postmodernism listed by Ihab Hassan: antiauthoritarianism, distantiation from myths, Ego, the disintegration of the I, new sexuality, counterculture, improvisational and aleatory structures, the mixture of forms, play, parody, apocalyptic expectations, elements of communal life and the hippie movement, in addition to frequent attraction toZen, Buddhism, and the occult; applications of intermediality. It is this anti-authoritarianism that is one of the main themes in the Suits poetry evening, the performance Letting their hand be kissed, You, who get

  18. The Crimea and Rum in the 13th–14th centuries: The Anatolian Diaspora and Urban Culture of Solkhat »

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    Mark Kramarovsky

    2016-01-01

    backgrounds: Tengrism, Shamanism, Buddhism, Nestorianism. According to J.S. Trimingham, ‘Sufism’s role was of considerable significance, not as a Way, but through its men of power, manifested also after their death from their tombs, many of whose structures were raised by Mongol rulers’. In 1334 the Arab traveler Ibn Batutta was in Solkhat where he met Abu Bakr Rumi, a sheikh from Asisa Minor, who wrote the Persian Sufi treatise Qalandar-name. A copy of Qalandar-name is being prepared for publishing by a group of scholars from Kazan, directed by Il’nur Mirgaleev. Abu Bakr was born in Akshehir (Anatolia, but apparently spent most of his life in Solkhat as the imam of one of the two jame mosques of the city. In his treatise poem he once refers to the ruler of Solkhat as ‘Seljuk’ – most probably, in order to flatter him. It is extremely important that the onomastic data from Solkhat often reveal the names of people belonging to the Seljuk Diaspora, whose fathers, according to nisbas, came from Anatolia, for example al-Kastamuni (the thirteenth century, al-Akhlati, at-Tokati, as-Sivasi, as well as Yaakub Konevi (1328, a sheikh from Otuz (the neighbourhood of Solkhat. Two more names worth mentioning here: those of the builders (architects belonging to different generations of one and the same (? family from Arbel (Irbil, the Northern Iraq. The first one is Abdul Aziz ibn Ibrahim al-Irbili, the author of the ‘Mosque od Uzbek’ (1314, whose name can be found in the dedicatory inscription on the portal. The name of the second one, Mahmud ibn Osman al-Irbili, is known from the keystone which we found in 1985 in the layer of destruction of a fifteenth century mausoleum. According to Ibn Battuta, the Sufi abodes (khanqahs – centres of religious zeal and ‘schools’ where Sufi experience was taught – were founded by immigrants from Iraq, too. Thus, as we can see from the narrative sources, as well as from the names of the refugees from Anatolia and Northern Iraq