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Sample records for budbreak

  1. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials.

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    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture.

  2. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

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    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  3. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

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    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  4. Axillary budbreak in a cut rose crop as influenced by light intensity and red:far-red ratio at bud level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2014-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut rose (Rosa ·hybrida) are harvested, a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Earlier experiments indicated that light reaching the bud affected the number of budbreaks. In all these studies, whole

  5. Four Hypotheses to Explain Axillary Budbreak after Removal of Flower Shoots in a Cut-rose Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs-Timmermans, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Okello, R.C.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Vos, J.

    2013-01-01

    When flower-bearing shoots in cut-rose (Rosa ×hybrida) are harvested (removed), a varying number of repressed axillary buds on the shoot remainder start to grow into new shoots (budbreak). Besides removing within-shoot correlative inhibition, it is hypothesized that shoot removal leads to 1)

  6. Fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos de macieira em resposta à aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral Phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production by hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil application

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    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de indutores de brotação é uma das principais estratégias de manejo utilizadas para minimizar os problemas da falta de frio em frutíferas de clima temperado. Em razão da influência dos indutores de brotação sobre a resposta produtiva das plantas, a mensuração de seus efeitos ao longo do ciclo produtivo torna-se importante. Assim, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no ciclo 2007/2008, em Caçador/SC, objetivando avaliar diferentes combinações de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral sobre a fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos em macieiras. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições compostas de uma planta, seguindo arranjo fatorial (5x2, com cinco níveis de indutor de brotação (1. testemunha; 2. óleo mineral 3,2%; 3. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,20%; 4. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,39%; 5. óleo mineral 3,2% + cianamida hidrogenada 0,59% e duas cultivares (Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. A aplicação dos indutores de brotação antecipou e reduziu o período de florescimento, aumentando a coincidência de florescimento das cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema. Os indutores de brotação uniformizaram e aumentaram a brotação de gemas axilares e terminais, obtendo-se máxima brotação na cultivar Imperial Gala com 0,44% de cianamida hidrogenada e 3,2% de óleo mineral. O aumento da concentração de cianamida hidrogenada revelou a tendência de diminuir a frutificação efetiva. Observaram-se respostas diferenciadas entre tratamentos quanto à produção e à massa média dos frutos, podendo ser atribuídas ao predomínio da produção de frutos em distintas estruturas de frutificação.The budbreak promoters application is one of main management strategies used to decrease the problems of insufficient winter chilling on temperate fruit trees. Because the influence of budbreak promoters on productive behaviour of plants

  7. Hydrogen cyanamide, mineral and vegetable oils on budbreak and fruit production of ‘Royal Gala’ apple treesCianamida hidrogenada, óleos mineral e vegetal na brotação de gemas e produção de macieiras ‘Royal Gala’

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    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluate combinations of hydrogen cyanamide, mineral oil and vegetable oil on budbreak and fruit production of ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees. During 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growth seasons different concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide (0.00; 0.29; 0.39; 0.49; e 0.59% associated with mineral oil 3.2%, and hydrogen cyanamide 0.29% with vegetable oil 3.9% were tested in relation to budbreak in axillary and terminal buds, fruit set, production and mean fruit weight. The response of treatment with budbreak promoters was variable with chilling accumulation during autumn and winter season. The use of budbreak promoters increased the budbreak of axillary and terminal buds. The vegetable oil with hydrogen cyanamide showed lower performance than hydrogen cyanamide associated with mineral oil. The fruit set decreased with the increasing of hydrogen cyanamide concentration combined with mineral oil. The mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.29% treatment showed the better results on budbreak and fruit production in both growth seasons evaluated.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes combinações de cianamida hidrogenada, óleo mineral e óleo vegetal quanto à brotação de gemas e produção de frutos de macieira da cultivar Royal Gala. Durante os ciclos 2001/2002 e 2002/2003 testaram-se diferentes concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada (0,00; 0,29; 0,39; 0,49; e 0,59% associadas ao óleo mineral 3,2%, e cianamida hidrogenada 0,29% associada ao óleo vegetal 3,9% quanto à brotação de gemas axilares e terminais, frutificação efetiva, produção e massa média dos frutos. A resposta aos tratamentos com indutores de brotação foi variável conforme o acúmulo de frio ocorrido no período hibernal. O uso dos indutores de brotação aumentou a brotação de gemas axilares e terminais. O óleo vegetal associado à cianamida hidrogenada apresentou desempenho inferior quanto à brotação de gemas laterais e terminais

  8. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

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    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Increasing chilling reduces heat requirement for floral budbreak in peach

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    Response to chilling temperatures is a critical factor in the suitability of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars to moderate climates such as in the southeastern United States. Time of bloom depends on the innate chilling requirement of the cultivar as well as the timing and quantity of co...

  10. Necessidade de frio para quebra de dormência de gemas de caquizeiro 'Fuyu' Chill requirement for budbreak of japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu

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    Rudival Faquim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, determinar a necessidade de frio para a quebra da dormência das gemas de caquizeiro 'Fuyu'. As coletas de ramos foram realizadas em cinco datas (26-04, 14-05, 21-06, 19-07 e 16-08. Foram aplicados nos ramos cinco tratamentos de frio adicional (0; 168; 336; 504; 672 h de frio em geladeira à temperatura de 4ºC a 7ºC. A avaliação da dormência foi feita pelo teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados por meio do tempo médio para brotação (TMB, velocidade de brotação (VB, taxa final de brotação (TF e taxa de brotações vigorosas (TBV. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 5 x 5 (cinco datas e cinco tempos de exposição ao frio, com três repetições. Foram realizados testes separadamente com gemas terminais e com gemas laterais. A quebra de dormência de gemas laterais e terminais de ramos de caquizeiro 'Fuyu' ocorreu no mês de agosto, após o tratamento com 504 h de frio, de 4ºC a 7ºC, obtendo-se 100% de gemas brotadas.This work aimed to evaluate the chill requirement for bud break of Japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu. The branches were collected in five dates (April 26th; May 14th; June 21st; July 19th, and August 16th and received five chill treatments (0, 168, 336, 504, 672 h in the refrigerator (4ºC to 7ºC. The evaluation of dormancy was observed by the biological test of single node cuttings by following variables: average time for budburst (TMB, velocity of budburst (VB, final rate of budburst (TF and rate of vigorous budburst (TBV. The experimental design was a factorial entirely randomized with five dates and five periods of chill treatment with three replications. Terminal and lateral buds were analyzed individually. The bud break of terminal and lateral buds of Japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu occurred in August after the treatment with 504 h of chill (4ºC to 7ºC, when 100% of budburst was obtained.

  11. Times of prunning and budbreaking in Niagara Rosada vines/ Época de poda e quebra de dormência em videiras cv. Niagara Rosada

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    Renato V. Botelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as the aim of verifying the efficiency of five combined concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide (CH in four consecutive pruning times of sprouting vine and harvest anticipation of ‘Niagara Rosada’ in the county of Ponta Grossa, PR. The experiment had a factorial design (4 x 5 with 3 replications and 3 plants per parcel. The analysis were sprouting percentage, number of clusters per plant, rate of production and average weight per cluster. The effect of CH was shown only at the first pruned time when sprouting but the occurrence of frosting decreased the yield. The delay in the process of pruning showed a higher number of cluster per plant, which consequently resulted in yield increase. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a eficiência da combinação de cinco concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada (CH e quatro épocas de poda, na quebra da dormência e antecipação da colheita da videira ‘Niagara Rosada’ no município de Ponta Grossa – PR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 4 x 5 (épocas de poda x concentrações de CH , com 3 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. Foram analisados a porcentagem de brotação, o número de cachos por planta, a produção por planta e a massa média dos cachos. Houve efeito da aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada no aumento da brotação das gemas apenas para a primeira época de poda (06/08/2007. A primeira época de poda antecipou em uma semana a colheita, embora a ocorrência de geadas tenha prejudicado a produção. O atraso na época de poda proporcionou um maior número de cachos por planta e a maior produção.

  12. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE BUD-BREAK AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF 420 A AND 5 BB AMERICAN VINE ROOTSTOCKS IRRADIATED WITH DIFFERENT GAMMA DOSES

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    Alper DARDENIZ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important and intensive agricultural branch in Çanakkale province and also in Turkey. Different American vine rootstocks are widely used against phylloxera in our country. Plant breeders have been using gamma radiation for creating new varieties of crops and for obtaining broad genetic diversity for years. In this study, four different doses of gamma rays were applied to 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks when the buds on the cuttings were at the dormant stage. Then, effects of different gamma radiation doses on the cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks were investigated. The aim of the research was to study the effect of different gamma radiation doses on some growth parameters of cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB, and to determine the GR50 dose. The results obtained were statistically elaborated by TARIST.

  13. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

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    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  14. Comparison of Simulated Stem Temperatures and Observed Air Temperatures with Observed Stem Growth in Forest Openings

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    Brian E. Potter; Terry Strong

    2002-01-01

    Phenology, the study of how plant or animal developmental stages relate to the organism's surrounding climate, is a well established discipline with roots dating back more than 2000 years (Hopp and Blair, 1973). For example, correlations are often noted between budbreak or first blossom and integrated air temperature (commonly referred to as heat sums.) The...

  15. The influence of chilling requirement on the southern distribution limit of exotic Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in western North America

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    Guilbault, Kimberly R.; Brown, C.S.; Friedman, J.M.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), a Eurasian tree now abundant along rivers in western North America, has an apparent southern distribution limit running through southern California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. We used field observations to precisely define this limit in relation to temperature variables. We then investigated whether lack of cold temperatures south of the limit may prevent the accumulation of sufficient chilling, inhibiting dormancy loss of seeds and buds. We found that Russian olive occurrence was more strongly associated with low winter temperatures than with high summer temperatures, and results of controlled seed germination and vegetative bud-break experiments suggest that the chilling requirements for germination and bud-break are partly responsible for the southern range limit. Both seed germination proportion and germination time decreased under conditions simulating those south of the range limit. Similarly, percentage bud break decreased when chilling dropped below values typical of the range limit. In 17–65% of the years from 1980 to 2000, the chilling accumulated at a site near the range limit (El Paso, TX) would lead to a 10% or more decrease in bud-break. The potential decline in growth could have large fitness consequences for Russian olive. If climate change exhibits a warming trend, our results suggest the chilling requirement for bud-break of Russian olive trees will not be met in some years and its southern range limit may retreat northward.

  16. Temporal and spatial variation of terpenoids in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in relation to feeding by Adelges tsugae

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    Anthony F. Lagalante; Nyssa Lewis; Michael E. Montgomery; Kathleen S. Shields

    2006-01-01

    The terpenoid content of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) foliage was measured over an annual cycle of development from bud opening, shoot elongation, shoot maturation, to bud-break at the start of the next growing season. The objective was to determine if variation in terpenoid composition is linked with spatial and temporal feeding preferences of...

  17. Assessment of freeze injury of grapevine green tissues in response to cultivars and a cryoprotectant product

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    Spring frosts and subsequent crop losses threaten the economic sustainability of fruit crop producers all over the world. This study used a controlled-freezing technique to impose a post-budbreak freezing stress to grapevine shoots forced from one-node cuttings ['Albariño', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Cabern...

  18. Warm spring temperatures induce persistent season-long changes in shoot development in grapevines.

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    Keller, Markus; Tarara, Julie M

    2010-07-01

    The influence of temperature on the timing of budbreak in woody perennials is well known, but its effect on subsequent shoot growth and architecture has received little attention because it is understood that growth is determined by current temperature. Seasonal shoot development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) was evaluated following differences in temperature near budbreak while minimizing the effects of other microclimatic variables. Dormant buds and emerging shoots of field-grown grapevines were heated above or cooled below the temperature of ambient buds from before budbreak until individual flowers were visible on inflorescences, at which stage the shoots had four to eight unfolded leaves. Multiple treatments were imposed randomly on individual plants and replicated across plants. Shoot growth and development were monitored during two growing seasons. Higher bud temperatures advanced the date of budbreak and accelerated shoot growth and leaf area development. Differences were due to higher rates of shoot elongation, leaf appearance, leaf-area expansion and axillary-bud outgrowth. Although shoots arising from heated buds grew most vigorously, apical dominance in these shoots was reduced, as their axillary buds broke earlier and gave rise to more vigorous lateral shoots. In contrast, axillary-bud outgrowth was minimal on the slow-growing shoots emerging from buds cooled below ambient. Variation in shoot development persisted or increased during the growing season, well after temperature treatments were terminated and despite an imposed soil water deficit. The data indicate that bud-level differences in budbreak temperature may lead to marked differences in shoot growth, shoot architecture and leaf-area development that are maintained or amplified during the growing season. Although growth rates commonly are understood to reflect current temperatures, these results demonstrate a persistent effect of early-season temperatures, which should be considered in future

  19. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately in the future? The unrevealed hurdle of endodormancy break.

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    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The onset of the growing season of trees has been earlier by 2.3 days per decade during the last 40 years in temperate Europe because of global warming. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is, however, not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud endodormancy, and, on the other hand, higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cell growth afterward. Different process-based models have been developed in the last decades to predict the date of budbreak of woody species. They predict that global warming should delay or compromise endodormancy break at the species equatorward range limits leading to a delay or even impossibility to flower or set new leaves. These models are classically parameterized with flowering or budbreak dates only, with no information on the endodormancy break date because this information is very scarce. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of a set of phenological models to accurately predict the endodormancy break dates of three fruit trees. Our results show that models calibrated solely with budbreak dates usually do not accurately predict the endodormancy break date. Providing endodormancy break date for the model parameterization results in much more accurate prediction of this latter, with, however, a higher error than that on budbreak dates. Most importantly, we show that models not calibrated with endodormancy break dates can generate large discrepancies in forecasted budbreak dates when using climate scenarios as compared to models calibrated with endodormancy break dates. This discrepancy increases with mean annual temperature and is therefore the strongest after 2050 in the southernmost regions. Our results claim for the urgent need of massive measurements of endodormancy break dates in forest and fruit trees to yield more robust projections of phenological changes in a near future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Candidate genes associated with bud dormancy release in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.).

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    Hedley, Peter E; Russell, Joanne R; Jorgensen, Linzi; Gordon, Sandra; Morris, Jenny A; Hackett, Christine A; Cardle, Linda; Brennan, Rex

    2010-09-14

    The detrimental effects of mild winter temperatures on the consistency of cropping of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) in parts of Europe have led to increasing interest in the genetic control of dormancy release in this species. This study examined patterns of gene expression in leaf buds of blackcurrant to identify key differential changes in these profiles around the time of budbreak. Using leaf bud tissue of blackcurrant, a cDNA library was generated as a source of blackcurrant ESTs for construction of a custom microarray, which was used to identify differential gene expression during dormancy release. Gene activity was lowest in early stages of dormancy, increasing to reach a maximum around the time of budbreak. Genes with significantly changing expression profiles were clustered and evidence is provided for the transient activity of genes previously associated with dormancy processes in other species. Expression profiling identified candidate genes which were mapped onto a blackcurrant genetic linkage map containing budbreak-related QTL. Three genes, which putatively encode calmodulin-binding protein, beta tubulin and acetyl CoA carboxylase respectively, were found to co-localise with budbreak QTL. This study provides insight into the genetic control of dormancy transition in blackcurrant, identifying key changes in gene expression around budbreak. Genetic mapping of ESTs enabled the identification of genes which co-localise with previously-characterised blackcurrant QTL, and it is concluded that these genes have probable roles in release of dormancy and can therefore provide a basis for the development of genetic markers for future breeding deployment.

  1. Candidate genes associated with bud dormancy release in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.

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    Hedley Peter E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detrimental effects of mild winter temperatures on the consistency of cropping of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. in parts of Europe have led to increasing interest in the genetic control of dormancy release in this species. This study examined patterns of gene expression in leaf buds of blackcurrant to identify key differential changes in these profiles around the time of budbreak. Results Using leaf bud tissue of blackcurrant, a cDNA library was generated as a source of blackcurrant ESTs for construction of a custom microarray, which was used to identify differential gene expression during dormancy release. Gene activity was lowest in early stages of dormancy, increasing to reach a maximum around the time of budbreak. Genes with significantly changing expression profiles were clustered and evidence is provided for the transient activity of genes previously associated with dormancy processes in other species. Expression profiling identified candidate genes which were mapped onto a blackcurrant genetic linkage map containing budbreak-related QTL. Three genes, which putatively encode calmodulin-binding protein, beta tubulin and acetyl CoA carboxylase respectively, were found to co-localise with budbreak QTL. Conclusions This study provides insight into the genetic control of dormancy transition in blackcurrant, identifying key changes in gene expression around budbreak. Genetic mapping of ESTs enabled the identification of genes which co-localise with previously-characterised blackcurrant QTL, and it is concluded that these genes have probable roles in release of dormancy and can therefore provide a basis for the development of genetic markers for future breeding deployment.

  2. Cell cycle genes are activated earlier than respiratory genes during release of grapevine buds from endodormancy.

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    Noriega, Ximena; Pérez, Francisco J

    2017-10-03

    Single-bud cuttings of Vitis vinifera L exposed to forced growing conditions were used to investigate the involvement of phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (Aux) and cytokinin (CK) in the release of buds from the ED and in bud-sprouting. This artificial system imitates and hastens the natural sprouting that occurs in spring. Temporal expression analysis of genes related to phytohormones synthesis, showed an early drop in the expression of ABA biosynthesis gene that preceded an increase in Aux and CK biosynthesis genes. Bud-break is headed by the activation of all structures of the latent bud, especially the differentiation of the inflorescence and the development of the early stages of floral organs. Therefore, resumption of cell division and increases in respiration are essential for the activation of the bud. Temporal expression analysis of the cell cycle and respiration genes indicate that an increase in cell division go before the increase in respiration. These results, together with results indicating that the cell cycle genes are upregulated by Aux and CK, suggest that the events before the bud-break, start with a reduction in ABA content, followed by an increase in the content of Aux and CK, which activates the machinery of the cell cycle, which eventually would cause an increase in respiration.

  3. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

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    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  4. Compounds Derived from Garlic as Bud Induction Agents in Organic Farming of Table Grape Compuestos Derivados de Ajo como Agentes Inductores de Brotación en Cultivo Orgánico de Uva de Mesa

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    Irasema Vargas-Arispuro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is one of the most important economic activities in the Northwest of Mexico. A major obstacle for the economic production is the insufficient period of chilling temperatures. This problem leads to poor budbreak, which in turn results in reduced yields. This problem is aggravated when plants are cultivated using the organic farming system, mostly because there are not organically approved restbreaking agents. In this work different products derived from garlic (Allium sativum L. were obtained and evaluated as stimulate budbreak agent of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Flame Seedless and Perlette. The isolated compounds were chemically identified and include allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, 3-vynil-[4H]-1,2-ditiin and 2-vynil-[3H]-1,3-ditiin, S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl thiosulfonate. Cuttings with six buds were used to evaluate the compounds. After compounds were applied, the cuttings were transferred to a growing chamber at 24 °C. All evaluated compounds promoted budbreak in the cuttings of Flame Seedless and Perlette. The volatile compounds from S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide promoted 100% of budbreak of both cultivars. The compounds from garlic that stimulated budbreak in grapevines in this work include sulphur in their molecule; therefore we propose that sulphur could play a key role in breaking bud dormancy of grape cultivars evaluated in this studyLa viticultura es una de las principales actividades económicas en el Noroeste de México. Entre los problemas que enfrenta esta actividad está el período de frío insuficiente, lo que lleva a una pobre brotación y consecuentemente una menor producción. Este problema se agrava cuando se cultivan plantas por el método orgánico, ya que no existen agentes inductores de brotación aprobados para uso orgánico. En este trabajo se aislaron diferentes compuestos derivados de ajo (Allium sativum L. que se evaluaron

  5. Potential effect of atmospheric warming on grapevine phenology and post-harvest heat accumulation across a range of climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew; Mathews, Adam J.; Holzapfel, Bruno P.

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are accumulated within the perennial structure of grapevines when their production exceeds the requirements of reproduction and growth. The period between harvest and leaf-fall (the post-harvest period) is a key period for carbohydrate accumulation in relatively warmer grape-growing regions. The level of carbohydrate reserves available for utilisation in the following season has an important effect on canopy growth and yield potential and is therefore an important consideration in vineyard management. In a warming climate, the post-harvest period is lengthening and becoming warmer, evidenced through studies in wine regions worldwide that have correlated recent air temperature increases with changing grapevine phenology. Budbreak, flowering, veraison, and harvest have all been observed to be occurring earlier than in previous decades. Additionally, the final stage of the grapevine phenological cycle, leaf-fall, occurs later. This study explored the potential for increased post-harvest carbohydrate accumulation by modelling heat accumulation following harvest dates for the recent climate (1975-2004) and two warmer climate projections with mean temperature anomalies of +1.26 and +2.61 °C. Summaries of post-harvest heat accumulation between harvest and leaf-fall were produced for each of Australia's Geographical Indications (wine regions) to provide comparisons from the base temperatures to projected warmer conditions across a range of climates. The results indicate that for warmer conditions, all regions observe earlier occurring budbreak and harvest as well as increasing post-harvest growing degree days accumulation before leaf-fall. The level of increase varies depending upon starting climatic condition, with cooler regions experiencing the greatest change.

  6. Genotypic Differences in Architectural and Physiological Responses to Water Restriction in Rose Bush

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    Camille eLi-Marchetti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20kPa and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype x watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction - weak, moderate and strong - represented by Hw336, ‘Baipome’ and ‘The Fairy’, respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of ‘Baipome’ compared to ‘The Fairy’, but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses could be related to: (i the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity in ‘Baipome’ during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK and to a lower concentration in salicylic acid (SA; (ii a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in abscisic acid (ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to

  7. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001–2003 and 2008–2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011–2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908–2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north–south direction and for the period 1877–2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north–west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3–4 days over a 100-year period. PMID:25798141

  8. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001-2003 and 2008-2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011-2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908-2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north-south direction and for the period 1877-2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north-west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3-4 days over a 100-year period.

  9. Monitoring of Vegetative Phenological Stages in European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Growing in a Mixed Stand

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    Kristýna Slovíková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of monitoring of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. vegetative phenophases within the period of years 2005–2010 as related to results of evaluation involving data collected since 1991. This phenological study was performed in a young mixed forest stand situated in the Drahanská vrchovina uplands in the altitude of 625 m.a.s.l. Beginnings and duration of individual phenophases differed in dependence on the course of weather conditions in individual years of study. The highest variability was observed in the stage of budbreak. The obtained results indicate that the onset of spring phenophases was dependent on temperatures existing already in early spring and to the end of winter period. The statistical analysis proved a high correlation existing between the onset of spring phenophases on the one hand and soil and air temperatures on the other. Temperature requirements as defined for the beginnings of individual phenophases were evaluated on the base of cumulative sums of temperatures higher than 0 °C. The obtained results indicate that, as compared with results of long-term monitoring, the period of the duration of spring phenophases had been gradually shortened. On the other side, however, the duration of autumn phenophases was extended and they ended in the late autumn. Repeated extensions of the growing season to the detriment of winter dormancy might show a negative effect on the health condition of forest stands.

  10. Monitoring the spring phenological stages in a spruce monoculture in the Drahanská vrchovina upland in 2005–2011

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    Emilie Bednářová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the onset and duration of spring vegetation phenological stages in a spruce monoculture of the third age class in relation to changing parameters of the environment in the region of the Drahanská vrchovina Upland. Temperature requirements of Norway spruce necessary for the onset particular phenological stages were evaluated on the basis of sums of effective temperatures > 5 oC. The period of 2005–2011 is processed in relation to long-term monitoring since 1991. Based on results obtained, there is considerable variability owing to changing climatic conditions in the onset of spring phenological stages in the course of monitored years. In recent years, the earlier onset of spring phenological stages occurs and their duration gets shorter. This phenomenon is caused by higher air temperatures in spring months. The statistical processing of results obtained demonstrated the high dependence of the onset of particular phenological stages on the temperature of air and soil. Particular factors affecting budbreak and foliation cannot be detached and thus, it is necessary to be evaluated as a complex of influences. Long-term phenological studies of forest trees can serve as the bioindicator of climatic changes.

  11. Small-scale variations of climate change in mountainous forested terrain - a regional study from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzakova, Katerina; Hoffmann, Peter; Jones, Julia; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    There has been conflicting evidence as to whether high elevations are experiencing more pronounced climate warming than lower elevations in mountainous regions. In this study we analyze temperature records from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research, Oregon, USA and several nearby areas, comprising together 28 stations located in Cascade Mountains. The data, starting in 1958, are first checked for quality and homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test. As a reference, composite climate time series based on the Global Historic Climate Network is created and together with cross-referencing against station records used to correct breaks and shifts in the data. In the next step, we investigate temperature patterns of the study site from 1958 to 2016 and compare them for valley and hill stations. In particular, we explore seasonality and inter-annual variability of the records and trends of the last day of frost. Additionally, 'cold' sums (positive and negative) are calculated to obtain a link between temperature and ecosystems' responses (such as budbreaks). So far, valley stations seem to be more prone to climate change than ridge or summit stations, contrary to current thinking. Building on previous knowledge, we attempt to provide physical explanations for the temperature records, focusing on wind patterns and associated phenomena such as cold air drainage and pooling. To aid this we analyze wind speed and direction data available for some of the stations since 1996, including seasonality and inter-annual variability of the observed flows.

  12. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of three Mediterranean species through calcareous and siliceous soils in natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, E.; Fernandez, C.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.; Greff, S.; Morin, E.; Robles, C.; Vila, B.; Bonin, G.

    Little is known about terpene emissions released by plants in response to abiotic factors, except for climate-related factors. Standard emissions ( ES) of monoterpenes ( ESM) and sesquiterpenes ( ESS) of Rosmarinus officinalis, Pinus halepensis and Cistus albidus in siliceous and calcareous sites were examined. Their dependency on some nutrients in these soils was also analyzed. The study was carried out in the south of France at the end of March, when C. albidus exhibited a leaf growth state, while the other two species exhibited a pre-budbreak state. The results revealed that ES of all major monoterpenes released by R. officinalis and ES of α-pinene and α-humulene of P. halepensis were higher in plants growing in calcareous soils. In contrast, for C. albidus, ESM and ES of β-bourbonene and α-humulene were higher in siliceous soils. ESM of all species was mainly correlated with nitrogen ( N) and available phosphorous (P A), while dependency on Ca 2+ or K + was variable. None of these nutrients was significantly correlated with ESS, suggesting that sesquiterpene synthesis pathway requires different nutrient supplies. While higher soil nutrient content stimulated ESM of R. officinalis and P. halepensis, it had a negative effect on ESM of C. albidus, probably because C. albidus exhibited a different phenological state. Considering the soil nature, and particularly N and P A as inputs in plant terpene inventories could hence contribute to obtain more accurate terpene estimates.

  13. Identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development

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    Wang Yen-Yi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flower development in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. These primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. Kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development. Results To study kiwifruit flower development, nine MADS-box genes were identified and functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment, phenotypes obtained upon overexpression in Arabidopsis and expression patterns suggest that the identified genes are required for floral meristem and floral organ specification. Their role during budbreak and flower development was studied. A spontaneous kiwifruit mutant was utilized to correlate the extended expression domains of these flowering genes with abnormal floral development. Conclusions This study provides a description of flower development in kiwifruit at the molecular level. It has identified markers for flower development, and candidates for manipulation of kiwifruit growth, phase change and time of flowering. The expression in normal and aberrant flowers provided a model for kiwifruit flower development.

  14. Identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Moss, Sarah M; Voogd, Charlotte; Wu, Rongmei; Lough, Robyn H; Wang, Yen-Yi; Hellens, Roger P

    2011-04-27

    Flower development in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. These primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. Kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development. To study kiwifruit flower development, nine MADS-box genes were identified and functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment, phenotypes obtained upon overexpression in Arabidopsis and expression patterns suggest that the identified genes are required for floral meristem and floral organ specification. Their role during budbreak and flower development was studied. A spontaneous kiwifruit mutant was utilized to correlate the extended expression domains of these flowering genes with abnormal floral development. This study provides a description of flower development in kiwifruit at the molecular level. It has identified markers for flower development, and candidates for manipulation of kiwifruit growth, phase change and time of flowering. The expression in normal and aberrant flowers provided a model for kiwifruit flower development.

  15. Multi-environment QTL mapping in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, C A; Russell, J; Jorgensen, L; Gordon, S L; Brennan, R M

    2010-11-01

    The first genetic linkage map of blackcurrant, published by Brennan et al. (Euphytica 161:19-34, 2008), identified regions where quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for some important traits were located. The analysis was complicated by the fact that the mapping population was found to contain two subgroups, with segregation ratios consistent with these being crossed and selfed offspring. The QTL analysis was based on the trait mean over 3 years and focused on the crossed offspring. Here we proposed a mixed model multi-environment approach for this population. The 3 years are considered as three separate environments, the data from both the selfed and crossed offspring are combined and different residual terms are explored to model the correlation between the years. This permits tests for interactions between the QTLs, the year and the type of offspring (selfed or crossed). This is applied to re-analyse two important traits, anthocyanin concentration and budbreak. Several additional QTLs were identified, some affecting the trait in both the selfed and crossed offspring, others in just one.

  16. Homologs of FT, CEN and FD respond to developmental and environmental signals affecting growth and flowering in the perennial vine kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Moss, Sarah M A; Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Putterill, Joanna; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-05-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) homologs have been implicated in regulation of growth, determinacy and flowering. The roles of kiwifruit FT and CEN were explored using a combination of expression analysis, protein interactions, response to temperature in high-chill and low-chill kiwifruit cultivars and ectopic expression in Arabidopsis and Actinidia. The expression and activity of FT was opposite from that of CEN and incorporated an interaction with a FLOWERING LOCUS D (FD)-like bZIP transcription factor. Accumulation of FT transcript was associated with plant maturity and particular stages of leaf, flower and fruit development, but could be detected irrespective of the flowering process and failed to induce precocious flowering in transgenic kiwifruit. Instead, transgenic plants demonstrated reduced growth and survival rate. Accumulation of FT transcript was detected in dormant buds and stem in response to winter chilling. In contrast, FD in buds was reduced by exposure to cold. CEN transcript accumulated in developing latent buds, but declined before the onset of dormancy and delayed flowering when ectopically expressed in kiwifruit. Our results suggest roles for FT, CEN and FD in integration of developmental and environmental cues that affect dormancy, budbreak and flowering in kiwifruit. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Cutaneous reactions simulating erythema multiforme and Stevens Johnson syndrome due to occupational exposure to a plant-growth regulator

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    Inamadar Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex ® is a plant growth regulator used mainly for the bud-breaking of grapevines. The use of this chemical may result in severe cutaneous reactions simulating erythema multiforme (EM, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN. Methods: Studies were conducted on four seasonal grapevine workers who developed severe cutaneous reactions following the unprotected use of Dormex ® (hydrogen cyanamide. Results: Two of the patients had EM-like skin lesions and the other two developed SJS-TEN-like skin lesions. A latent period of 5-7 days existed between the contact with the chemical and the development of the skin lesions. The histopathological picture was suggestive of EM. All the patients responded to systemic steroids and antihistamines. Conclusions: Hydrogen cyanamide may act as a hapten, initiating cytotoxic immunological attack on keratinocytes, resulting in EM- and SJS-TEN-like clinical picture. Awareness regarding such severe cutaneous reactions due to the inappropriate handling of Dormex ® is required. The use of personal protection equipments while handling agricultural chemicals is essential.

  18. Micropropagation and Microrhizome Induction in Costus pictus D. Don Using In Vitro and Ex Vitro Nodal Segments as Explant

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    Kshetrimayum PUNYARANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Costus pictus D. Don is a potent anti-diabetic plant used in folk, ayurvedic and homeopathic system of medicine. Gene and protein expression of key targets in insulin signaling pathway have revealed that methyl tetracosonoate, a bio-active molecule from Costus pictus extract has anti-diabetic activity. The axillary buds of Costus pictus are dormant. The dormancy of axillary buds were broken when cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 3-4 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 0.2-1 ?M naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. The highest bud-break percentage was achieved in those supplemented with 0.6 ?M NAA and 3 ?M BAP. The sprouted axillary buds were transferred onto medium supplemented with 0.6 ?M NAA and 6-10 ?M BAP for shoot multiplication. The maximum average number of shoot was achieved in medium supplemented with 0.6 ?M NAA and 8 ?M BAP. The shoots were successfully rooted when transferred onto media supplemented with 1-12 ?M NAA or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and 3 ?M BAP. The maximum number of roots was found in 8 ?M NAA and 3 ?M BAP. The dormancy of in vitro axillary buds were also successfully broken in stems from which shoot apex were decapitated and cultured in MS medium with 0.6 ?M NAA, 7 ?M BAP and 5-13% sucrose. These sprouted in vitro axillary buds could be used as secondary explants for shoot multiplication. The maximum was in medium supplemented with 9% sucrose. Rhizomes were successfully induced when 4-month old plantlets were cultured on strength MS medium supplemented with 2.4 ?M NAA, 32 ?M BAP and 5-13% sucrose. Microrhizomes formed in 9% sucrose was largest in size with highest average fresh weight.

  19. Micropropagation and Microrhizome Induction in Costus pictus D. Don Using In Vitro and Ex Vitro Nodal Segments as Explant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshetrimayum PUNYARANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Costus pictus D. Don is a potent anti-diabetic plant used in folk, ayurvedic and homeopathic system of medicine. Gene and protein expression of key targets in insulin signaling pathway have revealed that methyl tetracosonoate, a bio-active molecule from Costus pictus extract has anti-diabetic activity. The axillary buds of Costus pictus are dormant. The dormancy of axillary buds were broken when cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 3-4 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 0.2-1 ?M naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. The highest bud-break percentage was achieved in those supplemented with 0.6 ?M NAA and 3 ?M BAP. The sprouted axillary buds were transferred onto medium supplemented with 0.6 ?M NAA and 6-10 ?M BAP for shoot multiplication. The maximum average number of shoot was achieved in medium supplemented with 0.6 ?M NAA and 8 ?M BAP. The shoots were successfully rooted when transferred onto media supplemented with 1-12 ?M NAA or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and 3 ?M BAP. The maximum number of roots was found in 8 ?M NAA and 3 ?M BAP. The dormancy of in vitro axillary buds were also successfully broken in stems from which shoot apex were decapitated and cultured in MS medium with 0.6 ?M NAA, 7 ?M BAP and 5-13% sucrose. These sprouted in vitro axillary buds could be used as secondary explants for shoot multiplication. The maximum was in medium supplemented with 9% sucrose. Rhizomes were successfully induced when 4-month old plantlets were cultured on � strength MS medium supplemented with 2.4 ?M NAA, 32 ?M BAP and 5-13% sucrose. Microrhizomes formed in 9% sucrose was largest in size with highest average fresh weight.

  20. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2017-05-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  1. In vitro propagation of female Ephedra foliata Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss.: an endemic and threatened Gymnosperm of the Thar Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Deepika; Rathore, Nisha; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ephedra foliata Boiss. & Kotschy ex Boiss., (family - Ephedraceae), is an ecologically and economically important threatened Gymnosperm of the Indian Thar Desert. A method for micropropagation of E. foliata using nodal explant of mature female plant has been developed. Maximum bud-break (90 %) of the explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) of benzyl adenine (BA) + additives. Explant produces 5.3 ± 0.40 shoots from single node with 3.25 ± 0.29 cm length. The multiplication of shoots in culture was affected by salt composition of media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR's) and their interactions, time of transfer of the cultures. Maximum number of shoots (26.3 ± 0.82 per culture vessel) were regenerated on MS medium modified by reducing the concentration of nitrates to half supplemented with 200 mg l(-1) ammonium sulphate {(NH4) 2SO4} (MMS3) + BA (0.25 mg l(-1)), Kinetin (Kin; 0.25 mg l(-1)), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.1 mg l(-1)) and additives. The in vitro produced shoots rooted under ex vitro on soilrite moistened with one-fourth strength of MS macro salts in screw cap bottles by treating the shoot base (s) with 500 mg l(-1) of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 5 min. The micropropagated plants were hardened in the green house. The described protocol can be applicable for (i) large scale plant production (ii) establishment of plants in natural habitat and (iii) germplasm conservation of this endemic Gymnosperm of arid regions.

  2. Detritivores enhance the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf-litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest ecosystems, {sup 137}Cs was mostly deposited and accumulated on the land surface of forest. The fate of radioactive materials accumulated on the leaf litters should be conscientiously monitored to understand the future distribution and the spread to the surrounding landscapes. Because the accident took place on 11 March 2011, just before the bud-break of deciduous trees, the {sup 137}Cs are highly accumulated on the surface of leaf litter on the forest floor. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through the detritus food chain. However, on the litter surface, {sup 137}Cs considered to be strongly and immediately fixed and highly immobilized. Decomposition processes in the forest floor can re-mobilise the nutritional elements which are contained within detritus and make them available for the organisms. In the present study, the feeding effect of detritivore soil arthropods on the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf litter was experimentally examined. Furthermore, the effect of detritivores on the plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs was examined by small-scale nursery experiment. Decomposition experiment in the small microcosms was performed using a larvae of Trypoxylus dichotomus, whichis a detritivores feeding on dead plant materials such as wood debris and leaf litters. Contaminated leaf litters were collected in a forest of the Kami-Oguni River catchment in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The leaf litters at A0 layers which are highly contaminated by {sup 137}Cs were utilized for the experiment. The contaminated leaf litter was fed to the larvae for ten days. The litter with larvae excreta was washed by 2 M KCl and deionized water. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was measured

  3. Seleção de genótipos de pessegueiro F1 com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal Selection of F1 peach genotypes with low chilling requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A baixa necessidade de frio é característica fundamental para que se possa cultivar economicamente o pessegueiro em condições de clima subtropical, devendo ser este, portanto, o principal objetivo dos programas de melhoramento nestas regiões. o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e selecionar progênies de pessegueiro com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal por meio do método de ramos destacados e indicar o melhor genitor para utilização em programas de melhoramento, visando a esta característica. Foram avaliados 180 genótipos pertencentes a 25 populações de pessegueiro, sendo que o número de genótipos em cada população variou de três a dezenove. os ramos foram submetidos a 50; 100; 150; 200 e 400 unidades de frio, e, ao término de cada tratamento, os ramos foram transferidos para o interior da casa de vegetação. Após 21 dias, foram avaliados quanto às porcentagens de floração e brotação,e com os resultados obtidos, 5 populações e 29 genótipos de pessegueiro com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal foram selecionados. A cultivar Real mostrou-se eficiente na obtenção de pessegueiros com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal, quando utilizada como genitor feminino.Low chilling requirement is the main characteristic for the economic cultivation of peaches under subtropical climate conditions, therefore it should be the most important objective in breeding programs for these regions. The aim of this work was to evaluate and to select peach progenies with low chilling requirement through detached twigs methodology, to indicate a good genitor for using in the breeding program with this characteristic. A total of 180 genotypes, from 25 peach populations, were observed. The genotypes of each population varied from three to nineteen plants. The twigs were submitted to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 chilly units. once the treatments were concluded, the twigs were transferred to a greenhouse and after twenty one days the budbreak and

  4. Atividade de enzimas relacionadas com a mobilização de carboidratos durante a dormência da nogueira (Juglans Regia Walnut enzyme activity related with carbohydrate mobilization during dormancy period

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    Idemir Citadin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A brotação da nogueira é dependente da mobilização de carboidratos do lenho para as gemas localizadas na porção superior dos ramos. O objetivo do trabalho foi contribuir para o entendimento do mecanismo de brotação acrótona da nogueira, em clima temperado, através da mensuração da atividade da ±-amilase (EC 3.2.1.1 e sacarose fosfato sintase (SPS - EC 2.4.1.14 relacionadas com a mobilização de carboidratos, durante o período de dormência. Para cada coleta, foram amostrados cinco ramos do ano, durante os meses de setembro a março. Em abril, próximo à retomada do crescimento ativo, foram feitas três amostragens. As partes apical, subapical e da base dos ramos foram separadas em casca, lenho (xilema e gemas. O tempo médio de brotação (TMB em condições controladas (25ºC, a umidade ponderal e a atividade das enzimas acima relacionadas foram determinadas. Os resultados obtidos reforçam a teoria de que o gradiente de brotação na nogueira se desenvolve durante a ecodormência e apresenta uma relação de dependência com a atividade da á-amilase; não está evidente a relação da atividade da SPS com a evolução do crescimento das gemas, durante a ecodormência.Juglans regia L. sprout depends on the carbohydrate mobilization from the parenchyma cells into the buds located in the upper portion of the twigs. The objective of this work was to contribute to the walnut tree sprout acrotony mechanism, in temperate climate, through the activity of alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase (SPS - EC 2.4.1.14 mensuration, related to carbohydrate mobilization, during the dormancy period. From September to March, five one-year-old twigs were monthly sampled around. In April, close to budbreak, three samples were accomplished. The twigs were divided in apical, sub-apical, and base, and separated in bark, buds and wood (xylem. The average time of bud break in controlled conditions (25ºC, water content, and activity

  5. Balanço de carboidratos em gemas florais de dois genótipos de pereira sob condição de inverno ameno Balance of carbohydrates in flower bud of two pear tree genotypes under mild winter conditions

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    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    . Flower bud and its surrounding base tissues (bud cushion were monthly collected since February until September 2002, from pear trees in a orchard of Embrapa Temperate Climate Research Center (32°51' S and 52°21'W, located at 230 m of altitude. The tissues of the flower buds and bud cushion were separately analysed for soluble sugars concentration (by GLC and starch percentage (by spectrophotometry, in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Embrapa. It was observed that the bud cushion tissue is an important site of starch accumulation on both cultivars. There were marked increases in soluble sugars in the flower bud tissues of both cultivars, previously to budbreak. However the total soluble sugars accumulation in the buds of cv. Housui, in September (38,33 mg g-1 DW dry weight, were lower than those of cv. Kieffer (50,39 mg g-1 DW, which has better adaptation. Sorbitol followed by sucrose was the more abundant water soluble sugar in both tissues of the two cultivars.