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Sample records for buckwheat

  1. Is growing buckwheat allelopathic?

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Judith; Gfeller, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    The growth repressive effect of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) was studied by separating resource competition from root interactions between the two plant species in a pot trial in the phytotron. In order to verify this result in situ field trials were performed. A strong repression of redroot pigweed growth by buckwheat could be observed independently of shading. However, soil both from the field and phytotron trials in which buckwheat had...

  2. Is growing buckwheat allelopathic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth repressive effect of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus was studied by separating resource competition from root interactions between the two plant species in a pot trial in the phytotron. In order to verify this result in situ field trials were performed. A strong repression of redroot pigweed growth by buckwheat could be observed independently of shading. However, soil both from the field and phytotron trials in which buckwheat had been growing didn’t have an effect on redroot pigweed and lettuce (Lactuca sativa growth. Assuming that allelopathic compounds are present in the soil solution supplementary experiments were conducted. Lettuce root length was measured after exposing seeds to different “buckwheat soil” extracts. Moreover, buckwheat and lettuce developed at the same time next to each other in petri dishes. In none of the experiments an influence on lettuce and redroot pigweed development could be observed. We conclude that there are either no allelopathic molecules in the soil solution (not soluble in water or that they are rapidly degraded. The observed growth inhibiting effect seems to be due to a long term and constant exposure of small quantities of allelopathic molecules. However, it is also possible that growth repression of redroot pigweed by buckwheat is not due to allelopathy.

  3. Radiation sterilization of buckwheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For buckwheat noodle in which taste is important and its main material, buckwheat flour, the ordinary sterilization by heating or ozone cannot be applied. The number of the bacteria sticking to buckwheat flour is much more as compared with that of wheat flour, and is 105-107 per 1 g. The effective countermeasures are not yet found. Also noxious insects are apt to infect buckwheat flour. It has been known that radiation is effective for the sterilization of flavorings. In this study, the microorganism contamination of buckwheat flour and sterilization dose, the change of taste and properties after irradiation, and the capability of storage were examined, and the results are reported. The bacteria in buckwheat flour were mostly Erwinia which forms yellow colonies, and is plant-parasitic bacteria having sugar fermentation function, and also some Enterobacer, Klebsiella and Aspergillus were found. When gamma ray was irradiated on buckwheat flour, it was sterilized to less than 103 per 1 g bacteria at the dose of 5 kGy, and microorganisms were almost sterilized at 10 kGy. With the electron beam of 3 MeV, the effect of sterilization somewhat decreased. The noodle-making property of irradiated buckwheat flour, and the taste and storage capability of the noodle of irradiated flour were tested. (K.I.)

  4. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  5. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.2∼0.4 Mrad and condition for processing of buckwheat noodles on sensory quality and physical properties were investigated. The results were as follows: (1) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles, prepared with the 70 % ratio of buckwheat flour, was decreased according to an increase of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour. Hardness and adhesiveness of buckwheat noodles caused by irradiation should be given large effect to the texture. Elasticity of buckwheat noodles was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and elasticity of buckwheat noodles was decreased about 15 % by an increase of irradiation dose at 0.3 Mrad. (2) Maximum torque in Farinograph test was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and maximum torque was decreased about 3 % by increasing of irradiation dose with 0.1 Mrad. (3) Sensory evaluation was also decreased by increasing content of irradiated buck wheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in noodles. Elasticity was increased and deflection was decreased with increasing of the ratio of irradiated buckwheat flour. (4) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles was changed by water contents in buckwheat noodles. The best evaluation was obtained in the ratio of water added at 32 % and 30 % irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in processing of buckwheat noodles. Maximum stress and elasticity at the bending test of a circular plate were decreased 20 or 10 % by increase with 2 % contents of water added. (author)

  6. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the extension of shelf-life of buckwheat noodles were investigated by enumeration of microorganisms prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad. The results were as follows: (1) The number of microorganisms in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was 103 (cells/g). Microorganisms as in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad showed almost the same level. (2) The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles was extended by the combination of low storage temperature and lower water activity. The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles (water activity 1.0) prepared from non-irradiated buckwheat flour was about 2 days at 5degC, and about 7 days at 0degC. When buckwheat noodles were prepared from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad, its shelf-life was extended about 7 days at 5degC, and 30 days at 0degC. At a water activity of 0.95, the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was extended to about 14 days at 5degC. At a water activity of 0.9 the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad were extended to about 30 days at 5degC. (author)

  7. Buckwheat phenolic metabolites in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Marko

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, F. tataricum Gaertner) groats and flour have been established globally as nutritional foods because of their high levels of proteins, polyphenols and minerals. In some regions, buckwheat herb is used as a functional food. In the present study, reports of in vitro studies, preclinical and clinical trials dealing with the effect of buckwheat and its metabolites were reviewed. There are numerous reports of potential health benefits of consuming buckwheat, which may be in the form of food, dietary supplements, home remedies or possibly pharmaceutical drugs; however, adverse effects, including those resulting from contamination, must be considered. There are reports of antioxidative activity of buckwheat, which contains high levels of rutin and quercetin. On the other hand, both cytotoxic and antigenotoxic effects have been shown. Reduction of hyperlipidaemia, reduction of blood pressure and improved weight regulation have been suggested. Consuming buckwheat may have a beneficial effect on diabetes, since lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin response have been reported. In addition, buckwheat metabolites, such as rutin, may have intrinsic protective effects in preserving insulin signalling. Rutin has also been suggested to have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The literature indicates that buckwheat is safe to consume and may have various beneficial effects on human health. PMID:27046048

  8. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 6; The influence of blending ratio and contents of water on irradiated buckwheat flour in processing of buckwheat noodles to sensory evalution and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Ohhinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Ohike, Terutake (Nagano State Lab. of Food Technology (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi

    1989-11-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.2{approx}0.4 Mrad and condition for processing of buckwheat noodles on sensory quality and physical properties were investigated. The results were as follows: (1) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles, prepared with the 70 % ratio of buckwheat flour, was decreased according to an increase of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour. Hardness and adhesiveness of buckwheat noodles caused by irradiation should be given large effect to the texture. Elasticity of buckwheat noodles was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and elasticity of buckwheat noodles was decreased about 15 % by an increase of irradiation dose at 0.3 Mrad. (2) Maximum torque in Farinograph test was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and maximum torque was decreased about 3 % by increasing of irradiation dose with 0.1 Mrad. (3) Sensory evaluation was also decreased by increasing content of irradiated buck wheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in noodles. Elasticity was increased and deflection was decreased with increasing of the ratio of irradiated buckwheat flour. (4) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles was changed by water contents in buckwheat noodles. The best evaluation was obtained in the ratio of water added at 32 % and 30 % irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in processing of buckwheat noodles. Maximum stress and elasticity at the bending test of a circular plate were decreased 20 or 10 % by increase with 2 % contents of water added. (author).

  9. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  10. A Study on the Flavone Content of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangYu; ZhaoGang

    1999-01-01

    The highest flavone content of buckwheat is in its flowers,the mean value is as high as 7.4%.After flowering,the value will decrease gradually.The flavone content of buckwheat leaves is lower,its mean value is 5.3%,its highest peak appears at the stage of flowering,then decreasing slowly.The flavone content of buckwheat stems is the lowest, its mean value is 1.0%,no obvious change in the whole growth of the plant.Among the buckwheat grains,tatary buckwheat grains contain the highest flavone content,the mean value is 2.02%.The mean flavone content value of common buckwheat is only 0.23%.Radiative treatment-s can increase the flavone content of buckwheat.The formation of flavonid compounds of buckwheat is mainly controlled by PAL activity.

  11. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  12. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Danihelová; Soňa Jantová; Ernest Šturdík

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using...

  13. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Jing; Hua-Qiang Li; Chang-Ling Hu; Yi-Ping Jiang; Lu-Ping Qin; Cheng-Jian Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of t...

  14. Buckwheat as a potential source of high-quality protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populations of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and of tartar buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) in Slovenia (North-Western Yugoslavia) were studied and compared with several diploid and tetraploid cultivars of buckwheat. The endosperm ultrastructure was studied. In buckwheat starch grains are spherical, 3-5μm in diameter, and are covered with a protein-rich matrix. Buckwheat is quite resistant to plant diseases. Some populations and varieties are very early maturing and therefore suitable for sowing as a second crop in the year on the same field. The plant height, lodging resistance, 1000-grain weight, hull percentage and yielding ability vary considerably. Changes in the incompatibility system, crossing with tartar buckwheat, and induction of mutations are discussed as possibilities for improving buckwheat yields. (author)

  15. Buckwheat honeys: screening of composition and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Federica; Gardini, Silvia; Marcazzan, Gian Luigi; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-12-01

    The quality of 10 buckwheat honeys, collected from Italian and est European beekeepers declaring to produce monofloral honey, were evaluated by means of their pollen, physicochemical, phenolic and volatile composition data. The results of the traditional analyses and in particular electrical conductivity, optical rotation, pH and sugar composition revealed some poorly pure samples that could not fit in the buckwheat tipology. Honey volatiles, analysed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC/MS), showed more than 100 volatile compounds, most of them present in all honey samples but with quantitative variation. Besides many furfural derivates, 3-methylbutanoic acid was the main volatile compound found in most of honeys. Also the presence of 2- and 3-methylbutanal and pheynalcetaldehyde confirmed the typical buckwheat aroma of some studied samples, corroborating physicochemical data. The HPLC phenolic profile was similar across the samples and p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids proved to be the main components. PMID:23871027

  16. Screening and Selection of Hypoallergenic Buckwheat Species

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    Arun Nair

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Both common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour and meal cause an allergy in sensitive patients, and if unnoticed, it can be fatal. It has become a potential occupational hazard for some mill workers. The development of hypoallergenic buckwheat would be more efficient if natural mutants for allergenic protein are detected. A screening and selection method was developed using SDS-PAGE coupled with PCR techniques. SDS-PAGE analysis of 14 different species of buckwheat revealed that F. lineare and F. urophyllum lack the 22-kDa major allergenic protein. PCR-based screening with specific primers for sequences encoding the allergenic protein was also effective in distinguishing the allergen-deficient species.

  17. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  18. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

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    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  19. Chemical composition and health effects of Tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2016-07-15

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) contains a range of nutrients including bioactive carbohydrates and proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. The unique composition of Tartary buckwheat contributes to their various health benefits such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and cognition-improving. Compared with the more widely cultivated and utilised common buckwheat (F. esculentum), Tartary buckwheat tends to contain higher amounts of certain bioactive components such as rutin, therefore, showing higher efficiency in preventing/treating various disorders. This review summarises the current knowledge of the chemical composition of Tartary buckwheat, and their bio-functions as studied by both in vitro and in vivo models. Tartary buckwheat can be further developed as a sustainable crop for functional food production to improve human health. PMID:26948610

  20. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few selected varieties of buckwheat flours of the food use grade were irradiated at the dose level between 0.05 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Some fundamental properties of the buckwheat flours in 'soba'-noodle processing were evaluated to get the results as follows: 1) The viscosity of Brabender's viscograph of the buckwheat flour (aq. suspension at 9 % concn. level) decreased with the increased dose of gamma irradiation (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). It was also considered, however, that the reduced Viscograph-viscosity did not necessarily mean the poor taste score of the processed 'soba'-noodles. 2) The water soluble proteins (WSP) contents of buckwheat flour were little affected by irradiation. On the contrary, the contents of water soluble sugars (WSS) increased with the increased dose (Fig. 4). This analytical finding suggested the negligible disadverage by gamma irradiation in the practical 'soba'-noodle processing. 3) A kind of so-called irradiated-food-flavor, though not so much rejecting one, was organoleptically detected with the increased intense for the irradiated buckwheat flour of higher dosage. The phenomena coincided with the gas chromatograms (Fig. 5 - 1 to Fig. 5 - 3), analized 'headspace volatiles' collected from the respective buckwheat flours (Fig. 1). 4) The other kind of buckwheat flour, the original Canadian grains (with hull) of which were irradiated at 0.5 Mrad dose level, and then milled with roller-mill, was not organoleptically detected irradiated-food-flavor. Figure 6 showed the gas chromatogram for that sample, for comparison. These basic experimental knowledges presented the possible practical use of gamma-irradiation in food industries related with 'soba'-noodle processing, the further investigations would be required, though. The irradiation experiments were supported by courtesy of The Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. (author)

  1. Antioxidant properties of extracts from buckwheat by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Marzanna Hęś; Danuta Górecka; Krzysztof Dziedzic

    2012-01-01

    Background. In the course of production of buckwheat groats by-products are produced, such as bran and hull, which apart from high content of dietary fi ber, may also constitute valuable sources of antioxidants. The aim of these investigations was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from by-products produced during processing of buckwheat for groats. Material and method. Analyses were conducted on bran and hull of buckwheat cv. Kora. Extraction was run using acetone, methanol an...

  2. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties and texture of fresh-style 'soba' noodle after irradiation were investigated with disk bending tests and sensory evaluation. Physical properties of 'soba' noodle irradiated at lower than 0.2 Mrad does level were nearly equal to non-irradiated 'soba' noodle. But the texture of coodked 'soba' noodle was changed to be more soft, fragile and sticky with increase of irradiation dose. Then, the processing properties of 'soba' noodle used of irradiated buckwheat flour was investigated, changed with mixture rate of buckwheat and wheat flour and water content in the noodle. Irradiation of buckwheat flour less than 0.5 Mrad dose level had little influence on physical properties of 'soba' noodle. However, the texture of cooked 'soba' noodle used of irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was slightly inferior than non-irradiated 'soba' noodle. As the result of this study, it was concluded that the acceptable range of irradiation dose for extention of shelf-life was 0.2 to 0.4 Mrad dose level for direct irradiation to 'soba' noodle and 0.3 to 0.5 Mrad dose level for buckwheat flour, which caused little missing a characteristic flavor and texture of 'soba' noodle. (author)

  3. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation for extension of shelf-life on buckwheat noodles was investigated from the number of microorganisms point of view by using noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour or irradiated directly to fresh noodles in nylon pouch. The shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was extended 2∼2.5 times of compared with non-irradiated buckweat flour under the same condition of processing and storage temperature. Low temperature extended the shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad for 7 to 8 days at 10deg C, which was extended 3∼5 times of shelf-life compared with storage at 25deg C. The shelf-life of direct-irradiated buckweat noodles at 1.0 Mrad was extended about 30 days at 25deg C. In the case of direct-irradiation to fresh buckwheat noodles at 0.5 Mrad, their shelf-life was extended about 30 days at 15deg C. (author)

  4. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  5. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 4. Preservation of buckwheat noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour and direct-irradiated buckwheat noodles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Oh-hinata, Hiroshi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Ohike, Terutake; Ito, Hitoshi.

    1988-11-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation for extension of shelf-life on buckwheat noodles was investigated from the number of microorganisms point of view by using noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour or irradiated directly to fresh noodles in nylon pouch. The shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was extended 2/similar to/2.5 times of compared with non-irradiated buckweat flour under the same condition of processing and storage temperature. Low temperature extended the shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad for 7 to 8 days at 10deg C, which was extended 3/similar to/5 times of shelf-life compared with storage at 25deg C. The shelf-life of direct-irradiated buckweat noodles at 1.0 Mrad was extended about 30 days at 25deg C. In the case of direct-irradiation to fresh buckwheat noodles at 0.5 Mrad, their shelf-life was extended about 30 days at 15deg C.

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BUCKWHEAT PLANT (Fagopyrum esculentum AND SELECTED BUCKWHEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine chemical composition of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum and products made from its seeds. From the products, peels, groats, flour and wholemeal flour were chosen. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses, except rutin concentration, were determined according to the Commission Regulation no.152/2009. Rutin concentration was performed by the modified method. Almost in all studied samples, the moisture content was about 6 to 8%. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots, 4.3% and the highest was discovered in both flours, about 12%. From buckwheat products, the lowest amount of crude protein was found in peels, 3.5%. On the other hand, the highest crude protein amount of the buckwheat plant was determined in leaves, 22.7%, and in blossoms, 19.1%. The starch content differs from one sample to another. In buckwheat products, its content was about 60 to 70% in dry matter. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in peels, 0.6%. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves, 83.6 and 69.9 mg per g, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentration of rutin was found in buckwheat products, less than 1 mg per g in dry matter. All obtained values, when compared with literature, can differ. Experiments are influenced by the laboratory temperature, method of analysis, reagents and also by the variety of the buckwheat plant.

  7. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 7; Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Ohhinata, Hirosi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Ohike, Terutake (Nagano State lab. of Food Technology (Japan)); Ito, Hitosi; Isigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the extension of shelf-life of buckwheat noodles were investigated by enumeration of microorganisms prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad. The results were as follows: (1) The number of microorganisms in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was 10{sup 3} (cells/g). Microorganisms as in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad showed almost the same level. (2) The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles was extended by the combination of low storage temperature and lower water activity. The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles (water activity 1.0) prepared from non-irradiated buckwheat flour was about 2 days at 5degC, and about 7 days at 0degC. When buckwheat noodles were prepared from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad, its shelf-life was extended about 7 days at 5degC, and 30 days at 0degC. At a water activity of 0.95, the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was extended to about 14 days at 5degC. At a water activity of 0.9 the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad were extended to about 30 days at 5degC. (author).

  8. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-08-15

    Buckwheat grain has well-balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in studies on the hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. The insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco-2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol-induced gallstones and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for prevention of hyperlipidemia. PMID:25363871

  9. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  10. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  11. Ukrainian Market of Varieties: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Motnch.).

    OpenAIRE

    Безручко, О. І.

    2011-01-01

    Directions of use for valuable groat crop, buckwheat, its genesis and history in Ukraine, regions of cultivation, requirements to development of new varieties and economical expediency of their growth are highlighted. Description is also provided for the. Buckwheat verities with Official Description, which are listed in the StateRegister of Varieties Suitable for Dissemi nation in Ukraine in 2010.

  12. In planta transformation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratić Ana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a reliable and rapid transgenic system for functional study of specific buckwheat gene constructs, two different in planta transformation methods were analyzed: vacuum infiltration and infiltration by syringe. The results indicated that the vacuum infiltration method was much more efficient and can therefore be considered the method of choice for buckwheat transformation. .

  13. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rui; Li, Hua-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zheng, Cheng-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:27104519

  14. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae, currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum Moench. (common buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum (L. Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys (D. Don Hara. (perennial buckwheat, which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  15. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rui; Li, Hua-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zheng, Cheng-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:27104519

  16. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-01-01

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour. PMID:26782554

  17. Lightweight Concrete with an Agricultural Waste – Buckwheat Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Giedrius VAICKELIONIS; Virginija VALANČIENĖ

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of buckwheat husk wastes (as an aggregate in concrete) and opoka combination for producing a lightweight composite. The study was carried out to investigate the influence of the buckwheat husk extract on the setting and hardening of pastes in which cement was partially replaced by 0, 33, or 50 % of natural pozzolana. The kinetics of hydration up to 48 h was studied using isothermal conduction calorimetry....

  18. Lightweight Concrete with an Agricultural Waste – Buckwheat Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius VAICKELIONIS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of buckwheat husk wastes (as an aggregate in concrete and opoka combination for producing a lightweight composite. The study was carried out to investigate the influence of the buckwheat husk extract on the setting and hardening of pastes in which cement was partially replaced by 0, 33, or 50 % of natural pozzolana. The kinetics of hydration up to 48 h was studied using isothermal conduction calorimetry. Some of the physical and mechanical properties of buckwheat husk concrete with various levels of cement replacement of opoka without and with sand (part of buckwheat husk was replaced in the same volume of sand were investigated. Experimental data on the compressive strength of concrete utilizing buckwheat husk with and without sand and cement at varying proportions are presented. The results suggest that buckwheat husk may be used as an aggregate, particularly in lightweight concrete, panel and blocks for walls at a relatively cheaper price. 

  19. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Cheng; Liming Wu; Jianbin Zheng; Wei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antiox...

  20. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of buckwheat protein on antigenicity and allergenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jeongok; Han, Youngshin; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Ahn, Kangmo; Oh, Sangsuk; Do, Jeong-Ryong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to its beneficial health effects, use of buckwheat has shown a continuous increase, and concerns regarding the allergic property of buckwheat have also increased. This study was conducted for evaluation of the hydrolytic effects of seven commercial proteases on buckwheat allergens and its allergenicity. MATERIALS/METHODS Extracted buckwheat protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes at individual optimum temperature and pH for four hours. Analysis was then p...

  1. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  2. Contents of selected bioactive components in buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Górecka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritive value of food is determined by its content of basic nutrients essential for the proper functioning of the human organism. Buckwheat grain is one of the most valuable raw materials for production of groats as well as functional food. It is characterized by high contents of starch, protein as well as dietary fibre. Apart from the above mentioned nutrients, buckwheat groats contain flavonoid compounds, playing the role of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine contents of dietary fibre and its fraction composition, thiamine and phenolic compounds in roasted buckwheat groats, as well as antioxidant properties of ethanol buckwheat groats extracts. Material and methods. Experimental material comprised roasted buckwheat groats purchased at a grocery shop. Contents of neutral detergent dietary fibre (NDF and its fractions were determined by the detergent method according to Van Soest. Thermostable a-amylase (Termamyl 120 L was used in the digestion of starch. Contents of total dietary fibre (TDF, soluble dietary fibre (SDF and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF were determined according to Asp et al. The content of thiamine was determined by the thiochrome method. Total polyphenol content was determined by colorimetry according to the Folina-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant properties of extracts were estimated based on the capacity of extracts to scavenge the DPPH• radical (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and towards linolic acid. The capacity to inhibit self-oxidation of linolic acid was determined according to Lingnert et al. Results. The NDF and TDF contents in buckwheat groats, amounting to 5.63 and 8.4%, respectively. The fraction found in biggest amounts was the hemicellulose fraction (3.42%. The level of the IDF fraction was much higher (5.94% than that of SDF (2.46%. Thiamine content was 0.519 mg/100 g product, while the total content of phenolic compounds extracted from buckwheat groats was 30

  3. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Cho

    Full Text Available We report the chloroplast (cp genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats and F. esculentum (one repeat, and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  4. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. PMID:25966355

  5. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to develop a feasible method for improving shelf-life extension of fresh 'soba' noodles, the usefulness of gamma irradiation was preliminarily investigated. Microorganism counts decreased to less than 102 per gram by irradiating gamma rays of 0.5 Mrad to buckwheat grains with hulls (Material I), industrially processed buckwheat flours (Material II), and uncooked 'soba' noodles packed in a plastic film bag (Material III). For Material II, the effective dose to decrease 90 % of the microorganism counts was 0.1 Mrad, and heat-resistant microorganism counts decreased to 10 or less per gram with gamma rays of 0.2 - 0.5 Mrad. Flavor in either Material II or Material III was not changed by irradiation; by contraries, enhanced 'soba'-like flavor was rarely observed. Although gamma-irradiation decreased the viscosity of Material II, it hardly exerted an effect on the process of making noodles. The texture of Material III became degraded by irradiation. The results suggest the feasibility of gamma irradiation in the use of inactivation of microorganisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Anti-Oxidative Constituents of Ethanol Extract from Buckwheat Seeds by HPLC-Electro-Spray MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-ping; TIAN Cheng-rui; CAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates major anti-oxidative constituents of ethanol extracts from the seeds of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat.Ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were arranged to react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical.HPLC was used to identify anti-oxidative constituents of the ethanol extracts,and electro-spray MS was used,to characterize the structures of these identified anti-oxidative constituents to confirm them.The ethanol extracts of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds both had DPPH free radical-scavenging effect;HPLC analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of both common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds presented two main anti-oxidation peaks,which cOrrespondingly had same chromatographic retention times and spectral information;electro-spray MS analysis showed that the molecular weights and MS fragmentation patterns of the anti-oxidative constituents in the ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were the same as those of rutin and quercetin in the control samples.HPLC- MS/MS was capable of being used to rapidly identify anti-oxidative constituents in the extract of buckwheat seeds,and the main anti-oxidative constituents of buckwheat seed extract were mainly rutin and quercetin,and the anti-oxidative activity of quercetin was higher than that of rutin.

  7. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  8. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  9. Phytometer of buckwheat as an indicator of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Kiyasu, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is well known that the growth of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is resistant to inferior environmental conditions, but very sensitive to a polluted atmosphere. It is possible that buckwheat has favorable characteristics as phytometer for measuring air pollution. Young plants of buckwheat were grown in small cups in a water culture. Plants having three leaves were transferred to different places, both in an air polluted area and in an un-polluted area, for a period of 7 days, in order to compare the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) at their setting places. The buckwheat phytometer for measuring air pollution, utilized the following samples for statistical significance: 20 plants with 4 cups per one place according to their coefficient of variance of dry matter weight per pot. It was observed that the RGR showed the values of 20-27% per day in an un-polluted place and of 12-18% per day in a polluted place. The results of growth analysis based on dry matter increment after placement showed that the RGR depression was mainly owing to a decrease in the Net Assimilation Rate and the Leaf Area Ratio was not sensitive for a polluted atmosphere. The Net Assimilation rate depends on photosynthetic activity of leaves, therefore, the NAR depression may be due to an inhibition of photosynthesis by polluted air. 5 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and products, 8; Effects of electron beam irradiation on sterility and quality of buckwheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatu, Nobuyuki; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Oike, Terutake (Nagano State Lab. of Food Technology (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-10-01

    Effects of irradiation at 3.0-7.0 kGy with 2 MeV electron beams were investigated on the number of microorganisms and quality of buckwheat flour. Electron beams and gamma-rays were compared in terms of the effects on the quality of buckwheat flour. The results were as follows. (1) Electron beams at 3 kGy reduced the number of microorganisms almost to the same level as gamma-rays. Oxygen content in buckwheat flour had no effect on inactivation of microorganisms by irradiation with electron beams and gamma-rays. (2) Peroxide-value (POV) of lipid in buckwheat flour increased with absorbed dose of gamma-rays and electron beams. The increase of POV was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber. The color change of buckwheat flour was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber as well. Acid-value (AV) of lipid in buckwheat flour was not changed by irradiation at high dose with gamma-rays or electron beams. (3) Maximum torque in Farinograph test of dough prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour decreased with increase of absorbed dose of electron beams. However, oxygen absorber suppressed the change of these properties induced by irradiation. (4) The usage of oxygen absorber resulted in a high sensory score of noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour with small changes of color, flavor and texture. (author).

  11. Steady and Dynamic Shear Rheological Properties of Buckwheat Starch-galactomannan Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Dong Won; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of galacomannans (guar gum, tara gum, and locust bean gum) on the rheological properties of buckwheat starch pastes under steady and dynamic shear conditions. The power law and Casson models were applied to describe the flow behavior of the buckwheat starch and galactomannan mixtures. The values of the apparent viscosity (ηa,100), consistency index (K), and yield stress (σoc) for buckwheat starch-galactomannan mixtures were significantly greater than those ...

  12. The Feasibility of Using Tartary Buckwheat as a Se-Containing Food Material

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Golob; Vekoslava Stibilj; Ivan Kreft; Mateja Germ

    2015-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a semiwild plant grown in the Himalaya region. Due to its high concentration of flavonoids and trace elements it is of interest for cultivation in other countries as well. The feasibility of increasing the concentration of Se in grain and in green parts of Tartary buckwheat has not yet been investigated. The aim of this investigation was thus to determine the concentration of Se in different edible parts of Tartary buckwheat treated with different co...

  13. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  14. Control of buckwheat by radiation reflected from the neighbouring plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growing on the ground covered with grass received more radiation in the range of far red (reflected by green tissues) than plants growing on bare soil. The plants from both plots reacted differently to the environmental conditions by creating different habits. Main shoots of buckwheat growing in the neighbourhood of grass after emergence were significantly taller than those of buckwheat growing on the bare soil. Later the main shoots were much taller growing on the bare soil. Significantly longer internodes (from I to II) and more narrow (I-V) were plants which grew on neighbouring grass. The plants grown on bare soil had a greater mass of 1000 grains. Also, a varied development rate of the plants was observed in the compared plots. The plants growing in grass grew faster

  15. Antioxidant properties of extracts from buckwheat by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Hęś

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the course of production of buckwheat groats by-products are produced, such as bran and hull, which apart from high content of dietary fi ber, may also constitute valuable sources of antioxidants. The aim of these investigations was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from by-products produced during processing of buckwheat for groats. Material and method. Analyses were conducted on bran and hull of buckwheat cv. Kora. Extraction was run using acetone, methanol and water at room temperature for 24 h. The level of phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, using (+ catechin as a standard. Antioxidant activity of extracts was analysed in relation to linoleic acid, running incubation for 19 h, by scavenging of stable radicals of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and on the basis of metal chelating ability. Recorded results were compared with the activity of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene. Results. The highest content of polyphenols was found in the methanol extract of hull (168.5 mg/g d.m., which was also characterised by the best antiradical properties. The lowest content of total phenols was found for water extracts of bran after grinding and fi nal bran, at 20.3 mg/g d.m. and 10.2 mg/g d.m. In the emulsion system the highest activity was found for methanol extracts of hull and bran after grinding (Wo = 0.89, as well as the extract of fi nal bran (Wo = 0.85. A higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II ions was observed for bran extracts (after grinding – 76.1%, fi nal bran – 62.2% than for hull extracts (26%. Conclusions. Extracts obtained from by-products of buckwheat were characterised by high antioxidant activity in the applied model systems.

  16. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and products, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation at 3.0-7.0 kGy with 2 MeV electron beams were investigated on the number of microorganisms and quality of buckwheat flour. Electron beams and gamma-rays were compared in terms of the effects on the quality of buckwheat flour. The results were as follows. (1) Electron beams at 3 kGy reduced the number of microorganisms almost to the same level as gamma-rays. Oxygen content in buckwheat flour had no effect on inactivation of microorganisms by irradiation with electron beams and gamma-rays. (2) Peroxide-value (POV) of lipid in buckwheat flour increased with absorbed dose of gamma-rays and electron beams. The increase of POV was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber. The color change of buckwheat flour was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber as well. Acid-value (AV) of lipid in buckwheat flour was not changed by irradiation at high dose with gamma-rays or electron beams. (3) Maximum torque in Farinograph test of dough prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour decreased with increase of absorbed dose of electron beams. However, oxygen absorber suppressed the change of these properties induced by irradiation. (4) The usage of oxygen absorber resulted in a high sensory score of noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour with small changes of color, flavor and texture. (author)

  17. [Sensitisation to 'poffertjes' as a result of sleeping on a pillow containing buckwheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, C J W

    2002-03-30

    A 19-year-old man suffered an anaphylactic reaction after eating 'poffertjes' (small Dutch pancakes). This reaction appeared to be the result of an IgE-mediated allergy to buckwheat, a principal ingredient of 'poffertjes'. It is highly likely that the patient was sensitised by sleeping on a pillow stuffed with buckwheat husk. PMID:11957384

  18. Changes of selected secondary metabolites in potatoes and buckwheat caused by UV, gamma- and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of total polyphenols, phenolcarboxylic acids and ascorbic acid in potato tubers cv. Kordoba and Rosella and three buckwheat samples (seeds, seedlings and plants: F. esculentum, cv. Pyra and Emka and tartarian buckwheat F. tataricum) induced by UV-C irradiation, gamma-irradiation and microwave irradiation were investigated

  19. The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added value. In this review, we will provide an integrated view of the biochemistry of bioactive compounds of buckwheat plants of different origin, especially of fagopyrin, proteins and amino acids, as well as of other phenolic compounds including rutin and chlorogenic acid. In addition to the genetic background, the effect of different growth conditions is discussed. The health effects of fagopyrin, phenolic acids, specific proteins and rutin are also presented. PMID:27252586

  20. A search of Brassica SI-involved orthologs in buckwheat leads to novel buckwheat sequence identification: MLPK possibly involved in SI response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI systems, gamethophytic (GSI and sporophytic (SSI, prevent self-pollination in angiosperms. Buckwheat displays heteromorphic SSI, with pollination allowed only between different flower morphs - thrum and pin. The physiology of thrum and pin morph SI responses are entirely different, resembling homomorphic Brassica SSI and Prunus GSI responses, respectively. Considering angiosperm species may share ancestral SI genes, we examined the presence of Brassica and Prunus SI-involved gene orthologs in the buckwheat genome. We did not find evidence of SRK, SLG and SP11 Brassica or S-RNase and SFB Prunus orthologs in the buckwheat genome, but we found a Brassica MLPK ortholog. We report the partial nucleotide sequence of the buckwheat MLPK and discuss the possible implications of this finding.

  1. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  2. Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Element Concentrations in Buckwheat by Experimental and Chemometric Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lian-xin; HUANG Yan-fei; LIU Yuan; ZHANG Zhi-feng; LU Lu-yang; ZHAO Gang

    2014-01-01

    The essential and toxic element concentrations in buckwheat were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentration data were subjected to common chemometrics analyses, including correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), to gain better understanding of the differences among the tested samples. Our results indicated that the essential and toxic element concentrations were not different between Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn and F. esculentum Moench. The element concentrations varied among buckwheat samples from different sources. Commercial tartary buckwheat tea contained several essential elements, thus, could be used as the source of essential elements. The detection of toxic heavy metals in commercial tartary buckwheat tea suggested that safety issue of such buckwheat products should be seriously concerned. Our results also revealed that the place of origin and the processing protocol of tartary buckwheat affected the element concentrations of the commercial form. The implications to the quality control and safety evaluation of buckwheat were extensively discussed.

  3. Physiological characterization of aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tartary and wild buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Rong Fu; Iwashita, Takashi; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ionic aluminum (Al) is toxic for plant growth, but some plant species are able to accumulate Al at high concentrations without showing toxicity symptoms. In order to determine whether other species in the genus Fagopyrum are able to accumulate Al like common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), we investigated the external and internal detoxification mechanisms of Al in two self-compatible species: tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and wild buckwheat (Fagopyrum homotropicum). Both tartary and wild buckwheat showed high Al tolerance comparable to common buckwheat. Furthermore, these two species also secreted oxalate rapidly from the roots in response to Al in a time-dependent manner. Both tartary and wild buckwheat accumulated > 1 mg g(-1) Al in the leaves after short-term exposure to Al. Analysis with (27) Al-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that Al was present in the form of Al-oxalate (1 : 3 ratio) in the roots and leaves, but in the form of Al-citrate (1 : 1 ratio) in the xylem sap in both species. These results indicate that similar to common buckwheat, both tartary and wild buckwheat detoxify Al externally and internally, respectively, by secreting oxalate from the roots and by forming the Al-oxalate complex, which is a nonphytotoxic form. These features of Al response and accumulation may be conserved in genus Fagopyrum. PMID:25195800

  4. Plantlet Regeneration of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) in Vitro Tissue Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Long; Dong, Xue-Ni; Ding, Meng-Qi; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Wu, Yan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Shao, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is an ancient annual dicotyledonous herb, which is widely distributed around the world, specifically in the high altitude area of southwestern China and in the hill region of Himalayan. The plantlet regeneration of tartary buckwheat via somatic embryogenesis or multiple shoot induction was investigated in two different tartary buckwheats, Yuanzi and Xichang. The regeneration ability of Yuanzi was better than Xichang tartary buckwheat, and the hypocotyls were better than cotyledons as tartary buckwheat plantlet regeneration explants via somatic embryogenesis. The most suitable medium for callus induction was Murashige and Skoog basal medium added 2 mg/L 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L Kinetin, which could reach up to 98.96% callus induction percentage. The plantlet regeneration percentage from callus of tartary buckwheat could reach up to 55.77%, which induced on 2.0 mg/L Benzyladenine and 1.0 mg/L KT in MS basal medium. In addition, maximum of multiple shoot induction percentage was 69.05%, which was observed in case of Yuanzi tartary buckwheat in MS basal medium with added 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 1.0 mg/L Thidiazuron. Roots induction of regenerated plants were achieved on 1/2 MS basal medium with added 1mg/L Indole-3-Butytric acid, which has 75% survival after transferred regenerated plants to soil under field conditions. PMID:26972974

  5. Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

    2011-08-01

    Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ≥ 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

  6. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  7. Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench to complete submergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system activity were studied in buckwheat leaves after complete submergence and re-aeration. The levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly higher in stressed than in untreated buckwheat leaves. Enzymes catalyzing the degradation of H2O2 and peroxides were shown to participate actively, whereas superoxide dismutase did not take part in the buckwheat leaf response to flooding stress. The most prominent increase in antioxidative enzyme activities was noticed upon return to air, when the strongest oxidative stress occurred and the need for antioxidative defense was the greatest.

  8. Biochemical and molecular changes in buckwheat leaves during exposure to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ž.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the great nutritive and pharmacological potentials of buckwheat, data about the abiotic stress tolerance of this plant species are very limited. The aim of this work was to analyze the biochemical and molecular response of buckwheat plants in the middle vegetative phase against short- and long-term salt stress. Changes in relative water content, level of lipid peroxidation, content and localization of H2O2 as well as changes in antioxidative enzyme activity and expression of ubiquitin and dehydrins, were investigated. Reasons for observed buckwheat salt stress sensitivity as well as possibilities for enhancing stress tolerance are discussed.

  9. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products. 1. Gamma irradiation to buckwheat grains with hulls, buckwheat flours and uncooked 'soba' noodles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Tetsujiro; Oh-hinata, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; O-hara, Tadahiko; Itoh, Hitoshi; Saito, Makoto

    1986-09-01

    In an attempt to develop a feasible method for improving shelf-life extension of fresh 'soba' noodles, the usefulness of gamma irradiation was preliminarily investigated. Microorganism counts decreased to less than 10/sup 2/ per gram by irradiating gamma rays of 0.5 Mrad to buckwheat grains with hulls (Material I), industrially processed buckwheat flours (Material II), and uncooked 'soba' noodles packed in a plastic film bag (Material III). For Material II, the effective dose to decrease 90 % of the microorganism counts was 0.1 Mrad, and heat-resistant microorganism counts decreased to 10 or less per gram with gamma rays of 0.2 - 0.5 Mrad. Flavor in either Material II or Material III was not changed by irradiation; by contraries, enhanced 'soba'-like flavor was rarely observed. Although gamma-irradiation decreased the viscosity of Material II, it hardly exerted an effect on the process of making noodles. The texture of Material III became degraded by irradiation. The results suggest the feasibility of gamma irradiation in the use of inactivation of microorganisms. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control, was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.

  11. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brajdes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  12. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Mei; Wei, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE) was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control), was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue. PMID:21954324

  13. QUALITY OF GLUTEN-FREE BUCKWHEAT-RICE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of celiac disease the products containing gluten must be excluded from the nutrition. The offer of gluten-free products (especially pastry is low and in addition the gluten-free breads are typical of dry crust and crumb and higher firmness in comparison with wheat bread. This work deals with gluten-free mixtures prepared from buckwheat and rice flour and the effect of rising amount of these flours on bread quality, crumb hardness, elasticity, chewiness and gumminess. With rising portion of buckwheat flour in the mixture the bread volume, dough and bread yield increased. The biggest improvement was found for mean bread volume (30% between the samples FO 1090 (166.7 cm3 and FO 9010 (216.7 cm3. The texture analysis showed positive effect of rice flour on hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Hardness decreased from 114.5 N (F 100 to 91.3 N (FO 1090. Very similar results showed chewiness and gumminess. Chewiness of F 100 (314.0 was reduced by 32.5% to 212.2 at the sample FO 1090. Gumminess was improved almost linearly through the samples, the biggest difference (44.3% was found between the check sample F 100 (88.3 and FO 1090 (49.7.

  14. Phenological phases of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. in the primary and secondary crop depending on seeding rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Juszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the growth stages of buckwheat grown as a primary or secondary crop as well as using three seeding rates. A field experiment was conducted in the years 2003-2004 and in 2006 on podzolic soil derived from slightly loamy sand. Phenological observations were made at 5-day intervals, from the time of buckwheat emergence (in the primary crop around 28 May, in the secondary crop 7 June, on selected and properly marked plants. The buckwheat plants were harvested when more than 80% of buckwheat seeds on them were brown. The duration of particular growth stages of buckwheat are presented in phenological diagrams. It was found that crop rotation treatment and weather conditions affected significantly the time of occurrence of the phenological phases of buckwheat, but these phases were less dependent on seeding density. A rainfall deficit in 2006 caused a delay in particular growth stages compared to the previous years.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum) occur based on the description...

  16. Buckwheat for the production of biogas. Rediscover forgotten cultures; Buchweizen fuer die Biogasproduktion. Vergessene Kulturen wiederentdecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, Falko; Fritz, Maendy

    2011-07-01

    Buckwheat whole plant can be used for the production of biogas. Due to its short growing period, buckwheat can be integrated very variable in crop rotations. For example, buckwheat can be grown as a second crop in the summer. After the harvest of winter wheat, which is used as whole plant silage, the sowing date is around mid-June. The ingredients of buckwheat expect a good fermentability with corresponding biogas production. [German] Buchweizen-Ganzpflanzen koennen fuer die Erzeugung von Biogas genutzt werden. Durch seine kurze Vegetationsperiode laesst sich Buchweizen sehr variabel in Fruchtfolgen einbinden. Zum Beispiel kann Buchweizen als Zweitfrucht im Sommer angebaut werden. Nach der Ernte von Wintergetreide, das als Ganzpflanzensilage genutzt wird, liegt der Saattermin etwa Mitte Juni. Die Inhaltsstoffe von Buchweizen lassen eine gute Vergaerbarkeit mit einer entsprechenden Biogasproduktion erwarten.

  17. Final Critical Habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum) occur. The geographic extent...

  18. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF SAMPLES AND CULTIVARS IN COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) BY THE ISSR-METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    G.D. Kadyrova; F.Z. Kadyrova; E.V. Martirosyan; N.N. Ryzhova

    2010-01-01

    For an assessment of a genetic polymorphism of common buckwheat (F. esculentum, 27 samples of different ecologo-geographic origin, including 14 domestic cultivars) the authors determined the ISSR-primers of revealing intraspecific polymorphism and obtained the genomspecific polymorphic ISSRspectra of DNA fragments. Genomic variability and genomic linkage groups cultivars of common buckwheat were determined for the first time. Obtained data can be used in buckwheat breeding program and further...

  19. Identification and quantification of aroma compounds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn.) and some of its milling fractions

    OpenAIRE

    KREFT, SAMO; Prosen, Helena; JANEŠ, DAMJAN

    2015-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds have a strong aroma that characteristically differs from the aroma of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Its phytochemical background has only been recently investigated.The aim of this study was to identify and quantify individual compounds responsible for tartary buckwheat aroma. Volatiles from different samples (whole seed, flour, and husks) were extracted with simultaneous extraction and distillation by Likens-Nickerson apparatus and ana...

  20. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xiaoli; Huang Lin; Tang Wen; Zhou Yiming; Wang Qing; Li Zongjie

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activit...

  1. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte mem...

  2. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Vira Drobot; Anastasiya Semenova; Jelyzaveta Smirnova; Larisa Mykhonik

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes) on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural an...

  3. Biochemical and molecular changes in buckwheat leaves during exposure to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Ž.S.; Maksimović Vesna R.; Radović Svetlana R.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the great nutritive and pharmacological potentials of buckwheat, data about the abiotic stress tolerance of this plant species are very limited. The aim of this work was to analyze the biochemical and molecular response of buckwheat plants in the middle vegetative phase against short- and long-term salt stress. Changes in relative water content, level of lipid peroxidation, content and localization of H2O2 as well as changes in antioxidative enzyme activity and expression of...

  4. Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two tartary buckwheat samples (Xingku No.2 and Diqing grown at three locations were analyzed for free and bound phenolic content and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the relative contributions of variety and growing environment to phenolic content and antioxidant properties were determined, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. The total phenolic contents varied from 5,150 to 9,660 μmol of gallic acid equivalents per 100 gram of dry weight (DW of tartary buckwheat and the free phenolics accounted for 94% to 99%. Rutin content was in the range from 518.54 to 1,447.87 mg per 100 gram of DW of tartary buckwheat. p-Hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids were the prominent phenolic acids and other phenolics, including p-coumaric, gallic, caffeic, vanillic and syringic acids were also detected. Tartary buckwheat exhibited higher DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities and was more effective at preventing the bleaching of β-carotene in comparison with reference antioxidant and plant phenolics constituents. Additionally, growing conditions and the interaction between variety and environment may have more contribution than variety to individual phenolics and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat. Environmental parameters such as higher altitudes may also have an increasing effect on rutin and phenolic acids. This study suggests that tartary buckwheat has potential health benefits because of its high phenolic content and antioxidant properties. These components could also be enhanced by optimizing the growing conditions of a selected variety.

  5. The Feasibility of Using Tartary Buckwheat as a Se-Containing Food Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Golob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum is a semiwild plant grown in the Himalaya region. Due to its high concentration of flavonoids and trace elements it is of interest for cultivation in other countries as well. The feasibility of increasing the concentration of Se in grain and in green parts of Tartary buckwheat has not yet been investigated. The aim of this investigation was thus to determine the concentration of Se in different edible parts of Tartary buckwheat treated with different concentrations of Na selenate using different techniques. In plants grown in soil fertilized once with 0.5 and 10 mg Se L−1, Se was efficiently translocated from the roots to the leaves and seeds. Foliar spraying with 0.5 mg Se L−1 increased Se content in leaves and seeds. Among the edible parts of Tartary buckwheat plants the highest content of Se in control and in treated groups was found in leaves, followed by seeds and stems. Regarding recommended Se concentration, edible parts of Tartary buckwheat were safe for human consumption. Soil fertilization with 0.5 and 10 mg Se L−1 and foliar fertilization with 0.5 mg Se L−1 are applicable for cultivation of Tartary buckwheat as a functional food enriched with Se.

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Defatted Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flour in Water or Ethanol Heated using Microwave Irradiation at Varying Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has potential to be a nutritionally beneficial crop due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. We explored new technologies to enhance buckwheat phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Buckwheat achenes were ground and flour was extracted for 15 ...

  7. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  8. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  9. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing. PMID:26213009

  10. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  11. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  12. Phenolic acids in the inflorescences of different varieties of buckwheat and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of total phenolics and phenolic acid composition together with parameters of antioxidant activities was studied in the inflorescences of three varieties of buckwheat (F. esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum rotundatum and Fagopyrum esculentum, forma green-flowers. Antioxidant activity of extracts of these buckwheat varieties has been found high and at the same time extracts of inflorescences of green flower buckwheat have been characterized by the highest total phenolic content. Eight phenolic acids (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, p-anisic acid, salicylic acid and methoxycinnamic acid were found in the investigated buckwheat inflorescences with HPLC analysis. Inflorescences of F. esculentum, forma green-flowers have a high content of chlorogenic acid (16 mg 100 g−1 DW and p-anisic acid (872 mg 100 g−1 DW. The highest content among the investigated buckwheat inflorescences of vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and p-anisic acid was found in the F. tataricum, F. esculentum inflorescences have been characterized by the highest content of salicylic acid (115 mg 100 g−1 DW and methoxycinnamic acid (74 mg 100 g−1 DW.

  13. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1#, Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  14. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  15. Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenlechner, Regine; Drausinger, Julian; Ottenschlaeger, Veronika; Jurackova, Katerina; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2010-12-01

    The use of amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta was investigated in the present study. The aim of the work was to produce pasta of good textural quality, in particular, low cooking loss, optimal cooking weight and texture firmness. The results demonstrated that pasta produced from amaranth had decreased texture firmness and cooking time, while pasta from quinoa mainly showed increased cooking loss. In buckwheat pasta the least negative effects were observed. By combination of all three raw materials to one flour blend in the ratio of 60% buckwheat, 20% amaranth and 20% quinoa, dough matrix was improved. After decreasing dough moisture to 30%, addition of an increased amount of egg white powder of 6% and addition of 1.2% emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides) texture firmness as well as cooking quality of gluten-free pasta produced from such a flour blend reached acceptable values comparable to wheat pasta. PMID:20972627

  16. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Rutin in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, M; Kitabayashi, H; Ujihara, A

    1998-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of rutin in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum), the operating condition of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methods of sample preparation and extraction were investigated. Reliable analysis method with less than 5 g of sample was established as follows; ① drying samples for 24 hours at 70℃ by using forced air flow oven,② grinding 5 g of seed and 2 g of leaf samples into powder for 30 seconds,③ extracting ...

  18. Genes Outside the S Supergene Suppress S Functions in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, K; Nishio, T; Tetsuka, T

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a dimorphic self-incompatible plant with either pin or thrum flowers. The S supergene is thought to govern self-incompatibility, flower morphology and pollen size in buckwheat. Two major types of self-fertile lines have been reported. One is a type with long-homostyle flowers, Kyukei SC2 (KSC2), and the other is a type with short-homostyle flowers, Pennline 10. To clarify whether the locus controlling flower morphology and self-...

  19. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  20. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  1. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. PMID:25976817

  2. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  3. Efficiency of Different Nitrogen Forms in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Kara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out with aim to determination the efficient of nitrogen forms (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea on nitrogen use efficient for buckwheat in Isparta during 2014 and 2015 years. All the examined characteristics were determined higher values in applied nitrogen forms according to non-nitrogen parcel. In compared to nitrogen forms, the highest grain yield (1456 and 1325 kg ha-1, biological yield (4873 and 4512 kg ha-1, 1000 grain weight (24.9 and 24.8 g, agronomic efficient (24.96% and 24.25%, recycling efficient (0.24% and 0.22% and utilization efficient (0.25% and 0.18% were obtained from ammonium sulfate, the highest protein content (11.37% and 12.44% and agro-physiological efficient (0.27% and 0.24% from ammonium nitrate in both years. Among the nitrogen forms weren’t significant differently in physiological efficient in both years, recycling and utilization efficient in the first year. The mineral nutrient content varied according to nitrogen forms. Generally, ammonium sulfate was positive effect to yield and some quality parameters.

  4. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn’t result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  5. Optimization of the Formula of Tartary Buckwheat Bread%苦荞面包配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2013-01-01

    采用快速发酵法,研究了苦荞粉添加量、魔芋精粉和谷朊粉添加量对苦荞面包品质的影响.试验表明:苦荞粉添加量对苦荞面包的比容和感官评定得分起着决定作用;苦荞粉添加量占苦荞粉和面包专用粉总质量的30%时,魔芋精粉添加量为1.61%,谷朊粉添加量为1.60%,苦荞面包比容最大.%The influences of tartary buckwheat bread quality on added buckwheat powder and konjac flour and wheat gluten added by quick fermentation were tested. The experiments showed that the amount of tartary buckwheat powder played a decisive role of tartary buckwheat bread specific volume and sensory evaluation scores. The best addition amount of buckwheat powder was 30% of total counts of buckwheat powder and bread flour. The best addition amounts of konjac flour and wheat gluten werel.61%, and 1.60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the largest buckwheat bread specific volume was obtained.

  6. The phytotoxic action of triazine herbicides on flax, beets and buckwheat seedlings, and some physiological changes connected with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Płoszyński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that triazine herbicides exerted, when applied for a longer time, an increasing inhibitory effect on dry and fresh weight yields, transpiration and growth of the seedlings of flax, beet and buckwheat. At the same time enhanced accumulation of free amino acids and decrease of simple sugar values was noted in the aboveground parts of the test plants. The results are interpreted as the secondary effects of the inhibitory action of triazines on plant photosynthesis. The toxicity of the tested chemicals to flax, beet and buckwheat decreased in the following order: atrazine, simazine, propazine, atratone, prometone and prometryne. Flax was more resistant to triazines than beets and buckwheat.

  7. Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran

    OpenAIRE

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two we...

  8. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  9. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  10. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  11. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  12. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  13. Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

    2014-10-17

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound. PMID:25108759

  14. Biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in spontaneously-fermented buckwheat and teff sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    In this study, four different laboratory scale gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs were developed from buckwheat or teff flours. The fermentations were initiated by the spontaneous biota of the flours and developed under two technological conditions (A and B). Sourdoughs were propagated by continuous back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable biota occurring in each sourdough was assessed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Overall, a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts species, belonging mainly to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Kazachstania and Candida, were identified in the stable sourdoughs. Buckwheat and teff sourdoughs were dominated mainly by obligate or facultative heterofermentative LAB, which are commonly associated with traditional wheat or rye sourdoughs. However, the spontaneous fermentation of the GF flours resulted also in the selection of species which are not consider endemic to traditional sourdoughs, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus graminis and Weissella cibaria. In general, the composition of the stable biota was strongly affected by the fermentation conditions, whilst Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in all buckwheat sourdoughs. Lactobacillus pontis is described for the first time as dominant species in teff sourdough. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata dominated teff sourdoughs, whereas the solely Kazachstania barnetti was isolated in buckwheat sourdough developed under condition A. This study allowed the identification and isolation of LAB and yeasts species which are highly competitive during fermentation of buckwheat or teff flours. Representatives of these species can be selected as starters for the production of sourdough destined to GF bread production. PMID:21356457

  15. Effect of roasting time of buckwheat groats on the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, Wronkowska; Konrad, Piskuła Mariusz; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat, induced by roasting at 160 °C for 30, 40 and 50 min, were evaluated in the study. Furozine, was detected after roasting, in all buckwheat samples. Increase of FIC, the presence of significant amounts of CML and enhanced browning were observed, along with increasing times of roasting. The formation of acrylamide in the obtained buckwheat products was also significantly connected with the time of roasting. A significant degradation was observed in natural antioxidants, as affected by heat treatment time. The colour parameter changed significantly with the increasing of roasting time. Overall, 30min of roasting was beneficial from a nutritional point of view for the obtained buckwheat product. PMID:26593501

  16. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn.

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    Zhou Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activity of protein fractions with hypolipidemic effects was detected in a free radical scavenging experiment. The buckwheat protein fraction with the most obvious hypolipidemic activity and free radical scavenging activity was named as WSBWP. Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to be 38 kDa. It could become a potential candidate in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  17. PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF NAKED OAT (AVENA NUDA L. AND BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH BY BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND PDCAAS METHOD

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    Martina Vršková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the protein quality of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by traditional biological methods [Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Biological value] and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS. As an animal model we used growing rats at the age of 21 days and at average body weight 83 g. The tested feeds represented the only nitrogen source in the experimental diets, and the tested nitrogen substances were 10 % of the feed ration in dry matter. We found higher values achieved in growth, feed conversion and crude protein intake in the group fed buckwheat. Buckwheat achieved higher biological value. Oat achieved a higher digestibility, which was also influenced by higher PDCAAS. Buckwheat achieved higher biological protein value. Isoleucine was the limiting amino acid in both tested feeds. Other parameters of the evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU had minimal differences.

  18. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lian-Xin Peng; Liang Zou; Jiang-Lin Zhao; Da-Bing Xiang; Peng Zhu; Gang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae) is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn). From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaemp...

  19. VARIETAL DEPENDENCE OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT ANATOMICAL PARTS OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH IN DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES

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    Iveta Čičová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The pseudocereals such as buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth have attracted interest in recent years. One of the reasons for this renewed interest is their excellent nutrient profile. In addition to being one of the important energy sources due to their starch content, these pseudocereals provide good quality protein, dietary fibre and lipids rich in unsaturated fats. The aim of our work was to study antioxidant activity in 4 chosen cultivars of common buckwheat during vegetation period. Four cultivars were analysed: Špačinska, Bambi, Jana C1, Aiva. Samples of plant material were obtained from Plant Producion Research Centre in Piešťany. Antioxidant activity (AOA of stem, leaves, flowers and seeds of buckwheat was assessed with using of DPPH radical (2.2 – diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at wavelength 515.6 nm. The antioxidant activity of buckwheat was evaluated in growth phases I. (formations of buds, in phase II. (at the beginning of flowering, in phase III. (full flowering, in phase IV. (full ripeness. The antioxidant activity in stems of all tested cultivars of common buckwheat was in range from 49.109 % (Špačinska, phase I. to 73.705 % (Špačinska, phase IV.. The antioxidant activity in leaves of all tested varieties of common buckwheat was in range from 77.937 % (Bambi, phase IV. to 99.655 % (Bambi, phase II.. The antioxidant activity in flowers of all tested varieties of common buckwheat was in range from 88.75 % (Bambi, phase III. to 92.665 % (Špačinska, phase I.. The antioxidant activity in seeds of all tested cultivars of common buckwheat was in range from 39.787 % (Špačinska, phase III. to 88.241 % (Bambi, phase III.. From the standpoint of antioxidant activity in individual plant parts the cultivars Špačinska, Bambi were the most suitable ones for food productions.

  20. The influence of selected hypotensive drugs on the bioavailability of minerals from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Suliburska; Paweł Bogdański; Barbara Chiniewicz

    2011-01-01

    Background. The mineral status in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of hypotensive drugs (angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), b-blockers, Ca-antagonists, diuretics) on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion. Material and methods. The degree of release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats was determined w...

  1. Evaluation of Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of the Aerial Parts of Common and Tartary Buckwheat Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Zieliński; Jacek Kwiatkowski; Marcin Turemko; Danuta Zielińska

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of major and minor flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of stems, leaves, flowers, unripe seeds and ripe seeds of common and tartary buckwheat plants collected during different growth periods was addressed in this study. The highest rutin contents were observed in flowers and leaves collected from common and tartary buckwheat at early flowering as well as flowering and seed formation states. A low quercetin contents w...

  2. Methyl jasmonate stimulates biosynthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol in seedlings of common buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Sawicki, Tomasz; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Mitrus, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate has a strong effect on secondary metabolizm in plants, by stimulating the biosynthesis a number of phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important source of biologically active compounds. This research focuses on the detection and quantification of 2-phenylethylamine and its possible metabolites in the cotyledons, hypocotyl and roots of common buckwheat seedlings treated with methyl jasmonate. In cotyledons of buckwheat sprouts, only traces of 2-phenylethylamine were found, while in the hypocotyl and roots its concentration was about 150 and 1000-times higher, respectively. Treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in a 4-fold increase of the 2-phenylethylamine level in the cotyledons of 7-day buckwheat seedlings, and an 11-fold and 5-fold increase in hypocotyl and roots, respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment led also to about 4-fold increase of phenylacetic acid content in all examined seedling organs, but did not affect the 2-phenylethanol level in cotyledons, and slightly enhanced in hypocotyl and roots. It has been suggested that 2-phenylethylamine is a substrate for the biosynthesis of phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol, as well as cinnamoyl 2-phenethylamide. In organs of buckwheat seedling treated with methyl jasmonate, higher amounts of aromatic amino acid transaminase mRNA were found. The enzyme can be involved in the synthesis of phenylpyruvic acid, but the presence of this compound could not be confirmed in any of the examined organs of common buckwheat seedling. PMID:25856561

  3. Effects of α-aminooxyacetic acid on the level of polyamines, anthocyanins and photosynthetic pigments in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the effects of α-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA on contents of polyamines, anthocyanins, photosynthetic pigments and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. AOA clearly decreased light-induced formation of anthocyanins and inhibited PAL activity in buckwheat hypocotyls, although a slight stimulatory effect on anthocyanins content in buckwheat cotyledons was observed. AOA declined the contents of chlorophylls a and b and total carotenoids in buckwheat cotyledons. The results show that AOA inhibits phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls, and suppress photosynthesis in cotyledons. Moreover, the experiments show that AOA enhances the level of free putrescine in hypocotyls and the level of spermidine in buckwheat cotyledons. AOA also diminished the content of putrescine in cotyledons, but did not affect its level in buckwheat hypocotyls. AOA also substantially declined the level of cadaverine in buckwheat cotyledons, and did not affect its content in hypocotyls. Differences in effect of AOA on anthocyanins and polyamines accumulation indicate various physiological roles of the compounds in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons.

  4. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, F.H. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec) H9X 3V9 (Canada); Barrington, S. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec) H9X 3V9 (Canada)]. E-mail: suzelle.barrington@sympatico.ca

    2005-12-15

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  5. The effect of cis-jasmone, jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate on accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various jasmonates (methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, cis-jasmone on anthocyanins and procyanidins content of, as well as on growth of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings were studied. The studied jasmonates were applied as solutions or vapors on four days seedlings, and the seedlings were grown during the next four days in day/night conditions (16/8 h. Afterwards anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins content, as well as elongation of primary roots and hypocotyls were measured. When applied as solutions cis-jasmone (JAS stimulated the anthocyanins accumulation, but when used as vapors had tendency to decrease its accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls. Jasmonic acid (JA solutions slightly stimulated or had no effect on biosynthesis of anthocyanins in buckwheat hypocotyls, but used as vapors caused a decline of anthocyanins in buckwheat hypocotyls. Methyl jasmonate (MJ clearly inhibited biosynthesis of anthocyanins in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. The studied jasmonates had no influence on anthocyanins level in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings, except cis-jasmone, which at the lowest solution concentration slightly enhanced biosynthesis of the pigments. Treatment of buckwheat seedlings with solutions of all jasmonates (10-8 M, 10-6 M and 10-4 M had no influence on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls. Contrary to that observation vapors of the growth regulators in concentrations 10-4 M, had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. Solutions of JA and MJ, as well as vapors of JA, MJ and JAS strongly inhibited the primary root growth of buckwheat seedlings, while JAS applied as solution had no such influence. MJ and JA caused much higher stimulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls than JAS.

  6. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  7. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

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    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  8. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

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    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  9. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Chiba, Y; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Jack, F R; Harrison, B; Pearson, S Y; Bryce, J H

    2012-10-10

    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available. PMID:22950683

  10. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

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    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB). Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of...

  12. Effectiveness of Growing the Sugar Buckwheat in Short Time Crop Rotation

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    Asker U. Taychibekov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.

  13. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Mirjana M.; Demin Mirjana A.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.; Žarković Branka M.; Stikić Radmila I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was d...

  14. Floral visitors and the importance of honey bee on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in central Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Gillet, Claire; Cawoy, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Visitors to buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flowers were studied in central Belgium during 2 months (July and September) over 2 years (2001-2002). Forty-nine different insect species, belonging to 18 families, were recorded. Over both years, species from the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera were the principal visitors. Hymenoptera were mainly represented by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.; 18.5 - 51.8% of total visitors), while Diptera were represented by syrphid flies and several other f...

  15. The influence of meteorological conditions on major quantitative and qualitative traits of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Maletić Radojka O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year investigations of buckwheat raised in agroecological conditions of South Banat (Pančevo and West Serbia (Gorobilje are presented in the paper. Based on the obtained investigation data, we confirm the hypothesis that buckwheat is a plant suited to more humid regions, since we have determined higher yield of the plant on locations with higher precipitation amount. During 1999, the yield of buckwheat was higher at the location in Pančevo and the next year at the location in Gorobilje. Also, in the year 2000, values of average plant height, number of seeds per plant and seed mass per plant were higher at the location in Gorobilje, whereas in the year 1999 (first year of investigation, which from the aspect of climatic conditions could be considered as optimal, plant yield and all other investigated parameters were better in case of buckwheat originating from the location in Pančevo. In the year 2000, in regard to the seed proportionally medium fractions were more present, which is, among other things, the result of the influence of higher precipitation amount. In regard to the exploitation value of the seed, better germination was registered for seed produced in 2000 (at both locations, although it had lower mass compared to the seed produced in 1999. Blossoming (blooming in the first study year at both locations started 5 to 7 days earlier compared to the second year of investigations and lasted 5 to 8 days longer. On the other hand, in the second year of investigations at both locations harvesting started 10 to 12 days earlier compared to the previous year.

  16. Treatment of isolated pistils with protease inhibitors overcomes the self-incompatibility response in buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljuš-Đukić Jovanka D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated pistils of distylous buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were treated with protease inhibitors (PMSF, pepstatin A, and antipain. Pistils were cross- or self- pollinated, and growth of pollen tubes was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Treatments with all inhibitors suppressed inhibition of self-pollen tube growth, suggesting that activity of proteases is involved in rejection of self-pollen during the SI response.

  17. Forming and maintaining a collection of plant genetic resources of the Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill.) genus

    OpenAIRE

    Тригуб, О. В.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Providing information on the formation, composition, maintenance of the collection of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill.) genus at Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production (Poltava region), and areas of its use: introduction, preservation and study of the material, for the set of index, formation of special collections and providing research and education institutions of Ukraine with a valuable original material. Methods. Methodical developments dealing with formation and maintenan...

  18. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  19. Study of evapotranspiration and evaporation beneath the canopy in a buckwheat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Zhang, Chuan; Oue, Hiroki; Wang, Guoqing; He, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The determination of evaporation and transpiration separately is very important in improving water use efficiency and developing exact irrigation scheduling. Hourly crop evapotranspiration ( ET c) and soil evaporation ( E g) beneath the buckwheat canopy were measured using Bowen ratio energy balance method and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The total ET c and E g in the whole growth season of buckwheat were 187.4 and 72.1 mm, respectively. Crop coefficient of buckwheat plant was simulated by days after sowing (DAS) and leaf area index (LAI), the average values for four growth stages were 0.58, 0.59, 1.10, and 0.74; and soil evaporation coefficient (the ratio of soil evaporation to reference evapotranspiration) was modeled by soil water content at 5-cm depth by dividing the LAI into two stages. The relationship between the ratio of soil evaporation to actual evapotranspiration ( E g/ ET c) and LAI was decided. It was found that E g/ ET c decreased from 1 to 0.3 with the increase in LAI.

  20. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  1. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  2. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  3. On Developing Bitter Buckwheat Dim Sums%苦荞面点的开发思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美

    2012-01-01

    苦荞被认为是食药两用的粮食作物,其营养价值、药用价值受到普遍关注,但是苦荞粉无面筋、色泽暗黄、口味微苦等缺陷限制了苦荞面点市场化程度。本文以面点工艺实施的可行性为依据,研制出苦荞生物发酵类面点、苦荞层酥类面点、苦荞单酥类面点的配方与工艺,对苦荞面点开发及与苦荞工艺性质相似杂粮面点的开发具有借鉴意义。%Bitter buckwheat is considered to be a kind of dual-purpose crops, used as both food and medicine. Its nutritional and officinal value draws wide attention. However, deficiencies of gluten-free, slightly bitter taste and yellowish color limit its marketability. Based on the feasibility of buckwheat dim sum, this paper aims to put forward design formulas and processing technology of bio-fermented pastry, multi-layer and single-layer crisp cakes made of bitter buckwheat. This can be used as reference for development of pastry made of bitter buck- wheat and other grains with similar properties.

  4. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  5. Bioactivity comparison of extracts from various parts of common and tartary buckwheats: evaluation of the antioxidant- and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Hweiyan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat flour and buckwheat sprouts possess antioxidant properties, and previous studies have reported on buckwheat flour displaying an inhibitory activity for angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE. Information is lacking on the bioactivity of other parts of the buckwheat, such as the seed hulls and plant stalks. This study investigates the ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of various parts of 2 types of buckwheat, namely, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Results The extract of common hulls extracted using 50% (v/v-ethanol solvent presented a remarkable inhibitory activity. The value of IC50 is 30 μg ml-1. The extracts of both common and tartary hulls extracted using 50% (v/v-ethanol solvent demonstrated an antioxidant activity that is superior to that of other extracts. Conclusion This study determined that the ethanolic extract of the hulls of common buckwheat presented more favorable antioxidant and ACE inhibitory abilities. However, the correlation of antioxidant activity and ACE inhibitory activity for all 18 types of extracts is low. The ACE inhibitory activity could have been caused by a synergistic effect of flavonoids or from other unidentified components in the extracts. The ethanolic extract of common hulls demonstrated remarkable ACE inhibitory activity and is worthy of further animal study.

  6. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; Pvs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; Pvs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  7. The effect of methyl jasmonate vapors on content of phenolic compounds in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ vapors on content of phenolic compounds: free phenolic acids, total quercetin, and total phenolics in etiolated buckwheat seedlings were studied. The data presented show that low concentration of MJ (10-8 M had no influence on trans-cinnamic acid (CA, but stimulated the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. A moderate dose of MJ (10-6 M did not change the level of chlorogenic acid in the hypocotyls and cotyledons, but CA synthesis was promoted in cotyledons, whereas in hypocotyls no significant effect was found. Highest concentration of MJ (10-4 M caused small decline of CA in hypocotyls, but large stimulation of the acid production in cotyledons was noted. MJ had stimulatory effect on caffeic acid forming, but inhibited synthesis of vanillic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons. Lowest concentration of MJ (10-8 M elicited accumulation of quercetin glycosides in both studied tissues of buckwheat seedlings, however at higher doses (10-8 and 10-4 M did not affect the flavonol level. The obtained results suggest that nonequivalent influence of methyl jasmonate on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of MJ uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons. Decline of anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocotyls caused by MJ cannot be explained by enhanced accumulation of quercetin glycosides or free phenolic acids, but probably by synthesis of other unknown phenolic compounds.

  8. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Xin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn. From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol from F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: A combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and response surface methodology (RSM was used for flavonoid extraction and yield assessment. The RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design. Results: Flavonoids were optimally extracted from F. tataricum by using 72% methanol, at 60°C, for 21 minutes. Under these conditions, the obtained extraction yield of the total flavonoids was 3.94%. Conclusion : The results indicated that the UAE method was effective for extraction of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat.

  9. Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

  10. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. PMID:27211614

  11. The effect of methyl jasmonate vapors on content of phenolic compounds in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Horbowicz; Grzegorz Chrzanowski; Danuta Koczkodaj; Joanna Mitrus

    2011-01-01

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors on content of phenolic compounds: free phenolic acids, total quercetin, and total phenolics in etiolated buckwheat seedlings were studied. The data presented show that low concentration of MJ (10-8 M) had no influence on trans-cinnamic acid (CA), but stimulated the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. A moderate dose of MJ (10-6 M) did not change the level of chlorogenic acid in the hypocotyls and coty...

  12. 荞麦酸奶的加工工艺研究%The Research on Buckwheat Yoghurt Processing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学万; 李华钧; 杨坚

    2001-01-01

    A fermented yoghurt which is rich in balanced nutrients and has an agreeable flavor of buckwheat is developed and produced from buckwheat as the main material. The optimum technical conditions is determined by orthogonal test.The composition of the stabilizer and the materials is analyzed in detail.%以荞麦为主要原料,研制出一种营养丰富、均衡、有荞麦风味的发酵酸奶,并对其发酵工艺条件、物料及稳定剂的配比进行了分析探讨。

  13. The effect of methyl jasmonate and phenolic acids on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and phenolic acids: trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA, p-coumaric acid (p-CA, salicylic acid (SA as well as naringenine (NAR on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were studied. JA-Me and phenolics were applied to growth medium of 4-days etiolated buckwheat seedlings before their exposition to day/night (16h/8h conditions. The increase of primary roots and hypocotyls length were measured after 3 days of seedling growth in such conditions. At the end of experiment the total anthocyanins contents were measured as well. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA inhibited growth of the primary root in young buckwheat seedlings, while naringenine (NAR had a stimulatory influence, and p-coumaric acid had no effect at all. None of investigated phenolics or JA-Me had an effect on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls, except the mixture of JA-Me and p-coumarcic acid. JA-Me significantly decreased the anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocototyls, but not in cotyledons. trans-Cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and naringenine had no significant influence on the anthocyanin level in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous treatment of buckwheat seedlings with JA-Me and t-CA or p-CA did not change the inhibition of anthocyanins accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls by JA-Me. In the hypocotyls of buckwheat treated with a mixture of JA-Me and NAR, or SA, a synergistic reduction of anthocyanins was observed.

  14. An Aluminum-Inducible IREG Gene is Required for Internal Detoxification of Aluminum in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is able to detoxify aluminum (Al) both externally and internally, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its high Al tolerance are not understood. We functionally characterized a gene (FeIREG1) belonging to IRON REGULATED/ferroportin in buckwheat, which showed high expression in our previous genome-wide transcriptome analysis. FeIREG1 was mainly expressed in the roots, and its expression was up-regulated by Al, but not by other metals and low pH. Furthermore, in contrast to AtIREG1 and AtIREG2 in Arabidopsis, the expression of FeIREG1 was not induced by Fe deficiency. Spatial expression analysis showed that the Al-induced expression of FeIREG1 was found in the root tips and higher expression was detected in the outer layers of this part. Immunostaining also showed that FeIREG1 was localized at the outer cell layers in the root tip. A FeIREG1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was localized to the tonoplast when transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of FeIREG1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased Al tolerance, but did not alter the tolerance to Cd, Co and Fe. The tolerance to Ni was slightly enhanced in the overexpression lines. Mineral analysis showed that the accumulation of total root Al and other essential mineral elements was hardly altered in the overexpression lines. Taken together, our results suggest that FeIREG1 localized at the tonoplast plays an important role in internal Al detoxification by sequestering Al into the root vacuoles in buckwheat. PMID:27053033

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

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    Zhang Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 65 °C. UAE method is an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of FTB.

  16. Buckwheat yield and its quality as affected by laser biostimulation of its seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various doses of laser radiation applied to buckwheat seed bio stimulation on the yield, and changes of chemical composition was analysed. A 12-25 percent increase of yield was observed in bio stimulated plants. The most positive effects were achieved after seed triple radiation using a laser of 30 mW power for 0.1 s. Bio stimulation caused a slight increase of protein, fat and fiber content a large increase of soluble and reducing sugars and a decrease of starch level

  17. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Petra; Kráčmar, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fi bre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 152/2009. A modifi ed version of Holt's Method was used for phytic acid (phytate) determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The conte...

  18. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  19. The influence of selected hypotensive drugs on the bioavailability of minerals from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion

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    Joanna Suliburska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mineral status in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of hypotensive drugs (angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, b-blockers, Ca-antagonists, diuretics on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion. Material and methods. The degree of release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats was determined with and without (the control sample an addition of hypotensive drugs. Four antihypertensive drugs in one dose (one tablet per sample were analysed: metocard (a β-blocker, cardilopin (a Ca-antagonist, apo-perindox (ACE-I and indapen (a diuretic. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in buckwheat groats before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results. It was found that cardilopin (amlodipine and indapen (indapamide significantly increased the release of zinc from groats. The degree of release of magnesium was higher and the release of iron was lower in samples with apo-perindox (perindopril than in the control group. The release of copper was significantly decreased by indapen (indapamid. Conclusions. Amlodipine, perindopril and indapamide affected the release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion.

  20. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  1. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture. PMID:24960157

  2. Photosynthesis of buckwheat population under field conditions with special reference to planting density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted to characterize the canopy photosynthesis and the leaf photosynthesis at different layers in buckwheat under different planting densities. At the flowering stage, the canopy photosynthetic rate (Pn-canopy) was measured by means of a closed chamber system, and the leaf photosynthetic rate of each layer (Pn-layer) within the canopy was estimated using 13CO2. The Pn-canopy showed maximum values at around noon: 19.7 and 27.4 micro mol CO2m-2 s-1 at low (64 plants m-2) and high (136 plants m-2) planting densities, respectively, without light saturation at 1800 micro mol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation. The Pn-layer of uppermost layer showed maximum values of 21.4 and 20.4 micro mol CO2m-2 s-1 at low and high densities, respectively. The lower the layer, the lower the Pn-layer. The Pn-layer of low density was higher than that of high density at all layers. Leaves at the layer 40 - 60 cm above the ground level were assumed to contribute to Pn-canopy approximately 55% in both planting densities. The Pn-canopy of buckwheat was characterized to be promoted by having higher SLW and lower K at low and high planting density, respectively. (author)

  3. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  4. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  5. AGRO-ECONOMICAL ASPECTS OF GROWTH STIMULANTS AND MICROFERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlobaeva E. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the food value of buckwheat. It is said that the achievement of its biological potential under prevailing conditions of cultivation is impossible without the introduction of modern scientific and technical progress. The authors describe variants of integrated application of growth stimulants and microfertilizers in buckwheat production technology. Recommended technologies have been tested in conditions of the Central Chernozem region. It is revealed that the best variant of pre-sowing seed treatment is the combination of Epin-extra and Rexolin ABS. Conbination of Epin-extra and Speedfol B is the best variant of treatment of vegetating plants, providing the maximum yield increase in comparison with control variant (without treatments. Economic efficiency of all proposed technologies was studied. The system of indicators was chosen, which evaluate the efficiency of 36 variants of seed and plant treatment with growth stimulants and microfertilizers. A comparative analysis of variants demonstrated that the application of Speedfol B in combination with EPIN-extra and Rexolin ABS is most cost-effective and profitable. It is noted that the final choice of combination of growth stimulants and microfertilizers will depend on the specific conditions of cultivation. Recommendations are given

  6. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

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    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  7. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  8. The use of tartary buckwheat whole flour for bakery products: recent experience in Italy

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    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are paying increasing attention to the health subtle bearings of the food they consume. The term nutraceutical has been adopted to point to those food preparations which areacknowledged to possess health beneficial properties. Most of these properties rely on the presence of bioactive compounds in the various food ingredients. Among bioactive food components an importantgroup is represented by the flavonoids, of which rutin is credited to exert a multiplicity of health beneficial effects. Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum, whose whole flour contains high amounts of rutin (up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, offers the opportunity to obtain a new range of functional foods capable of providing the consumers effective amounts of such bioactive compound through the daily averageconsumption of traditional wheat based staples like bread and biscuits. A preliminary attempt was made to verify the possibility to secure, through the preventive nutrition approach, the multiplicity of health beneficial properties rutin is expected to exert, thanks to the introduction of a few percent of tartary buckwheat whole flour in the original recipe of some traditional backed foods typical of Tuscany, a Region of Central Italy.

  9. Multivariate analysis of buckwheat sourdough fermentations for metabolic screening of starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Stetina, Mandy; Gstattenbauer, Anja; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2014-08-18

    This study investigated the metabolic activity of 35 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which were able to grow in buckwheat sourdoughs and delivers a detailed explanation of LAB metabolism in that environment. To interpret the high-dimensional dataset, descriptive statistics and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used. Heterofermentative LAB showed a clear different metabolism than facultative (f.) heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB, which were more similar. Heterofermentative LAB were mainly characterized by high free SH groups and acetic acid production; they were also able to consume arabinose and glucose. Homofermenters were mainly characterized by lower free amino nitrogen content and they did not show a good capacity to consume arabinose and fructose. Except for the heterofermentative Weissella cibaria strain, only homofermentative strains showed high ornithine yields. Some f. heterofermentative strains differed from homofermentative due to the high lactic acid production as well as low glucose and arginine consumption. LAB containing more genes encoding peptidase activities and genes involved in aroma production showed a high consumption of free amino acids. Strain-dependent activities could be clearly distinguished from group dependent ones (homofermentative, f. heterofermentative and heterofermentative), e.g., some Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed the highest carbohydrate consumption. However, some microbial activities were more strain-dependent than group-dependent. Multivariate analysis of raw data delivered a detailed and clear explanation of LAB metabolism in buckwheat sourdough fermentations. PMID:24992519

  10. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour. PMID:26446284

  11. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber. PMID:24938316

  12. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties. PMID:23253429

  13. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Based on Transcriptome Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Demidenko, Natalia V.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Aleksey A Penin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used a...

  14. Application of chemical mutagens and radiation in breeding buckwheat for larger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1974, seeds of the Viktoriya variety of buckwheat were treated with 20-30 krad gamma radiation and chemical mutagens in the Biophysics Department of the Kishinev Agricultural Institute. For the chemical mutagen treatment, we used N-ethylnitroso-urea NEH (0.025 and 0.012%), N-methylnitroso-urea NMH (0.01 and 0.005%), ethylenimine EI (0.01 and 0.005%), dimethyl sulphate DMS (0.01 and 0.005%) and 1.4-bis-diazoacetyl butane DAB (0.01 and 0.05%). Since some investigators think that different results are produced by changing the order of the treatment, we treated seeds with chemical mutagens before and after irradiation and this was followed by drying. A total of 2400 seeds were treated. Selection started with M2 seeds produced by M1 plants. The thousand seed weight of the best ones ranged from 40.7 to 47.8 g, which was 11.9-18.7 g heavier than the control. The large seed size thus selected was heritable. Since larger seeds are very important for the creation of high yielding varieties buckwheat, only families with these characteristics were selected for further work. We observed even some further increase in seed weight in the next generation. It was observed that when planting large seeds, after six days of growth the cotyledons were significantly larger than in the control plants. This characteristic was used in selecting for a high yielding large-seed variety of buckwheat. The plants were selected twice: once for development of large cotyledon leaves and the second time for plant yield. In the fourth generation, the families thus obtained continued to be studied in greenhouse experiments and the same time be propagated under field conditions. The seeds of these families were then combined and under the name Podolyanka in 1976 were subjected to competitive variety testing. Following the competitive variety testing the mutant variety Podolyanka was released in 1984. It is high yielding (2950 kg/ha), has a short vegetation period (matures 17-18 days

  15. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products. PMID:26890337

  16. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  17. Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

  18. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  19. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  20. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

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    B. Gej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  1. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  2. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (pPanda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics. PMID:27451232

  3. Two metallothionein gene family members in buckwheat: Expression analysis in flooding stress using Real Time RT-PCR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majić Dragana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are an extensive and diverse family of small cysteine-rich proteins with metal-binding ability that are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Two cDNA clones of the MT3 type, differing in 3’ UTRs, were isolated from the developing buckwheat seed cDNA library. Following sequence analyses, expression profiles during flooding stress were monitored by Real Time RT PCR technology.

  4. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Przygodzka; Henryk Zieliński; Zuzana Ciesarová; Kristina Kukurová; Grzegorz Lamparski

    2015-01-01

    The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR) products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves,...

  5. The effect of growing regions, microbiological fertilizers and soil additives on productivity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Dolijanović Željko K.; Oljača Snežana I.; Kovačević Dušan Đ.; Šeremešić Srđan I.; Jovović Zoran M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the productivity of buckwheat taking into account growing regions, especially altitude, since this species does not have demanding soil requirements. The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 in two localities: Valjevo (the village of Jasenica at 300 m altitude - 2009 and the village of Jovanja at 160 m altitude - 2010), and Nova Varos (the village of Radijevići at 1,065 m altitude). Soil of the experimental p...

  6. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum) as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Gatta; Marco Bagliacca; Maria Novella Benvenuti; Lorella Giuliotti

    2012-01-01

    The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20%) and soybean meal (-10%) with buckwheat bran (+30%) (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tes...

  7. Changes of Polyphenolic Substances in the Anatomical Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during Its Growth Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Judita Bystricka; Janette Musilova; Jan Tomas; Alena Vollmannova; Jaromir Lachman; Petra Kavalcova

    2014-01-01

    In this study the changes of total polyphenolics in different anatomical parts (stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during vegetation period were analysed. The content of total polyphenolics was evaluated in growth phase I (formation of buds), phase II (at the beginning of flowering), phase III (full blossoming) and phase IV (full ripeness). In all growth phases (GP) the stems and leaves were evaluated and statistically significant differences ...

  8. Temporal changes in fungal communities from buckwheat seeds and their effects on seed germination and seedling secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačec, Eva; Likar, Matevž; Regvar, Marjana

    2016-05-01

    Seed-associated fungal communities affect multiple parameters of seed quality at all stages of production, from seed development to post-harvest storage and germination. We therefore investigated the diversity and dynamics of fungal communities in the seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) from harvest to 1 y of storage. Fungal populations in seeds were relatively stable, comprised mainly of field fungi. Incidence of fungi was most likely determined by fungal interspecies direct interactions, as well as by their synthesis of volatile organic compounds. Most prominent antagonistic interactions were seen for two plant pathogens, Alternaria alternata on Botrytis cinerea. Detrimental effects of the fungi on seed germination and seedling development were related to fungal extracellular enzyme activity, and in particular to amylase, cellulase and, polyphenol oxidase. Polyphenol and tannin concentrations in buckwheat seedlings were related to fungal growth rate and intensity of fungal cellulase activity, respectively, which suggests that physical penetration of the fungi through the host tissues is probably the stimulus for the activation of plant defence reactions in these seedlings. PMID:27109364

  9. Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, 'f3g-162', and the 'Hokkai T8'. The F2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A (rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, 'f3g-162', is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety. PMID:25914588

  10. Improvement of surface functionalities, including allergenicity attenuation, of whole buckwheat protein fraction by maillard-type glycation with dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  11. Influence of lactic acid bacteria on redox status and on proteolytic activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2013-07-15

    Redox potential and proteolysis determine protein networks in doughs and thus dough rheology as well as the structure of baked goods. Namely, gluten-free bakery products needs structural improvements but little is known about these parameters in gluten free dough systems. In this work the influence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on redox status and proteolysis of buckwheat sourdoughs was investigated. An increase of free thiol groups was detected as redox potential was decreasing during fermentation. Thiol content at 8 h was higher in doughs fermented with strains with high reductive activity, such as Weissella (W.) cibaria in comparison to Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus, which exhibited a lower reducing activity. At 24 h each fermentation showed a similar content of free thiol groups. Endogenous buckwheat proteases were characterized using various protease inhibitors in buckwheat doughs. Until pH3.1 a proteolysis increase was monitored in doughs. Employed LAB didn't show any detectable extracellular proteolytic activity. Flour proteases are thus responsible for protein breakdown, and this was demonstrated comparing free amino nitrogen (FAN) values and protein electrophoretic patterns of sourdough fermentations with chemical acidified (CA) doughs. FAN content at 24 h using P. pentosaceus, proteolytic comparative strain of Enterococcus faecalis, W. cibaria, mixed culture (containing P. pentosaceus and W. cibaria), CA and CA doughs containing glutathione (GSH) reached 45.9±1.3, 42.4±1.3, 40±1, 31±2, 29±2 and 17.8±3.9 mmol kg(-1) flour, respectively. Proteolysis was mainly influenced by pH and incubation time. The addition of GSH showed a decrease of proteolysis and of free amino acids. CA doughs showed a higher total free amino acids content than sourdough fermented with LAB indicating their metabolization. Fermentations with high FAN values exhibited lower band intensity (analyzed under reducing condition) in electrophoretic patterns. These results show that

  12. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-hua; YUAN Ya; YANG Xiao-lan; TAO Shu-ying; MING Jian

    2013-01-01

    The extracts from hulls, brans and flours of Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench (FEM, three varieties) and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth (FTG, seven varieties) were screened for free and bound phenolic content or total phenolic content (TPC), as well as 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Free phenolics were predominant in buckwheat hulls, brans and flours. FEM hulls extract exhibited the highest reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the average EC50 84.54μg mL-1 and IC50 11.54μg mL-1 respectively, FTG brans extract had the highest average TPC (24.87 mg GAE g-1 DW), and FEM flours extract showed the lowest TPC, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the correlations among TPC, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of all the samples were investigated. The rank correlation coefficient (rs) between reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat hulls, between TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat flours were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively (P<0.05). However, there is no significant correlation between the remaining indexes of hulls and flours, as well as the ten buckwheat brans. This result indicated that some non-phenolic compounds also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in hulls, brans and flours of buckwheats. This study demonstrated that buckwheat hulls and brans, rather than flours, are good source of antioxidants.

  13. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  14. Discussion on the Buckwheat Culture within Traditional Agricultural Society%浅析彝族传统农耕文化中的苦荞文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马史火

    2013-01-01

    彝族传承着别具特色的农耕文化,苦荞文化是彝族传统农耕文化中的重要组成部分。苦荞麦是彝族人的日常生活中重要的粮食之一;在长期的生产实践中,彝族人总结了苦荞麦生产的习俗和经验;在彝族节日、婚丧嫁娶、祭祀鬼神等民俗活动中,苦荞麦往往也是不可或缺的物品;苦荞麦可食可药,具有很好的医疗保健功效和巨大的市场开发价值。%Among the distinctive cultures of Yi agricultural society, the buckwheat culture shares an indispensable part of them. Buckwheat is one of staple food of Yi people. Over many years of raising buckwheat, the Yi have developed many customs and experiences about producing buckwheat. On special days, weddings, engagements, funerals, giving offerings to spirits, and other customary activities, the presenting of buckwheat is a very important part of the ceremonial offerings. Buckwheat can be eaten and can be used for medical purpose. It has good medicinal properties and is useful for maintaining good health. It also has great potential for opening up a very wide market for sale.

  15. Research progress of analysis methods of flavonoids in buckwheat%荞麦中黄酮类化合物的分析方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 张雄; 张国涛

    2013-01-01

    荞麦中黄酮类化合物已被鉴定出的有40余种,定量荞麦总黄酮最好的方法是三氯化铝显色法;而高效液相色谱法是目前分离、定量荞麦黄酮类化合物最有效的方法.%The number of the flavonoid identified is more than 40.Aluminum chloride colorimetric method is the greatest method to quantify the total flavonoids concentration in buckwheat.While,HPLC is very effective to isolate and quantify flavonoids in buckwheat.

  16. 荞麦治疗糖尿病化学成分的研究进展%Advances of Buckwheat Chemicals in Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小理; 李宗杰; 周一鸣

    2011-01-01

    荞麦是一种粮药兼备的粮食作物,目前世界上有多个国家传统食疗研究都发现食用荞麦可降血糖,因此荞麦可用于中药治疗糖尿病.通过现代生化与分子生物学、细胞生物学等研究手段已经逐渐确定荞麦中起降血糖作用的化学成分及其可能作用途径,降糖成分主要是植物肌醇、生物类黄酮以及荞麦蛋白.分离鉴定荞麦降糖成分可以为研究开发荞麦源糖尿病药物提供思路,亦能为加工生产荞麦功能性食品提供参考信息.本文主要综述了国内外关于荞麦降糖化合物的研究进展,并对其可能作用机制进行了初步讨论.%Buckwheat is a kind of grain that can be exploited for both food production and medicine application, and its glycemic - lowering effects have been wildly known by traditional dietetic therapy in many countries of theworld. Therefore, buckwheat can be used in traditional medical therapy of diabetes. The buckwheat compounds with serum glucose lowering function are gradually determined, and their possible signal pathway is partially clear through modem biochemistry and molecular biology and cell biological study. Main functional chemicals in buckwheat are plant inositol, bio - flavonoids and buckwheat protein. Isolation and characterization of buckwheat glycemic - lowering components can provide candidates with new diabetic drugs, and can be benefit for the production of buckwheat functional food. This paper focused on the research progress of buckwheat glycemic- lowering compounds, and their possible mechanism is also preliminarily discussed.

  17. Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Mira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1 has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, but also as a useful tool for biotechnological application.

  18. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  19. Elaboration, Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of a Sweet Bread Made with Buckwheat and Fruit Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Möller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of new gluten free sweet bread, as well as their physicochemical features and acceptance. As more and more people become aware of coeliac disease, it is important to increase the options in terms of gluten free bakery products. The adaptation of bakery product-sweet bread-to gluten free versions can be justified for its role in preventing coeliac problems. Wheat flour was substituted by common buckwheat flour mixed with fruit flours and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, compared to standard sweet bread, with wheat flour in its composition. The passion fruit sweet bread had the highest percentage of humidity, with significant difference among the other formulations (p≤0.05. Ash and lipids had the highest amount in the banana sample and proteins showed its highest value in the standard sweet bread (p≤0.05. A sensory analysis was conducted, with good results. It was also evaluated the purchase intention, indicating that these products are not only viable, but worth buying.

  20. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Novel Protein Obtained from Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Yao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TBWSP31 is a novel antitumor protein that was isolated from tartary buckwheat water-soluble extracts. The objective of this paper was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of TBWSP31 on breast cancer Bcap37cells and to explore its possible mechanism. After treatment of Bcap37 cells with TBWSP31, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by inverted microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, such as detachment from the culture plate, change to a round shape, cell shrinkage, the absence of obvious microvilli, plasma membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that treatment with TBWSP31 resulted in a G0/G1 arrest and prevented the cells from growing from G0/G1 phase to S phase, which was most prominent at 48 h. The expression of bcl-2 and Fas were detected quantitatively by FCM, which showed that TBWSP31 induced-apoptosis may be involved with the participation of Fas and bcl-2. These results suggest that TBWSP31 is a potential antitumor compound and that apoptosis induced by TBWSP31 is a key antitumor mechanism.

  1. Successful production of recombinant buckwheat cysteine-rich aspartic protease in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRA D. MILISAVLJEVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the expression of recombinant cysteine-rich atypical buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum aspartic protease (FeAPL1 in five Escherichia coli strains differing in their expression capabilities is presented. It was shown that the expression success depended highly on the choice of FeAPL1 fusion partner. His6-FeAPL1 was produced in large quantities as an insoluble protein localized in inclusion bodies. On the other hand, MBP-FeAPL1 was localized in both the cytoplasm and inclusion bodies in BL21 and Rosetta-gami strains. Only purified soluble MBP-FeAPL1 from Rosetta-gami cells showed proteolytic activity at pH 3.0 with BSA as the substrate. The results also indicated that FeAPL1 contained a PRO segment that had to be removed for the enzyme activity to appear. The activity of FeAPL1 produced in the Rosetta-gami strain, which enables disulfide bond formation indicated the importance of the twelve cysteine residues for correct folding and functionality.

  2. Tartary buckwheat on nitric oxide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effects of tartary buckwheat (TB, Fagopyrum tataricum) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TB against the LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We fractionated TB to obtain 4 fractions including the n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions. In addition, rutin was isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. The 4 fractions and rutin effectively inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-6. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors including nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible NO synthase were down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with the 4 fractions and rutin. The present study suggests that TB could induce anti-inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26134972

  3. 冷藏条件下荞麦淀粉回生规律的研究%Study on the retrogradation law of buckwheat in cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤生; 周雪; 连喜军; 吴常燕

    2013-01-01

    荞麦食品一般在冷藏条件下贮藏,研究冷藏贮藏过程荞麦淀粉的回生规律有利于确定荞麦食品适宜的贮藏条件.本实验以荞麦淀粉为原料,研究淀粉乳浓度和冷藏时间对荞麦淀粉回生的影响.实验结果表明,当荞麦淀粉浓度为1%和10%时,0℃贮藏荞麦淀粉回生率较高,达到30%以上,5%、15%和20%浓度下2℃和6℃下贮藏淀粉回生率高.荞麦淀粉浓度高于5%时冷藏容易回生.电镜图片显示,荞麦淀粉呈现不规则块状,有凸起和凹陷截面,颗粒直径为1~10μm,部分颗粒表面有针扎状小孔.荞麦回生淀粉呈粘状结构.荞麦淀粉吸附碘后的最大可见吸收波长为564nm,而回生后荞麦淀粉没有最大可见吸收波长.%Most of the buckwheat foods were kept at cold storage,and the research on cold storage process of buckwheat starch retrogradation rule was beneficial to determine suitable storage conditions for the buckwheat food.In this experiment,the buckwheat starch was used as raw materials,the effect of starch concentration and storage time on buckwheat starch retrogradation were investigated.The experimental results showed that,when the buckwheat starch concentrations were 1% and 10%,the buckwheat starch retrogradation rate was higher at 0℃ storage,reaching above 30%.For concentrations of 5%,15% and 20%,the retrogradation rates at 2℃ and 6℃ were higher.The buckwheat starch inclined to retrograde when its concentrations was in excess of 5% in cold storage.Electron microscopy images showed that buckwheat starch granule was irregular block with a rising or falling in surface,its particle diameter was of 1~10μm.Some of the granule surface had needle shaped holes.Retrograded buckwheat starch had adhesive structure.The maximum visible absorption of buckwheat starch attached with l2/Kl was 564nm and its retrograded ones had no maximum absorption.

  4. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (<2-fold) A few STOP1/ART1 (SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1/AL RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1)-regulated gene homologs including FeSTAR1, FeALS3 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3), FeALS1 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE1), FeMATE1 and FeMATE2 (MULTIDRUG AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION1 and 2) were also up-regulated in buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat. PMID:25273892

  5. Changes in the photosynthetic activity and transport os assimilates during ontogenesis of buckwheat grown from irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that the rate of CO2 fixation decreased during the photosynthesis particularly at the initial stages of the growth and development of buckwheat plants grown from γ-irradiated (100 Gy) seeds. It was shown that the rate of the photosynthesis and, to a lesser extent, the activity of the principle enzyme of the recovery pentosephosphate cycle, RDP-carboxylase, decreased. γ-radiation affected the pathway of carbon in the photosynthesis, i.e. somewhat increased the level of mobile sugars in a free area of the leaf mesophyll and, at the same time, decreased the content of aminoacids and organic acids

  6. Development, habit and yield of buckwheat as affected by spectral composition of reflected radiation from the surface of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuts of buckwheat were sown into pots embedded in the ground in non-competitive conditions. Pots were only differentiated by the kinds of ground surface (bare soil, grass and bare soil of diameter 35, 55, 95 cm, surrounded with grass). Among the five objects, the highest value of albedo in the whole screened range (350-1100 nm) was noticed in the object with grass (max. 30 percent), and the lowest value in the object with bare soil (max. 19 percent). Similarly, in the long weave (over 700 nm) the highest ability of reflection was shown by the grass

  7. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  8. The influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on its karyotype and protein profile during the fermentation of gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deželak, Matjaž; Gebremariam, Mekonnen M; Cadež, Neža; Zupan, Jure; Raspor, Peter; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2014-08-18

    Gluten-free beer-like beverages from malted buckwheat and quinoa are somehow close to their commercial production, but rather high expenses are expected due to the relatively high price of grain, some technological adaptations of process and the need for external enzyme supplementation during mashing. One of the common and efficient cost reduction measures in the industrial scale is serial repitching of the yeast biomass, which has not been studied for the buckwheat and quinoa wort fermentation before. In that manner we have monitored possible changes in yeast's proteins and chromosomal DNA during eleven serial repitchings of the yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain TUM 34/70 for fermentation of the barley, buckwheat and quinoa wort. Karyotypes showed changes in regard to the raw materials used and many responsible candidate proteins are suggested which could cause these differences. Different relative expressions of some protein bands were also linked to the proteins involved in yeast stress response and proteins involved in fermentation performance. Results suggest that serial repitching of the strain TUM 34/70 seems suitable for the production of gluten-free beer-like beverages from buckwheat and quinoa. PMID:24935690

  9. Level of Catechin, Myricetin, Quercetin and Isoquercitrin in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), Changes of Their Levels during Vegetation and Their Effect on The Growth of Selected Weeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2009), s. 2719-2725. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * buckwheat * catechin * quercetin * myricetin * weed Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  10. Fractionation of Buckwheat Seed Phenolics and Analysis of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamać Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fractions of phenolic compounds were obtained from the extract of common buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with methanol as a mobile phase. The total phenolics content ranged from 19.8±1.5 (fraction I to 164±2.2 mg (+-catechin eq/g (fraction IV. The profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the fractions were analysed using RP-HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was tested as ABTS⋅+ and DPPH⋅ scavenging activity and capability to reduce the Fe(III/2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl-s-triazine complex to the ferrous form. Results were expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, IC50 and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction IV that was predominated by flavones. TEAC, IC50 and FRAP values were: 1.47±0.01 mmol Trolox eq/g, 0.058±0.003 mg/assay and 2.18±0.05 mmol Fe(II/g, respectively. Rutin constituted 77.7% of the compounds identified in fraction III. The antiradical activity and reducing capability of this fraction were lower compared to fraction IV, but significantly higher than in fractions I and II. The main phenolic compounds of fractions I and II were phenolic acids (caffeic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and p-coumaric. The antioxidant activity of fraction V was similar to that of fraction III.

  11. De novo sequencing and characterization of floral transcriptome in two species of buckwheat (Fagopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samigullin Tagir H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptome sequencing data has become an integral component of modern genetics, genomics and evolutionary biology. However, despite advances in the technologies of DNA sequencing, such data are lacking for many groups of living organisms, in particular, many plant taxa. We present here the results of transcriptome sequencing for two closely related plant species. These species, Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum, belong to the order Caryophyllales - a large group of flowering plants with uncertain evolutionary relationships. F. esculentum (common buckwheat is also an important food crop. Despite these practical and evolutionary considerations Fagopyrum species have not been the subject of large-scale sequencing projects. Results Normalized cDNA corresponding to genes expressed in flowers and inflorescences of F. esculentum and F. tataricum was sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing technology. This resulted in 267 (for F. esculentum and 229 (F. tataricum thousands of reads with average length of 341-349 nucleotides. De novo assembly of the reads produced about 25 thousands of contigs for each species, with 7.5-8.2× coverage. Comparative analysis of two transcriptomes demonstrated their overall similarity but also revealed genes that are presumably differentially expressed. Among them are retrotransposon genes and genes involved in sugar biosynthesis and metabolism. Thirteen single-copy genes were used for phylogenetic analysis; the resulting trees are largely consistent with those inferred from multigenic plastid datasets. The sister relationships of the Caryophyllales and asterids now gained high support from nuclear gene sequences. Conclusions 454 transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly was performed for two congeneric flowering plant species, F. esculentum and F. tataricum. As a result, a large set of cDNA sequences that represent orthologs of known plant genes as well as potential new genes was generated.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a deletion mutant of a major buckwheat allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 16 kDa buckwheat protein (BWp16) is a major allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. An immunologically active mutant of BWp16 was prepared and a three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a crystal of selenomethionine-labelled mutant protein. A 16 kDa buckwheat protein (BWp16) is a major allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. A deletion mutant of BWp16 (rBWp16ΔN) was overproduced and purified and was shown to be immunologically active. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a crystal of selenomethionine-labelled rBWp16ΔN. The crystal belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 28.39, b = 31.54, c = 32.20 Å, α = 111.92, β = 108.91, γ = 98.74°. One monomer was expected to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the calculated Matthews coefficient of 1.76 Å3 Da−1

  13. THE PHENOLS ACCUMULATION IN TRANSFORMED ROOT CULTURES OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS SOURCES OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    O. V. Sytar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth parameters of transformed root cultures, total phenolic content and phenolic acids composition has been studied in root cultures, which were obtained from various explants of buckwheat by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4. The methods of obtaining of the transformed root cultures, total phenol estimation, gas-liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction has been used. Elevated levels of total phenols in transformed roots of buckwheat from different sources of explants have been found. The high content of chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-anisic and caffeic acids has been discovered in the root cultures, which can be used for their industrial production. Maximal root growth was equal 21.2 g/l of dry weight in the roots as source for root culture, 17.7 g/l with leaves and 14.6 g/l with stems at 3 week after placement. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction amplification was confirmed that the rol B gene (652 bp which transferred info hairy roots from Ri-plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for induction of root from plant species.

  14. Changes of Polyphenolic Substances in the Anatomical Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. during Its Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystricka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the changes of total polyphenolics in different anatomical parts (stems, leaves, flowers and seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. during vegetation period were analysed. The content of total polyphenolics was evaluated in growth phase I (formation of buds, phase II (at the beginning of flowering, phase III (full blossoming and phase IV (full ripeness. In all growth phases (GP the stems and leaves were evaluated and statistically significant differences in polyphenolics content between the two parts were confirmed. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 in polyphenolics content (in GP II and III between stems and leaves; and between stems and flowers were found. In flowers an average of 13.8 times higher and in leaves 6 times higher concentration of polyphenolics in comparison with stems was measured. In GP III the content of polyphenolics in common buckwheat was following: flowers > leaves > achene > stems. In flowers an average of 11.9 times higher, in leaves 8.3 times higher and in achenes 5.9 times higher contents of polyphenolics compared with stems were found. In GP III and IV (leaves, achenes, stems the leaves contained in average 20 times higher and achenes 5.6 times higher polyphenolics than stems.

  15. Characterization of two tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB transcription factors and their regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yue-Chen; Li, Cheng-Lei; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Li, Shuang-Jiang; Luo, Xiao-Peng; Yao, Hui-Peng; Chen, Hui; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Park, Sang-Un; Wu, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) contains high concentrations of flavonoids. The flavonoids are mainly represented by rutin, anthocyanins and proanthocyanins in tartary buckwheat. R2R3-type MYB transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, two TF genes, FtMYB1 and FtMYB2, were isolated from F. tataricum and characterized. The results of bioinformatic analysis indicated that the putative FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 proteins belonged to the R2R3-MYB family and displayed a high degree of similarity with TaMYB14 and AtMYB123/TT2. In vitro and in vivo evidence both showed the two proteins were located in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activation activities. During florescence, both FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 were more highly expressed in the flowers than any other organ. The overexpression of FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 significantly enhanced the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and showed a strong effect on the target genes' expression in Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) was upregulated to 5.6-fold higher than that of control, and the expression level was lower for flavonol synthase (FLS). To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of two MYB TFs from F. tataricum that control the PA pathway. PMID:24730512

  16. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases. PMID:25142187

  17. Breeding of 'Manten-Kirari', a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar 'Manten-Kirari', whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line 'f3g-162' (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with 'Hokkai T8' (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. 'Manten-Kirari' had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of 'Hokkai T8'. Dough prepared from 'Manten-Kirari' flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in 'Hokkai T8' dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in 'Hokkai T8', whereas no panelists reported bitterness in 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of 'Manten-Kirari' were similar to those of 'Hokkai T8', which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, 'Manten-Kirari' is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods. PMID:25914589

  18. The effect of growing regions, microbiological fertilizers and soil additives on productivity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolijanović Željko K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the productivity of buckwheat taking into account growing regions, especially altitude, since this species does not have demanding soil requirements. The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 in two localities: Valjevo (the village of Jasenica at 300 m altitude - 2009 and the village of Jovanja at 160 m altitude - 2010, and Nova Varos (the village of Radijevići at 1,065 m altitude. Soil of the experimental plots at both localities was characterized by acidic chemical reactions, with 3-5% of humus. In addition, the soil was rich in potassium, but poor in phosphorus. Within the objective test, with four replications, microbiological fertilizers Bactofil and Slavol were applied just before planting, alone or in combination with soil additives (hydrogel and zeolite. Half of each plot was fertilized foliarly, by the application of microbiological fertilizer Slavol using the concentrations of 50 ml per 10 liters of water. As compared with the control (no fertilizer application, in all variants of fertilization with a top dressing, increased grain yields were obtained. Significantly higher grain yields of buckwheat were obtained in the first locality, especially in the variant of fertilization with the combined use of Slavol and soil conditioner hydrogel. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  19. Signal amplification in electrochemical detection of buckwheat allergenic protein using field effect transistor biosensor by introduction of anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens, especially buckwheat proteins, sometimes induce anaphylactic shock in patients after ingestion. Development of a simple and rapid screening method based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor for food allergens in food facilities or products is in demand. In this study, we achieved the FET detection of a buckwheat allergenic protein (BWp16, which is not charged enough to be electrically detected by FET biosensors, by introducing additional negative charges from anionic surfactants to the target proteins. A change in the FET characteristics reflecting surface potential caused by the adsorption of target charged proteins was observed when the target sample was coupled with the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS, while no significant response was detected without any surfactant treatment. It was suggested that the surfactant conjugated with the protein could be useful for the charge amplification of the target proteins. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the SDS-coupled proteins were successfully captured by the receptors immobilized on the sensing surface. Additionally, we obtained the FET responses at various concentrations of BWp16 ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL. These results suggest that a signal amplification method for FET biosensing is useful for allergen detection in the food industry.

  20. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradish, Angela E; Cutler, G Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  1. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  2. In vitro digestibility and changes in physicochemical and structural properties of common buckwheat starch affected by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Wang, Lijing; Cao, Rong; Fan, Huanhuan; Wang, Min

    2016-06-25

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal processing technology, was applied at 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600MPa to assess its effect on the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of common buckwheat starch (CBS). HHP treatment resulted in CBS granules with more rough surfaces. With the increasing pressure level, amylose content, pasting temperature, and thermal stability substantially increased and relative crystallinity, hardness, swelling power, and viscosity decreased. At 120-480MPa, HHP did not affect the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of CBS. However, at 600MPa, HHP contributed to a similar 'B'-type pattern. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified CBS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced content of rapidly digestible starch, and increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results revealed that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of CBS are effectively modified by HHP. PMID:27083786

  3. [Change in the sugar content in oaten products, buckwheat and rice groats during their heat processing by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchik, S N; Mel'nikov, E M; Shablovskaia, I S

    1976-01-01

    The sugar content in the grits and in a gruel cooked with samples of oats and buckwheat subjected to hydrothermal treatment under different conditions and also in the oat flour, a product of baby and dietetic nutrition, was quantified. Hydrothermal processing results in significant changes occurring individual sugars of the grit. During culinary treatment these changes are levelled out, but in the end the level of virtually all types of sugar is higher in the gruel cooked with hydrothermally treated grit than in that prepared with initial, untreated grit. The oats flour is distinguished by a high glucose, maltose, fructose and saccharose content. A fall of the reducing sugars level coming as a result of thermal and culinary treatment is explained by their participating in the reaction of melanoidine formation. On the other hand, a rise in their content under rigorous conditions and in the production of oat flour is due to the starting of the starch hydrolysis. PMID:1021998

  4. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra Amit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic

  5. Expression and purification of the trypsin inhibitor from tartary buckwheat in Pichia pastoris and its novel toxic effect on Mamestra brassicae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jingjun; Yan, Jun; Hou, Shengqi; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qi; Han, Xueyi

    2015-01-01

    The gene of the trypsin inhibitor of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) was successfully cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and tested for regulatory effects on insect growth. The three significant factors were optimized by single-factor experiments and central composite design in response surface methodology. Proteins were efficiently expressed at levels of 489.6-527.4 U/mg in shaken flasks. The trypsin inhibitor from tartary buckwheat (FtTI) was purified by affinity chromatography and centrifugal ultrafiltration. The purified FtTI efficiently inhibited trypsin protease activity by competitive inhibition with a Ki value 1.5 nM. The molecular mass of the purified protein was approximately 13.8 kDa. FtTI had a higher toxic killing effect on Mamestra brassicae larvae. The median lethal concentration for the larvae was 15 μg/mL. PMID:25258121

  6. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat) Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Chen Lee; Wei-Hsuan Hsu; Siou-Ru Shen; Yu-Hsiang Cheng; She-Ching Wu

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100  μ g/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6  μ g/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23  μ g/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to tr...

  7. Isolation and structural analysis of a gene coding for a novel type of aspartic proteinase from buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Mira Đ.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of aspartic proteinase gene was isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. This cDNA, FeAPL1, encoded an AP-like protein lacking the plant-specific insert (PSI domain characteristic of typical plant aspartic proteinases. In addition the corresponding genomic fragment was isolated. It is demonstrated that this gene does not contain introns. Since bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed that most potential AP genes are intronless and PSI-less, it appears that "atypical" is an inappropriate word for that class of AP. Isolation of this specific buckwheat gene among the small group of those isolated from other plant species provides a new perspective on the diversity of AP family members in plants. .

  8. Combined effects of elevated UV-B radiation and the addition of selenium on common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary [Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.] buckwheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tataricum grown outdoors under three levels of UV-B radiation were studied for 9 weeks, from sowing to ripening. At week 7 they were sprayed with Se solution (1 g/cubic m). Morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of the plants were monitored. Elevated UV-B radiation, corresponding to a 17% reduction of the ozone layer, induced synthesis of UV absorbing compounds. In both species it caused a reduction in amounts of chlorophyll a during the time of intensive growth. This effect was increased in tartary buckwheat in the presence of Se. The respiratory potential was lower in plants subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation during the time of intensive growth. The effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 was also reduced in both species and was mitigated by the addition of Se. Se also mitigated the stunting effect of UV-B radiation and the lowering of biomass in common buckwheat

  9. Effects of rutin from leaves and flowers of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and proliferation of fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Shu-ying; Chu, Jin-Xiu; Li, Guang-min; Zhu, Li-Sha; Shi, Rui-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Rutin was isolated from dried leaves and flowers of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.). The effects of rutin on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cultured cardiac myocytes and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts of neonatal rats were evaluated by analyzing the cell surface area, measuring the protein synthesis rate through 3H-leucine incorporation, and the MTT method. Rutin (0.8 to 8.0 mg/l) exhibited a strong inhibition on the hypertrophy and proliferation. The results...

  10. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    OpenAIRE

    Wronkowska Małgorzata; Honke Joanna; Piskuła Mariusz Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid)...

  11. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 Is Exclusively Present in the Genomes of Short-Styled Buckwheat Plants that Exhibit Heteromorphic Self-Incompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuo Yasui; Masashi Mori; Jotaro Aii; Tomoko Abe; Daiki Matsumoto; Shingo Sato; Yoriko Hayashi; Ohmi Ohnishi; Tatsuya Ota

    2012-01-01

    The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat), the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI) called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are het...

  12. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 Is Exclusively Present in the Genomes of Short-Styled Buckwheat Plants that Exhibit Heteromorphic Self-Incompatibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Yasuo; Mori, Masashi; Aii, Jotaro; Abe, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Daiki; Sato, Shingo; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Ota, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat), the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI) called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are het...

  13. 固态法酿造苦荞白酒工艺初探%Primary Study of Production of Tartary Buckwheat Liquor by Solid Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万萍; 胡佳丽; 朱阔; 曾建英; 易晓成

    2012-01-01

    以苦荞麦为原料,采用传统的固态发酵法酿造苦荞白酒,并对苦荞白酒的固态发酵工艺进行了优化研究.实验结果表明:苦荞麦粉100g,稻壳添加量18%,加酒曲量10%,打量水用量35%,常温培茵糖化48h,密封发酵20d,酒醅的酒精含量可达到7.8%,通过蒸馏可得到酒精度为36%(v/v)的原酒50mL.%Tartary buckwheat as raw material was made into wine by using traditional solid fermentation and its solid fermentation technology for making tartary buckwheat liquor was introduced in this paper. The re: suits show that tartary buckwheat powder is 100 grams, rice husk is 18%, yeast mash is 10%, water is 35 %, nonml temperature training for glycosylated is 48 h, with seal completely fermentation for 20 days, fermenting grains alcohol can achieve 7.8%. Alcohol can be obtained by distillation for 36% (v/v) 50 mL base liquor.

  14. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum based on transcriptome sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Demidenko

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits. These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1, AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  15. Stability of Lead Immobilized by Apatite in Lead-Containing Rhizosphere Soil of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted plant growth experiments using a rhizobox system to understand the growth of buckwheat and hairy vetch as well as the stability of lead immobilized by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the lead-containing rhizosphere soil. The shoot dry weight of buckwheat did not significantly differ between the lead-containing rhizosphere soil with and without HAP, whereas that of hairy vetch with rhizosphere soil without HAP was reduced. Lead was not accumulated from the rhizosphere soil to the shoots of either plant when HAP was added. The percentage of each lead fraction in sequential extraction was approximately the same through the 3 mm of rhizosphere soils from the root surface and non-planted soil, with and without the addition of HAP. For hairy vetch, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil within 3 mm thickness from the root surface did not increase. However, for buckwheat, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil 1 mm from the root surface increased to the same level as that in the non-planted soil without HAP. Our results suggest that when applying phytostabilization combined with apatite to lead-contaminated soil, the plant that cannot re-mobilize lead should be selected. PMID:25747247

  16. 苦荞沙琪玛生产工艺研究%Study on processing technology of bitter-buckwheat Saqi Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾素贤; 王若兰; 李开南; 李梵

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology of bitter-buckwheat Saqi Ma made of bitter-buckwheat,wheat gluten,and high gluten flour was studied. The proportion of flour blends ,fermentation temperature ,fermentation period and fried temperature were determined through single factor and orthogonal experimental designs. Results indicated that the optimal conditions were as follows=the proportion 20:25:55 in bitter-buckwheat,wheat glutenand high gluten flour,fermentation temperature 35℃,fermentation period 2h+2h,and fried temperature 160℃.%以苦荞粉、谷朊粉、高筋粉等为主要原料生产苦荞沙琪玛,通过单因素实验和正交实验,确定混合粉比例、发酵温度、发酵时间、油炸温度的最佳参数。实验结果表明,苦荞沙琪玛的最佳生产工艺条件为苦荞粉∶谷朊粉∶高筋粉(质量比)为20∶25∶55,醒发温度35℃,第一次及第二次醒发时间均为2h,油炸温度为160℃。

  17. 苦荞麦营养成分和保健功能%Nutritional components and prophylactic values of tartary buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂薇; 李再贵

    2016-01-01

    苦荞麦具有卓越的保健价值和食疗功效,是一种重要的粮食替代作物和功能性食品原料。苦荞麦富含高生物价的蛋白质和丰富的膳食纤维、维生素以及多酚等营养成分,其花序中芦丁含量可高达8%以上。总结了国内外对苦荞营养保健功能成分与作用的研究成果,并针对我国苦荞加工业的现状与存在问题,提出了发展思路。%Tartary buckwheat is introduced into the diet as an alternative crop and raw material for func-tional food due to its excellent nutritive and prophylactic values.It is a rich source of high -quality pro-teins,dietary fibre,vitamins and polyphenols,and the content of rutin in flowers is over 8%.This article has reviewed overseas and domestic research status of tartary buckwheat in the aspect of its nutritional components and prophylactic values,and some rational development strategies were provided based on the current situation and existing problems in tartary buckwheat processing industry.

  18. 苦荞浸蒸处理前后的力学特性%The Pressure Properties of Tartary Buckwheat before and after Steaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 杜文亮; 刘彩霞

    2015-01-01

    The hulling of tartary buckwheat is hard, for its husk has good toughness and the groat is fragile.In the process of hulling, it has high broken rate.This test aimed to measure the force-deformation curve through the experi-ments on tartary buckwheat which has been steamed or not.The hardness, broken force, broken energy and other param-eters can be obtained from the curve.The broken force and broken energy of steamed tartary buckwheat have a little re-duction compared with the increase of the groat.This proved that the bonding strength of husk decreased.According to the observation of the fragments and the change of cross-sectional of tartary buckwheat under compression, fracture loca-tions of tartary buckwheat are mainly in both sides of embryo, grooves and compression point.%由于苦荞具有皮韧仁脆的特点,在脱壳过程中破碎率高、脱壳困难。为此,对浸蒸前、后的苦荞进行力—变形实验,通过实验测得其力—变形曲线;根据曲线数据,得出其硬度、破坏力、破坏能等常规力学参数;通过对比得出浸蒸处理后的苦荞破坏力和破坏能略有降低,苦荞仁的破坏力和破坏能显著增加,表明表皮结合强度降低,有利于减小脱壳破碎率。同时,对苦荞碎片和籽粒受压时横断面变化情况进行观察,得出苦荞籽粒的断裂位置主要位于胚两侧、籽粒沟槽处和受压接触点。

  19. Studies on the Germplasm Resources of Tartary Buckwheat in Shanxi Province%山西省苦荞品种资源的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 马名川; 刘龙龙; 康国帅; 周建萍; 崔林

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to lay a foundation for researchers to select excellent buckwheat germplasm resources and improved buckwheat varieties.Tartary buckwheat recorded in the books Catalogue of Gops Germplasm Resources in Shanxi Province and Catalogue of Chinese Buckwheat Germplasm Resources were analyzed by Excel 2003 and DPS 7.5 from the aspects of distribution area, main agronomic traits and nutritional ingredients.The results showed that local buckwheat varieties have diversity.Different varieties of buckwheat vary in plant height, node numbers of the main stem, grain weight per plant, grain weight per plant and 1000-grain weight.Compared with national average value, buckwheat in Shanxi is higher in protein and fat, but lower in vitamin E and same in vitamin PP.Buckwheat is rich in Ca, Mg, Cu, P, Se, Fe, Mn, Zn.Buckwheat contains 18 kinds of aminophenol with highest content of glutamic acid and lowest content of tryptophane.After analyzing and classifying tartary buckwheat germplasm resources recorded in Catalogue of Gops Germplasm Resources in Shanxi Province and Catalogue of Chinese Buckwheat Germplasm Resources, breeders can use these germplasm resources to crossbreed and then breed new varieties with high yield and quality and strong adverse resistance.%对山西省苦荞品种资源的分布区域、主要农艺性状和营养成分进行分析,开展苦荞资源研究,对筛选优异苦荞种质资源和改良苦荞品种具有重要的指导意义。利用Excell 2003和 DPS 7.5软件,从品种资源的分布区域、主要农艺性状和营养成分含量3个方面,对《山西省农作物品种资源目录》和《中国荞麦品种资源目录》记载的山西省苦荞品种资源进行了统计分析。结果表明:山西省各地均有苦荞种植,但不同苦荞品种在生育期、株高、主茎节数、主茎分枝数、单株粒重和千粒重性状上存在着明显差异,表现出苦荞地方品种资源的多样性。

  20. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Ho Lim; Kee-Jai Park; Bo-Ra Yoon; Kui-Jin Kim; Young-Jun Lee; Ok-Hwan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitr...

  1. Blood pressure-lowering peptides from neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts: a new approach to estimating ACE-inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Koyama

    Full Text Available Neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts (neo-FBS contain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and vasodilators with blood pressure-lowering (BPL properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive mechanisms of six BPL peptides isolated from neo-FBS (FBPs by a vasorelaxation assay and conventional in vitro, in vivo, and a new ex vivo ACE inhibitory assays. Some FBPs demonstrated moderate endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in SHR thoracic aorta and all FBPs mildly inhibited ACE in vitro. Orally administered FBPs strongly inhibited ACE in SHR tissues. To investigate detailed ACE-inhibitory mechanism of FBPs in living body tissues, we performed the ex vivo assay by using endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta rings isolated from SHRs, which demonstrated that FBPs at low concentration effectively inhibited ACE in thoracic aorta tissue and suppressed angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction directly associated with BPL. These results indicate that the main BPL mechanism of FBP was ACE inhibition in living body tissues, suggesting that high FBP's bioavailability including absorption, tissue affinity, and tissue accumulation was responsible for the superior ACE inhibition in vivo. We propose that our ex vivo assay is an efficient and reliable method for evaluating ACE-inhibitory mechanism responsible for BPL activity in vivo.

  2. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  3. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-01-01

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering. PMID:26214481

  4. Avaliação nutricional do trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench para coelhos em crescimento Antonio = Nutritional evaluation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Claudio Furlan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo um ensaio elaborado com o objetivo de determinar o valor nutritivo e o outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de trigo mourisco em substituição ao farelo de trigo. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 24 coelhosmachos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos, uma dieta referência e uma teste e 12 repetições. Na dieta teste, o trigo mourisco substituiu a raçãoreferência em 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, da energia bruta (EB, da proteína bruta (PB e do amido (AM do trigo mourisco foram, respectivamente, de 83,95%, 76,64%, 75,04% e 98,01%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED, proteína digestível (PD e amido digestível (AMD, com base na matéria natural, foram de 2.914 kcal/kg, 8,63%, 36,84%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis crescentes de trigo mourisco (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% em substituição ao farelo de trigo. Foram utilizados 70 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 35 machos e 35 fêmeas, com 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 14 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um animal. Não foram observadas diferenças (pTwo experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value and toevaluate the performance of growing rabbits fed with rations containing different buckwheat levels. In the digestibility assay, 24 male White New Zealand rabbits were used, 45 days old, allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments, one reference diet and one test diet, and 12 replications. In the elaboration of test diet, the buckwheat replaced 30% of the reference diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of

  5. Study on the Protection of Wild Buckwheat Germplasm Resources in Sichuan Province%四川野生荞麦种质资源的保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 唐宇; 夏明忠; 邵继荣; 李晓江; 赵钢; 蔡光泽; 罗强

    2012-01-01

    The wild buckwheat resources used to be abundant in Sichuan province.While in recent years,due to some natural fattors and human activities,the ecological environment and the habitats of wild buckwheat have been seriously damaged,which resulted in great reduction of its distribution areas,number of species and population even made it be on the brink of extinction.This paper puts forward some measures and countermeasures for the protection of wild buckwheat resources in Sichuan,based on the researches of their types,geographic distributions, ecological environment,current situation and the endangering reasons,after investigations on spot.%四川省有着极为丰富的野生荞麦资源。但近年来,由于自然和人为的原因,野生荞麦栖息地和生态环境遭受严重破坏,致使野生荞麦分布区域萎缩,种群和植株数量减少,面临着濒危甚至灭绝的危险。本文在对野生荞麦资源野外实地调查的基础上,研究了四川野生荞麦的资源种类、地理分布、生态环境、目前状况、濒危原因等,并提出了保护措施和对策。

  6. Key Techniques of the Production of Buckwheat Liquor%苦荞酒生产工艺关键技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周火玲; 赖登燡; 蔡雄; 李金华

    2015-01-01

    The new techiques of a buckwheat liquor product was studied and its technical characteristics were as follows: Daqu and Xiaoqu used as the fermenting agent, pit bottom covered by lotus leaf before pit entry, and fermented grains sprinkled by buckwheat yellow wine after pit entry. Besides, the relative technical parameters were optimized. After the optimization, liquor yield increased by 7.7 % (compared with buckwheat liquor fermented by only Xiaoqu), total acids and total esters content increased by above 50%(the content of ethyl lactate, ethyl ace-tate and ethyl butyrate increased evidently), and the content of fusel oil and methanol decreased evidently. (Trans. by YUE Yang)%建立了一种苦荞白酒的酿造新工艺,其工艺特点为:以大曲和小曲为糖化发酵剂,入池时以荷叶垫池底,入池后使用苦荞黄酒淋醅.从发酵时间,大曲、小曲及淋醅黄酒添加量等指标角度对苦荞酒酿造工艺进行了优化.结果表明,与只用小曲发酵相比,出酒率提高了7.7%左右,总酸、总酯提高了50%以上,其中乙酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯和丁酸乙酯均有显著的提高,杂醇油和甲醇含量均有明显的降低.

  7. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 is exclusively present in the genomes of short-styled buckwheat plants that exhibit heteromorphic self-incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Yasui

    Full Text Available The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat, the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are heterozygous (S/s and plants with long-styled flowers are homozygous recessive (s/s at the S-locus. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of flower development and plant SI systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying heteromorphic SI remain unresolved. By examining differentially expressed genes from the styles of the two floral morphs, we identified a gene that is expressed only in short-styled plants. The novel gene identified was completely linked to the S-locus in a linkage analysis of 1,373 plants and had homology to EARLY FLOWERING 3. We named this gene S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 (S-ELF3. In an ion-beam-induced mutant that harbored a deletion in the genomic region spanning S-ELF3, a phenotype shift from short-styled flowers to long-styled flowers was observed. Furthermore, S-ELF3 was present in the genome of short-styled plants and absent from that of long-styled plants both in world-wide landraces of buckwheat and in two distantly related Fagopyrum species that exhibit heteromorphic SI. Moreover, independent disruptions of S-ELF3 were detected in a recently emerged self-compatible Fagopyrum species and a self-compatible line of buckwheat. The nonessential role of S-ELF3 in the survival of individuals and the prolonged evolutionary presence only in the genomes of short-styled plants exhibiting heteromorphic SI suggests that S-ELF3 is a suitable candidate gene for the control of the short-styled phenotype of buckwheat plants.

  8. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  9. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3(,) H1, FtF3'H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  10. Effect of different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains on hairy root induction and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye eThwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as FtPAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3,H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 µg/mg DW, respectively, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 µg /g DW, respectively, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 µg /g DW, respectively. A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  11. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3′H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  12. The effects of hydrothermal processing and germination on Fe speciation and Fe bioaccessibility to human intestinal Caco-2 cells in Tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Paula; Scheers, Nathalie; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Potisek, Mateja; Arčon, Iztok; Kreft, Ivan; Kump, Peter; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2016-05-15

    Tartary buckwheat is a gluten-free crop with great potential as a wheat substitute. Iron (Fe) is an important mineral element in staple foods which is required in sufficient bioaccessible quantities. The aim of the study was to investigate how processing of grains into groats (hydrothermal processing to remove the husk) and sprouts (7-day-old seedlings) affected Fe speciation (Fe(2+) or Fe(3+)), Fe ligand composition and Fe bioaccessibility to human Caco-2 cells. Groats contained the least Fe (23.8 ± 1.65 mg kg(-1)) and the lowest amounts of Fe(2+) (8%). Grains and sprouts had comparable Fe concentrations (78.2 ± 2.65 and 68.9 ± 2.73 mg kg(-1)) and similar proportions of Fe(2+) (15% and 18%). The main ligands for Fe in Tartary buckwheat material were phytate and citrate. Phytate was less abundant in sprouts, which did not correlate with greater Fe bioaccessibility. Iron bioaccessibility was 4.5-fold greater for grains than groats, suggesting that Fe is more bioaccessible in the husk than in the rest of the grain. PMID:26776035

  13. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60% induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw, quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw, and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  14. Diversity and pollination value of insects visiting the flowers of a rare buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum: Polygonaceae in disturbed and “natural” areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griswold, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared flower-visitors of the endangered plant Eriogonum pelinophilum, at relatively undisturbed and highly disturbed sites. We found no difference between sites in flower visitation rate or species richness of flower-visitors; species diversity of flower-visitors was higher at disturbed than at undisturbed sites but there was no difference in equitability. We found significant differences in total E. pelinophilum pollen carried on the body among 14 abundant bee species; eight abundant wasp species; and 12 abundant fly species. Both bee and wasp species carried significantly more pollen on the ventral compared to dorsal segments of the body; pollen on the body of fly species was more equally distributed across body surfaces. Total pollen carried on flower-visitor bodies was significantly related to visitor length, suggesting that larger visitors were more effective pollinators. Total Pollination Value, a measure combining both visitor abundance and body pollen was greater at the disturbed site than the undisturbed site, further suggesting that pollination in fragments of this rare species is not a major concern. We conclude that the high diversity of insect flower-visitors and the generalized nature of E. pelinophilum flowers make a special management programme to conserve pollinators unnecessary. Conservation of this buckwheat is best achieved by simple habitat preservation, together with a program to enlist private citizens to include buckwheat plants in their backyard gardens.

  15. 普通荞麦染色体的原位PCR技术研究%The In Situ PCR Technology on Chromosome of Common Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李分龙; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索一种适合荞麦的简单易行的染色体原位PCR技术.[方法]采用16S套式引物、4.5S套式引物与psbA引物,以栽培甜荞为材料,进行染色体原位PCR、原位套式PCR与多次原位PCR试验.[结果]高温干燥可以起到与包埋类似的作用;染色体的原位套式PCR效果比原位PCR明显,多次原位PCR次数为5~6效果较佳.16S引物和4.5S引物均显示了4对信号,但位置不同;而psbA引物是单拷贝的,仅显示出1对信号.根据这些信号的位置差异可以区分普通荞麦的5对染色体.[结论]所使用的荞麦染色体原位PCR技术简单易行.%[ Objective ] The paper aimed to explore a simple in-situ PCR technology for buckwheat. [ Method ] Common buckwheat was taken as experimental material. By using 16S and 4.5S nested primers and psbA primer, the in-situ PCR, nested in-situ PCR and multiple in-situ PCR were carried out respectively. [ Result ] High-temperature drying treatment had the effects similar to that of embedding methods. The effect of the nested in-sim PCR is better than that as usual. A better result could be obtained when the multiple in-situ PCR was performed as many as 5 -6 times. Four pair of signals could be obtained by using both 16S and 4.5S primers, but their sites differed. and psbA primer is a single copy which only shows a signal. A total of five pairs of chromosome of common buchwbeat can be identified according to the difference in the signal's location. [ Conclusion] The used in situ PCR technique for buckwheat is simple and feasible.

  16. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains. PMID:25976805

  17. Measurement of Trace Element in Tartary Buckwheat by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion%微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定苦荞中的微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕芹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]采用微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定苦荞中的微量元素.[方法]用HNO3+H2O2对苦养样品进行微波消解处理,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定苦荞消解液中的Fe、Cu、Zn、Mn、Mg的含量.[结果]苦荞中Mg的含量较高;各元素的回收率为94.8%~101.5%,结果满意.[结论]该法简便、快速、准确,有良好的重现性,能满足日常分析检测的需要.%[Objective] The research aimed to measure the trace element in Tartary buckwheat by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry with microwave digestion. [ Method] Tartary buckwheat sample was carried out the microwave digestion by HNO, + H20,. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the contents of Fe,Cu,Zn,Mn and Mg in the digestion solution of Tartary buckwheat. [Result] Mg content was higher in Tartary buckwheat. The recovery ratio of each element was during 94.8% -101.5% ,and the result was satisfactory.[Conclusion] The method was simple,convenient,quick and accurate. It had the good repeatability and could satisfy the requirement of routine analysis and detection.

  18. Appropriate mechanical sowing depth and soil-covering thickness improving seedling quality of tartary buckwheat%适宜机播深度及覆土厚度提高苦荞幼苗素质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向达兵; 邹亮; 彭镰心; 赵钢; 范昱; 韦爽; 宋超; 刘学仪; 海来吉木

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an edible and medicinal crop belonging to family Polygonaceae and it is native to southwest of China, northern India, Bhutan and Nepal. The seeds are widely consumed as daily diet and traditional medicine, such as tartary buckwheat flour, noodles, bread, tea, vinegar, sprouts, etc. Tartary buckwheat is one of the most complete and nutritional foods and rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, dietary fiber, amino acids, trace elements, and various bioactive phytochemicals. Thus, interest in the use of tartary buckwheat for health benefits is growing, and the market demand is increasing. However, the major tartary buckwheat production is in hilly and high-cold mountainous areas. Because of the inconvenience in transportation and lack of communication with outside, the mechanization of farming in these areas is still under developed, which seriously limits the development of tartary buckwheat industry. As we known, mechanization for farming is important in increase of farm productivity and improving efficiency for modern agriculture production. In order to investigate the feasibility of mechanized seeding technology and the measures of improving the mechanical sowing quality of tartary buckwheat in the hilly areas, a field experiment with three sowing depth (2, 4, 6 cm) and soil-covering (no-covering as CK) was conducted to study quality of tartary buckwheat seedlings during the growing season of 2012 at the farm of Jintang county in Sichuan Province. The results showed that sowing depth was the most important factor, and the optimum depth was 4 cm. The emergence rate, seedling number, seedling rate, root activity, stem diameter, dry matter, area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of the treatment of 2 cm sowing depth decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared to 4 cm sowing depth. Besides, the 6 cm sowing depth resulted in significantly (p<0.05) lower emergence rate, plant height, dry matter weight, area per plant, stem

  19. 新体系评价市售荞麦的营养及健康效应%Evaluation for Nutritional and Healthy Effects of Buckwheat&Prevention of Chronic Epidemics by Diets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 靳谨; 周岳; 沈秀; 龙伟; 吴红英; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    荞麦是我国传统杂粮之一, 本研究通过玉米低营养小鼠模型结合食品BDI-GS新体系进行荞麦营养健康效应的综合评价,用损益指数(BDI)及其累计积分(GS)考察荞麦摄取对机体重要脏器组织及微观血清生化指标的影响.以线性生长期健康的ICR小鼠为对象,设有玉米空白对照组,掺和8%、16%、32%荞麦组,喂养12 d后,称重并取血样、解剖,完整剖取9项脏器组织,并进行血清生化指标的分析检测.结果表明荞麦对机体胸腺、脾脏、胰腺指标的营养、健康存在有益的效应,表现在3个剂量的重量及系数BDI均高于1.0;且3个剂量荞麦实验组的累计GS值也均高于9.0(9项指标)的基本积分.表明低剂量下摄取荞麦对机体重要脏器组织有良好的营养和健康效应,可降低血糖、血脂.同时,可以控制体重增加对抗肥胖,对我国糖尿病、癌症等相关慢性流行病的预防,降低发病率具有积极的意义.%Buckwheat is one of traditional grain cereals, in this study, through low-nutritional mice model combined the BDI-GS evaluation system of food, nutritional and healthy effects of buckwheat were evaluated comprehensively, observe the influences of buckwheat intake for functions of vital organs and/or tissues by using approach of benefit-damage index (BDI) and accumulative general scores (GS), as well as microscope serum biochemical parameters. The healthy ICR male mice during the linear growth were selected as subject. Including of blank control mice fed with maize, 8%, 16%and 32%spiking buckwheat diets fed mice were designed in the study, respectively. After fed 12 days, took mice body weights and obtained blood samples, performed necropsy and excised perfectly 9 organs or tissues , record weights and calculated indices and their BDI values , as well as accumulative GS values, further detected the serum biochemical parameters. The buckwheat intake for indicators of thymus, spleen and pancreas in

  20. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  1. 表面活性剂-超声波协同提取荞麦壳黄酮工艺研究%Study on surfactant assisted ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 陈旭清

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant assisted ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull was studied. With the yield of flavonoids as index,ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull was optimized by the orthogonal experiments. Under the best conditions,the influences of surfactants of SDS,Tween–20 and Tween–80 on the yield rate of flavonoids were illustrated. The results showed that under the best conditions of extraction temperature 80℃,ethanol volume fraction 40%,ultrasonic time 70 min,solid–liquid 1∶50,ultrasonic power 200 W,the yield of flavonoids was 5.176%,add the concentration of SDS 1.5 g/L,the yield of flavonoids was up to 5.445%. surfactant could improve the yield of ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull.%  研究表面活性剂―超声波协同提取荞麦壳黄酮类化合物,以黄酮得率为指标,采用正交实验优化超声波辅助提取荞麦壳黄酮工艺;在此基础上,考察表面活性剂SDS、Tween–20和Tween–80对黄酮得率影响。结果表明,在超声温度80℃、乙醇体积分数40%、超声时间70 min、料液比1∶50、超声功率200 W条件下,黄酮得率为5.176%;添加浓度为1.5 g/L至SDS后,黄酮得率提高至5.445%,表明表面活性剂对超声波提取荞麦壳黄酮具有一定增效作用。

  2. Breeding Report of A New Buckwheat Variety Dingtianqiao 2%优质荞麦新品种定甜荞2号选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 贾瑞玲; 魏立萍; 陈富

    2011-01-01

    Dingtianqiao 2 was a new buckwheat variety selected from mixed strains among the introduction of Japanese buckwheat grain varietie by Inner Mongolia.In 2005 — 2007,the average yield of Dingtianqiao 2 was 2 205.0 kg/hm2 and 12.8% higher than of the check Dingtianqiao 1 in three years 18 points(times) in region test of Dingxi city.The results showed that plant height was 80.8 cm,the number of branches was 4.4,grain weight per plant was 2.8 g,1000-grain weight was 30.2 g,growth period was 80 d.The results also indicationed that seed crude protein,crude starch,lysine,fat,rutin,moisture content were 136.6 g/kg,599.6 g/kg,14.3 g/kg,29.6 g/kg,30.3 g/kg,12.3%,respectively.In addition,it was resistance drought,barren,lodging,resistance to leaf spot.It is suitable to plant in the region of semi-arid areas of precipitation 350~600 mm,the district of 2 500 m above sea level in Dingxi,silver,Tianshui,Gansu and other cities,and mountainous areas in southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and other similar ecological areas.%荞麦新品种定甜荞2号是定西市旱作农业科研推广中心于2000年从内蒙古引进的日本大粒荞品种中经多年株选而成。2005—2007年在定西市区域试验中,3 a 18点(次)折合平均产量2 205.0 kg/hm2,较对照品种定甜荞1号增产12.8%。该品种株高80.8 cm,分枝数4.4个,单株粒重2.8 g,千粒重30.2 g,生育期80 d。籽粒含粗蛋白136.6 g/kg、粗淀粉599.6 g/kg、赖氨酸14.3 g/kg、粗脂肪29.6 g/kg、芦丁30.3 g/kg、水分12.3%。表现抗旱、耐瘠薄、抗倒伏、耐褐斑病。适宜在甘肃省中东部的定西、白银、天水、陇南等市降水量350~600 mm、海拔2 500 m以下的半干旱区及宁夏回族自治区南部山区同类生态区种植。

  3. 略说日本的素面、乌冬面和荞麦面%On Vegetarian Noodles,Udon Noodles and Buckwheat Noodles of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静波

    2014-01-01

    Noodles came to Japan from China in the earth 8th century with Buddhism. First there were only vegetarian noodles. Then in the late 16 th century,people in western Japan began eating udon noodles while those in eastern Japan began eating buckwheat noodles. In the 18 th century,due to the appearance of soybean sauce,these two noodles became traditional Japanese foods. This paper is a detailed description of the appearance and evolution of traditional Japanese noodles based on both historical literature and personal experience of the author.%面条类的食物大约在8世纪初随佛教从中国传入日本,起初的名称曰,索饼或麦绳,镰仓时代的后期出现了索面的名称,以后逐渐改写为素面。约在16世纪末,在西部和东部分别产生了乌冬面和荞麦面,在江户中期,随着酱油的普及,这两种面类逐渐演变成具有浓郁东瀛色彩的传统日本食物。本文依据文献和作者的个人体验,对传统日本面类的发生和发展作了较为详尽的叙述。

  4. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M. Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  5. Study on effect of shelling-gap on whole-half kernel rate of buckwheat%剥壳间隙对荞麦整半仁率的影响规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁斯琴; 杜文亮; 隋建民; 赵卫东

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the existing problems of adjusting the shelling gap only according to the farmer's experience in the process of shelling the buckwheat,the main purpose is to find the optimum rotational speed of the moving sand wheel for shelling the buckwheat with the particle size ranging from Φ 4.6 mm to Φ 4.8 mm when its optimum shelling gap is 4.00 mm,and the measuring object is the whole-half kernel rate.The effect trend curves of different buckwheat particle size and shelling gap on the whole-half kernel rate have been obtained through a large number of experiments and theory analysis when the working rotational speed is 1 038.4 r/min.As is shown from those curves,the whole-half kernel rate begins to rise at first and then falls while the shelling gap is decreasing.That means the optimum shelling gap does exist.Meanwhile,the optimum shelling gap is increasing while increasing the particle size of the buckwheat.Finally,when the rotational speed of the moving sand wheel is 1 038.4 r/min and the shelling gap is 4.00 mm for the buckwheat with the particle size ranging from Φ 4.6 mm to Φ 4.8 mm,the maximum whole-half kernel rate will come up to 65.41% and its broken kernel rate is 6.32%.%针对荞麦剥壳过程中剥壳间隙凭经验操作易调节失当的问题,以养麦整半仁率为衡量指标,选Φ4.6~4.8 mm粒径荞麦在较优剥壳间隙为4.0 mm时,寻找其较优工作转速.在此工作转速(1 038.4 r/min)下,以不同粒径荞麦、寻找剥壳间隙对荞麦整半仁率的影响规律.获得了随着剥壳间隙的减小,整半仁率呈先升后降的趋势,即存在着较优的剥壳间隙;随着荞麦粒径的增加,较优剥壳间隙呈增大趋势.粒径Φ4.6~4.8 mm荞麦动砂盘转速为1 038.4 r/min,剥壳间隙为4.0 mm时整半仁率达到最高值为65.41%,碎仁率为6.32%.

  6. Age estimates for the buckwheat family Polygonaceae based on sequence data calibrated by fossils and with a focus on the amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja M Schuster

    Full Text Available The buckwheat family Polygonaceae is a diverse group of plants and is a good model for investigating biogeography, breeding systems, coevolution with symbionts such as ants and fungi, functional trait evolution, hybridization, invasiveness, morphological plasticity, pollen morphology and wood anatomy. The main goal of this study was to obtain age estimates for Polygonaceae by calibrating a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, using a relaxed molecular clock with fossil data. Based on the age estimates, we also develop hypotheses about the historical biogeography of the Southern Hemisphere group Muehlenbeckia. We are interested in addressing whether vicariance or dispersal could account for the diversification of Muehlenbeckia, which has a "Gondwanan" distribution. Eighty-one species of Polygonaceae were analysed with MrBayes to infer species relationships. One nuclear (nrITS and three chloroplast markers (the trnL-trnF spacer region, matK and ndhF genes were used. The molecular data were also analysed with Beast to estimate divergence times. Seven calibration points including fossil pollen and a leaf fossil of Muehlenbeckia were used to infer node ages. Results of the Beast analyses indicate an age of 110.9 (exponential/lognormal priors/118.7 (uniform priors million years (Myr with an uncertainty interval of (90.7-125.0 Myr for the stem age of Polygonaceae. This age is older than previously thought (Maastrichtian, approximately 65.5-70.6 Myr. The estimated divergence time for Muehlenbeckia is 41.0/41.6 (39.6-47.8 Myr and its crown clade is 20.5/22.3 (14.2-33.5 Myr old. Because the breakup of Gondwana occurred from 95-30 Myr ago, diversification of Muehlenbeckia is best explained by oceanic long-distance and maybe stepping-stone dispersal rather than vicariance. This study is the first to give age estimates for clades of Polygonaceae and functions as a jumping-off point for future studies on the historical biogeography of the family.

  7. Study on the Preparation Technology of Tartary Buckwheat Extract Phospholipid Complex%苦荞提取物磷脂复合物的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹亮; 马育彪; 傅秀娟; 许丽佳; 彭镰心; 赵江林; 赵钢

    2013-01-01

    本文以苦荞总黄酮与大豆磷脂的复合率为评价指标,采用单因素考察对苦荞提取物与大豆磷脂形成复合物的制备工艺技术条件进行系统研究,并测定复合物在正辛醇和不同pH水溶液中的表观油水分配系数.结果表明:筛选出的最佳工艺条件为,以无水乙醇为反应溶剂,提取物的浓度为1 mg/mL,提取物与磷脂的质量比为1∶2,反应温度为40℃,反应时间24 h.与原提取物比较,磷脂复合物中总黄酮的表观油水分配系数有了显著的提高.按照该制备工艺制备的复合物复合率达到80%以上,同时结果表明磷脂复合物明显改善了苦荞总黄酮的脂溶性.%In this paper, the preparation technology of the complex formed by tartary buckwheat extract and soybean phospholipids was evaluated by single factor investigation, taking the complexing rate of buckwheat total flavone and soybean phospholipids as the index. Partition coefficient of the complex in N-octyl alcohol and different pH values of water was investigated. The optimum preparation conditions were selected as follows: Anhydrous ethyl alcohol as reaction solvent,1 mg/mL as the extract concentration, 1: 2 as the mass ratio of the extracts and phospholipid,40 ℃ as reaction temperature and 24 h as reaction time. Under the optimum preparation condition, a remarkable enhancement of partition coefficient of total flavonoids in the complex compared with the former extracts was detected. The complexing rate was o-ver 80% and the lipid solubility of tartary buckwheat total flavonoids in phospholipid complex was remarkably improved.

  8. 灵芝苦荞皮低糖复合保健饮料的研制%Preparation of Low-sugar Compound Healthy Beverage with Ganoderma lucidum and Bitter Buckwheat Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 李高阳

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum and bitter buckwheat hull were taken as raw materials in order to study processing techniques and compound ratio of low-sugar compound healthy beverage systemically.The results showed that the best compound ratio was 100 mL of Ganoderma lucidum extract,40 mL of bitter buckwheat hull extract,0.3 g/L of xylitol and 1.0 g/L of citric acid.In the produced low-sugar compound healthy beverage,soluble solid is 2.5Brix,pH is 3.5,total number of bacteria is <100 cfu/mL and coliform group is ≤ 3 MPN/L,and the pathogenic bacteria were not detected.Taking xylitol as sweetener accords with people's low-sugar consumption trend,and it has abundant raw material resources.Therefore,the beverage has vast developing prospect.%以灵芝和苦荞皮为原料,对灵芝苦荞皮低糖复合保健饮料的工艺及复合配比进行了系统的研究.结果表明:最佳的配比为灵芝浸提液100 mL,苦养皮浸提液为40 mL,木糖醇0.3g/L,柠檬酸1.0 g/L.复合低糖保健饮料可溶性固形物为2.5Brix,pH值为3.5,细菌总数<100 cfu/mL,大肠菌群≤30 MPN/L,致病菌未检出.以木糖醇为甜味剂,符合大众低糖消费,原料资源丰富,具有广阔的开发前景.

  9. Analysis of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Steamed and Roasted Whole Tartary Buckwheat Teas and Distribution of Major Chemical Components during the Production Process%蒸煮和焙炒整米苦荞茶香气成分分析及生产过程中主要化学成分的去向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋秀芳; 李祥; 秦礼康; 赵宇; 林敏

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of major chemical components during the production of steamed and roasted whole tartary buckwheat tea samples was tracked to explore the effects of steaming,roasting and reconstructed granulation on the aroma and nutritional components of tartary buckwheat tea.Meanwhile,both tartary buckwheat teas were comparatively analyzed for volatile aroma components by solid-phase microwaveextraction(SPME) coupled with GC-MS.The final products obtained following different procedures showed significant differences in chemical composition(P0.05).During the production of steamed tartary buckwheat tea,proteins were mainly distributed in the yellow powder at a level of 27.51%,the reducing sugar content of 0.69% in the raw material decreased to 0.28% in the fine product,and total flavonoids were mainly distributed in the polished powder and yellow powder at levels of 4.98% and 4.63%,respectively.As a result,the total flavonoid content of the final product was as low as 1.38% compared with only 1.20% for roasted tartary buckwheat grains.The total flavonoid content of tea-containing reconstructed granules prepared from buckwheat husk powder,rich in flavonoids(4.56%),was as high as 6.87%.Roasted whole tartary buckwheat tea as a mixture of roasted tartary buckwheat grains and tea-containing reconstructed granules had considerably better quality and flavor than its steamed counterpart.The major aroma compounds of steamed tartary buckwheat tea were alkanes and alkenes,while roasted tartary buckwheat tea contained aldehydes and alkanes as major aroma compounds and was also rich in phenols,alcohols,ethers,ketones and esters,which caused better flavor in roast tartary buckwheat tea and than steamed one.%为探索焙炒、蒸煮与重组造粒加工工艺对苦荞茶香气和营养成分的影响,跟踪检测3种工艺中各组分主要营养成分的流向分布,并采用固相微萃取结合气质联用技术对苦荞茶产品的挥发性香气成分进行对比分析。

  10. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  11. Avaliação nutricional do trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench para coelhos em crescimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660 Nutritional evaluation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench for growing rabbits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Scapinello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo um ensaio elaborado com o objetivo de determinar o valor nutritivo e o outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de trigo mourisco em substituição ao farelo de trigo. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 24 coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos, uma dieta referência e uma teste e 12 repetições. Na dieta teste, o trigo mourisco substituiu a ração referência em 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, da energia bruta (EB, da proteína bruta (PB e do amido (AM do trigo mourisco foram, respectivamente, de 83,95, 76,64, 75,04 e 98,01%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED, proteína digestível (PD e amido digestível (AMD, com base na matéria natural, foram de 2.914 kcal/kg, 8,63 e 36,84%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis crescentes de trigo mourisco (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de trigo. Foram utilizados 70 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 35 machos e 35 fêmeas, com 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 14 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um animal. Não foram observadas diferenças (p Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value and to evaluate the performance of growing rabbits fed with rations containing different buckwheat levels. In the digestibility assay, 24 male White New Zealand rabbits were used, 45 days old, allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments, one reference diet and one test diet, and 12 replications. In the elaboration of test diet, the buckwheat replaced 30% of the reference diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry

  12. Effect of Exogenous Organic Acid on Seeds Germination and Seedlings Growth of Buckwheat under Salt Stress%外源有机酸对盐胁迫下荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵

    2013-01-01

    以盐敏感荞麦品种TQ-0808为实验材料,研究不同浓度外源苹果酸和柠檬酸对盐胁迫下养麦种子萌发及幼苗生长的效应.结果表明,适当浓度的外源苹果酸和柠檬酸对盐胁迫下荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长有明显的促进效应,特别是种子发芽率、活力指数及幼苗鲜重表现得较为明显,说明适当浓度的外源苹果酸和柠檬酸对盐胁迫具有较好的缓解作用,0.4 mmol/L苹果酸及0.8 mmol/L柠檬酸对盐胁迫下荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长的促进作用最佳.%Salt-sensitive buckwheat variety'TQ-0808' was used as experimental materials,and the effect of exogenous malic acid and citric acid with different concentrations on seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat under salt stress was studied.The results showed that the appropriate concentration of exogenous malic acid and citric acid could obviously promote the seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat under salt stress,especially the germination rate and vigor index of seeds and fresh weight of seedlings were more obvious.It indicated that the appropriate concentration of exogenous malic acid and citric acid had mitigation to salt stress,and the concentration of malic acid at 0.4 mmol/L and that of citric acid at 0.8 mmol/L had the best promoting effect on seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat under salt stress.

  13. The Adjustion of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts to Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid of Mouse and Big Rat%苦荞提取物对大小鼠血糖、血脂的调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林汝法; 周运宁; 王瑞

    2001-01-01

    The influence of tartary buckwheat extra cts (TBE) on blood sugarof hyperglycemia rat caused by tetraoxygen pyrimidine a nd blood lipid of hyperlipidemia animal were observed.The results showed that TBE had no influence on the blood sugar of normal rats, high and middle dose of TBE could significantly decrease blood sugar of tetraoxygen pyrimidine caused hyperglycemia big rats ,and improved sugar tolera nt dose of tetraoxygen pyrimidine caused hynerglycemia.High dose of TBE could s ignificantly decrease the concentration of total cholesterol of blood serum of rat,and middle dose of TBE could significantly decrease the concentration of total triglyceride of blood serum of rat.%试验观察了苦荞提取物对四氧嘧啶所引起的高血糖型大鼠的降血糖作用及对高血脂症动物血脂的影响。结果表明,苦荞提取物对正常大鼠血糖无影响,大、中剂量对四氧嘧啶所致的高血糖大鼠空腹血糖有明显的降低作用,并改善由四氧嘧啶所引起的高血糖大鼠的糖耐量。给予大剂量苦荞提取物可使大鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)浓度显著下降,给予中剂量可使大鼠血清甘油三酯(TG)浓度显著下降。

  14. Stability and testing-site similarity for common buckwheat lines based on GGE-biplot analysis%甜荞品种稳定性和试验地点相似性的GGE双标图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴琴; 高乙萍; 张志芬; 张盼盼; 王鹏科; 高小丽; 高金锋; 冯佰利; 付晓峰

    2013-01-01

    In order to select the varieties with high and stable yield and widespread adaptability, and to evaluate the testing sites accurately and effectively, GGE - biplot method was adopted to analyze the data from the 8th national regional trials for common buckwheat. The results showed that Dingqiao 1, Heixiaoqiao and Yuqiao - 5 were the varieties with high and stable yield; Yu 9002 and Xinong 9976, both of which were from Yulin, Shaanxi Province, were similar with each other due to their geographical kinship relationship. The testing sites were divided into three groups, and there were similar test environments in two of them. Dingqiao 1 in all sites showed a universal adaptability, while Yuqiao - 5, Xing-tian 1, Weitian 02 - 198 and Heixiaoqiao possessed special adaptabilities and could only be extended in some areas. GGE - biplot analysis could not only help to select the varieties with high and stable yield, but also show the similarity a-mong different varieties, so it was available for selecting or discarding similar test environments.%为了更准确有效地筛选高产、稳产、适应性强的品种和对试验地点的评价,采用GGE双标图对国家区域试验中第八轮甜荞区域试验数据进行分析.结果显示:定荞1号、黑小荞、榆荞-5为产量高、稳定性好的品种;甜荞品种榆9002和西农9976较相似,均来自于陕西榆林,具有地理上的亲缘关系;试验地点相对集中分为三组,第二组和第三组中有相似的试点;定荞1号处于所有试点之中,具有普遍适应性,而榆荞-5、兴甜1号、威甜02-198和黑小荞具有特殊的适应性,在局部地区有推广价值.利用GGE双标图准确筛选出优良品种,同时显示了品种间的相似程度;根据GGE双标图可对试点,尤其是相似试点进行选择和取舍.

  15. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  16. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129. ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  17. Antioxidant abilities of human plasma, buckwheat extracts and fractions, and quercetin metabolites in different biochemical assays

    OpenAIRE

    Janisch, Kerstin Maria

    2005-01-01

    Human plasma tested in biochemical assays (ACC/HOCl, ABTS, Sin-1, X/XOD, diaphorase, peroxynitrite, Fenton) achieves different I-values in each assay, indicating different antioxidant properties. When examined closer in four out of these seven assays (ACC/HOCl, ABTS, Sin-1, Fenton), it became obvious that the plasma proteins are the main responsible antioxidants. Only in the Sin-1 and Fenton assay, is the influence of the low-molecular antioxidants visible. The comparison of 25 single-plasma ...

  18. Comparative study of the action of hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide on buckwheat Polygonum Fagopyrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, C.; Chouard, P.

    1967-01-01

    The study of the action of two atmospheric polluting agents, HF and SO/sub 2/ has been carried out by the application of toxic solutions of these substances and their salts on isolated leaves and on entire plants, and by fumigation of leaves remaining attached to the plant. After the necroses characteristic of each of these substances had been reproduced experimentally, it was observed that only the F-ion (whether from the acid or its salts) is responsible for the lesions induced at the areas where it has accumulated, whereas SO/sub 2/ acts in either the sulfite or sulfuric acid form which explains the different types of necrosis produced by these two polluting agents. HF only affects respiration and photosynthesis when its concentration in the leaf is sufficient to provoke a necrosis, whereas SO/sub 2/ strongly inhibits respiration and photosynthesis at concentrations much weaker than those producing lesions. An enzymatic blocking is involved.

  19. De novo sequencing and characterization of floral transcriptome in two species of buckwheat (Fagopyrum)

    OpenAIRE

    Samigullin Tagir H; Vinogradov Dmitriy V.; Kasianov Artem S; Logacheva Maria D; Gelfand Mikhail S; Makeev Vsevolod J; Penin Aleksey A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Transcriptome sequencing data has become an integral component of modern genetics, genomics and evolutionary biology. However, despite advances in the technologies of DNA sequencing, such data are lacking for many groups of living organisms, in particular, many plant taxa. We present here the results of transcriptome sequencing for two closely related plant species. These species, Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum, belong to the order Caryophyllales - a large group of ...

  20. Karabuğdayın (Buckwheat) Kimyasal, Besinsel ve Teknolojik Özellikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Neslihan; Yalçın, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    İnsanların sağlıklı gıda talepleri ile birlikte karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertner, Fagopyrum emarginatum) önemi giderek artmaktadır. Karabuğday dünyanın birçok ülkesinde üretilen, önemi gün geçtikçe artan, uluslararası ticaretteki yeri giderek gelişen tahıl benzeri (pseudocereal) tek yıllık bir bitkidir. Karabuğday yüksek besleyici değerlere sahiptir. Ayrıca, beslenmemiz için çok önemli protein kaynağı olmasının yanında, nişasta, besinsel lif, vitamin, te...

  1. Influence of Pulse Pressure on Seed Quality and Yield of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nefed'eva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of pre-sowing treatment of seeds by pulse pressure which is characterized by high intensity and accuracy of dosage has been proposed. Pulse pressures in the range of 11-29 MPa did not lead to acute lethality determined by phosphorescence at room temperature. So there was no elimination of unproductive individuals but pulse pressure stimulated physiological processes in seeds and plants, leading to increased yield. Changes of germination, growth, and distribution of substances as well as plant productivity were observed. Generalization and analysis of experimental results demonstrated zones in dose-dependent area, such as the zone of hormesis (11-17 MPa, transitional zone (20-26 MPa and stress zone (29 MPa and more.

  2. Distribution of Vitamin E, Squalen, Epicatechin, and Rutin in Common Buckwheat Plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 15 (2006), s. 5330-5335. ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/03/D076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : α-Tocopherol * developmental changes * epicatechin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2006

  3. Physical Properties of Buckwheat Starches%荞麦淀粉的性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建亚; Kuhn,M

    2000-01-01

    对5种不同来源的荞麦淀粉采用酶法、布拉本德糊粘度分析(BV)、差示扫描量热分析(DSC)、扫描电镜(SEM)观察和X-射线衍射分析(XRD)的方法进行了研究.酶法测得直链淀粉的含量为21.3%~26.4%;BV结果表明荞麦淀粉的糊粘度高于谷类淀粉;DSC测定的糊化温度较BV的测定值低;SEM观察说明荞麦淀粉的颗粒是多边形和卵圆形的形状;XRD图谱揭示养麦淀粉的衍射形式是典型的A型.

  4. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra Amit; Samigullin Tahir H; Logacheva Maria D; Penin Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chlor...

  5. Environ: E00686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available heum spiciforme [TAX:240184] Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Rheum emodi, Rheum spiciforme rhizome Crude dru...gs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00686 Rheum emodi, Rheum spiciforme rhizome ...

  6. Environ: E00268 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00268 Polygonum cuspidatum root Crude drug Polygonum cuspidatum [TAX:83819] Polygonaceae (buckwheat... family) Polygonum cuspidatum root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00268 Polygonum cuspidatum root ...

  7. Environ: E00684 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00684 Rheum undulatum rhizome Crude drug Rheum undulatum [TAX:137227] Polygonaceae (buckwheat... family) Rheum undulatum rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00684 Rheum undulatum rhizome ...

  8. Environ: E00685 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00685 Rheum rhaponticum rhizome Crude drug Rheum rhaponticum [TAX:46087] Polygonaceae (buckwheat... family) Rheum rhaponticum rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00685 Rheum rhaponticum rhizome ...

  9. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gonum multiflorum [TAX:76025] Same as: E00071 Therapeutic category: 5100 Polygonaceae (buckwheat...:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) D06697 Polygonum root PubChem: 47208348 ...

  10. Studies on Chemical Constituents from Husks of Tatary Buckwheat%苦荞籽壳化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫星星; 李银涛; 靳月琴

    2013-01-01

    从苦荞籽壳Tataricum husks中分离得到9个单体化合物,经理化常数及波谱数据分析鉴定其结构分别为:芦丁(rutin,1)、槲皮素(quercefin,2)、山奈酚(kaempferol,3)、山奈酚-3-O-芦丁糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-rutinnos,4)、大黄素(emodin,5)、谷甾醇棕榈酸酯(β-sitosterol palmitate,6)、α-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,7)、过氧化麦角甾醇(ergosterolperoxide,8)和胡萝卜苷(daucostero,9).除芦丁和槲皮素外,其余化合物为首次从苦荞麦籽壳中分离得到.%Nine compounds were isolated from the husks of Tatary backwheat ( Tataricum husks). Their structures were elucidated as rutin (1) ,quercetin (2) .kaempferol (3) ,kaempferol-3-O-rutinnos (4) ,emodin (5) ,β-sitosterol palmi-tate (6) ,β-sitosterol (7) , ergosterolproxide (8) and daucostero (9) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Compounds (3-9) were isolated from Tataricum husks for the first time.

  11. Determination for the Content of Polysaccharid from Buckwheat husk%荞麦皮多糖的提取及多糖含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达胡白乙拉; 唐木兰; 满都拉; 宋娟娟; 赵玉英

    2007-01-01

    本文采用热水提取-乙醇沉淀的方法从荞麦皮中提取出了水溶性多糖,采用硫酸-苯酚法在波长为497nm处进行了糖含量的测定,求得其标准曲线的回归方程为Y=0.00498x+0.0304(r=0.9988).平均回收率为98%~101%,RSD为0.84%.结果显示:荞麦皮多糖的产率为2.85%,测定样品的多糖平均含量为56.89%.

  12. 苦荞燕麦蔬菜方便早餐的开发%Development of buckwheat oatmeal vegetable convenient breakfast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古小露; 王冉冉; 马嫄; 刘社立; 车振明

    2016-01-01

    苦荞是集营养、保健、医疗于一体的天然保健食品.以苦荞芯粉、苦荞粉和燕麦粉为主要原料,开发苦荞燕麦蔬菜方便早餐.通过以黏聚性为检测指标的单因素实验和以黏聚性、黄酮含量为检测指标的正交试验,确定了苦荞燕麦蔬菜方便早餐主要原料添加的最适配比.然后以南瓜粉、胡萝卜粉、芹菜粉等多种蔬菜粉、木糖醇、β-环糊精、麦芽糊精等作为辅料,通过正交试验确定系列苦荞燕麦蔬菜方便早餐的最佳配方.结果表明,苦荞芯粉、苦荞粉、燕麦粉质量此为2.6∶2.7∶7时,苦荞燕麦南瓜方便早餐的最佳配方为南瓜粉、木糖醇、麦芽糊精的质量比为1.8∶2∶1.8;苦荞燕麦胡萝卜方便早餐的最佳配方为胡萝卜粉、木糖醇、β-环糊精、麦芽糊精的质量比为2∶2∶0.2∶1.8;苦荞燕麦芹菜方便早餐的最佳配方为芹菜粉、木糖醇、β-环糊精、麦芽糊精的质量此为0.4∶3∶0.2∶1.8.

  13. The influence of organic and conventional crop management, variety and year on the yield and flavonoid level in common buckwheat groats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2011), s. 602-608. ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Fagopyrum esculentum * Rutin * Epicatechin * Catechin * Epicatechin gallate * Yield * TGW * Organic farming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.655, year : 2011

  14. ELEMENTS OF GENETIC TESTING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM AND F. HOMOTROPICUM AND SOME RESULTS OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION IN SELECTION OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Fesenko, А.; Fesenko, I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied the inheritance of the differences between Fagopyrum esculentum and F. homotropicum for a number of features which important for breeding (weight of 1000 seeds, the number of nodes in a zone of ramification of the stem, seed dormancy). New approaches to accelerate the improvement of the interspecific hybrids were tested.

  15. 古代荞麦种植及加工食用研究%The Research of Buckwheat's Planting and Processing Consumption in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红中; 惠富平

    2008-01-01

    荞麦是蓼科荞麦属作物,学名Fagopyrum Mill,一年生草本双子叶植物。部分少数民族称为“额”,古代也写成菠麦。分布于欧、亚二洲,我国各地都有栽培,有时为野生,生于荒地或路旁。荞麦不仅具有极高的营养价值,而且含有其它粮食作物所缺乏和不具有的特种微量元素及药用成分,对现代“文明病”及中老年心脑血管疾病有预防和治疗功能。荞麦还能预防癌症,对小孩的生长和智力开发也很有帮助。

  16. A Primary Study on Selective Abortion of Buckwheat Seed%荞麦子粒选择性败育的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风雷; 廖海民; 李淑久

    2014-01-01

    对不同品种、不同播种期和授粉方式等影响荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)子粒败育的原因进行了探讨.结果表明,不同荞麦品种间子粒败育差异较小,播种期和授粉方式对荞麦子粒败育影响明显,人工辅助授粉可明显提高结实花数占总花数的比例.

  17. Effect of Explosion Puffing on the Quality of Wholewheat Tartary Buckwheat Tea%气流膨化对苦荞全麦茶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2013-01-01

    以苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)米为原料,在0.4~0.8 MPa气压下进行气流膨化,制得苦荞全麦茶样品.通过对比不同样品的感官评价得分、复水率、总黄酮含量、芦丁含量和槲皮素含量,分析气流膨化生产苦荞全麦茶的最好气压条件.结果表明,在0.6 MPa气压下苦荞全麦茶感官评价得分为81.10分、复水率为110.61%、槲皮素含量为0.91%,均为所测定的最高值,其中总黄酮含量为1.46%(干基,以芦丁计)和芦丁含量为0.73%,都处于较高水平;在0.6 MPa气压条件下气流膨化生产苦荞全麦茶综合品质最好.

  18. Study on High-yield Cultivation Techniques of Tartary Buckwheat(Fagopyrum tataricum)%苦荞高产栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱体超; 孙学映; 陈光蓉; 张莉

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)高产栽培技术措施.[方法]采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计试验,研究种植密度(43.2万、52.5万、75.0万、97.5万、106.8万株/hm2)、复合肥施用量(281.8、375.0、600.0、825.0、918.2 kg/hm2)对苦荞产量的影响.[结果]种植密度和施肥对苦荞产量影响显著,都表现为低水平下呈正效应,高水平下呈负效应,并且互作效应显著.获得产量高于2 100 kg/hm2的合理取值区间为:种植密度84.50万~102.97万株/hm2,施肥320.33 ~ 505.05 kg/hm2.建立的数学模型y=2 208.63+ 122.53X1-114.33X2-200.91X2-205.58X2-184.85X1X2的拟合程度较好,对苦荞生产具有实际指导作用.[结论]该研究可为苦荞高产优质生产提供技术参考.

  19. 高温胁迫对荞麦下胚轴生理的影响%Physiological Effect of High Temperature Stress on Buckwheat Hypocotyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田学军; 敖田凤; 邓陈琳

    2009-01-01

    以芥麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)幼苗下胚轴为材料,探讨热驯和高温胁迫对其下胚轴生长量、抗坏血酸(AsA)、丙二醛(MDA)、相对含水量(RWC)和细胞膜热稳定性的影响.结果表明:荞麦幼苗下胚轴的生长量、RWC和AsA含量随胁迫温度的升高而降低,相对电导率和MDA含量随胁迫温度的升高而增加;热驯能适当提高下胚轴的耐热性.

  20. Occurence of eugenol, coniferyl alcohol and 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenol in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2011), s. 1679-1685. ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Fagopyrum esculentum * Phenolic compound * Weed * GC-MS analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  1. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Flavonoids in Fine Buckwheat Flour%荞麦精粉中的黄酮及其自由基清除活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    对5种不同来源的荞麦Astra、Hruszowska、LeHarpe、Lileja.及Prego的黄酮物质进行了研究.光谱分析表明Astra、Hruszowska、Le、Harpe、Lileja和Prego精粉中总的抗氧化剂含量分别为14.6、21.4、13.8、16.0和11.4mg/100g;反相高效液相色谱分析说明,除了荞麦中最重要的芦丁以外,Astra中有白藜芦醇、原儿茶酸和儿茶素;Hruszowska中有原儿茶酸和儿茶素;LeHarpe中有白藜芦醇、原儿茶酸和儿茶素;Lileja中有白藜芦醇和儿茶素;Prego中有儿茶素和白藜芦醇.精粉中芦丁的含量按品种名称字母顺序依次为5.6、3.8,10.1、6.3和4.9mg/100g.进一步的细胞培养实验揭示,荞麦精粉醇提物能有效地防止自由基引发的氧化反应,Astra和Hruszowska提取物的作用特别明显.

  2. Karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum Esculentum Moench) Bileşimi ve Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanım Olanakları

    OpenAIRE

    Dizlek, Halef; ÖZER, Mehmet Sertaç; İnanç, Erhan; Gül, Hülya

    2009-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) contains high amounts of proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins, mineral matters, fundamental polyunsaturated fatty acids, and antioxidants such as rutin and quercetin. Buckwheat is an important food raw material due to its high nutritional quality. It has also a significant potential for the functional food industry. Buckwheat has a versatile field of use: It has been used successfully in production of various local products belonging to different culture...

  3. Vliv genotypu na obsah rutinu v rostlinách rodu \\kur{(Fagopyrum)}

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor work is focused on evaluation of the influence of buckwheat species and variety on rutin containt in particular plant parts, on the total rutin yield per hectare production and on comparison varietal differences between both species, common buckwheat \\kur{(Fagopyrum)}esculentum)} Moench) and tartary buckwheat \\kur{(Fagopyrum tataricum)}. Rutin is a flavonol (quercetin-3-O- rutinosid) which is also called P vitamin. As well as it is known as the permeability factor or factor allow...

  4. Drug: D06756 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) D06756 Rhubarb PubChem: 47208407 ... ...ory: 5100 Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Rheum rhabarbarum rhizome Major compone..., Rheum officinale [TAX:137220], Rheum coreanum [TAX:240185] Same as: E00127 E00678 E00679 Therapeutic categ

  5. The effect of different mulches on the growth and yield of organically grown strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Kivijärvi, Pirjo; Prokkola, Soile

    2003-01-01

    Different mulches were studied in field trials over a three-year period under organic production in Mikkeli and Ruukki. The mulching materials were black plastic, flax fibre mat (woodchips+buckwheat husk in 2002), green mass, straw, buckwheat husk, birch woodchips and pine woodchips.

  6. Environ: E00688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00688 Rheum compactum, Rheum franzenbachii, Rheum collinianum rhizome Crude drug Rheum compact...eae (buckwheat family) Rheum compactum, Rheum franzenbachii, Rheum collinianum rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br083...05] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00688 Rheum compactum, Rheum franzenbachii, Rheum collinianum rhizome ...

  7. 苦荞麸皮黄酮抗氧化及抗肿瘤活性%Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Flavonoids Extracted from Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum (L.) Gaertn) Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富华; 刘冬; 明建

    2014-01-01

    以西南地区的两种苦荞麸皮为实验材料(重庆酉阳苦养麸皮(T1);四川西昌苦养麸皮(T2)),通过氧化自由基吸收能力实验(oxygen radical absorbance capacity,ORAC)测定苦荞麸皮黄酮的化学抗氧化能力,采用人肝癌细胞HepG2为细胞模型,研究苦养麸皮黄酮的细胞抗氧化活性(cellular antioxidant activity,CAA)及对HepG2细胞抗增殖活性.结果表明:T1和T2苦养麸皮黄酮的ORAC值分别为(57.0±3.5)、(73.6±6.3) μmol TE/g.T1和T2苦荞麸皮黄酮的细胞抗氧化值分别为(44.4±5.2)、(52.5±2.7) μmolQE/100g(PBS清洗); (32.9±3.2)、(30.9±2.2) μmol QE/100g(不经PBS清洗).在对HepG2细胞体外抗增殖活性研究实验中,通过与对照组细胞相比,发现当苦养麸皮黄酮的质量浓度为21.9 mg/mL时,T1和T2苦荞麸皮黄酮对HepG2细胞增殖的抑制率分别约为51%和82% (P<0.01),二者相应的EC50值分别为(23.0±0.5) mg/mL和(13.7±0.1) mg/mL.因此,苦荞麸皮黄酮具有一定的体外细胞抗氧化和抗增殖的能力,可将苦荞麸皮作为此类功能性食品开发的原料资源.

  8. 高效液相色谱法测定苦荞籽壳中芦丁和槲皮素的含量%HPLC determination of rutin and quercetin in buckwheat husks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫星星; 王转花

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定苦荞籽壳中芦丁和槲皮素的含量.方法:采用Zorbax SB-C18(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm)色谱柱;流动相为甲醇-0.4%磷酸(50:50);流速1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长254 nm.结果:芦丁进样量在0.024~0.963mg·mL-1范围内(r=0.9996),槲皮素进样量在0.0132~0.528 mg·mL-1范围内(r=0.9990)线性关系良好,平均回收率芦丁为100.1%(RSD=1.15%),槲皮素为99.9%(RSD=1.04%).结论:该方法操作简便,分离度高,重复性好,可同时测定苦荞籽壳中芦丁和槲皮素的含量.

  9. 荞皮改性纤维吸附能力及除铅效果的研究%Study of adsorbability of modified fiber of buckwheat husk and its effects of lead removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 王雅; 张轶; 王玲; 林樱姬

    2009-01-01

    对荞皮改性纤维的吸附能力及除铅效果进行研究.结果表明:荞皮纤维改性后对Pb2+的吸附能力比改性前提高了77.03%,对Pb2+的饱和吸附容量为203.99 μg/g;用5%的氨水溶液再生,经两次再生Pb2+的饱和吸附容量为177.854 5 μg/g,平均再生率为90.08%;甘草中除Pb2+的能力由未改性荞皮的6.225 μg/g提高到改性荞皮的40.11 μg/g,提高了544.3%.

  10. 苦荞籽壳中黄酮类化合物的定性定量研究%Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoids in Buckwheat Husks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫星星

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立苦养籽壳黄酮类化合物的定性和含量测定方法.方法:用薄层色谱法对苦荞中主要黄酮类化合物芦丁和槲皮素进行定性鉴别,并用紫外分光光度法对其进行总黄酮含量测定.结果:TLC定性鉴别能检出供试品中槲皮素和芦丁;总黄酮含量在4.32×10-3~2.59×10-2 mg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,平均加样回收率99.7%,RSD为0.21%.结论:色谱分离良好,斑点清晰可见,提示该方法简便可行,准确度和精密度均能满足分析要求.

  11. Analysis of volatile compounds in tartary buckwheat flour, bran and husk%苦荞粉、苦荞壳及苦荞麸皮挥发性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灼琛; 余丽; 程江华; 谢宁宁; 黄晶晶

    2014-01-01

    风味是苦荞(F.tataricum tataricum)品质的一个重要属性,而挥发性成分在风味形成过程中起着至关重要的作用.利用固相微萃取法及气相色谱-质谱联用技术研究了苦荞粉、苦养壳、苦荞麸皮挥发性成分的差异.结果表明:3种样品共检测出77种挥发性物质,并且不论从种类总数还是种类构成上都有较大的差异.其中苦荞粉有挥发性化合物成分44种,主要以芳香烃类(20.69%)、醛类(18.57%)、烯类(15.21%)为主;苦荞壳有46种挥发性物质,主要以芳香烃类(29.88%)、醛类(21.96%)、烷烃类(15.11%)为主;苦荞麸皮有20种挥发性物质,主要以烯类(28.98%)、醛类(22.48%)、酯类(15.49%)为主.醛类物质在3种样品中的相对含量较高,且醛类的阈值较低,可能是苦荞粉、苦荞壳、苦荞麸皮重要的气味特征物质.

  12. Effects of Mannitol and Sorbitol on Salt Tolerance of Buckwheat Seedlings%甘露醇和山梨醇对荞麦幼苗耐盐性的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵; 杨世平

    2014-01-01

    以盐敏感荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)品种为试验材料,通过对NaCl胁迫下添加不同浓度甘露醇和山梨醇研究其对荞麦耐盐性的效应.结果表明,适当浓度的甘露醇和山梨醇处理可显著增加盐胁迫下荞麦幼苗根系活力,显著降低荞麦叶片丙二醛(MDA)含量,显著增加荞麦叶片过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,且甘露醇处理的效果优于山梨醇处理.说明适当浓度的甘露醇和山梨醇处理能显著提高荞麦幼苗的耐盐性,甘露醇和山梨醇处理的最适浓度分别为0.8和0.6 mmol/L.

  13. 叶面喷施不同浓度硼肥对苦荞主要性状的影响%Effects of Foliar Spraying Different Concentrations Boron Fertilizer on Main Traits of Tartar Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘天春

    2013-01-01

    以西荞2号为试验材料,研究在现蕾期叶面喷施不同浓度硼肥对苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn)主要性状的影响.结果表明,喷施一定浓度的硼肥能有效提高苦荞叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率、黄酮含量、株高、单株一次分枝数、单株粒数、千粒重;随着叶面喷施硼肥浓度的提高,各指标的大小呈低一高一低的变化,当叶面喷施1.5 g/L的硼肥时,叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率、黄酮含量、单株粒重和千粒重较对照提高幅度分别为7.14%、83.17%、25.11%、26.13%和15.53%;当硼肥浓度达到2.0 g/L时,对苦荞主要性状有抑制作用,苦荞叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率、黄酮含量、单株粒重、千粒重等呈下降趋势.

  14. 荞麦属2个野生荞麦种的染色体核型研究%Karyotypic Studies of Two Wild Buckwheat Species in the Fagopyrum Mill.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 唐宇; 邵继荣; 罗强; 孙俊秀

    2009-01-01

    对荞麦属皱叶野荞麦(Fagopyrum crispatifolium J.L.Liu)及其近缘种细柄野荞麦[F.gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dam.et Diels]的染色体核型进行了分析.结果表明,2个野生荞麦的染色体数目均为2n=4x=32,但二者在随体数目、染色体长度等方面差异明显,染色体核型不同,皱叶野荞麦的核型公式为:30m(4SAT)+2sm,细柄野荞麦的核型公式为:32m,属首次报道.

  15. Extraction, Purification and Functional Properties of main Protein from Buckwheat(Fagopyrum Esculentum Moench)Seeds%甜荞主要贮藏蛋白的分离纯化及功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海霞; 赵丽芹; 付媛; 侯文娟; 张美莉

    2009-01-01

    为弄清甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)蛋白质的结构和生理功能特性,通过对甜荞清蛋白和球蛋白进行分级提取、盐析以及DEAE-纤维素柱离子交换层析纯化,测定其功能特性,如溶解性、乳化性和乳化稳定性、起泡性和起泡稳定性等.结果表明,甜荞清蛋白主要由分布在分子质量43、31 kDa和15 kDa的组分.球蛋白在分子质量33 kDa和31 kDa处有条带分布.球蛋白较清蛋白有较好的溶解、乳化及起泡能力.

  16. Influence of Ultraviolet B Radiation on the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)%日光紫外线B辐射对甜荞苯丙烷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚银安; 杨爱华; 徐刚

    2009-01-01

    对甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)苯丙烷次生代谢受紫外线B辐射的响应进行了研究.结果表明:不仅卢丁、槲皮素等黄酮类化合物含量在紫外线B辐射下显著升高,而且叶片苯丙烷单环酚类化合物,如阿魏酸含量等也大幅度升高,两类化合物的应激提高对甜荞的UV-B胁迫提供了重要的保护作用.

  17. Effects of Zn2+ on Heat Tolerance of Buckwheat Seedlings under High Temperature%Zn2+对高温胁迫下荞麦幼苗耐热性的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵; 周迎红

    2014-01-01

    以不同抗逆性荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)品种为实验材料,高温胁迫下采用不同浓度Zn2+处理,测定荞麦幼苗耐热生理指标.结果表明,适当浓度Zn2+处理可显著或极显著降低高温胁迫下荞麦叶片质膜透性,抗逆荞麦品种降低较多;显著或极显著增加高温胁迫下荞麦幼苗根系活力、叶片叶绿素含量及SOD活性,敏感荞麦品种增加较多,且使得抗逆荞麦品种叶片SOD活性恢复到对照水平,Zn2+处理的最适浓度为40μmol/L,说明适当浓度的外源Zn2+处理对荞麦耐热性具有明显促进效应.

  18. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from Tartary Buckwheat by Orthogonal Test%正交试验法优化苦荞总黄酮的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扶庆权

    2013-01-01

    以乙醇溶液为提取剂,采用加热回流法提取苦荞(Fagopyrum tatricum)中总黄酮,在单因素试验的基础上设计正交试验优化提取工艺.结果表明,各因素对苦荞总黄酮提取率的影响由大到小依次为提取温度、料液比、乙醇溶液体积分数、提取时间.优化得到苦荞总黄酮的最佳提取工艺条件为乙醇溶液体积分数70%、料液比m苦荞粉末∶V乙醇=1∶35 (g/mL)、提取温度80℃、提取时间60 min,此条件下苦荞总黄酮提取率为7.85%.

  19. 微量元素锌肥对苦荞芽中锌及黄酮含量的影响%Effect of Micronutrient Zinc Fertilizer on the Contents of Flavonoids and Zn in the Bud of Tartary Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘天春

    2015-01-01

    采用不同浓度锌肥喷施,促进苦荞[Fagopyrum tataric um(L.)Gaertn]种子萌发,测定苦荞芽中锌、总黄酮、芦丁和槲皮素的含量.结果表明,喷施锌肥可以极显著增加苦荞芽中锌含量,也可以增加总黄酮、芦丁和槲皮素的含量,喷施锌肥浓度为1.00 mg/L时,苦荞芽中总黄酮、芦丁和槲皮素的含量最高.

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Heliotrope Milk-Vetch (Astragalus montii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Clay-loving wild-buckwheat (Astragalus montii) occur. . The geographic extent...

  1. 7 CFR 201.46 - Weight of working sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 400 60 Buckwheat 50 500 45 Buffalograss: (Burs) 20 200 110 (Caryopses) 3 30 740 Buffelgrass... Spinach, New Zealand 200 500 13 Squash 200 500 14 Tomato 5 50 405 Tomato, husk 2 35 1,240 Turnip 5 50...

  2. Environ: E00478 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available heat family) Polygonum herb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00478 Polygonum herb ... ...e [TAX:137693], Polygonum heterophyllum, Polygonum mandshuricum, Polygonum [TAX:46786] Polygonaceae (buckw

  3. 7 CFR 361.5 - Sampling of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., husk 35 5 10 Turnip 50 5 10 Watermelon 500 25 50 AGRICULTURAL SEED: Agrotricum 500 100 500 Alfalfa 50... 100 Broomcorn 400 100 500 Buckwheat 500 100 500 Buffalograss: (Burs) 200 25 100 (Caryopses) 30 25...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... growing media. Agar or other translucent tissue culture media, buckwheat hulls, clean ocean sand... distribution in mass markets. Such identification will be based on a variety of indicators, including, but...

  5. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de Sarrasin.

  6. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril;

    2013-01-01

    increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...

  7. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. PMID:24679794

  8. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen;

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  9. What I Need to Know about Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foods You Can Eat Amaranth Arrowroot Buckwheat Cassava Corn Flax Indian rice grass Job’s tears Legumes Millet ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  10. The effect of different mulches on the growth and yield of organically grown strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Kivijärvi, P.

    2004-01-01

    Different mulches were studied in field trials over a three-year period under organic production in Mikkeli and Ruukki. The soil type was coarse mineral soil rich in humus. In June 2000, organically produced strawberry plants, cv. Jonsok, were planted in four replicates in double rows, 10 plants/plot, 45 cm apart. The mulching materials were black plastic, flax fibre mat (woodchips+buckwheat husk in 2002), green mass, straw, buckwheat husk, birch woodchips and pine woodchips.

  11. マイクロウェーブ法による高品質下水汚泥肥料の開発研究

    OpenAIRE

    高島,正信; Takashima, Masanobu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, microwave drying was examined to dry and fertilize dewatered sewage sludge. Microwave drying was suitable to dry dewatered sewage sludge with lower water contents, and was an easy and fast method. Rice husk charcoal or buckwheat husk charcoal as an auxiliary material was able to enhance the potassium and phosphorus content of the fertilizer produced. The fertilizer combing dewatered sewage sludge and rice husk or buckwheat husk charcoal was thus rich in nutrient content and wel...

  12. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on donor-acceptor connections of plant organs.

  13. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov; Anatoliy M. Kosyan; Oksana I. Kosyk; Natalia Yu. Taran

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on don...

  14. Morph differences and honeybee morph preference in the distylous species Fagopyrum esculentum moench

    OpenAIRE

    Cawoy, Valérie; Deblauwe, Vincent; Halbrecq, Bertrand; LEDENT, Jean-François; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    The relatively low reproductive success of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) is poorly understood. The question arises as to whether this distylous species is pollen or resource limited. We investigated the reproductive biology of buckwheat under controlled conditions in growth rooms and in the field in central Belgium in order to determine whether floral morph and pollination events may affect its reproductive success. In controlled conditions, flowering phenology and fl...

  15. Biochemical, immunological, and immunocytochemical evidence for the association of chalcone synthase with endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrazdina, G; Zobel, A M; Hoch, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Chalcone synthase [naringenin-chalcone synthase; malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase (cyclizing), E.C. 2.3.1.74], the key enzyme of flavonoid pathways that was believed to be soluble, has been localized on ribosome-bearing endoplasmic reticulum membranes in the epidermis of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) hypocotyls. Enzyme activity measurement and immunoblots of buckwheat hypocotyl homogenates that were fractionated on linear sucrose density gradients and developed with a spec...

  16. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Komolka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufactur- ers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing proper- ties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes – taste, flavour, texture etc. Material and methods. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the ener- gy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The pro- cessing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC. Results. Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Conclusions. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only at- tractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  18. Honey exposure stimulates wound repair of human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Ranzato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Honey is widely used for treating burns, ulcers and wounds, but the mechanisms of action are poorly known and the product is mainly used as an antimicrobial. We have examined here the wound healing properties of honey on human fibroblasts, using an in vitro scratch wound healing model. Three kinds of widely used monofloral honeys were used, viz. acacia (Robinia pseudacacia, buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp., and manuka (Leptospermum scoparium. Data displayed an increased wound healing activity in fibroblasts, but with different efficiency and mechanisms of action among honeys. The effects of acacia and buckwheat emerged in both scratch wound and chemotaxis assays, while the effect of manuka was significant but lower. The use of inhibitors indicated on the whole an essential role of cytosolic calcium, an important role of ERK and p38, and a secondary role of PI3K. Acacia and buckwheat, but not manuka, induced significant increases in the release of interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8, indicating a correlation between interleukin upregulation and wound closure efficiency. This is consistent with our previous findings suggesting a higher ability of acacia and buckwheat to activate keratinocyte reepithelialization, with respect to manuka honey. In conclusion, our data indicate that acacia and buckwheat honeys are particularly efficient in facilitating fibroblast wound closure activities, suggesting new therapeutic possibilities for this natural product.

  19. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. PMID:24361837

  20. 苦荞和甜荞麦粉及麦壳中总黄酮的提取和自由基清除活性%Study on Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Powder or Husks of Different Cultivars of Buckwheat and Analysis on Their Free Radical Scavenging Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊双丽; 李安林; 任飞; 金虹

    2009-01-01

    本实验主要采用不同溶剂提取苦荞和甜荞麦粉及麦壳中的总黄酮,比较不同来源的总黄酮的得率、光谱特件及DPPH自由基清除活性.结果显示,丙酮对总黄酮的得率略高于乙醇,而甲醇最低,其中苦养麦粉中黄酮得率为2.99%±0.13%,甜养麦粉、苦养麦壳和甜荞麦壳中黄酮的得率相似,都为1.10%左右.紫外扫描光谱表明,甲醇和乙醇提取的黄酮曲线一致,体现出黄酮的典型特征,而丙酮提取出的化合物未表现出该类化合物的特征.结合化学反应,初步认为苦荞麦粉含有黄酮醇类化合物,苦荞麦壳含有黄酮化合物,而甜荞麦壳和甜荞麦粉中可能含有黄烷酮化合物.用不同溶剂提取得到的不同荞麦麦粉及麦壳中总黄酮,其DPPH自由基清除作用具有相似的效果,清除率从大到小依次是丙酮提取物>乙醇提取物>甲醇提取物.

  1. 氮磷钾及有机肥不同配施方案对荞麦种子类黄酮含量的影响%The Effect of N,P,K and Organic Fertilizer Combined Application on Buckwheat Flavonoids Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松鹤; 任琴; 曹兴明; 党学锋

    2015-01-01

    采用四因素五水平二次正交旋转组合设计,建立氮肥、磷肥、钾肥和有机肥对荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.)种子类黄酮含量的二次回归方程.分析得出,各种肥料作用效果排序为:P2O5>N>K2O>有机肥;通过方案寻优得出,N、P2O5、K2O和有机肥的最适配比为8∶1∶4:1 054.最适施肥量为:N 36.19~39.22 kg/667m2、P2O5 4.77~5.03 kg/667 m2、K2O 16.72~18.34 kg/667 m2、有机肥5 030~5 509 kg/667 m2.

  2. 凉山州农产品加工企业人力资源管理初探——以苦荞麦加工企业为例%On the Human Resources Management of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprise in Liangshan Prefecture——Taking Buckwheat Processing Enterprises as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军

    2012-01-01

      Human resource is the core resource of an enterprise. This paper analyzes the main problems that existing in human resources management of agricultural products processing private enterprises in Liangshan Prefecture. It also analyzes the reasons that caused these problems. It puts forth that human resources planning that meets the practical needs should be stipulated. And flexible employment mechanism that can retain talents should be built to improve cultural quality and step out of the ideological misunderstanding.%  人力资源是企业的核心资源。本文针对凉山州涉农苦荞麦加工企业人力资源管理,存在的主要问题及原因,需要制订满足实际需要的人力资源规划;“留得住,用得活”的用人机制;提高文化素养,走出思想误区。

  3. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled. PMID:25952839

  4. Evaluation of exopolysaccharide producing Weissella cibaria MG1 strain for the production of sourdough from various flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, A; Hager, A-S; Zannini, E; Galle, S; Gänzle, M G; Waters, D M; Arendt, E K

    2014-02-01

    This study determined exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Weissella cibaria MG1 in sourdoughs prepared from gluten-free flours (buckwheat, oat, quinoa and teff), as well as wheat flour. Sourdoughs (SD) were fermented without sucrose, or by replacing 10% flour with sucrose to support EPS production. The amount of EPS depended on the substrate: high amounts of EPS corresponding to low amounts of oligosaccharides were found in buckwheat (4.2 g EPS/kg SD) and quinoa sourdoughs (3.2 g EPS/kg SD); in contrast, no EPS but panose-series oligosaccharides (PSO) were detected in wheat sourdoughs. Organic acid production, carbohydrates and rheological changes during fermentation were compared to the EPS negative control without added sucrose. Corresponding to the higher mineral content of the flours, sourdoughs from quinoa, teff and buckwheat had higher buffering capacity than wheat. Fermentable carbohydrates in buckwheat, teff and quinoa flours promoted W. cibaria growth; indicating why W. cibaria failed to grow in oat sourdoughs. Endogenous proteolytic activity was highest in quinoa flour; α-amylase activity was highest in wheat and teff flours. Protein degradation during fermentation was most extensive in quinoa and teff SD reducing protein peaks 18-29, 30-41 and 43-55 kDa extensively. Rheological analyses revealed decreased dough strength (AF) after fermentation, especially in sucrose-supplemented buckwheat sourdoughs correlating with amounts of EPS. High EPS production correlated with high protein, fermentable sugars (glucose, maltose, fructose), and mineral contents in quinoa flour. In conclusion, W. cibaria MG1 is a suitable starter culture for sourdough fermentation of buckwheat, quinoa and teff flour. PMID:24230472

  5. 78 FR 24007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Eriogonum codium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Notice of Review, which was published October 26, 2011 (76 FR 66370). Geography, Climate, and Landscape... Umtanum desert buckwheat is highly restricted in its distribution. The only known population occurs at... rule (77 FR 28704), allowing the public to provide comments on our analysis. No comments were...

  6. 77 FR 28703 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... (76 FR 66370). Geography, Climate, and Landscape Setting Umtanum desert buckwheat and White Bluffs... concerning the historical and current status, range, distribution, population size, pollinators and the... population size and distribution, and suffers from low recruitment (Kaye 2007, p. 3; Caplow 2005, p....

  7. Discrimination of Polish unifloral honeys using overall PTR-MS and HPLC fingerprints combined with chemometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kus, P.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 62 honey samples of six floral origins (rapeseed, lime, heather, cornflower, buckwheat and black locust) were analysed by means of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and HPLC-DAD. The data were evaluated by principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbours classificat

  8. What Can I Eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our recipes page. The following grains and other starch-containing foods are naturally gluten-free: rice cassava corn (maize) soy potato tapioca beans sorghum quinoa millet buckwheat groats (also known as kasha) arrowroot amaranth teff flax chia yucca gluten-free oats nut flours There has been ...

  9. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., such as occur in but not limited to the following plant families: Sedge (Cyperaceae), buckwheat... devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve. (ii) Bulblets which show evident damage to the basal end, whether husk is present or absent. Refer to § 201.50(c) for wild onion and...

  10. The effect of different mulches on yield, fruit quality and strawberry mite in organically grown strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Kivijärvi, Pirjo; Parikka, Päivi; Tuovinen, Tuomo

    2002-01-01

    An organic strawberry field experiment was started in 2000 at MTT Ecological Production in Mikkeli to study the influence of mulching materials on the growth, yield, microbiological fruit quality and strawberry mite. Mulching materials are black plastic, flax fibre mat, green mass, barley straw, buckwheat husk as well as pine and birch woodchips.

  11. Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are labeled gluten-free—such as sorghum-based beer—or they list a grain source other than barley, wheat, or rye—such as corn malt. Foods That Do Not Contain Gluten amaranth arrowroot buckwheat cassava corn flax legumes lentils millet nuts oats ( ...

  12. Coevolution between Cancer Activities and Food Structure of Human Being from Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan and Tibet are the lowest cancer mortality and the largest producer for anticancer crops (brown rice, barley, buckwheat, tea, walnut, mushrooms, and so forth. Shanghai and Jiangsu province in China have the highest mortality of cancers, which are associated with the sharp decline of barley.

  13. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged... and damaged by heat. (d) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye,...

  14. 7 CFR 810.2002 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., sprout-damaged, or otherwise materially damaged. (b) Defects. Damaged kernels, foreign material, and..., and other grains that are materially discolored and damaged by heat. (f) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged... damaged by heat. (e) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice,...

  16. 7 CFR 810.2202 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged... shrunken and broken kernels. (h) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice,...

  17. Coevolution between Cancer Activities and Food Structure of Human Being from Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yawen Zeng; Juan Du; Xiaoying Pu; Jiazhen Yang; Tao Yang; Shuming Yang; Xiaomeng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Yunnan and Tibet are the lowest cancer mortality and the largest producer for anticancer crops (brown rice, barley, buckwheat, tea, walnut, mushrooms, and so forth). Shanghai and Jiangsu province in China have the highest mortality of cancers, which are associated with the sharp decline of barley.

  18. 78 FR 76995 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... in our final critical habitat rule (78 FR 24008)). Therefore, access roads, irrigation canals, and... intercept excess irrigation water and seepage from irrigation conveyances. This system is known to provide... and Plants; Threatened Status for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum Desert Buckwheat) and Physaria...

  19. CCC effect on the 14CO2 assimilation and the growth of some crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiments with white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch.) and spring wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) of the Ostka Popularna variety were carried out. The aim of the experiments was to determine the effect of foliar and root application of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in the photosynthetic fixation of 14CO2 and on the growth of the above crops. (author)

  20. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... wild-buckwheat) in conjunction with recovery activities throughout the species' ranges for the purpose... activities throughout the species' range for the purpose of enhancing its survival and recovery. Dated: May... species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit...

  1. Antioxidant activities of selective gluten free ancient grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancient grains were known for special nutritional values along with gluten free qualities. Amaranth, quinoa, teff, buckwheat flours were evaluated for pasting properties, water holding capacity, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities (free and bound). They all had higher water holding capacit...

  2. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  3. Boekweit en vlierbessen : alternatieve landbouwprodukten ten behoeve van het kleinschalig landschap in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuytens, G.

    1994-01-01

    A solution to the conservation of the small-scale landscape of Twente (the Netherlands) is found in the production of regional products, such as buckwheat and elderberry. Especially when agricultural production is started using organic production methods satisfactory financial results are expected

  4. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 157, 15 Aug (2014), s. 380-384. ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11016 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Common buckwheat * Exudates * Seeds * Germination * Phenolic compounds inhibition * Rutin Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2014

  5. Efficiency in absorption and utilization of phosphorus of four plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic dilution method was used to estimate the amounts of available soil phosphorus (L-values) in a clay loam soil by growing barley (Hordeum vulgare), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow lupin (Lupinus lutius) in pot experiments. Considerable differences in L-values were obtained, indicating that plant species differ in their ability to absorb soil P. No single factor could explain these observations. It is assumed that both the root extension and the physiological differences in the mechanism of nutrient absorption should be considered, e.g. differential uptake of Ca and pH changes in the rhizosphere soil. The most efficient species (buckwheat and lupin) did not respond to P fertilization, while a positive yield response was obtained in barley and peas. Buckwheat absorbed the greatest amount of P from unfertilized soil, but the production of biomass per unit of P absorbed was lower than in the other species. Linear extrapolation of the ''yield of phosphorus'' curves gave results similar to those obtained by the isotopic dilution technique. The L-values obtained by growing rye-grass after cropping with barley, buckwheat, pea, and lupin depended on the previous crop. However, these residual effects could be accounted for by adding to the L-values the amounts of P absorbed by the previous crop. All the fertilizer P added to the previous crops apparently remained available to plants, and no mobilization or immobilization of P occurred as a result of cropping with the four plant species. (author)

  6. Environ: E00279 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00279 Medicated leaven Crude drug Essential oil, Glucosides, Fatty oils, Amylase [DR:D02831], P ... seed, Asteraceae (daisy family) Artemisia apiacea juice , Asteraceae (daisy family) Xanthium strumarium jui ... ygonaceae (buckwheat family) Persicaria hydropiper juice ... (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Mixtures E ...

  7. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  8. Application of fast liquid chromatography for antioxidants analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Drożdżyńska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. An intensive development of the Fast Liquid Chromatography (FLC has been recently observed. It makes possible to reduce time analysis and improve resolution as well as sensitivity. The aim of this study was to separate the chosen antioxidants optimization using the FLC method. Material  and methods. The three various procedures for antioxidants analysis were compared. Mobile phases containing aqueous solution of formic acid, acetic acid, acetonitrile, and methanol were tested. Limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity and repeatability of each procedures were determined. Results. Developed procedure enabled to separate all analytes and allowed to get low LOD levels and good repeatability. This procedure was used for antioxidants analysis in buckwheat and buckwheat products. Conclusion. Fast Liquid Chromatography allows to  reduce time analysis and  obtain good  validation parameters.

  9. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  10. Development of the techniques for food processing with low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sterilization technology of rice (unpolished rice and paddy), wheat and buckwheat was developed. It was homogenous irradiation of low energy electron beam on the surface of them by use of a grain rotator. Samples were rice (Nihonbare, Koshihikari and from Ibaraki), wheat (ASW) and buckwheat (Hitachiakisoba). The electron beams and gamma ray irradiated the sample. The viable bacterial number, viscosity and TBA value were determined. Although γ-ray showed decrease of qualities such as viscosity and oxidation of lipid, low energy electron beam resulted small these changes. The part of damage of starch and lipid irradiated with the electron beam were outside of points reached by electrons. Accordingly, the part of damage in unpolished rice was removed by abrasive milling. Aseptic rice was obtained with keeping the qualities of edible parts. (S.Y.)

  11. Vliv konzumace vybraných potravin sacharidové povahy na hladinu krevní glukózy

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammerová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the measurement of blood glucose levels after consumption of selected foods (glucose solution, milk chocolate, rice sandwiches with corn, fruit snacks with apricots and broken buckwheat multigrain bread) at regular intervals. The first part of this thesis is pursued to the literature review, which provides a comprehensive overview of the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It also discusses the differences in the carbohydrate metabolism of healthy people wit...

  12. Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Adam, Vojtech; Vasatkova, Anna; Beklova, Miroslava; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of several mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species that frequently infect corn, wheat, oats, barley, rice, and other grains in the field or during storage. The exposure risk to human is directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains) or indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs). It has been detected in buckwheat, popcorn, sorgum, triticale, and other food products including flour, bread, breakfast cereals, noodles, infant ...

  13. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

    OpenAIRE

    Iva Burešová; František Buňka; Stanislav Kráčmar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ). The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiat...

  14. The effect of covering and mulching on the soil temperature, growth and yield of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-01-01

    By improving the thermal and moisture conditions in the immediate vicinity of plants, plastic covers influenced the growth and development and increased the yield of vegetables. Soil mulching with organic material is one method of soil water protection and also helps maintain a constant soil temperature within the root system of crops. This study investigated the effect of plant covering and the type of straw applied to soil mulching (rye, corn, rape or buckwheat) on the soil temperature, dev...

  15. Food Allergy--Lessons from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Gerez, Irvin Francis A; Soh, Shu E.; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2008-01-01

    Objective This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. Methods PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. Results There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have result...

  16. EMBROIDERING GUIZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUSAN; TRIMBLE

    2004-01-01

    GUIZHOU,known as Qian, is a beautiful province covered in karst formations, primitive forest, numerous sparkling rivers, forests of bamboo, China fir, rung, tea oil, and raw lacquer trees, and intermittently patched with buckwheat fields, rice paddies, vegetable gardens, luscious fruit trees and scented flowering plants and shrubs. Home to waterfalls and canyons, exotic animals, reptiles and birds, and many culturally rich and colorful minority tribes

  17. Staple Foods Consumption and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Japanese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhaoqiu; Huang, Cong; Guo, Yinting; Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Fukudo, Shin; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Carbohydrates can cause gastrointestinal symptoms due to incomplete absorption in the small bowel. Thus, high-carbohydrate diets may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective This observational and cross-sectional study assessed the association between consumption of several carbohydrate-enriched staple foods, such as rice, Japanese wheat noodles, Chinese noodles, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles, and the prevalence of IBS in Japanese adults. Subjects and Meth...

  18. Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Zou, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Qiong; Li, Yuan-yuan; Peng, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioa...

  19. GENETIC ANALYZES OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIVERGENCE BETWEEN WILD SELFER FAGOPYRUM HOMOTROPICUM OHNISHI AND CULTIVATED OUTCROSSER F. ESCULENTUM MOENCH

    OpenAIRE

    Fesenko, I.; Fesenko, A

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of interspecific differences between outcrosser Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selfer F. homotropicum Ohnishi was conducted in both flower size and number of partial inflorescences. Both the characters are under polygenic control. Plus-alleles are dominant in loci influencing flower size, but are recessive in loci affecting the number of partial inflorescences: the «wild type» of floral display in buckwheat is large showy flowers combined with a small number of partial inflo...

  20. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Nidhi; Naik Pradeep; Chauhan Rajinder

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher ...

  1. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Zhao; Jianglin Zhao; Lianxin Peng; Liang Zou; Jingbo Wang; Lingyun Zhong; Dabing Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures ...

  2. Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

  3. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  4. The influence of plant mulches on the content of phenolic compounds in soil and primary weed infestation of maize

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Stokłosa; Tomasz Hura; Ewa Stupnicka-Rodzynkiewicz; Teresa Dąbkowska; Andrzej Lepiarczyk

    2012-01-01

    In growing maize, an increase in the content of phenolic compounds and selected phenolic acids in soil was found after the incorporation of white mustard, buckwheat, spring barley, oats and rye mulches into the soil. The highest content of phenolic compounds in soil was found after oats mulch incorporation (20% more than in the control soil). The highest content of selected phenolic acids was found for the soil with the oats and rye mulch. Among the phenolic acids investigated, ferulic acid w...

  5. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia...

  6. Effects of Three Types of Japanese Honey on Full-Thickness Wound in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yukari Nakajima; Yuki Nakano; Sono Fuwano; Natsumi Hayashi; Yukiho Hiratoko; Ayaka Kinoshita; Megumi Miyahara; Tsuyoshi Mochizuki; Kasumi Nishino; Yusuke Tsuruhara; Yoshika Yokokawa; Terumi Iuchi; Yuka Kon; Kanae Mukai; Yukie Kitayama

    2013-01-01

    Although many previous studies reported that honey promotes wound healing, no study has examined the effects of Japanese honey. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three types of Japanese honey, Acacia, Buckwheat flour, and Chinese milk vetch honey, on wound healing in comparison with hydrocolloid dressing. Circular full-thickness skin wounds were produced on male mice. Japanese honey or hydrocolloid dressing was applied daily to the mice for 14 days. The ratio of wound ar...

  7. Optimalizace podmínek a postupů při získávání bylinných extraktů.

    OpenAIRE

    SMUTNÍKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the content of selected phenolic compounds in some species of the genus Amaranthus, in black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.). Phenolic compounds are a group of natural compounds exclusively vegetable character. Flavonoids represent only one group of phenolic compounds. Flavonoids show many positive biological effects, in particular act as antioxidants. Natural flavonoids may cause to prevent from coronary- heard diseases and other d...

  8. Fundamental studies of sourdoughs fermented with Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum: influence on baking characteristics, sensory profiles and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Anika

    2013-01-01

    The application of sourdough can improve texture, structure, nutritional value, staling rate and shelf life of wheat and gluten-free breads. These quality improvements are associated with the formation of organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), aroma or antifungal compounds. Initially, the suitability of two lactic acid bacteria strains to serve as sourdough starters for buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum and flours was investigated. Wheat flour was chosen as a reference. The obligate heterofer...

  9. Foods for patients with celiac disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    As a general rule patients with celiac disease must avoid five cereals--wheat rye, triticale, barley and oats. Very sensitive individuals must also avoid two products of these cereals--malt and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Some less sensitive individuals may be able to tolerate barley and oats in small quantities. All other foods are acceptable, including the cereals corn, rice, buckwheat, millet and sorghum, as well as malt-flavored breakfast cereals. Wine, spirits, beer and ale are also ac...

  10. Vliv různých typů zdrojů plazmy na růst semen. Laboratorní pokus na Pohance seté

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Čermák, M.; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Kováčik, D.; Kříha, V.; Sláma, J.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Praha: Česká zemědělská univerzita, 2012, s. 248-252. ISBN 978-80-213-2247-9. [Vliv abiotických a biotických stresorů na vlastnosti rostlin. Praha (CZ), 01.02.2012-02.02.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : germination * early growth * buckwheat * plasma * seed * stimulation * stress Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  11. Adsorption of cellulase on cereal brans: a simple functional model from response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Sergio F. da Silva; Chigurupati S. Rao

    1980-01-01

    A functional model based on Langmuirian adsorption as a limiting mechanism was proposed to explain the effect of cellulase during the enzymatic pretreatment of bran, conducted prior to extraction of proteins, by wet alkaline process from wheat and buckwheat bran materials. The proposed model provides a good fit (r = 0.99) for the data generated thru predictive model taken from the response surface methodology, permitting calculation of a affinity constant (b) and capacity constant (k), for wh...

  12. Study of possible goitrogenic effects of certain Japanese foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolow, E.L.; Suzuki, Minoru

    1962-06-12

    An experiment was designed to assay the goitrogenic activity of certain Japanese foodstuffs. Groups of rats were fed low iodine basal diet (Remington ration) alone or supplemented with iodine, Chinese cabbage, turnip, buckwheat noodle, soybeam, or seaweed mixture for a period of 5 months. In this experiment goiters developed in the animals of all groups except those fed seaweed. Addition of 2 ..mu..g of iodine as sodium iodide per rat per day to the basal Remington ration did not completely prevent the development of goiter. Histologically the goitrous thyroids revealed hyperplastic follicles with scanty colloid, dissimilar to the colloid goiter commonly seen in man. In rats given seaweed or supplemental iodine the thyroids were histologically indistinguishable from normal rat thyroid. It seems likely that the Remington ration increases iodine requirement as shown in the rats given 2 ..mu..g of supplemental iodine per day. Furthermore, the iodine content of Chinese cabbage, turnip, buckwheat noodle, and soybean is low and the possibility must be considered that goiter due to relative iodine deficiency developed in animals on these foods. This experiment failed to demonstrate the positive goitrogenic effect of these Brassica vegetables, buckwheat noodles, or soybean. However, the diet containing a large amount of iodine can prevent the development of goiter as shown in the rats given seaweed mixture.

  13. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination of retail foods and intake of these mycotoxins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, S; Nakajima, M; Tabata, S; Ishikuro, E; Tanaka, T; Norizuki, H; Itoh, Y; Aoyama, K; Fujita, K; Kai, S; Sato, T; Saito, S; Yoshiike, N; Sugita-Konishi, Y

    2008-09-01

    A survey was undertaken of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2) and B3 (FB3) contamination of various retail foods in Japan during 2004-05. The mycotoxins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Aflatoxins (AFs) were detected in ten of 21 peanut butter and in 22 of 44 bitter chocolate samples; the highest level of AFB1, 2.59 microg kg(-1), was found in peanut butter. Aflatoxin contamination was not observed in corn products (n = 55), corn (n = 110), peanuts (n = 120), buckwheat flour (n = 23), dried buckwheat noodles (n = 59), rice (n = 83) or sesame oil (n = 20). OTA was detected in 120 out of 192 samples of oatmeal, wheat flour, rye, buckwheat flour, raw coffee, roasted coffee, raisin, beer, wine and bitter chocolate, but not in rice or corn products. OTA levels in the positive samples were below 13 microg kg(-1). AFs and OTA intakes through the consumption of foods containing cacao were estimated using the data for mycotoxin contamination in bitter chocolate and those for the consumption of foods containing cacao in Japan. PMID:19238621

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Norizuki, Hiroko; Itoh, Yoshinori; Aoyama, Koji; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kai, Shigemi; Kumagai, Susumu

    2006-06-01

    We conducted a survey of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 contamination in various foods on the retail market in Japan in 2004 and 2005. The mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in 10 of 21 peanut butter samples; the highest concentration of aflatoxin B1 was 2.59 microg/kg. Aflatoxin contamination was not found in corn products, corn, peanuts, buckwheat flour, dried buckwheat noodles, rice, or sesame oil. Ochratoxin A was detected in oatmeal, wheat flour, rye, buckwheat flour, green coffee beans, roasted coffee beans, raisins, beer, and wine but not in rice or corn products. Ochratoxin A concentrations in contaminated samples were below 0.8 microg/kg. Fumonisins were detected in popcorn, frozen corn, corn flakes, and corn grits. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 in these samples were 354.0, 94.0, and 64.0 microg/kg, respectively. PMID:16786858

  15. Exploring plant factors for increasing phosphorus utilization from rock phosphates and native soil phosphates in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six plant species with contrasting capacity in utilizing rock phosphates were compared with regard to their responses to phosphorus starvation in hydroponic cultures. Radish, buckwheat and oil rapeseed are known to have strong ability to use rock phosphates while ryegrass, wheat and sesbania are less efficient. Whereas other plants acidified their culture solution under P starvation (-P), radish plants make alkaline the solution. When neutralizing the pH of the solutions cultured with plants under either -P or + P conditions, solutions with P starved buckwheat, rapeseed, and radish had a higher ability to solubilize Al and Fe phosphates than did those cultured with sesbania, ryegrass and wheat. Characterization of organic ligands in the solutions identified that citrate and malate were the major organic anions exuded by rapeseed and radish. Besides citrate and malate, buckwheat exuded a large amount of tartrate under P starvation. In contrast, ryegrass, wheat and sesbania secreted only a limited amount of oxalic acid, regardless of P status. Changes in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, acid phosphatase, and nitrate reductase in these plants were also compared under P- sufficient or -deficient conditions. The results indicated that plant ability to use rock phosphates or soil phosphates is closely related to their responses toward P starvation. The diversity of P starvation responses was discussed in the context of co-evolution between plants and their environment. Approaches to use plant factors to enhance the effectiveness of rock phosphates were also discussed. (author)

  16. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  17. EFFICACY OF HONEY BEE AND FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH OINTMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF SUB CHRONIC WOUND IN RABBITS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djerrou Zouhir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an ointment of honey bee and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the management of large dermal wound in a male rabbit wounded accidently. The wound was covered entirely by honey and then the fine powder of buckwheat grains was added. The treatment was applied once a day until complete epithelization has taken place. The results showed a complete resorption of inflammatory exsudate of wound at 4th day. The percentage of wound contraction has shown a rate of 5.55% at the 4th, it has risen to 32.22 and 71.48% at days 7 and 11 respectively to register 99.53% at the 26th days. The epithelization period was 27 days with a mean healing rate of 200 mm2 day-1. The study concludes that the ointment of honey and buckwheat stimulate the healing process in dermal wounds particularly in term of wound contraction. Other studies are underway to understand the possible implication of some amino acids as lysine, proline and glycine presented in buckwheat in the collagen synthesis process.

  18. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86). PMID:24492829

  19. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27180430

  20. 荞麦蛋糕工艺参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日春; 吴树铮; 黄秀娟; 吴松青; 苏德福; 陈文华

    2013-01-01

    结合传统的蛋糕工艺,加入精制的荞麦粉及木糖醇,通过正交试验确定最佳配方,制得优质的荞麦蛋糕,使得蛋糕美味、营养,同时又兼具保健功效。结果表明,荞麦蛋糕最佳配方为低筋面粉100 g,荞麦粉7.5 g,鸡蛋添加量100 g,水45 g,白砂糖35 g,木糖醇15 g,蛋糕油3 g,泡打粉2 g,食盐1 g,食用油15 g。%Combining with the traditional cake production technology, it has designed to join refined buckwheat powder and xylitol in the cake. The orthogonal test method is used, and the optimum formula has selected in order to produce the high-quality konjaku cake as a kind of health food. The results show that the optimum formula of buckwheat cake is as follows:the low gluten flour 100 g, buckwheat powder 7.5 g, eggs 100 g, water 45 g, sugar 35 g, xylitol 15 g, cake oil 3 g, multiple baking powder 2 g, salt 1 g, edible oil 15 g.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE GROWTH OF SELECTED LACTOBACILLI IN PSEUDOCEREAL SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Liptáková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth dynamics of Lactobacillus spp. in sweet water- and milk-based substrates from cooked buckwheat and amaranth flour were studied in this work. The numbers of lactobacilli were observed during fermentation in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37 °C and storage (3 weeks at 6 °C. The earned data and estimated growth parameters showed that certain strains grew well in the milk-based gruels, even water-based amaranth gruel. This was also the case of the species under study characterized with the fastest growth. Based on the rates, only the strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and VT1 were able to grow with the values higher than 0.6 log CFU.ml-1.h-1 that can be expressed as the times to double (td lower than 0.5 h. This was found in both the amaranth and buckwheat milk-based gruels and water-based amaranth gruels but fermented only by the probiotic GG strain. The 3-week storage tests aimed on survival of the lactobacilli at 6 °C showed minimal decrease of the counts in buckwheat gruels with the average rates of -0.084 and -0.004 log CFU.ml-1.d-1 in water- and milk-based gruels, respectively. On the other hand in amaranth gruels, the numbers of lactobacilli slightly increased with the rate of 0.02 log CFU.ml-1.d-1, on average. The results of this pilot study pointed out that the selection of suitable lactic acid bacteria should be performed for optimal fermentation of pseudo-cereal substrates. The numbers of lactobacilli at the end of fermentation were not or very slightly affected by the type of substrate at 6 °C during three weeks.doi:10.5219/169

  2. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  3. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  4. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  5. Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien La Vieille; Sheila Dubois; Stephen Hayward; Koerner, Terence B.

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ...) and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches) ...

  6. Transient expression in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells and pollen grains: A fast, efficient and reliable system for functional promoter analysis of plant genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratić Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is mediated by DNA sequences directly upstream from the coding sequences, recruited transcription factors and RNA polymerase in a spatially-defined manner. Understanding promoter strength and regulation would enhance our understanding of gene expression. The goal of this study was to develop a fast, efficient and reliable method for testing basal promoter activity and identifying core sequences within its pollen specific elements. In this paper we examined the functionality of buckwheat metallothionein promoter by a histochemical GUS assay in two transient expression systems: BY2 cells and pollen grains. Strong promoter activity was observed in both systems.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE CONTENT OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN SAMPLES OF POLISH HONEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak; Jan Kalembkiewicz; Dagmara Galas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the determination of the total content of Cu, Pb and Zn by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry with atomization in an air-acetylene flame in Polish honeys samples. The research material was a honeydew, monofloral honey and buckwheat honey. For the mineralization of samples, the following solutions were applied: 1) HNO3(conc), 2) HNO3(conc) and H2O2(conc) in the volume ratio equal to 4:1 and 3:1. On the basis of the results and recommended food standa...

  8. Distribuce kyseliny chlorogenové a hyperosidu v pohance seté

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    Praha: VÚPP, 2006 - (Holasová, E.; Fiedlerová, V.; Špicner, J.), s. 108-111 ISSN 1802-1433. [Symposium o nových směrech výroby a hodnocení potravin /37./. Skalský Dvůr (CZ), 29.05.2006-31.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/03/D076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorogenic acid * hyperoside * common buckwheat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  9. 苦荞淀粉制备工艺及加工特性研究%Research on preparation process and processing properties of buckwheet starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 米粱波; 周怡梅; 孙伟峰

    2016-01-01

    研究苦荞淀粉的提取工艺及理化特性,并与土豆淀粉、红薯淀粉、豌豆淀粉、玉米淀粉这四种淀粉的理化指标及特性进行了对比研究。结果表明,苦荞淀粉的最优提取工艺:在55℃条件下水浴加热,料液比15∶1(w/w),加酶量1%,酶解时间1.5 h;苦荞淀粉的透明度略高于玉米淀粉,但低于土豆淀粉、豌豆淀粉和红薯淀粉;其凝沉性高于土豆淀粉、红薯淀粉、豌豆淀粉,但低于玉米淀粉;苦荞淀粉糊的冻融稳定性和玉米、豌豆、红薯相当,但弱于土豆淀粉糊。%The extraction process and physical and chemical properties of buckwheat starch compared with potato starch,sweet potato starch,pea starch and corn starch were discussed. The results showed that the optimum extraction process of buckwheat starch was:heated in water bath at 55℃condition, solid–liquid ratio 15∶1(w/w),1% enzyme dosage,and reaction time 1.5 h. The transparency of buckwheat starch was slightly higher than corn starch ,but lower than potato starch,pea starch and sweet potato starch. Meanwhile,its retrogradation was higher than potato starch,sweet potato starch and corn starch,but lower than pea starch. The results also showed that buckwheat starch had equivalent paste freeze–thaw stability with corn,peas,sweet potato,but weaker than the potato starch paste.

  10. Continuous grain rotator designed for soft-electron sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous grain rotator which was equipped with a vibrating tray at a variable slope was developed for sterilization of dry food ingredients. The doses necessary for soft-electron (low-energy electron) sterilization of rice, buckwheat, wheat, tea leaf and black pepper with this continuous rotator were much lower than those with a batch-type grain rotator and at almost the same level as the doses for gamma-ray sterilization. The results suggest that the continuous grain rotator enables efficient soft-electron sterilization

  11. Sterilization of foods with low-energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons with an energy of 300 keV or lower were defined as 'Soft-electrons', which showed several advantages over conventional irradiation with gamma-rays or high-energy electrons in decontamination of grains and spices. Energies of electrons necessary to reduce microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g were 60 keV for brown rice, 75 keV for wheat, 100 keV for white pepper, coriander and basil, 130 keV for buckwheat, 160 keV for rough rice, and 210 keV for black pepper. Electrons with such energies did not significantly influence the quality

  12. Immunochemical assessment of mycotoxins in 1989 grain foods: evidence for deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) contamination.

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzied, M M; Azcona, J I; W.E. Braselton; Pestka, J J

    1991-01-01

    To assess the potential for mycotoxin contamination of the human food supply following the 1988 U.S. drought, 92 grain food samples were purchased from retail outlets in the summer of 1989 and surveyed for aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol (DON [vomitoxin]) by monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only one sample (buckwheat flour) was found to contain aflatoxin B1 (12 ng/g), whereas zearalenone was found in 26% of the samples at a mean co...

  13. Untersaaten in Kartoffeln zur Reduzierung der Spätverunkrautung

    OpenAIRE

    Stumm, Christoph; Köpke, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    On six “Organic Pilot Farms in North Rhine-Westfalia” and on the Experimental Farm Wiesengut in Hennef, oil radish, white mustard, buckwheat and oats were under-seeded in potato stands in order to control weed infestation after senescence of potato shoots. Different sowing dates were tested. In all field trials underseeds suppressed weed growth significantly. Weed dry matter as well as the density and length of Che-nopodium album were reduced mainly by oil radish and early sowing combined wit...

  14. [Gluten content in special dietary use gluten-free products and other food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, Wojciech; Wojtasik, Anna; Kunachowicz, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Gluten content of 22 special dietary use gluten-free products and 19 naturally gluten-free products was analysed by ELISA method. Gluten content in dietetic foods ranged from 5.19 to 57.16 mg/kg. Within the group of foods "gluten-free" by nature--gluten was not detected in rice and buckwheat groats samples, however in rice flakes and pearl millet gluten content ranged from 7.05 mg/kg- 27.51 mg/kg. Particularly high contamination with gluten (> 100 mg/kg) was detected in oat products what puts in doubt their usefulness in gluten-free diet. PMID:20803900

  15. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  16. Applicability of physico-chemical parameters of honey for identification of the botanical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Kowalski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Efforts are being made to apply physicochemical parameters analysis in the identifi cation of varietal honeys. With many variables describing a given population, it is feasible to differentiate between basing on principal component analysis (PCA. The aim of this study was to investigate selected physicochemical quality characteristics of nectar honey, with particular emphasis paid to carbohydrate composition, and to determine its applicability in identifying the variety of fl oral honey. Material and methods. The experimental materials were samples of commercial honey available at retail in Krakow in 2005-2007 period. The following analyses were performed: water content by the refractometric method, sugars content according to Luff-Schoorl, content of sugars using HPLC, electrical conductivity, specifi c rotation, and acidity of honey.   Results. Application of HPL C allowed the precise qualitative identifi cation of sugars, which was impossible to be determined by Luff-Schoorl method. The obtained results were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA. Conclusions. Based on the obtained results and performing the statistical analysis, it was found that the relationship between specifi c rotation and the total acidity can be used to distinguish buckwheat honeys from other analysed varieties. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the relationship between the specifi c rotation and maltose content can be used to distinguish between acacia honeys vs. buckwheat and lime honeys.

  17. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Rutin on Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

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    Pavla Macikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, IL/CPE and iron phthalocyanine (IP/CPE modified carbon paste electrodes in electroanalytical determinations of rutin were evaluated and compared to the performance of unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV, and amperometry were used for rutin analysis. The best current responses of rutin were obtained at pH 4.0 for all tested techniques. IL/CPE electrode was found to perform best with DPAdSV technique, where a detection limit (LOD as low as 5 nmol L-1 of rutin was found. On the other hand, IP/CPE showed itself to be an optimum choice for DPV technique, where LOD of 80 nmol L-1 was obtained. Analytical applicability of newly prepared electrodes was demonstrated on determination of rutin in the model samples and the extracts of buckwheat seeds. To find an optimum method for buckwheat seeds extraction, a boiling water extraction (BWE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, pressurized solvent extraction (PSE, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were tested.

  18. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  19. Starch grains from dental calculus reveal ancient plant foodstuffs at Chenqimogou site, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chenqimogou site, located at the south bank of Tao River, is comprised of a large group of graves dated to ~4000 a BP. For its large scale, unique mortuary system, and abundant of typical artifacts, the site was named one of "Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of 2008 in China". Many intact human skeletons have been excavated from the graves. Three teeth from two adult skeletons excavated from graves M187 and M194 were examined. Forty-eight starch grains were retrieved from dental calculus of three teeth. Six of those starch grains could not be identified because of damage. The others were classified into seven groups. Most of them were from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and/or barley (Hordeum vulgare). Remains possibly from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), gingkgo (Ginkgo biloba), acorn (Quercus spp.), bean, roots or tubers were identified. Ancient starch grains from dental calculus indicate that human foodstuffs primarily sourced from wheat, buckwheat, and foxtail millet. Acorn, beans, tubers or roots were supplements. A variety of starch grains retrieved from dental calculus revealed that diverse crops were cultivated in the Chenqimogou site 4000 years ago, and both dry-land farming and gathering were engaged.

  20. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. PMID:20071045

  1. Optimization of homoexopolysaccharide formation by lactobacilli in gluten-free sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmkorf, Christine; Jungkunz, Sarah; Wagner, Maria; Vogel, Rudi F

    2012-12-01

    Currently hydrocolloids are applied as baking aids in order to enhance the quality of gluten-free bread. Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) can also have a positive impact on gluten-free baked goods. Provided that yields are sufficient, in situ produced EPS may enable clean (additive free) labels. Thus, in situ EPS optimization was conducted to achieve high amounts of EPS in gluten-free sourdoughs. The influence of flours, dough yield, cell counts, sucrose concentration and sucrose fed-batch were investigated for Lactobacillus (L.) animalis TMW 1.971, Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 and Lactobacillus curvatus TMW 1.624. Maximal yields of 17.93 g EPS kg(-1) flour were obtained with L. animalis TMW 1.971 in buckwheat core doughs, 15.69 g EPS kg(-1) with L. reuteri TMW 1.106 in quinoa, and 16.28 g EPS kg(-)(1) flour with L. curvatus TMW 1.624 in buckwheat sourdoughs. This study evidences that EPS amounts can be manifolded to reach effectual levels through optimization and corroborate the application of EPS-forming starter cultures as a promising approach to improve gluten-free baked goods. PMID:22986191

  2. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

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    Mizue Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE. In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42 structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r=0.882 which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  3. The influence of additional fluors on the retention ability of dough and the technological quality of bakery products

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    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work monitored rheofermentation properties of dough prepared from composite flours formed by 70% of wheat flour T650 and the addition of 30%. Three kinds of additions were used, namely spelt flour, amaranth flour and buckwheat flour. To determine rheofermentation properties Rheofermentometer Rhea F4 was used, by means of which the dough development, the production of fermentation gases, retention ability of dough and the activity of used baking yeast were analysed. The best ability to retain formed fermentation gas had wheat flour (control and composite flour with the addition of spelt flour. The composite flour with addition of amaranth flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control lower by 13%, and the composite flour with addition of buckwheat flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control reduced by 20%. Control flour and composite flours were then processed in the baking experiment. Based on its results it was possible to evaluate the effect of the addition and retention capacity of dough on the quality of the final products (experimental loaves. The biggest loaf volume (200 cm3 and the optimal vaulting (0.65 were found in the control and a loaf made of composite flour with addition of spelt. Loaf volume, produced from composite flours with the addition of amaranth, and buckwheat was compared to control lower by 18.7%, and 16.3% respectively. The value of vaulting of these products (0.40 can be evaluated as unsatisfactory. Based on the evaluation of results observed by measuring on the rheofermentometer and baking experiment results it can be concluded that a better ability to retain the formed fermentation gas, thus ensuring high volume, had loaves made from wheat flour T650 and composite flour with addition of spelt flour. Based on the findings, it is possible to state that the results of rheofermentometric measurements predict the volume and vaulting of bakery products. By means of Rheofermentometer

  4. Optimizing of Harpalus rufipes (Coleoptera, Carabidae diet under laboratory conditions

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    D. Y. Reshetniak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the laboratory breeding technology of insects that damage agricultural crops can help in the pest control. Harpalus rufipes (De Geer, 1774 were fed by the following types of products: fresh frozen chicken and pork, cooked sausage "Doctor", cheese "Russian", boiled wheat and buckwheat. In the experiment, 56 adult specimens were kept individually in plastic containers during five days. In the same conditions 8 control test products were placed to determine the percentage of its mass loss due to desiccation. Keeping in a laboratory and feeding of H. rufipes (De Geer by common human food is possible. Throughout the experiment, there were considerable variations in the consumption of food between individuals. Specimens of an average weight of 148.2 ± 45.6 mg consumed daily 71.4 ± 99.4 mg of fresh-frozen chicken and 77.2 ± 112.8 mg of the pork meat (48.1% and 52.1% of the body weight, respectively. Cheese and sausage were consumed in approximately the same amounts (73.1 ± 81.3 and 44.9 ± 66.0 mg daily, or 49.3% and 30.3% of the body weight, respectively. Low protein crop ration (wheat and buckwheat provided the increase of the food intake (103.5 ± 108.5 and 79.8 ± 91.5 mg or 69.9% and 53.9% of the body weight, respectively. Chicken, pork meat and sausage contributed the weight gain, which amounts to about 0.43–0.82 mg (0.29–0.56% of initial body weight. A significant increase in body weight was observed for specimens feed by cheese (the weight gain was 3.14 ± 18.3 mg, 2.12%, by wheat (8.71 ± 21.33 mg, 5.87%, and buckwheat (2.73 ± 13.75 mg, 1.84% of the body weight. Starving individuals of H. rufipes that had an access to drinking water lost 2.6 ± 3.6 mg of the wet weight daily (1.76% of the body weight. That low rate of basal metabolism ensures the species survival during unfavourable parts of the seasons (summer drought, long autumn rains, etc.. Thus, the changes of body weights in imagoes of similar diets are evaluated

  5. Honey shows potent inhibitory activity against the bovine testes hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Kübra

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-hyaluronidase activities of honeys from different botanical origins honeys in order to determine their anti-inflammatory properties. The total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and total tannin levels of six types of honey, chestnut, oak, heather, pine, buckwheat and mixed blossom, were determined. Concentration-related inhibition values were tested turbidimetrically on bovine testis hyaluronidase (BTHase) as IC50 (mg/mL). All honeys exhibited various concentration-dependent degrees of inhibition against BTHase. Inhibition values varied significantly depending on honeys' levels of phenolic contents, flavonoid and tannin. The honeys with the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity were oak, chestnut and heather. In conclusion, polyphenol-rich honeys have high anti-hyaluronidase activity, and these honeys have high protective and complementary potential against hyaluronidase-induced anti-inflammatory failures. PMID:26076195

  6. Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Young; Yan, Lei; Wang, Tianfeng; Lee, Sang Ryong; Park, Cheol Woo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently.

  7. Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Prices for Agricultural Commodities: Empirical Evidence from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate long and short-term impact of changes in oil prices and the exchange rate on prices of seven groups of agricultural products in Russia (buckwheat, grain crops, potatoes, oat, wheat, rye, barley. In this paper, Granger causality approach is applied to test long-run interlinkages with monthly data from January 1999 to October 2015. For testing the response of agricultural prices to sudden shocks in oil prices and exchange rate in the short run, we use impulse-response techniques. The results of impulse response analysis show that agricultural prices are not particularly sensitive to changes in oil prices and the exchange rate of Russian ruble in the short term, except for imported commodities. In the long run, Granger causal relationship between agricultural prices and oil prices is missing, and with exchange rate is observed only in case of imported agricultural goods.

  8. Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Adam, Vojtech; Vasatkova, Anna; Beklova, Miroslava; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-09-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of several mycotoxins produced by certain Fusarium species that frequently infect corn, wheat, oats, barley, rice, and other grains in the field or during storage. The exposure risk to human is directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains) or indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk, eggs). It has been detected in buckwheat, popcorn, sorgum, triticale, and other food products including flour, bread, breakfast cereals, noodles, infant foods, pancakes, malt and beer. DON affects animal and human health causing acute temporary nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever. This review briefly summarizes toxicities of this mycotoxin as well as effects on reproduction and their antagonistic and synergic actions. PMID:21217881

  9. Clinical effects of HC 20-511 (ketotifen in bronchial asthma and its inhibitory effect on antigen-induced morphological changes of basophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four patients with confirmed bronchial asthma were treated with HC 20-511 (Ketotifen. HC20-511 was evaluated to be very effective in 6.3%, effective in 50.0% and slightly effective in 10.9% of these patients. The appearance of reactive basophils was inhibited by HC 20-511 in 5 out of 6 cases of reaction to house dust, in all three cases with buckwheat allergy to their allergen and in 7 out of 11 cases to anti-IgE. These results confirm that HC 20-511 inhibits type I allergic reactions induced by specific allergen and IgE.

  10. Foods for patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J A

    1982-11-15

    As a general rule patients with celiac disease must avoid five cereals--wheat rye, triticale, barley and oats. Very sensitive individuals must also avoid two products of these cereals--malt and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Some less sensitive individuals may be able to tolerate barley and oats in small quantities. All other foods are acceptable, including the cereals corn, rice, buckwheat, millet and sorghum, as well as malt-flavored breakfast cereals. Wine, spirits, beer and ale are also acceptable unless otherwise contraindicated. Monosodium glutamate, other food additives and pharmaceutical preparations are also acceptable. The ingredients of prepackaged processed foods are listed on the labels. Patients with celiac disease must examine labels to ensure that they avoid the harmful cereals. With appropriate precautions they need not be concerned about eating away from home. PMID:7139445

  11. 我国发芽粮食及食品应用研究最新进展%Research progress on sprouted grain and food application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先红; 刘景圣; 陈翔宇; 李艳红; 李侠东; 谢忠民

    2015-01-01

    综述了我国糙米、玉米、大豆、黑豆、绿豆、豇豆、黑米、大麦、荞麦、燕麦、小麦及薏米等粮食发芽后营养成分与生物活性成分的变化,以及发芽粮食在食品中的应用,以期为粮食深加工提供一些理论参考。%The research of sprouted grain with thechanges of nutritionalcompositions and some functioncomponents in brown rice,corn,soybean,black bean,mung bean,cowpea,black rice, barley,buckwheat,oats,wheat and adlay were reviewed. In the study,a review wasmade on food application of sprouted grain and it will provide a basis for the depth using of grain.

  12. Phenolic compound production by different morphological phenotypes in hairy root cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

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    Park Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy roots were obtained after inoculating sterile young stems of Fagopyrum tataricum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000. The established roots displayed two morphological phenotypes when cultured on hormone-free medium containing Murashige-Skoog salts and vitamins. The thin phenotype had a higher growth rate than the thick phenotype. Further, the phenolic compound content of the thin phenotype was higher than that of the thick phenotype. In terms of their total dry weight, the thin phenotype produced an almost double amount of (--epigallocatechin as well as more than 51.5% caffeic acid, 65% chlorogenic acid, and 40% rutin compared to the thick phenotype after 21 days of culture. Therefore, selection of the optimal morphological phenotype of hairy roots of tartary buckwheat is an important factor for improved phenolic compound production.

  13. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

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    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  14. Isolation of a Thiamine-binding Protein from Rice Germ and Distribution of Similar Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Yoshida, T; Toda, T; Iwashima, A; Mitsunaga, T

    1996-01-01

    A thiamine-binding protein was purified from rice germ (Oryza sativa L.) by extraction, salting-out with ammonium sulfate, and column chromatography. From the results of molecular mass, Kd and Bmax values for thiamine-binding, binding specificity for thiamine phosphates and analog, the protein was suggested to be identical to the thiamine-binding protein in rice bran. The thiamine-binding protein w as more efficiently purified from rice germ than from rice bran. The protein was rich in glutamic acid (and/or glutamine) and glycine. The protein did not show immunological similarity to thiamine-binding proteins in buckwheat and sesame seeds. However proteins similar to the thiamine-binding protein from rice germ existed in gramineous seeds. They were suggested to have thiamine-binding activity and to be of the same molecular mass as the thiamine-binding protein. PMID:27299548

  15. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  16. Evaluation of soil and fertilizer-derived phosphorus availability, particularly from rock phosphate, by biological and chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the availability of soil and fertilizer-derived phosphorus were determined in laboratory and vegetation experiments. In the laboratory experiment, soil was incubated with triple superphosphate (TSP) and several rock phosphates RPS) for 100 days and afterwards analyzed for available phosphorus content by various methods including the 32P isotopic exchange kinetic method. The vegetation experiment was carried out in a growth chamber with 3 test crops (oats, lupine and buckwheat). Kola apatite and Togo rock phosphate were found entirely unavailable to the crops. The chemical method that extracted more P from soil was the Egner Riehm extract. The least amount of P was extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2 solution. The E value corresponded closely to the amount of phosphorus extracted with paper strips (Pi method). (author)

  17. Trends in the development of gluten-free bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BADIU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food intolerance became an important public health concern, and identification of effective strategies for prevention is required. There is an increasing incidence of coeliac disease or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten, so the coeliac disease became one of the most common food intolerances. This intolerance can be present at any age, from early childhood to elderly. The present paper presents an overview of the results/approaches of the latest scientific investigations on gluten-free products based on (i the use of different gluten-free base flours (rice, maize, sorghum, oat, buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa, teff; (ii the use of different ingredients/additives (starches, dairy products, egg proteins, dietary fibre, gum and hydrocolloids for improving nutritional quality and consumer acceptability; (iii developing alternative technologies such as enzymatic or sourdough technology and high hydrostatic pressure processing.

  18. The Gluten-Free Diet: Safety and Nutritional Quality

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    Tiziana Bacchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD, an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives. Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. A promising area is the use of minor or pseudo-cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff. The paper is focused on the new definition of gluten-free products in food label, the nutritional properties of the gluten-free cereals and their use to prevent nutritional deficiencies of celiac subjects.

  19. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

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    Iva Burešová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ. The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiate the bread-making quality of gluten-free flour. Bread-making quality of gluten-free flour is the best characterised by curve slope of storage modulus G´and phase angle tg(δ while bread made from the flour with storage modulus and phase angle with non-linear slope in low deformation frequencies 0.01–0.10 Hz achieved the largest volume.

  20. Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently

  1. Irradiated foods and allergy. From a perspective of irradiation chemistry of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A change of protein in irradiated food has been known. There are a few reports on change of allergy of irradiated foods. Two kinds of allergy such as the immediate allergy (I type) and delayed allergy (IV type) are taken ill by foods. I type is related to irradiated foods. Allergen enters body through digestive tract. Anti body (IgE) is protein with from 10,000 to 100,000 molecular weight. Allergic disease is originated mainly by egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut and shrimp. When food is irradiated, the proteins are decomposed and produced higher and lower molecular compounds at the same time. Change of the viscosity and the sedimentation coefficient and deactivation of enzymes of β-lactoglobulin, cow albumin, egg albumin and casein were investigated. There is no report of increasing allergy by irradiation. However, some paper indicated that immunogenicity of protein was decreased by irradiation. (S.Y.)

  2. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator, Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will be tested to pre-breeding lines of blue lupin. In the first year of the project, plot trials were conducted in 3-fold field repetition with two phenological widely differing varieties (cv. Boruta [terminated type], cv. Boregine [branched type] in combination with selected partners with four different seed rates. As partners, monocotyledonous species (e.g., cereals and dicotyledonous species (false flax or resp., a mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, are used. Twice during the growing season and at harvest, the aboveground biomass, separated by lupin, partners and weeds, were recorded. The results of the first project year show that all the partner plants which should serve as artificial weeds were successfully established. False flax leads to the strongest effect on the development of lupins, which showed the lowest biomass production in these variants. In comparison to the sown partners, the false flax variants also showed the highest biomass production, while the lowest biomass production was recorded for the natural weeds occurring at the site. The species mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, however, led to the lowest biomass production; contemporaneously the biomass production of lupins in these variants was only affected slightly. Comparing the two cultivated lupin varieties, Boruta showed a better weed suppressive effect.

  3. Adsorption of cellulase on cereal brans: a simple functional model from response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sergio F. da Silva

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available A functional model based on Langmuirian adsorption as a limiting mechanism was proposed to explain the effect of cellulase during the enzymatic pretreatment of bran, conducted prior to extraction of proteins, by wet alkaline process from wheat and buckwheat bran materials. The proposed model provides a good fit (r = 0.99 for the data generated thru predictive model taken from the response surface methodology, permitting calculation of a affinity constant (b and capacity constant (k, for wheat bran (b = 0.255 g/IU and k = 17.42% and buckwheat bran (b = 0.066g/IUand k = 78.74%.Modelo funcional baseado na adsorção de Langmuir como mecanismo limitante proposto para explicar o efeito da celulase durante o pré-tratamento enzimático de farelos, visando à extração de proteínas, através do método alcalino-úmido. O referido modelo ajusta se muito bem (r = 0,99 aos dados gerados com base em modelo preditivo obtido da metodologia da superfície de resposta. Pode-se calcular a constante de afinidade (b e a constante de capacidade (k para o farelo de trigo e farelo de trigo mourisco (sarraceno, usando uma equação análoga à isoterma de adsorção de Langmuir. Os resultados indicaram que o farelo de trigo mourisco apresenta uma capacidade mais alta para adsorver celulase e, conseqüentemente,'pode-se esperar uma resposta maior ao pré-tratamento com esta enzima.

  4. Four-year surveillance for ochratoxin a and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Koji; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Norizuki, Hiroko; Itoh, Yoshinori; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kai, Shigemi; Tsutsumi, Toru; Takahashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Iizuka, Seiichiro; Ogiso, Motoki; Maeda, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Shigeaki; Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2010-02-01

    Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). A total of 1,358 samples of 27 different products were examined for OTA, and 831 samples of 16 different products were examined for fumonisins. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 microg/kg for OTA and 2 to 10 microg/kg for the fumonisins. OTA was detected in amounts higher than limits of quantification in wheat flour, pasta, oatmeal, rye, buckwheat flour and dried buckwheat noodles, raisins, wine, beer, coffee beans and coffee products, chocolate, cocoa, and coriander. OTA was found in more than 90% of the samples of instant coffee and cocoa, and the highest concentration of OTA, 12.5 microg/kg, was detected in raisins. The concentration of OTA in oatmeal, rye, raisins, wine, and roasted coffee beans varied remarkably from year to year. Fumonisins were detected in frozen and canned corn, popcorn grain, corn grits, cornflakes, corn soups, corn snacks, beer, soybeans, millet, and asparagus. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3) were detected in corn grits (1,670, 597, and 281 microg/kg, respectively). All of the samples of corn grits were contaminated with fumonisins, and more than 80% of the samples of popcorn grain and corn snacks contained fumonisins. OTA and fumonisins were detected in several food products in Japan; however, although Japan has not set regulatory levels for these mycotoxins, their concentrations were relatively low. PMID:20132681

  5. Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Bartomeus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Up to 75% of crop species benefit at least to some degree from animal pollination for fruit or seed set and yield. However, basic information on the level of pollinator dependence and pollinator contribution to yield is lacking for many crops. Even less is known about how insect pollination affects crop quality. Given that habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator richness and abundance, there is a need to assess the consequences for different components of crop production. Methods. We used pollination exclusion on flowers or inflorescences on a whole plant basis to assess the contribution of insect pollination to crop yield and quality in four flowering crops (spring oilseed rape, field bean, strawberry, and buckwheat located in four regions of Europe. For each crop, we recorded abundance and species richness of flower visiting insects in ten fields located along a gradient from simple to heterogeneous landscapes. Results. Insect pollination enhanced average crop yield between 18 and 71% depending on the crop. Yield quality was also enhanced in most crops. For instance, oilseed rape had higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents when adequately pollinated, the proportion of empty seeds decreased in buckwheat, and strawberries’ commercial grade improved; however, we did not find higher nitrogen content in open pollinated field beans. Complex landscapes had a higher overall species richness of wild pollinators across crops, but visitation rates were only higher in complex landscapes for some crops. On the contrary, the overall yield was consistently enhanced by higher visitation rates, but not by higher pollinator richness. Discussion. For the four crops in this study, there is clear benefit delivered by pollinators on yield quantity and/or quality, but it is not maximized under current agricultural intensification. Honeybees, the most abundant pollinator, might partially compensate the loss of

  6. 盐胁迫对两个荞麦品种种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Seeds Germination and Seedlings Growth of Two Fagopyrum tataricum Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵; 杨世平

    2014-01-01

    Two Fagopyrum tataricum cultivars including Chuanqiao No.3 and Chuanqiao No.4 were used to study the effects of different concentrations of salt stress on seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat. The results showed that the low concentration (50 mmol / L) of salt stress had no significant effect on seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat. High concentrations(100 and 150 mmol / L) of salt stress significantly decreased the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, seedlings roots length and fresh weight, the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of leaves of two Fagopyrum tataricum cultivars. The decrease of Chuanqiao No.3 was obviously bigger than that of Chuanqiao No.4. It is indicated that the salt tolerance of Chuanqiao No.4 was obviously higher than that of Chuanqiao No.3.%以两个荞麦(Fagopyrum tataricum)品种川荞3号和川荞4号为试验材料,研究不同浓度盐胁迫对荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响。结果表明,低浓度(50 mmol / L)盐胁迫对荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长无显著影响,高浓度(100和150 mmol / L)盐胁迫显著降低两个荞麦品种的发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数及幼苗根长和鲜重,显著降低叶片叶绿素含量和净光合速率,且川荞3号降低的幅度明显大于川荞4号,说明川荞4号的耐盐性明显大于川荞3号。

  7. 不同无土固体基质对辣椒生长的影响%Effect of Culturing Vegetable Solid Medium on the Growth and Development of Capsicum annuum L. without Soil Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明福

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索辣椒对无土固体基质栽培的适应性.[方法]选用烟草育苗专用基质、荞壳、河砂3种无土固体基质,对无土栽培辣椒的生长发育进行研究.[结果]采用烟草育苗专用基质的辣椒株高、生物产量和根重都优于荞壳和砂,说明烟草育苗专用基质更有利于辣椒生长.[结论]在无土固体基质栽培辣椒生产中,以选用烟草育苗专用基质为最佳.%[ Objective] The research aimed to discuss the suitability of Capsicum annuum L.to the culture of soilless solid medium. [ Method ] Three kinds of soilless solid media (tobacco seedling special medium, buckwheat shell and river sand)were selected to study the growth and development of Capsicum annuum L. in soilless culture were studied. [ Result] The plant height, biomass and root weight of Capsicum annuum L. in tobacco seedling special medium were better than that of buckwheat shell and river sand ,which indicated that tobacco seedling special medium was more favorable for the growth of Capsicum annuum L. [ Conclusion ] In the production of Capsicum annuum L. in the culture of soilless solid media, tobacco seedling special medium was the best choice.

  8. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  9. Regional differences in plant levels and investigations on the phytotoxicity of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Schlosser, Sonja; Damsohn, Walter; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The growing use of lithium (Li) in industrial and energetic applications and the inability to completely recycle the alkali metal will most likely increase anthropogenic emissions and environmental concentrations in the future. Although non-essential to plants, Li(+) is an important ultra-trace element in the animal and human diet and is also used in the treatment of e.g. mental disorders. Most of the lithium is consumed with the drinking water and vegetables, but concentrations in foodstuffs vary with the geochemistry of the element. In order to identify potential risks and to avoid an overmedication due to consumption of Li rich or Li contaminated foods it is advisable to identify background levels and to derive recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) for the element. Although Germany does not possess large amounts of primary or secondary resources of lithium, geochemical investigations (mineral and ground waters and soils) in this country confirm a wide variation of environmental concentrations with generally higher levels in the southwest. Despite the large number of soil and water data, only very few data exist on lithium concentrations in plants and its phytotoxicity. Within the scope of present study common grassland plant species were sampled in regions of SW-Germany with reportedly high geogenic levels of Li. The data are discussed with regard to literature surveys and existing reference values. Since lithium has phytotoxic effects a greenhouse experiment was performed with different Li salts (LiCl and Li2CO3) and plant species (maize, bean and buckwheat) to derive dose-response relationships for the endpoint shoot growth. While corn growth was not reduced significantly by soil concentrations of 118 ppm, EC50 values in buckwheat were 47 and 16 ppm for lithium derived from LiCl and Li2CO3, respectively. PMID:27381873

  10. Stable cesium uptake and accumulation capacities of five plant species as influenced by bacterial inoculation and cesium distribution in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Watanabe, Izumi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    The effects of inoculation with Bacillus and Azospirillum strains on growth and cesium accumulation of five plant species, Komatsuna, Amaranth, sorghum, common millet and buckwheat, grown on cesium-spiked soil were assessed for potential use in cesium remediation. Pot experiments were performed using "artificially" Cs-contaminated soil. Three treatments were applied based on Cs location in the soil. For a soil height of 15 cm in the pots, Cs was added as follows: in the top five cm to imitate no ploughing condition; in the bottom five cm simulating inverted ploughing; and uniformly distributed Cs reproducing normal plowing. Generally, inoculation of Cs-exposed plants significantly enhanced growth and tolerance to this element. Transfer factor (ratio of Cs concentration in the plant tissues to that in surrounding soil) was strongly influenced by Cs distribution, with higher values in the top-Cs treatment. Within this treatment, inoculation of Komatsuna with Bacillus and Azospirillum strains resulted in the greatest transfer factors of 6.55 and 6.68, respectively. Cesium content in the shoots was high in the Azospirillum-inoculated Komatsuna, Amaranth, and buckwheat, i.e., 1,830, 1,220, and 1,030 µg per pot, respectively (five plants were grown in each pot). Therefore, inoculation of Komatsuna and Amaranth with the strains tested here could be effective in enhancing Cs accumulation. The decrease of Cs transfer under uniform- and bottom-Cs treatments would suggest that countermeasures aiming at decreasing the transfer of Cs could rely on ploughing practices. PMID:25002227

  11. Highly effective sorbents obtained by treating agrowaste products in cold plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sorbents are widely used in purification of various liquids and gases, offering a universal means for wastewater and air cleaning. The most promising sorbents are those obtained from agrowaste products such as rice or buckwheat husk. Processing of husk in cold plasma modifies the composition, structure and surface properties of the raw material and raises its porosity, thus substantially improving the sorption properties of the final product.Husk as a raw material for producing sorbents has the following advantageous properties: (1) appropriate chemical composition; (2) low cost; (3) high dispersity, due to which there is no need in any special treatment of the material prior to its exposing to plasma; (4) scaly structure and developed porous surface ensuring a high surface-to-volume ratio. The best properties are displayed by the sorbents obtained in cold plasma under reduced pressures of 53.2 Pa. The raw naterial traverses the region occupied by the plasma and, as it does so, it gets heated up to a temperature of 250 - 350 ℃. The whole process involves two stages: combustion of the raw material and modification of its properties under the action of the plasma. The combustion proceeds due to the oxygen contained in the starting material. During the combustion, the hydrogen contained in the starting material and some part of the carbon also burn out.The resultant scaly sorbent is accumulated in a cooler. The scales are black; they range in sizes from 1mm to 5 mm.The sorbents obtained are remarkable for their useful properties and outperform most of the traditional sorbents used in modern industry. The starting materials are inexpensive, and their resources are almost unlimited. The sorbents have rather a low production cost (1.8-2.5($)/kg). The sorbents can be used for cleaning hydrosphere from water pollutants on a large scale. The degree of cleaning water surface from oil products with sorbents was a subject of investigation. The highest degree of purification

  12. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was done on the effect of different types of organic mulches that were applied in form of straw to the soil mulching process, on the weed infestation, number, and fresh mass of weeds in broccoli cv. Milady F1 (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck and tomato cv. Polfast F1 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown under polypropylene fibre as a covering, or grown without a covering. The different types of organic straw mulches were: rye (Secale cereale L., corn (Zea mays L., rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. All the organic mulches were applied at a dose of 10 t/ha. The effect of the mulches was compared to a control plot which had no mulch. The type of organic mulch applied to the soil mulching process influenced species composition, number, and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weeds species. Irrespective of the investigated factors, 24 and 25 weeds species, respectively, were observed immediately after cover removal and before broccoli and tomato harvest. In the first date of estimation Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Stellaria media (L. Vill., and Viola tricolor L. dominated, however, before the vegetables were harvested Ch. album, V. tricolor, Veronica arvensis L., and E. crus-galli dominated. An application of polypropylene fibre contributed to an increase in the number and fresh mass of weeds in both vegetables in the first date of estimation (after cover removal. During this period, vegetables cannot compete with weeds. It is important to note, though, that before the vegetables were harvested, a decrease was found in the number and fresh mass of weeds in the covered plots. The most efficient weed limiter, both after cover removal and also before the broccoli and

  13. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.

  14. Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Anton; Agback, Peter; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen bacterial isolates from millet, buckwheat and rye flour were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri. Genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) revealed that they represented five strains and phylogenetic analyses using multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that all clustered with strains of rodent origin. Two strains (SU12-3 and SU18-3) from different phylogenetic clades were used in fermentations of six varieties of barley, both untreated and heat-treated (with inactivated indigenous enzymes) flour. They were compared with two probiotic strains of human origin (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 6475), one previously isolated sourdough strain (LTH 5531) and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (36E). Analyses of growth (CFU) and metabolism (1H-NMR) revealed differences at species level, with L. plantarum showing a higher capacity to assimilate nutrients without help of the cereal enzymes. Similarities were observed between L. reuteri strains isolated from sourdough, while the greatest differences between L. reuteri strains were observed between strains 6475 and 17938. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles revealed clear clustering according to flour treatment, species of bacteria and barley variety and to some extent also bacterial strain. Possible bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,3- propanediol (sign of reuterin production) and histamine were identified and quantified. PMID:27052715

  15. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah

    2012-07-15

    The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

  16. Čezmejno sodelovanje na primeru občine Tržič = The crossborder cooperation: a case study of the Tržič municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mrak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The Municipality of Tržič borders with the Republic of Austria at the main ridge of the Karavanke mountain. Cooperation with the neighbouring communities Borovlje/Ferlach and Sele/Zell Pfare started in the eighties and it has become more intense after the year 1991. The border that was once separating the inhabitants on both sides of the mountain ridge has become more opened after the slovenian independence but the border control is after Schengen agreement more severe. Remote mountain border areas where access used to be limited were suddenly recognised as a great touristic potential. In the recent years the Municipality of Tržič together with Austrian partners managed to form some joined agriculture and tourism development projects within the PHARE programme (CBC - Crossborder Cooperation and ECOS - Ouverture. The projects deal with the regrowing of buckwheat, preservation of a special sheep breed - jezersko solčavska sheep, activation of the natural monument Dovžan gorge which will be logistically connected to Tscheppa gorge on the austrian side. Within the ECOS Ouverture programme the project of Thematic trails around the Košuta mountain has been initiated in order to reactivate and connect hidden natural and cultural potentials into integrated touristic offer of this part of the Karavanke mountain.

  17. Quantitative and temporal assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr biofixation by organic wastes in agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year considerable quantities of residue from different crops grown on contaminated lands are tilled back into the soil and partly used as forage. Radionuclides in the crop residues are made available to succeeding plants by release thought decomposition. Relative phytoextraction of radionuclides by crops to soil content, quantitative and temporal rate of 137Cs and 90Sr released from plant residues and annual fixation of radionuclides by plant residues tilled into the soil for succeeding crops in rotation were studied. Different crops have shown considerable variation in their ability to uptake the radionuclides from soil. The relative accumulation of 137Cs by the crop residues was lower 0.07% to the total radionuclides content in soil. The maximum quantity of 90Sr extracted from soil can reach up to 4% and it is valuable in respect of the technologies of phytodecontamination. Agricultural crops accumulating the high amounts of 90Sr were rapeseed, clover and Sakhalin buckwheat. The size of 90Sr immobilization by above-mentioned crops can be comparable with 'selfdecay' of radionuclides per year. The release of radionuclides incorporated in the straw is very slow and radionuclides of plant organic wastes tilled in the soil are unavailable to succeeding crops at least during 2 years. (author)

  18. Effects of induced nitrogen deficiency on symbolic nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted on Au and Seibersdorf (Austria) soils. The available nitrogen content of Au soil is very high and normally there is little N/sub/2 fixation with legumes on this soil. The main objective of this experiment was to find out wether this lower N/sub/2 fixation at Au is due to higher N content of its soil. So a high energy source -sucrose- was incorporated in both the soil to immobilise their available N. Test crop was inoculated common beans while buckwheat uninoculated common beans and sorghum were three reference crops. Half the treatments received sucrose while the rest received no sucrose. Results of this isotopic dilution experiment showed that nitrogen fixed by beans on sugar pots was significantly higher than that on no-sugar pots. Percentage NdfF of sugar pots was significantly lower than that of no-sugar pots. There was no significant difference in total N and dry-matter yield between sugar and no-sugar pots. (author)

  19. Changes in the properties and productivity of leached chernozem and gray forest soil under the impact of ameliorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapparov, A. Kh.; Bikkinina, L. M.-Kh.; Yapparov, I. A.; Aliev, Sh. A.; Ezhkova, A. M.; Ezhkov, V. O.; Gazizov, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    The results of field experiments on the influence of application of phosphorite, glauconite, and zeolite to a leached chernozem demonstrated a decrease in exchangeable acidity of the soil, an increase in the contents of available phosphates of the first and second groups (Ca-P1 and Ca-P2) and water-soluble and exchangeable potassium, as well as the enhanced microflora activity in the rhizosphere, and acceleration of the growth of microorganisms' biomass. The yield of spring wheat grown on the leached chernozem significantly increased upon the application of increasing rates of these ameliorants. In a pot experiment, application of the water suspension of nanostructured zeolite at the rate of 1 t/ha had a more pronounced effect on the agrochemical and biological properties of a silt loamy gray forest soil and the yield capacity of buckwheat in comparison with that of zeolite of standard grind applied at the rate of 15 t/ha. The changes in the properties of this soil and the additional yield of grain under the influence of the water suspension of nanostructured zeolite at the rate 0.1 t/ha were comparable with those under the influence of zeolite of standard grind applied at the 150 times higher rate.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Composite Coatings in Potassium Rich Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina BRINKIENĖ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale method was used to study the performance of reinforced cement composites in potassium rich environment of biomass combustion. Buckwheat husk (BH was used as potential source of unexploited biomass product applicable as biomass derived fuel. In order to enhance the alkali effect on the properties of the investigated materials, the solution of potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was selected as potassium rich aggressive environment. Two reinforced cement composites as potential repair coatings for restoration of damaged refractory surfaces with different composition of aggregate were used in corrosion tests. Performance of refractory coatings was evaluated by analysing the microstructure of the treated composites as well as mechanical properties. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and optical microscopy were used to study the microstructure in the corroded region of the refractory coatings. Long term studies in the solution of 1M K2CO3 for 56 months have demonstrated that composite with the additive of fluid cracking catalyst of oil refinery and petrochemical industries is more durable in the potassium rich environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8348

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Natural Honeys Affected by Their Source and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellen Martin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In purpose to examine the antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys of different origin ABTS method was used, total phenol content and dry matter content of honey samples were determined. Honeys were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia and were represented as monofloral and multifloral samples (10 which originated from Poland and Slovakia, forest samples (4 originated from Serbia and honeydew honey. Average values of antioxidant activity observed in samples of honeys ranged from 0.62 to 4.63 mmol/kg. The highest antioxidant activity was detected in buckwheat honey and the lowest was shown in acacia honey. By observing the impact of individual honey samples on antioxidant activity it was found that the sample had a highly statistically significant effect. 10 homogeneous groups which varied in the antioxidant activity among each other were established by all 15 samples. Antioxidant activity of honeys could be a positive influence factor in terms of honey differentiation, especially in the case of the forest honeys collected from different places. Monofloral and multifloral honeys (10 established 5 homogenous groups, but in the case of several multifloral honeys which originated from different places of Poland and Slovakia no statistically significant differences were found.

  2. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  3. The influence of plant mulches on the content of phenolic compounds in soil and primary weed infestation of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stokłosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In growing maize, an increase in the content of phenolic compounds and selected phenolic acids in soil was found after the incorporation of white mustard, buckwheat, spring barley, oats and rye mulches into the soil. The highest content of phenolic compounds in soil was found after oats mulch incorporation (20% more than in the control soil. The highest content of selected phenolic acids was found for the soil with the oats and rye mulch. Among the phenolic acids investigated, ferulic acid was most commonly found in the soil with the plant mulches. However, two phenolic acids: the protocatechuic and chlorogenic acid, were not detected in any soil samples (neither in the control soil nor in the mulched soil. At the same time, a decrease in the primary weed infestation level in maize was found in the plots with all the applied plant mulches, especially on the plots with oats, barley and mustard. The plant mulches were more inhibitory against monocotyledonous weeds than dicotyledonous ones. During high precipitation events and wet weather, a rapid decrease in the content of phenolic compounds in soil and an increase in the primary weed infestation level in maize were observed.

  4. Application of an Electronic Nose Instrument to Fast Classification of Polish Honey Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dymerski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents practical utilization of an electronic nose prototype, based on the FIGARO semiconductor sensors, in fast classification of Polish honey types—acacia flower, linden flower, rape, buckwheat and honeydew ones. A set of thermostating modules of the prototype provided gradient temperature characteristics of barbotage-prepared gas mixtures and stable measurement conditions. Three chemometric data analysis methods were employed for the honey samples classification: principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and cluster analysis (CA with the furthest neighbour method. The investigation confirmed usefulness of this type of instrument in correct classification of all aforementioned honey types. In order to provide optimum measurement conditions during honey samples classification the following parameters were selected: volumetric flow rate of carrier gas—15 L/h, barbotage temperature—35 °C, time of sensor signal acquisition since barbotage process onset—60 s. Chemometric analysis allowed discrimination of three honey types using PCA and CA and all five honey types with LDA. The reproducibility of 96% of the results was within the range 4.9%–8.6% CV.

  5. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Taogoshi, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut. PMID:26433529

  6. Biomass Briquette Production: A Propagation of Non-Convention Technology and Future of Pollution Free Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal. Briquettes are mostly used in the developing world where cooking fuels are not as easily available. Briquettes are used to heat industrial boilers in order to produce electricity from steam. The briquettes are con-fired with coal in order to create the heat supplied to the boiler. People have been using biomass briquettes since before recorded history. Biomass briquettes are made from agriculture waste and are a replacement for fossils fuels such as oil or coal, and can be used to heat boiler in manufacturing plants. Biomass briquettes are a renewable source of energy and avoid adding fossils carbon to the atmosphere. The extrusion production technology of briquettes is the process of extrusion screw wastes (straw, sunflower husks, buckwheat, etc. or finely shredded wood waste (sawdust under high pressure. There is a tremendous scope to bring down the waste of convention energy sources to a considerable level through the development, propagation of non-convention briquettes technology i.e. briquettes machine , briquettes plant, biomass briquettes plant for production of agro residue briquettes to meet thermal energy requirement . Therefore this substitute energy medium is given national priority as appears to be the only permanent solution into restriction of the national laws and avoid pollutions.

  7. Protecting Cell Walls from Binding Aluminum by Organic Acids Contributes to Aluminum Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ying Li; Yue-Jiao Zhang; Yuan Zhou; Jian-Li Yang; Shao-Jian Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids from the root apex has been demonstrated to be one major AI resistance mechanism in plants. However, whether the organic acid concentration is high enough to detoxify AI in the growth medium is frequently questioned. The genotypes of Al-resistant wheat, Cassia tora L. and buckwheat secrete malate, citrate and oxalate, respectively. In the present study we found that at a 35% inhibition of root elongation, the AI activities in the solution were 10, 20, and 50 μM with the corresponding malate, citrate, and oxalate exudation at the rates of 15, 20 and 21 nmol/cm2 per 12 h, respectively, for the above three plant species. When exogenous organic acids were added to ameliorate Al toxicity, twofold and eightfold higher oxalate and malate concentrations were required to produce the equal effect by citrate. After the root apical cell walls were isolated and preincubated in 1 mM malate, oxalate or citrate solution overnight, the total amount of AI adsorbed to the cell walls all decreased significantly to a similar level, implying that these organic acids own an equal ability to protect the cell walls from binding AI. These findings suggest that protection of cell walls from binding Al by organic acids may contribute significantly to AI resistance.

  8. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet. PMID:27283688

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CONTENT OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN SAMPLES OF POLISH HONEYS

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    Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of the determination of the total content of Cu, Pb and Zn by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry with atomization in an air-acetylene flame in Polish honeys samples. The research material was a honeydew, monofloral honey and buckwheat honey. For the mineralization of samples, the following solutions were applied: 1 HNO3(conc, 2 HNO3(conc and H2O2(conc in the volume ratio equal to 4:1 and 3:1. On the basis of the results and recommended food standards the percentage of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA in connection with the consumption of 100 g of product were estimated. To verify the results validation of analytical method used was carried out. It was included defining the following validation parameters values: the limit of detection and quantification; linearity and measurement range; repeatability and accuracy of the results. The contamination of the analyzed honeys by Pb is higher than the acceptable level of contamination of this element. The highest contents of Cu and Zn were characterized by monofloral honeys.

  10. Bridging Inter- and Intraspecific Trait Evolution with a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikova, Anna; Silvestro, Daniele; Pearman, Peter B; Salamin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of organisms is crucially dependent on the evolution of intraspecific variation. Its interactions with selective agents in the biotic and abiotic environments underlie many processes, such as intraspecific competition, resource partitioning and, eventually, species formation. Nevertheless, comparative models of trait evolution neither allow explicit testing of hypotheses related to the evolution of intraspecific variation nor do they simultaneously estimate rates of trait evolution by accounting for both trait mean and variance. Here, we present a model of phenotypic trait evolution using a hierarchical Bayesian approach that simultaneously incorporates interspecific and intraspecific variation. We assume that species-specific trait means evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, whereas species-specific trait variances are modeled with Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. After evaluating the power of the method through simulations, we examine whether life-history traits impact evolution of intraspecific variation in the Eriogonoideae (buckwheat family, Polygonaceae). Our model is readily extendible to more complex scenarios of the evolution of inter- and intraspecific variation and presents a step toward more comprehensive comparative models for macroevolutionary studies. PMID:26911152

  11. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds. PMID:26511862

  12. Antioxidation and antiglycation of Fagopyrum tataricum ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-02-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 75 % ethanol extract of buckwheat (EEB) and rutin on carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which are related to hyperglycemia. The rutin dosage (40 μg/mL) was equivalent to that of EEB (200 μg/mL). In addition, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of EEB and rutin were investigated. Results showed that both EEB and rutin exerted free radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activity. They also attenuated protein glycation to lower the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) through the suppression of fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds. Moreover, EEB and rutin also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEB and rutin may reduce oxidative stress, AGEs formation, and carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes hence EEB may use as protection agent in diabetic patients. PMID:25694726

  13. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  14. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat. Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  15. Differences in Aluminium Accumulation and Resistance between Genotypes of the Genus Fagopyrum

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    Benjamin Klug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al tolerance is not yet well understood. Therefore, a set of 94 genotypes from three Fagopyrum species with special emphasis on F. esculentum Moench were screened, with the objective of identifying genotypes with greatly differing Al accumulation capacity. The genotypes were grown in Al-enriched peat-based substrate for 21 days. Based on the Al concentration of the xylem sap, which varied by a factor of five, only quantitative but not qualitative genotypic differences in Al accumulation could be identified. Aluminium and citrate and Al and Fe concentrations in the xylem sap were positively correlated suggesting that Fe and Al are loaded into and transported in the xylem through related mechanisms. In a nutrient solution experiment using six selected F. esculentum genotypes differing in Al and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap the significant correlation between Al and iron transport in the xylem could be confirmed. Inhibition of root elongation by Al was highly significantly correlated with root oxalate-exudation and leaf Al accumulation. This suggests that Al-activated oxalate exudation and rapid transport of Al to the shoot are prerequisites for the protection of the root apoplast from Al injury and thus overall Al resistance and Al accumulation in buckwheat.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Fagopyrum urophyllum Populations in Southwest China%西南地区硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum)居群的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定泽; 侯鑫; 赵佐成

    2001-01-01

    Based on allozyme electrophoresis, the genetic diversity and differe-ntiation among 6 wild populations of Fagopyrum urophyllum from the counties Kunming, Fumin and Binchuan in the north-central part of Yunnan Province, the county Butuo in the southweast part of Sichuan Province, China, were studied in this paper. The results showed that the genetic diversity within wild population was high. The percentage of loci polymorphism (P) was 50.0%, the means of expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.251 and 0.471, respectively. The genetic variation between cultivated buckwheat and wild population was compared.%采用等位酶电泳技术研究了云南省中北部昆明、富民、宾川3县(市)及四川省西南布拖县的硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum)6个天然居群的遗传多样性和分化。硬枝野荞麦居群内维持有较高的遗传多样性,多态位点比率为50.0%,预期杂合度和观察杂合度分别为0.251和0.471。并对硬枝野荞麦(F. urophyllum)与栽培荞麦之间遗传变异作了比较。

  17. Response of Fagopy rum esculentum Moench to drought and aluminum toxicity%荞麦对干旱及酸铝胁迫的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 张宝林; 邓妍; 王峰

    2016-01-01

    Fagopyrum esculentum Moench is a kind of crop with well‐adaptability and well‐resistance ,but it still suf‐fered severe loss under different adverse environment inevitably .This essay focused on the morphology and physiology changes of buckwheat under drought and aluminum adverse situation ,separately ,and elaborated the main anti‐adverse measures from mechanism , which could enrich the anti‐adversity production principle of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and promote the development and utilization of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench resource .%荞麦是一种适应性强,耐瘠性好的作物,但是在生产中依然不可避免地遭受各种非生物逆境带来的损失。本文分别对在干旱及铝胁迫条件下,荞麦形态及生理上的变化进行了论述,并从机理上阐述了主要的抗逆措施,对于丰富我国荞麦抗逆生产理论,加快我国荞麦资源开发利用有重要意义。

  18. Inhibitory effects of rutin on the endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, In-Chul; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) has important functions in regulation of coagulation and inflammation. EPCR shedding from the cell surface is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Rutin is one of the major flavonoids from the buckwheat plant Fagopyrum tataricum. In this study, we investigated the effects of rutin on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding. We used a CLP model because this model more closely resembles human sepsis. Data showed rutin was a potent inhibitor of PMA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and CLP-induced EPCR shedding by suppression of TACE expression. Treatment with rutin resulted in a decrease of PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulated kinases 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest the potential application of rutin for treatment of PMA and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. PMID:24622777

  19. Factors influencing susceptibility of plants to sulfur dioxide injury. I. [Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setterstrom, C.; Zimmerman, P.W.

    1939-01-01

    For more than ninety years the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation have received the attention of various agricultural and industrial interests, and considerable data have accumulated on many phases of this subject. An attempt is made to provide some basis for evaluating these many data and to afford a broader view of the mechanism of sulfur dioxide injury. The influence of a number of environmental factors on susceptibility of plants to sulfur dioxide injury is reviewed, and considerable new data are added to those phases of the problem which are treated less extensively in the literature. The new data have been obtained from factorial experiments designed to study a number of variables simultaneously, and all the data have been subjected to statistical analysis by the method of the analyses of variance. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) was selected as the test plant in most of the experiments because of its sensitivity and because its large leaves permit a rapid and accurate rating of the degree of injury. The environmental factors considered include temperature, humidity, soil moisture, soil fertility, nutrient supply, pretreatment with sulfur dioxide, light intensity, age of plants, and moist surfaces. 30 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Determination of rice syrup adulterant concentration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and multivariate calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quansheng; Qi, Shuai; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2014-10-01

    To rapidly and efficiently detect the presence of adulterants in honey, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DFS) technique was employed with the help of multivariate calibration. The data of 3D fluorescence spectra were compressed using characteristic extraction and the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms were used for modeling. The model was optimized by cross validation, and its performance was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The results showed that BP-ANN model was superior to PLS models, and the optimum prediction results of the mixed group (sunflower ± longan ± buckwheat ± rape) model were achieved as follow: RMSEP = 0.0235 and R = 0.9787 in the prediction set. The study demonstrated that the 3D fluorescence spectroscopy technique combined with multivariate calibration has high potential in rapid, nondestructive, and accurate quantitative analysis of honey adulteration.

  1. SOIL MULCHING WITH STRAW IN BROCCOLI CULTIVATION FOR EARLY HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All treatments which protect soil from degradation and use of plant protection methods, other than chemicals are of great importance in the cultivation. This effect is attributed, among others, to organic mulches. By limiting the growth of weeds, maintaining proper moisture and reducing daily temperature fluctuations, mulch improves soil conditions for plant growth and development. The experiment was carried out between 2010 and 2012 at the Experimental Farm in Zawady as a split-block design with three replicates. The effect of the kind of straw (rye, corn, rape, buckwheat and its dose (10 and 20 t∙ha-1 applied as a mulch on the yield and quality of broccoli ‘Milady F1’ cultivated for early harvest was investigated. The effect of straw was compared to a control plot without mulch. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study had a significant influence on the yield and quality of broccoli. The highest yields with the best parameters were obtained in 2010 and 2012, which were characterized by sufficient rainfall for broccoli. It was not found significant differences in the yield level and weight of head between particular kinds of straw, however, all kinds of straw investigated in the experiment, irrespective of dose, contributed to a significant increase in the yield and favourably influenced the biometric features of broccoli compared to that achieved from cultivation without straw. Soil mulching with corn straw was most favourable to yield and its parameters.

  2. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  3. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  4. Selenium in Gluten-free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicka, Iga; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Stanisz, Ewa; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-06-01

    The nutritional value of gluten-free products is the subject of interest for food technologists and nutritionists, as the only effective treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet. As selenium deficiencies in celiac disease are observed, the aim of the study was to determine the selenium content in 27 grain gluten-free products available on the European Union (EU) market. Moreover, selenium content in products based on popular gluten-free cereals like corn, rice, and buckwheat and in relatively new or less popular products based on oat, amaranth, teff, and quinoa was compared. Selenium content in the tested products ranged from 0.9 to 24.5 μg/100 g. The average content of selenium in products based on popular gluten-free cereals was 2.8 μg/100 g and in products based on oat, amaranth, teff, and quinoa was 10.8 μg/100 g. It indicates that products based on less popular grains, especially on oat, should be more frequently chosen as a source of selenium by people on gluten-free diet than traditionally consumed gluten-free grains. PMID:25690718

  5. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of natural honeys of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miartina Fikselová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys, honey samples were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia. For antimicrobial activity determination honey solutions were prepared at three concentrations: 50, 25 and 12.5 % (by mass per volume. The potential antimicrobial activity of  selected samples against four species of bacteria (Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Pseudomonas aeroginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418, Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Candida albicans CCM 8216 was studied using the disc diffusion method. After incubation, the zones of inhibition of the growth of the microorganisms around the disks were measured. The strongest antimicrobial activity was shown at honey samples of 50 % concentration against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis. Against Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida albicans very low (at 50 %, 25 % concentration or zero antifugal (at 12.5 % concentration activity was determined. From the results obtained it was shown the variable ability of honey samples to scavenge stable free radical DPPH. TEACDPPH values ranged between 0.1-1.0 mmol.kg-1. As the antioxidative best source buckwheat honey was manifested and the lowest antioxidant activity was shown at acacia honey.

  7. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a Korean mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100 s to 10,000 s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death. PMID:25998651

  8. The role of climatic tolerances and seed traits in reduced extinction rates of temperate polygonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas; Pearman, Peter B

    2014-07-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is one of the most striking and consistent biodiversity patterns across taxonomic groups. We investigate the species richness gradient in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae, which exhibits a reverse LDG and is, thus, decoupled from dominant gradients of energy and environmental stability that increase toward the tropics and confound mechanistic interpretations. We test competing age and evolutionary diversification hypotheses, which may explain the diversification of this plant family over the past 70 million years. Our analyses show that the age hypothesis, which posits that clade richness is positively correlated with the ecological and evolutionary time since clade origin, fails to explain the richness gradient observed in Polygonaceae. However, an evolutionary diversification hypothesis is highly supported, with diversification rates being 3.5 times higher in temperate clades compared to tropical clades. We demonstrate that differences in rates of speciation, migration, and molecular evolution insufficiently explain the observed patterns of differential diversification rates. We suggest that reduced extinction rates in temperate clades may be associated with adaptive responses to selection, through which seed morphology and climatic tolerances potentially act to minimize risk in temporally variable environments. Further study is needed to understand causal pathways among these traits and factors correlated with latitude. PMID:24628685

  9. Influence of Pulse Pressure on the State of Biopolymers and the Probability of Hydrolysis of Starch in Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Pavlova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage of seeds which leads to destruction of the crystal lattice and the phase transition of polymers is formed under the pulse pressure (PP treatment. Biopolymers such as starch compressed under specific conditions can be changed from crystalline to a glassy state; this transition is known to extend the life of seeds. The aging of seeds is involved in the enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids. Reducing sugars which have been produced in seeds by non-enzymatic hydrolysis enter into reaction of glycosylation with proteins and amino acids actively. The authors studied the water absorption by seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench., cultivar Saulyk treated by PP. The values of PP which were used to treat had an influence on water absorption during the first hours of imbibition. When water content was 60%, hydrolysis of reserve substances could begin, so water potential was created by osmotically active molecules. Gibbs energy calculation by method of groups’ contribution indicated the reduction in probability of starch hydrolysis in plant seeds during transition from the crystalline to the glassy state.

  10. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner. PMID:25313948

  11. 中国杂粮主食化之馒头的研究%Study on the Steamed Bread of Grains in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先红; 刘景圣; 李侠东; 许海侠; 阮晓青

    2015-01-01

    杂粮富含多种营养成分与生物活性成分,馒头是中国传统主食之一,开发杂粮功能性馒头具有重要意义.综述了荞麦、燕麦、黑豆、绿豆、豇豆、小豆、扁豆、高粱、黑米、糙米及小米等杂粮在馒头中的应用研究,为杂粮主食化与工业化提供一些参考.%Grains are rich in nutrients and bioactive components. Steamed bread is one of the Chinese traditional staple food. The development of functional steamed bread with grains is of great significance. We made a review on the application research in steamed bread of buckwheat, oats, black beans, mung beans, cowpea, beans, lentils, sorghum, black rice, brown rice and millet, which will provide some reference for the staple food industrialization of grains.

  12. Changes of antioxidant activity and formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey during thermal and microwave processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Stanisław

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents the results of microwave irradiation and conventional heating of honey. These two kinds of thermal treatment result in the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), and changes in the antioxidant potential of honeys, which were studied as well. Four types of honey (honeydew, lime, acacia, buckwheat) were analyzed. Honey samples were subjected to conventional heating in a water bath (WB) at 90°C up to 60min or to the action of a microwave field (MW) with constant power of 1.26W/g of the sample up to 6min. Changes in the antioxidant capacity of honeys were measured as a percentage of free radical (ABTS(+)and DPPH) scavenging ability. Changes in the total polyphenols content (TPC) (equivalents of gallic acid mg/100g of honey) were also determined. Formation of HMF in honey treated with a microwave field was faster in comparison with the conventional process. Changes in the antioxidant properties of honey subjected to thermal or microwave processing might have been botanical origin dependent. PMID:23790927

  13. Ecological Anthropological Research on the Vertical Agriculture of Lisu People: A Case Study of Tongle Village in Weixi County of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanbai; HAN; Mingkun; CUI; Qingwen; MIN

    2013-01-01

    Tongle Village in Weixi County of Yunnan Province,a typical Lisu village in Lancang River basin,is located at the national protection zone of traditional culture of Lisu people and named as the ecological cultural village by UNESCO. Based on the distinctive climatic characteristics at different altitudes,Lisu people have developed an effective vertical agriculture system. They cultivate rice and wheat in the river basin at an altitude of 1 740 m; plant corns,nuts,fruits and vegetables around the village at an altitude of 1 840m and buckwheat,potato, herbs in the upper " swidden land" at an altitude of 2 000 m. They also herd animals in the alpine meadow at an altitude of 2 500 m. Based on a fieldwork,this paper studied the vertical agriculture system by applying the theories of Ecological Anthropology and employing several field work methods such as participant observation and in-depth interviews. According to the research findings,Lisu people have not only properly utilized local natural resources,but also developed a related cultural system to facilitate their agriculture production. But the vertical system also faces great challenges with the economic and social development of local areas. To respond positively,sustainable development is a way for Lisu people to enhance their living standards and maintain their traditional culture.

  14. The Brewing Process of Wheat-poured Wine%“麦淋酒”的酿造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王都留; 叶文斌; 杨建东; 何九军

    2012-01-01

    "麦淋酒"是礼县大潭人酿造的一种低度酒,属白酒中的一种小曲酒.该酒以小麦为主要原料以青稞、荞及高粱为次要原料酿造.其酒色透明,酒味独特,性地平和.麦淋酒在酿制过程中采用纯粮食酿造,不添加任何其它物质,特别是以"百草尖"自制独特的酒曲,使该酒口味独特,具有一定的保健作用.其酿造过程一般经过制曲、发酵、烤酒三个阶段.%"wheat-poured wine" is a low alcohol liquors distilled by local people of the datan in Lixian, and this spirits is belong to a yeast liquor. The main raw materials of the wine are wheat, buckwheat and sorghum as for secondary raw materials. Wheat-poured wine are transparent, unique flavor and moderate taste. Which is made of pure grain, not adding other substances, in brewing process, Yeast-making, fermenting and roasting are three major stages. Specially, if "Baieao tip" is as distiller's yeast, this spirits has a u- nique taste and a certain role in health care.

  15. Gluten determination by gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Rysová, Jana; Filová, Vanda; Plicka, Jan; Cuhra, Petr; Kubík, Martin; Barsová, Sona

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study with 10 participants was performed to obtain validation and performance data for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit developed for quantitative gluten determination in foods. The ELISA kit used for this study is based on 2 monoclonal and 1 polyclonal antibody developed by Immunotech, a Beckman Coulter Co. This kit did not show any false positive results or cross-reactivity with oat, rice, maize, and buckwheat. The gliadin standard from the Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity was included in the kit as reference material for calibration. All participants obtained a gliadin ELISA kit with Standard Operational Procedure and a form for recording test results. The study included 13 samples labeled as "gluten-free" and 2 samples spiked by wheat flour. Seven samples had gliadin content below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the method, and 1 sample exceeded the highest calibration level. Gliadin content in the range from 10 to 157 mg/kg (1st day) and from 11 to 183 mg/kg (2nd day) was found in 7 samples (including 2 spiked samples). Results of these samples were used for further statistical analysis and evaluation. The Cochran, Dixon, and Mandel statistical tests were applied for detection of outliers. The LOQ of the kit was estimated. PMID:16512241

  16. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy. PMID:25873154

  17. Celiac disease and gluten-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mikulajová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmunity inflammatory disorder of the small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The prevalence of the disorder is around 1 % of the Western population and is still increasing. The symptoms of celiac disease include chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and growth retardation in children, and chronic fatigue and headache, bowel complaints, reduced fertility, dermatitis herpetiformis, osteoporosis, nerve and brain disorders, increasing risk of intestinal cancer. The clinical diagnosis of the disease is based on the serological tests and bowel biopsy. The treatment is a long-life gluten-free diet. It is necessary exclude from the diet wheat, rye, barley and probably oats and buckwheat and their products. The novel approaches for celiac disease are focused on the genetic manipulation of nontoxic gluten proteins, enzyme therapy, immune modulation, and induction of oral tolerance to gluten.doi:10.5219/276 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  18. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow. PMID:25398196

  19. Peculiarities of economic efficiency formation of domestic organic producers’ activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Kropyvko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze peculiarities of economic efficiency formation of domestic organic producers’ activities. Grouping of organic producers is made in the article. Special attention to peculiarities of organic production is paid. Comparison of prices on organic and traditional agricultural products is done. The analysis of the organic production profitability is suggested. The results of the analysis. In order to identify regions, where organic farming is better developed, grouping of domestic organic producers is done. They were placed by regions in order of decreasing. 107 organic producers operate in Ukraine. Regions with the biggest amount of organic producers are Kyiv region (15,1% from general amount of organic producers, Lviv region (9,4%, Zhytomyr region (8,5%, Kharkiv region (7,5%, Vinnytsia (7,5% and ARC (7,5%. It is caused by the presence of a large urban population and remoteness from the capital and borders. There are no organic producers in Ivano-Frankivsk, Luhansk, Cherkasy and Dnipropetrovsk regions. But in Dnipropetrovsk region there are two organic operators which are engaged in processing, export and import operations, in Cherkasy and Ivano-Frankivsk regions – one operator. It is known, that the price of organic products is much higher than the price of traditional. This is due to the cost of organic certification, complexities in the sales processes, losses from denying use of fertilizers and other crop protectors, which are used by traditional producers. Therefore it is advisable to compare prices of organic and traditional products in Ukraine and in the target company “Galeks-Agro” for 2010-2013. Organic products price on average of about 108% is higher than traditional products price. The biggest difference in price is observed for such crops as millet and buckwheat. But it is important to take into account the fact that the company is engaged in exporting of organic

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIES DE COBERTURAS DO SOLO COM POTENCIAL DE USO EM SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO BIOMASS FROM DIFFERENT GROUND COVER SPECIES WITH POTENTIAL FOR USE IN A NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mozena Leandro

    2007-09-01

    systems (ten experimental treatments: pig bean (Canavalia ensiforme, mucunas (Stizolobium dierrigianum and Stizolobium muriens, millet (Pennisetum typhoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, black oats (Avena strigosa and brachiaria grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, and the minimum tillage and no-tillage with the weeds as ground cover. The biomass yield was evaluated 20, 50, 80 and 90 days after the emergence of the plants. After 180 and 300 days, dry biomass of crop residues was weigh. After 80 days, C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn levels were analyzed. The largest yields of total and residual biomass were obtained with Brachiaria and Crotalaria juncea, which extracted of nutrients from the soil better. Buckwheat was found to be the most efficient species to extract N, K, Ca and micronutrients, and millet and brachiaria removed the highest amounts of P from the soil studied.

    KEY-WORDS: Biomass; leguminous; green fertilizer.