WorldWideScience

Sample records for buckwheat

  1. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  2. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  3. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  4. Proximate and metal composition of buckwheat groats cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, buckwheat can be safely eaten by people who have celiac disease as it does not contain gluten. Buckwheat can be a good substitute for wheat, oats, rye and barley in a gluten-free diet. Buckwheat's well-balanced starch, protein, fat and mineral composition has found a renewed interest, particularly among the ...

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of buckwheat starch components using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Tsukamoto, Kazumi; Kanahara, Hiroko; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Morphological and structural features of buckwheat starch granules and nanocrystals were examined using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Partially digested starch granules revealed a clear pattern of growth rings with the central core revealing lamellar structure. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments revealed that the buckwheat starch granules were polygonal in shape and were in the range of 2 to 19 μm in diameter. The optimized acid hydrolysis process produced nanocrystals with the shape of spherical structure with lengths ranging from 120 to 200 nm, and the diameter from 4 to 30 nm from aqueous suspensions of buckwheat starch solution. The sorption isotherms on buckwheat starch nanocrystal/glycerol composite exhibited a 3-stage transition of moisture in the blending. The biocompatible nature of buckwheat starch nanocrystals and their structural properties make them a promising green nanocomposite material. Buckwheat starches had never been studied on a nanoscale, but we have achieved new understanding of starch granule morphology and concentric growth rings using nanoscale imaging. Since buckwheat is an underutilized crop, we foresee the potential application of buckwheat starch, starch-based nanocrystals, and nanoparticles, to expand markets and encourage producers to expand their buckwheat acreage. The atomic force image analysis suggests that buckwheat starch could be used as a new biopolymer material in food industries. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  7. Genetic relationships among buckwheat (Fagopyrum) species from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... from southwest China based on chloroplast and nuclear ... DNA extraction. DNA was extracted and isolated by Genomic DNA Isola- tion kit (TaKaRa, Dalian, China). DNA concentrations were determined by comparison with a serial dilution of .... ing feature of buckwheat is the occurrence of multiple ploidies ...

  8. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov; Anatoliy M. Kosyan; Oksana I. Kosyk; Natalia Yu. Taran

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  9. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  10. Buckwheat honeys: screening of composition and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Federica; Gardini, Silvia; Marcazzan, Gian Luigi; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-12-01

    The quality of 10 buckwheat honeys, collected from Italian and est European beekeepers declaring to produce monofloral honey, were evaluated by means of their pollen, physicochemical, phenolic and volatile composition data. The results of the traditional analyses and in particular electrical conductivity, optical rotation, pH and sugar composition revealed some poorly pure samples that could not fit in the buckwheat tipology. Honey volatiles, analysed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC/MS), showed more than 100 volatile compounds, most of them present in all honey samples but with quantitative variation. Besides many furfural derivates, 3-methylbutanoic acid was the main volatile compound found in most of honeys. Also the presence of 2- and 3-methylbutanal and pheynalcetaldehyde confirmed the typical buckwheat aroma of some studied samples, corroborating physicochemical data. The HPLC phenolic profile was similar across the samples and p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids proved to be the main components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary effects of chitosan and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sohel

    2015-11-04

    Nov 4, 2015 ... Pigs that were fed an organic diet containing 25% buckwheat had slightly higher average daily bodyweight gains than ... study was to evaluate the effects of including in broiler diets different levels of buckwheat, with or without ... Table 1 Composition of the experimental grower diets fed to broilers. Items.

  12. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae, currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum Moench. (common buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum (L. Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys (D. Don Hara. (perennial buckwheat, which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  13. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Sindarovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleases (RNases are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  14. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  15. Buckwheat in the conservation of insects species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Naumkin, V.; Lysenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Buckwheat one of the most important of the field rotation crop, attracting and keeping a large number of insects. Entomocenosis of a buckwheat field consists of more than 170 species of insects pollinators, phytophags, entomophags. The dominant species are pollinators; there are about 90 species of them. They feed on nectar, pick up it and make pollination possible. Bee honey, wild bees, bumblebees, wasps, other hymenopterans, dipterous, beetles are widely spread. All of them are polytrophs t...

  16. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-12-29

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour.

  17. [Relationship between immediate hypersensitive reactions by buckwheat ingestion and specific IgE for rice in subject with positive IgE-RAST for buckwheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, E; Urisu, A; Kondo, Y; Horiba, F; Tsuruta, M; Yasaki, T; Masuda, S; Yamada, K; Kozawa, T; Hida, Y

    1991-12-01

    IgE-mediated mechanisms are important in immediate hypersensitive reactions (IHR) to buckwheat. However, a part of subjects with high IgE for buckwheat show no IHR to buckwheat ingestion. Inspite of cross-allergenicity between buckwheat and rice, rice ingestion rarely induces IHR even in subjects with high IgE for rice unlike buckwheat-induced IHR. We speculated that there were some relationships between the presence of IHR to buckwheat and recognition of cross-allergenic determinants on buckwheat components with rice components. We examined IgE-RAST for rice in 58 subjects with positive IgE-RAST for buckwheat. IgE-RAST for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), egg white and cow's milk as unrelated antigens with rice were also assessed for a comparison. Subjects (n = 33) without IHR to buckwheat showed higher IgE-RAST values for rice than those (n = 25) with IHR, whereas there were no differences in IgE-RAST values for Dp, egg white and cow's milk between two groups with and without IHR. IgE-RAST values for buckwheat showed significant close correlations to those for rice in subjects without IHR to buckwheat but not in those with IHR. There were no significant correlations between IgE-RAST values for buckwheat and for Dp, egg white or cow's milk in both groups with and without IHR. These results suggested that the IgE from subjects without IHR to buckwheat recognized cross-allergenic determinants with rice on the buckwheat components.

  18. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakač Marijana B; Sedej Ivana J; Mandić Anamarija I; Mišan Aleksandra Č

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable...

  19. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengnan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Yimin; Zhu, Hanyue; He, Zouyan; Liu, Jianhui; Hao, Wangjun; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2017-03-08

    Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg -1 cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg -1 cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10-13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary

  20. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  1. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  2. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  3. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  4. Dietary effects of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) and black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of buckwheat seed (BWS) with black cumin seed (BCS) supplementation on the performance, serum lipid profile and intestinal bacterial flora in broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted equally to four ...

  5. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  6. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  7. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  8. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  9. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Psodorov Đorđe B.; Vujić Đura N.; Ačanski Marijana M.; Pastor Kristian A.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples ...

  10. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  11. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestorić, Mladenka; Mišan, Aleksandra; Nedeljković, Nataša; Jambrec, Dubravka; Jovanov, Pavle; Banjac, Vojislav; Torbica, Aleksandra; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Mandić, Anamarija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice flour at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat flour contributed to the significantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (pcookies made with rice flour and buckwheat flour exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•), antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (pcookies containing 20% of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples. PMID:27904330

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Pestorić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice fl our at the level of 10, 20 and 30 % to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat fl our contributed to the signifi cantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05. Gluten-free cookies made with rice fl our and buckwheat fl our exhibited signifi cantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•, antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05. Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20 % of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30 % buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  13. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  14. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  15. An Overview: Distribution, Production, and Diversity of Local Landraces of Buckwheat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Raj Luitel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is a sixth staple food crop after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet, and barley in Nepal. It is considered as an alternate cereal and poor man’s crop, representing an important food supply in remote places of Himalayas. It is the best crop in higher altitude in terms of adaptation to different climatic variables and easily fitted to different cropping patterns due to short duration. It is cultivated on marginal land in 61 out of 75 districts of Nepal from some 60 m to 4500 m asl, especially hilly and mountain districts like Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Kavre, Dolakha, and Okhaldhunga. Sweet buckwheat varieties are generally grown in midhill and Terai but Tartary buckwheat varieties are grown in higher altitude. There are altogether 19 local landraces of sweat buckwheat and 37 for Tartary buckwheat listed from Nepal. The largest producers are China, USA, and Russia and Japan is principal user of global buckwheat grown in the world. In Nepal, it is cultivated in 10510 ha area with production of 10355 t/yr and yield of 0.983 t/ha. It has also medicinal value used in different forms including all its parts so the demand of buckwheat is increasing.

  16. Yield and Quality Features of Buckwheat-Soybean Mixtures in Organic Agricultural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sürmen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during the summer of 2014 to determine alternative quality forage sources that could be grown in the Aydın ecological conditions. In the study, effects of 3 different mixtures and 2 pure species (100% Buckwheat, 25% Buckwheat -75% Soybean, 50% Buckwheat -5 0% Soybean, 75% Buckwheat - 25% Soybean, 100% Soybean and 2 different harvesting times (50%-100% flowering/buckwheat on yield and quality characteristics were investigated. According to measurements, the highest average herbage yield was obtained from 75% Buckwheat-25% Soybean application (3100 kg/da at 2nd harvest time. When the average of hay yield was examined, the results were similar to herbage yield. When ADF and NDF were examined, the highest values were seen at the 2nd harvest. When the crude protein ratios were examined, it was found that they decreased at the 2nd harvesting time and the highest value was determined at 100% soybean application at the 1st harvesting time (21.08%. When Digestible Dry Matter (DDM and Relative Feed Value (RFV were examined, the highest values were determined in 100%Soybean applications at first harvest time and when the mixture applications were examined, the highest values were determined to be 75% Buckwheat - 25% Soybean application. As a result of the study, it was determined that the yields obtained at the 2nd harvest time were higher but the forage quality decreased. When the mixtures were examined, it was determined that the mixture having the highest roughage value was 75% buckwheat + 25% soybean application. In this study, the buckwheat which have short vegetation and good quality and the soybean, which is infront of with high quality, mixtures were examined. It has also been found that these mixtures may be important for obtaining high-quality forage in the short and intermediate periods.

  17. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control, was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.

  18. Final Critical Habitat for the Gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum) occur based on the description...

  19. Buckwheat for the production of biogas. Rediscover forgotten cultures; Buchweizen fuer die Biogasproduktion. Vergessene Kulturen wiederentdecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, Falko; Fritz, Maendy

    2011-07-01

    Buckwheat whole plant can be used for the production of biogas. Due to its short growing period, buckwheat can be integrated very variable in crop rotations. For example, buckwheat can be grown as a second crop in the summer. After the harvest of winter wheat, which is used as whole plant silage, the sowing date is around mid-June. The ingredients of buckwheat expect a good fermentability with corresponding biogas production. [German] Buchweizen-Ganzpflanzen koennen fuer die Erzeugung von Biogas genutzt werden. Durch seine kurze Vegetationsperiode laesst sich Buchweizen sehr variabel in Fruchtfolgen einbinden. Zum Beispiel kann Buchweizen als Zweitfrucht im Sommer angebaut werden. Nach der Ernte von Wintergetreide, das als Ganzpflanzensilage genutzt wird, liegt der Saattermin etwa Mitte Juni. Die Inhaltsstoffe von Buchweizen lassen eine gute Vergaerbarkeit mit einer entsprechenden Biogasproduktion erwarten.

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL, TEXTURAL AND MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF DOUGH AND HONEY BISCUITS ENRICHED WITH BUCKWHEAT AND RY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bodroža-Solarov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat and rye flours were used to partially replace wheat flour in honey biscuit formulation. Characteristics of dough and baked biscuits were studied. Buckwheat was the ingredient that dominantly affected the dough and biscuit quality. Doughs with buckwheat were significantly harder and less sticky. Significant lowering of dough cohesiveness was found only at the maximal tested buckwheat dose. The biscuits enriched with buckwheat had increased spread, hardness and fracturability. Rye showed an improving effect on dough (decreased hardness, increased cohesiveness and biscuit characteristics (decreased spread, hardness and fracturability but the effect did not reach significant level. However, no significant differences in sensory tests were obtained among the tested biscuits. Hence, buckwheat has a potential to be used as an ingredient in honey biscuit making to develop more nutritional end-product especially if adequate processing methods to improve its suitability in food applications are additionally considered.

  1. STUDY OF DRYING KINETICS OF BUCKWHEAT IN THE DRYER WITH TWISTED COOLANT FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Drying of buckwheat seeds is one of the most important stages of preparation of this raw material to the subsequent process of its processing. The nutritional value and quality indicators of the finished product depend on the mode of drying and are the result of structural, mechanical, biological and physico-mechanical transformations of substances. Technological modes of drying buckwheat seeds depend on the content of water and have a significant effect on the change of carbohydrates, protein denaturation, oxidation of lipids, changes of vitamins and organic acids. A new method of drying buckwheat and designed and constructed an experimental dryer with adjustable swirling flow of the coolant is proposed. For the study of the experiments and to determine the optimal mode of drying was used central composite rotatable uniforms - planning and selected full factorial experiment. The kinetics of drying and heat buckwheat in the device with twisted coolant flow was investigated. The influence of various parameters on the drying kinetics of buckwheat in the dryer with twisted coolant flow was invesigated. Presents the results of experimental studies, buckwheat drying in the dryer with twisted coolant flows. On the basis of experimental data and their statistical processing was obtained a mathematical model that adequately describes the process of drying buckwheat in the device with twisted coolant flow. The character of changes in the criteria optimization depending on the input factors was determined. The results of the mathematical model will be useful to a wide range of professionals involved in drying buckwheat, as well as for the calculation and design of modern drying - boiler systems.

  2. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grain and fractions: antioxidant compounds and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Ivana; Sakač, Marijana; Mandić, Anamarija; Mišan, Aleksandra; Tumbas, Vesna; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna

    2012-09-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an alternative crop belonging to the Polygonaceae family. In comparison to antioxidant activity of frequently used cereals, buckwheat has been reported to possess higher antioxidant activity (AOA), mainly due to high rutin content. The objective of this work was to determine the main antioxidant compounds and AOA of buckwheat grain fractions (whole grain, hull, and groat). Buckwheat grain fractions were extracted with ethanol/water (80/20, v/v), followed by determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content. Quantification of phenolic compounds and tocopherols was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The AOA was estimated by 2 direct electron spin resonance (ESR) and 4 indirect (spectrophotometric) tests. Significantly higher contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were found in buckwheat hull than in whole grain and groat. Protocatechuic, syringic, and sinapic acid, rutin, and quercetin were found in all tested fractions, whereas vanilic acid was found in whole grain and hull. The content of total tocopherols in investigated samples ranged from 23.3 mmol/g for hull to 61.8 mmol/g for groat. Hull was superior in scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), hydroxyl ((•)OH), and superoxide anion (O(2)(•-)) radicals, reducing activity, AOA by β-carotene bleaching method, and chelating activity on Fe(2+) as evidenced by its lower IC(50) value. Obtained results can broaden the utilization of buckwheat, especially a share of hull in whole grain flour production. Obtained results suggest possibility to supplement the whole grain buckwheat flour with hull, which leads toward better usage of by-products in buckwheat production, and enhancement of antioxidant potential of the final product. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Đurendić - Brenesel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As a source of biologically active compounds, buckwheat has beneficial effects in nutrition due to its high content of flavonoids, particularly rutin. Aim of our study was to examine effects of buckwheat on plasma lipid status and phospholipids fatty acids composition, histological and parameters of oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. This study showed that buckwheat leaf and flower (BLF mixture supplementation significantly reduce weight gain, plasma lipid concentrations and atherogenic index in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of the high-fat group of animals with buckwheat significantly increased percentage of n-6 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decreased percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA and oleic acid. Buckwheat antioxidant effects diminished negative influence of high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats, while pathohistological analysis of liver confirmed changes after high-fat consumption. Our results showed hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative features of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture, and these parts of the plant with the highest rutin content could be beneficial in prevention and curing of hyperlipidemia.

  4. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurendić - Brenesel, Maja; Popović, Tamara; Pilija, Vladimir; Arsić, Aleksandra; Milić, Miljan; Kojić, Danijela; Jojić, Nikola; Milić, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    As a source of biologically active compounds, buckwheat has beneficial effects in nutrition due to its high content of flavonoids, particularly rutin. Aim of our study was to examine effects of buckwheat on plasma lipid status and phospholipids fatty acids composition, histological and parameters of oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. This study showed that buckwheat leaf and flower (BLF) mixture supplementation significantly reduce weight gain, plasma lipid concentrations and atherogenic index in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of the high-fat group of animals with buckwheat significantly increased percentage of n-6 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decreased percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and oleic acid. Buckwheat antioxidant effects diminished negative influence of high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats, while pathohistological analysis of liver confirmed changes after high-fat consumption. Our results showed hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative features of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture, and these parts of the plant with the highest rutin content could be beneficial in prevention and curing of hyperlipidemia. PMID:23725506

  5. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  6. Effect of Proteolysis with Alkaline Protease Following High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on IgE Binding of Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chaeyoon; Lee, Wonhui; Han, Youngshin; Oh, Sangsuk

    2017-03-01

    Buckwheat is a popular food material in many Asian countries and it contains major allergenic proteins. This study was performed to analyze the effects of hydrolysis with alkaline protease following high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. Extracted buckwheat protein was treated with HHP at 600 MPa for 30 min and hydrolyzed with alkaline protease for 240 min. IgE binding was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with serum samples from 14 patients who were allergic to buckwheat. Depending on the serum samples, HHP treatment of buckwheat protein without enzymatic hydrolysis decreased the IgE binding by 8.9% to 73.2% or increased by 31% to 78%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease decreased by 73.8% to 100%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease following HHP treatment decreased by 83.8% to 100%. This suggested that hydrolysis with alkaline protease following HHP treatment could be applied to reduce the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. On the Issue of the Economic Feasibility of the Buckwheat Production in Modern Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzoieva Tetiana V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the economic efficiency of the production of buckwheat and finding arguments in favor of the economic feasibility of cultivation of this culture, given its historical importance to the domestic population. The article studies the dynamics of the production of buckwheat and analyzes its economic efficiency between 2011 and 2015 in the Koziatyn district of Vinnytsia region and in a separate enterprise of the area – the ООО «ARCHI». The different views on the economic feasibility of buckwheat production in modern terms were considered. It has been defined that whether benefits or disadvantages of growing this culture for agricultural producer are determined by a number of factors, among which, in the author's view, the main ones are: natural-climatic, organizational, technical, agronomic, logistical. It has been proved that the production of buckwheat is economically feasible in the modern terms. Prospects for further research in this direction are search for ways to improve economic efficiency of the production of buckwheat and ways of developing this direction in the context of integration of the national economy into the world-wide.

  8. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  9. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  10. Determination of Performance of Yearlings Fed with Rations Containing Wheat, Maize and Buckwheat Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as cereal straw, the use of maize straw in ruminant feeding has been increasing as the feed shortage widens. In addition, cultivation of buckwheat with high straw yield potential is becoming widespread. Thus, performance of 15 female Karya yearlings fed with ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws were compared. The yearlings fed either containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws in three total mixed rations (30% straw in dry matter that were consisted of, maize silage, concentrate and cracked maize, formulated to provide 150 g daily live weight gain for 21 d. Total mixed rations was prepared based on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Prior to feeding trial yearlings were acclimatized to their respective feed for a period of 14 d. Straws were included in total mixed rations following the chopping at 1-2 cm. Daily live weight gain and dry matter intake of yearlings fed with mixed ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straw were 88, 85 and 135 g/d (P=0.10 and 954, 931 and 1078 g/d (P=0.09, respectively. However, crude protein intake of yearlings (g/d fed with the ration containing buckwheat straw 14% higher than yearlings fed with the ration containing wheat or maize straw. It was concluded that performance of yearling fed with ration containing buckwheat straws was superior to performance of yearlings fed with ration containing wheat and maize straw, while performance of yearling fed with ration containing wheat or maize straw was similar.

  11. Optimization of the Separation Parameters and Indicators of Separation Efficiency of Buckwheat Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Konopka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The separation parameters and the indicators of separation efficiency for buckwheat seeds and impurities that are difficult to separate were optimized with the use of self-designed software based on genetic algorithms. The results of the calculations differed significantly from the suboptimal values determined in previous studies. The optimal values of the indicator of separation efficiency were higher; whereas the values of the indicator of buckwheat seed loss were significantly lower. The optimal working parameters for a seed separator in order to promote separation efficiency were determined.

  12. Concomitant sensitization to legumin, Fag e 2 and Fag e 5 predicts buckwheat allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiselhart, S; Nagl, C; Dubiela, P

    2018-01-01

    peptides, designated Fag e 4. All four allergens showed superior diagnostic precision compared to extract-based ImmunoCAP with high sensitivity as well as high specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinical symptoms clearly show a distinct allergen recognition pattern. We characterized a buckwheat...... vicilin-like protein as a new relevant marker allergen, designated Fag e 5. Additionally, another new allergen, Fag e 4, potentially important for cross-reactivity to latex was added to the allergen panel of buckwheat. Further, our data show that the full-length legumin comprising both, large and small...

  13. Comparison of spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat products after hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Danuta; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Zielinski, Henryk

    2007-07-25

    This paper reports the use of spectrophotometric and voltammetric methods for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat and its products originated from a technological line of a buckwheat roasted groats producer. 80% methanol extracts from raw and roasted buckwheat and groats and hulls obtained from roasted buckwheat were used. The spectrophotometric methods included (1) free radical scavenging activities of the extracts against ABTS*+ radical cation (TEAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH RSA) and (2) determination of reducing capacity by the means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) application. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were also investigated using a voltammetric assay. Moreover, the flavonoids profiles of the studied materials were provided. Buckwheat roasting caused a decrease in TEAC, DPPH RSA, and FCR reducing capacity by 70%. The lowest TEAC, DPPH RSA, and FCR reducing capacities were noted for roasted groats. Both DPPH RSA and TEAC methods were highly positively correlated with the FCR reducing capacity assay (r = 0.98 and r = 0.99). Cyclic voltammograms of analyzed buckwheat extracts were useful for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity. The total charge below the anodic current waveform was correlated with the data obtained by TEAC (r = 0.770), DPPH RSA (r = 0.88), and FCR reducing capacity (r = 0.81). The changes in the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat and its products followed the changes in flavonoids composition. In particular, the concentration of flavonoids was related to measurements by cyclic voltammetry.

  14. The phytotoxic action of triazine herbicides on flax, beets and buckwheat seedlings, and some physiological changes connected with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Płoszyński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that triazine herbicides exerted, when applied for a longer time, an increasing inhibitory effect on dry and fresh weight yields, transpiration and growth of the seedlings of flax, beet and buckwheat. At the same time enhanced accumulation of free amino acids and decrease of simple sugar values was noted in the aboveground parts of the test plants. The results are interpreted as the secondary effects of the inhibitory action of triazines on plant photosynthesis. The toxicity of the tested chemicals to flax, beet and buckwheat decreased in the following order: atrazine, simazine, propazine, atratone, prometone and prometryne. Flax was more resistant to triazines than beets and buckwheat.

  15. Effect of buckwheat extract on the antioxidant activity of lipid in mouse brain and its structural change during in vitro human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Park, Soo-Jeong; Jeong, Chang-Ho

    2011-10-12

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench cv. Yangjul No. 2) extract on the antioxidant activity of lipids in mouse brain and the structural change during in vitro human digestion. Buckwheat was collected from a wild farm and extracted with water. The buckwheat extracts were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juice. The results confirmed that the main phenolics of buckwheat extract were rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. The rutin content increased with digestion of the buckwheat (from 48.82 to 96.34 μg/g) and rutin standard samples (from 92.76 to 556.56 μg/g). Antioxidant activity was more strongly influenced by in vitro human digestion of both buckwheat and rutin standard. After digestion by the small intestine, the antioxidant activity values were dramatically increased (from 5.06 to 87.82%), whereas the antioxidant activity was not influenced by digestion in the stomach for both buckwheat extract and rutin standard. Inhibition of lipid oxidation of buckwheat in mouse brain lipids increased after digestion in the stomach for both buckwheat extract and the rutin standard. The major finding of this study was that in vitro human digestion may be an important modulator of the antioxidant capacity of buckwheat and that this may be because in vitro human digestion increased the antioxidative activity via an increase in antioxidants such as rutin and quercetin.

  16. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  17. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  18. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  19. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  20. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  1. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  2. Textural properties of bread formulations based on buckwheat and rye flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern nutrition and nutritionists worldwide more and more require high nutritional quality foods including breads. Products based on rye (Secale cereale L. and other cereals such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench provide nutritional benefits such as higher intake of fibre which has a positive effect on digestion and decreases a risk of obesity and heart disease, therefore current trend is to replace part of gluten breads with other cereal products. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in breads based on buckwheat and rye mixtures influenced by ratio of buckwheat and rye flour. Eleven ratios of buckwheat-rye flours were prepared. Dough and bread quality were tested in terms of dough machine workability, dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analyses 24 and 72 hours after baking. The results were statistically evaluated and showed that rising amount of rye flour in mixtures did not affect dough machine workability but improved all of the investigated texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads, no significant differences were found. All texture parameters deteriorated with staling time.

  3. VARIETAL DEPENDENCE OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT ANATOMICAL PARTS OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH IN DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Čičová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The pseudocereals such as buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth have attracted interest in recent years. One of the reasons for this renewed interest is their excellent nutrient profile. In addition to being one of the important energy sources due to their starch content, these pseudocereals provide good quality protein, dietary fibre and lipids rich in unsaturated fats. The aim of our work was to study antioxidant activity in 4 chosen cultivars of common buckwheat during vegetation period. Four cultivars were analysed: Špačinska, Bambi, Jana C1, Aiva. Samples of plant material were obtained from Plant Producion Research Centre in Piešťany. Antioxidant activity (AOA of stem, leaves, flowers and seeds of buckwheat was assessed with using of DPPH radical (2.2 – diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at wavelength 515.6 nm. The antioxidant activity of buckwheat was evaluated in growth phases I. (formations of buds, in phase II. (at the beginning of flowering, in phase III. (full flowering, in phase IV. (full ripeness. The antioxidant activity in stems of all tested cultivars of common buckwheat was in range from 49.109 % (Špačinska, phase I. to 73.705 % (Špačinska, phase IV.. The antioxidant activity in leaves of all tested varieties of common buckwheat was in range from 77.937 % (Bambi, phase IV. to 99.655 % (Bambi, phase II.. The antioxidant activity in flowers of all tested varieties of common buckwheat was in range from 88.75 % (Bambi, phase III. to 92.665 % (Špačinska, phase I.. The antioxidant activity in seeds of all tested cultivars of common buckwheat was in range from 39.787 % (Špačinska, phase III. to 88.241 % (Bambi, phase III.. From the standpoint of antioxidant activity in individual plant parts the cultivars Špačinska, Bambi were the most suitable ones for food productions.

  4. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  5. Characterization of growth and exopolysaccharide production of selected acetic acid bacteria in buckwheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ua-Arak, Tharalinee; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-12-19

    Sourdough technology is a promising approach to improve the quality of gluten-free (GF) breads. It offers replacement of currently used structure-forming commercial hydrocolloids by in situ produced exopolysaccharides (EPS). Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) can produce EPS of extremely high molecular weight, which are promising candidates for structure formation in breads. In this work, an alternative aerobic GF cereal fermentation by the levan producing AAB strains Gluconobacter albidus TMW 2.1191, Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680 and Neoasaia chiangmaiensis NBRC 101099 was established in buckwheat doughs containing molasses as a natural source of sucrose. All three strains reached up to 10(9)CFU/g dough at 48h and produced 16-20g/kg flour of fructans. The efficiency of EPS production was strain dependent and was additionally affected by initial molasses concentrations, inoculum sizes and dough yields, which influenced the respective bacterial growth and levan forming capabilities. G. albidus was the most competitive strain to grow in the buckwheat doughs, accordingly, the levan produced by this strain was further examined for its molecular mass and size determination. The structural analysis of levans from G. albidus in buckwheat doughs at 24 and 48h revealed the changes in particle sizes during fermentation. The ability of AAB strains to grow well and to produce high amounts of levan in situ in buckwheat-molasses doughs has opened a new possibility of using AAB doughs as a natural ingredient for quality improvement of GF baked products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tartary Buckwheat Genetic Diversity in the Himalayas Associated with Farmer Landrace Diversity and Low Dietary Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Weijuan Huang; Devra I. Jarvis; Selena Ahmed; Chunlin Long

    2017-01-01

    While crop genetic diversity supports ecological processes and food security, there have been few cross-cultural studies evaluating the influence of cultural and dietary factors on the conservation of genetic resources. This study examines genetic diversity patterns of tartary buckwheat in 18 smallholder farming communities across five regions of China (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan Province) and Bhutan managed by Yi, Tibetan, and Bhutanese farmers using ethnobotanical ...

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB). Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of...

  8. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P < 0.05). Egg production (9.4%), albumen weight (2.1%) and shell weight (5.8%) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in yolk weight, and total cholesterol (1.9%) and triglyceride (4.9%) in the yolk were lowered (P < 0.05). Fermented buckwheat as a feed additive has the potential to produce l-carnitine- and GABA-enriched designer eggs with enhanced nutrition and homeostasis. These designer eggs pose significant potential to be utilized in superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  10. Progress and prospects for interspecific hybridization in buckwheat and the genus Fagopyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler-Drienyovszki, Nóra; Cal, Andrew J; Dobránszki, Judit

    2013-12-01

    Cultivated buckwheat, such as common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) buckwheat, is one of the most versatile crops for forage and food and has several benefits for human health. Interspecific hybridization between Fagopyrum species is of great importance to improvement of buckwheat. Hybridization would allow the transfer of agronomical beneficial characteristics from wild Fagopyrum species, including self-pollination and increased fertility, frost tolerance, and higher content of beneficial compounds. However, conventional breeding methods are only partially applicable because of the self-incompatibility and incompatibility barriers between different species. Present review summarizes the morphology of self-incompatibility, the genetic and cellular basis of incompatibility between different Fagopyrum species. In many interspecific crosses hybrid embryos are aborted after successful pollination due to post-zygotic incompatibility. The use of in vitro embryo rescue after interspecific hybridization has been successful in circumventing breeding barriers between Fagopyrum species. Methods applied successfully for the construction of interspecific hybrids are discussed in detail. © 2013.

  11. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  12. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  13. Antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Bączek, Natalia; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from 16 types of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads was assessed. The methodology was based on the Global Antioxidant Response (GAR) which combined bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of the soluble fraction from digestible portion measured by the standard Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and antioxidant capacity of the insoluble fraction from the undigested portion by the QUENCHER method. The bioaccessibility of the phenolics was measured in the soluble fraction with Folin-Cicalteu reagent and in the insoluble fraction by modified QUENCHER method. The studies showed almost 20-fold higher GAR values as compared to the antioxidant capacity of the respective undigested reference breads. The bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of soluble fraction from digestible portion increased significantly whereas the undigested residue displayed antioxidant capacity that accounted for up to 15 % of the GAR. The bioaccessible phenolics accounted for up to 90 % of the total phenolics after digestion and were highly correlated with GAR results of buckwheat-enriched wheat breads. Our results indicate that in vitro digestion is the crucial step that releases of high amount of phenolic antioxidants. The combination of QUENCHER assay with Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) assay estimated on Folin-Ciocalteu reagent has been useful for the determination of the bioaccessible antioxidant activity and phenolics of the soluble and insoluble fraction of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads.

  14. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 152/2009. A modified version of Holt’s Method was used for phytic acid (phytate determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The content of crude protein in buckwheat flours was about 14%. The highest amount of phytate was found in common beans and soybeans-about 2 g/100 g of dry matter. On the other hand, the lowest phytate content was observed in buckwheat pasta (F. esculentum groats was 1.9 g per 100 g of dry matter. In vitro digestibility was determined using an incubator Daisy and pepsin enzymes and the combination of pepsin and pancreatin. The highest coefficient of crude protein digestibility was discovered to be in peels and wholemeal flour. The greatest fibre digestibility coefficients were obtained for peels, which contain about 65% of fibre in their dry matter. When pepsin was used, a higher phytic acid digestibility coefficient for G. max, Ph. vulgaris, peels, flour, groats and broken groats was observed; while when the combination of pepsin and pancreatin was used, higher phytic acid digestibility coefficients for peas, lentil and wholemeal flour were observed.

  15. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  16. Preference of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on zucchini squash and buckwheat and the effect of Delphastus catalinae on whitefly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, Janine M; Liburd, Oscar E; McSorley, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Zucchini squash, Cucurbita pepo L., is an important vegetable crop in Florida. Physiological disorders and insect-transmitted diseases are major problems for squash growers in semi-tropical regions around the world. Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B is a significant whitefly pest and is largely responsible for transmitting viruses and causing physiological disorders in squash. Several studies have shown that whitefly populations are reduced when crops are interplanted with non-host cover crops or mulches. The aim of the present study was to determine how the presence of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and a key predator, Delphastus catalinae (Horn), affect whitefly colonization on squash. Whitefly densities were higher on squash than on buckwheat. The introduction of D. catalinae on squash significantly reduced whitefly populations. Overall, there were higher densities of D. catalinae on squash where the whitefly pest was more concentrated compared with buckwheat. The study provided preliminary evidence that D. catalinae, when used in conjunction with buckwheat as a living mulch, may aid in reducing whiteflies in squash. This greenhouse experiment highlights the need to investigate a multitactic approach of intercropping buckwheat with squash and the incorporation of D. catalinae in the field to manage populations of whiteflies and whitefly-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment of buckwheat flour contaminated by thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) alkaloids: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perharič, Lucija; Koželj, Gordana; Družina, Branko; Stanovnik, Lovro

    2013-01-01

    In Slovenia, a mass poisoning incident involving 73 consumers with symptoms such as dry mouth, hot red skin, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, ataxia, speech disturbance, disorientation and visual hallucinations occurred in 2003. In all cases, consumers had eaten buckwheat flour food products within the last few hours. Investigations by responsible authorities identified the contamination of a range of buckwheat food products with thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) seeds containing toxic alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine. To ensure the safe consumption of buckwheat food products, we carried out risk characterisation and proposed provisional maximum residue levels (MRLs) of atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour. In the absence of critical "no observed adverse effect levels" for atropine and scopolamine, we based our estimation of the acute reference doses on the lowest recommended therapeutic doses. Taking into account the additive effect of the two alkaloids, we calculated acute reference doses of the mixture, that is 0.05 µg/kg of body mass for atropine and 0.03 µg/kg of body mass for scopolamine. MRLs for atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour were estimated in a worst-case scenario, that is consumption of 100 g of flour by a child weighing 10 kg and taking into account a range of atropine/scopolamine ratio in implicated food products, that is 0.85-3.3. We proposed the national MRLs for atropine/scopolamine mixture in buckwheat food products: 4.0 µg/kg (atropine) and 2.0 µg/kg(scopolamine). However, in view of the large variability in the alkaloid content, depending on the origin of the Datura, we propose that risk assessment should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the ratio between atropine and scopolamine content in a particular sample.

  19. Herbal complex of green buckwheat in the production technology of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using vegetable complex of green buckwheat in production technology cheesecakes. The unique chemical, rich mineral and vitamin composition buckwheat green indicates desirability of not only its use, but also th e possibility of using for cooking preventive and functional orientation. Using green buckwheat plant complex due to the hi gh water-holding ability to reduce the time of the process, eliminate some technological preparatory operations, such as pressing off. It is found that the maximum degree of swelling (2.5 g/g was observed at 40 oC and pH 4, 2. The time to reach an equilibrium state is reached after 30 minutes. On the basis of the research has been defined in a way to make plant complex curd basis, in an amount of from 10 to 70 % based on standardized physical-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of harmonious order to minimize-if-operation of flour to make the product functional and preventive properties. Technology of production of a pre -from adequate use of shock freezing, thus preserving the shape, color and flavor of the product. Microbiologists -cal studies analyzed frozen semi-finished products indicates that the microbiological-cal indicators remain stable throughout the shelf life. The use of herbal ingredients in the development of technology and the adjustment of the nutritional value of cheese bioproducts will solve the issue of their care-enrichment in essential micronutrients and natural way to improve the taste and increase the life -sti Useful developed products that currently is a modern and topical focus of research.

  20. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P cheese-making properties.

  1. Influence of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid on Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Park, Yun Ji; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2017-02-28

    We investigated the effects of natural plant hormones, indole-3-acetic (IAA) acid and gibberellic acid (GA), on the growth parameters and production of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in common buckwheat sprouts. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Among these, seven compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after treating the common buckwheat sprouts with different concentrations of the hormones IAA and GA. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/L, both IAA and GA exhibited the highest levels of growth parameters (shoot length, root length, and fresh weight). The HPLC analysis showed that the treatment of sprouts with IAA at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L produced higher or comparable levels of the total phenolic compounds than the control sprout and enhanced the production of rutin. Similarly, the supplementation with 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L GA increased the content of rutin in buckwheat sprouts. Our results suggested that the treatment with optimal concentrations of IAA and GA enhanced the growth parameters and accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts.

  2. Influence of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Gibberellic Acid on Phenylpropanoid Accumulation in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of natural plant hormones, indole-3-acetic (IAA acid and gibberellic acid (GA, on the growth parameters and production of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in common buckwheat sprouts. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Among these, seven compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after treating the common buckwheat sprouts with different concentrations of the hormones IAA and GA. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/L, both IAA and GA exhibited the highest levels of growth parameters (shoot length, root length, and fresh weight. The HPLC analysis showed that the treatment of sprouts with IAA at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L produced higher or comparable levels of the total phenolic compounds than the control sprout and enhanced the production of rutin. Similarly, the supplementation with 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L GA increased the content of rutin in buckwheat sprouts. Our results suggested that the treatment with optimal concentrations of IAA and GA enhanced the growth parameters and accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts.

  3. Forming and maintaining a collection of plant genetic resources of the Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill. genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Тригуб

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Providing information on the formation, composition, maintenance of the collection of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill. genus at Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production (Poltava region, and areas of its use: introduction, preservation and study of the material, for the set of index, formation of special collections and providing research and education institutions of Ukraine with a valuable original material. Methods. Methodical developments dealing with formation and maintenance of crop collections, methodical literature on the study of buckwheat collection for breeding and agronomic performance. Results. The author represented results of the collection material study for the main breeding and economically valuable traits including yield, productivity, resistance to abiotic and biotic factors of the environment. The results of work are considered aimed on creating special collections of the gene pool – base, trait (for yield and large seeds; for productivity, drought and heat resistance; for suitability for mechanical cultivation, educational and core ones. Conclusions. All formed and registered collections are a valuable base material for solving a number of breeding goals to increase the quantity and improve the quality of plant production.

  4. The prebiotic and protective effects of buckwheat flour and oat bran on Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida VASILE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During conservation, the probiotic bacteria currently used in food industry have been shown to have less viability in the matter of fermented products microbiota and also to present lower levels of colonization and survival in vivo. This study describes a new way of improving the behavior and functionality of Lactobacillus acidophilus - LA 5® commercial strain by using buckwheat flour (Fagopyrum esculentum and oat bran (Avena sativa as fermentation ingredients, in view of their high content of bioactive compounds that have a great impact both on fermentation microorganisms and consumers’ health. The effect of these two raw vegetal products on LA 5® strain was studied by cultivation on MRS broth and on milk. The supplementation of the fermentation medium with 4.0% - 6.0% of buckwheat flour or oat bran, respectively, had a positive effect on metabolic activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the rapid decrease of the pH and the increase of the multiplication rate were observed after 6 hours of lactic acid fermentation. Furthermore, the presence of the vegetal substrates substantially improved the cells survival during the storage of the fermented products for 28 days at 4 °C, comparing to samples without supplementation used as control.

  5. Influence of levan-producing acetic acid bacteria on buckwheat-sourdough breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ua-Arak, Tharalinee; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Buckwheat sourdoughs supplemented with molasses as natural sucrose source were fermented with levan-producing Gluconobacter (G.) albidus TMW 2.1191 and Kozakia (K.) baliensis NBRC 16680. Cell growth, concomitant levan and low-molecular-weight metabolite production were monitored. Sourdough breads were prepared with different sourdoughs from both strains (24, 30 and 48 h fermentation, respectively) and analyzed with respect to bread volume, crumb hardness and sensory characteristics. During fermentation, levan, acetic and gluconic acids were increasingly produced, while spontaneously co-growing lactic acid bacteria additionally formed acetic and lactic acids. Sourdoughs from both strains obtained upon 24 h of fermentation significantly improved the bread sensory and quality, including higher specific volume as well as lower crumb hardness. Buckwheat doughs containing isolated levan, with similar molecular size and mass compared to in situ produced levan in the sourdough at 48 h, verified the positive effect of levan on bread quality. However, the positive effects of levan were masked to a certain extent by the impact from the natural acidification during fermentations. While levan-producing acetic acid bacteria are a promising alternative for the development of clean-label gluten-free breads without the need of additives, an appropriate balance between acidification and levan production (amount and structure) must be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Inhibitory Effect of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts on Adipogenesis and Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak-Soon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum has been established globally as a nutritionally important food item, particularly owing to high levels of bioactive compounds such as rutin. This study investigated the effect of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBEs on adipogenesis and inflammatory response in 3T3-L1 cells. TBEs inhibited lipid accumulation, triglyceride content, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH activity during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3 L1 cells. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBP-α, adipocyte protein 2 (aP2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1, were suppressed by TBEs. They also reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. In addition, TBEs were decreased nitric oxide (NO production. These results suggest that TBEs may inhibit adipogenesis and inflammatory response; therefore, they seem to be beneficial as a food ingredient to prevent obesity-associated inflammation.

  7. The use of tartary buckwheat whole flour for bakery products: recent experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are paying increasing attention to the health subtle bearings of the food they consume. The term nutraceutical has been adopted to point to those food preparations which areacknowledged to possess health beneficial properties. Most of these properties rely on the presence of bioactive compounds in the various food ingredients. Among bioactive food components an importantgroup is represented by the flavonoids, of which rutin is credited to exert a multiplicity of health beneficial effects. Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum, whose whole flour contains high amounts of rutin (up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, offers the opportunity to obtain a new range of functional foods capable of providing the consumers effective amounts of such bioactive compound through the daily averageconsumption of traditional wheat based staples like bread and biscuits. A preliminary attempt was made to verify the possibility to secure, through the preventive nutrition approach, the multiplicity of health beneficial properties rutin is expected to exert, thanks to the introduction of a few percent of tartary buckwheat whole flour in the original recipe of some traditional backed foods typical of Tuscany, a Region of Central Italy.

  8. Identification, isolation and expression analysis of eight stress-related R2R3-MYB genes in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Yao, Hui-Peng; Li, Cheng-Lei; Chen, Hui; Wang, An-Hu; Park, Sang-Un; Wu, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Eight R2R3 - MYB genes in tartary buckwheat were identified, and their expression patterns were comprehensively analyzed, which reveals role in plant response to abiotic stresses. The proteins of the R2R3-MYB superfamily play key roles in the growth and development processes as well as defense responses in plants. However, their characteristics and functions have not been fully investigated in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), a strongly abiotic resistant coarse cereal. In this article, eight tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB genes were isolated with full-length cDNA and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the members of the R2R3-MYB superfamily between Arabidopsis and tartary buckwheat revealed that the assumed functions of the eight tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB proteins are divided into five Arabidopsis functional subgroups that are involved in abiotic stress. Expression analysis during abiotic stress and exogenous phytohormone treatments identified that the eight R2R3-MYB genes responded to one or more treatments. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the R2R3-MYB gene family in tartary buckwheat under abiotic stress.

  9. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  10. Tartary Buckwheat Genetic Diversity in the Himalayas Associated with Farmer Landrace Diversity and Low Dietary Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While crop genetic diversity supports ecological processes and food security, there have been few cross-cultural studies evaluating the influence of cultural and dietary factors on the conservation of genetic resources. This study examines genetic diversity patterns of tartary buckwheat in 18 smallholder farming communities across five regions of China (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan Province and Bhutan managed by Yi, Tibetan, and Bhutanese farmers using ethnobotanical surveys and DNA barcoding. Findings emphasize that high dietary dependence linked to a single crop may result in simplification of genetic diversity as well as agricultural systems and landscapes more broadly. We advocate for the diversification of crops in agricultural systems as well as diets through the integration of scientific research and farmers’ ecological knowledge and practices towards meeting global food security while supporting environmental well-being through biodiversity conservation.

  11. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  14. Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashita, J; Nagai, H; Kato, N

    1996-09-01

    Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.

  15. Effect of microbiological fertilizer and soil additive on yield of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moenchunder high altitude conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol and soil additives (zeolite and hydrogel on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench yield was investigated in this paper. Trial was set up in the village of Radijevići, Serbia in agroecological conditions of mountain Zlatar (altitude 1,065 m during a two-year period 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with four replications was set up. In organic cropping system three combinations of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol with zeolite and hydrogel were used prior to sowing. Different combinations of the microbiological fertilizer and the soil additives gave positive results especially in the second year of the trial. The best combination in organic cropping system was Slavol+hydrogel with foliar application of the microbiological fertilizer, which resulted in the greatest yield of buckwheat and this treatment can be recommended to producers. Buckwheat performed very well under limited conditions of acidic soil on high altitude in organic cropping system and it can be recommended as a very suitable crop for organic producers.

  16. Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor with helical hairpin structure belongs to a new family of plant defence peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Peter B; Mineev, Konstantin S; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Arseniev, Alexander S; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2012-08-15

    A new peptide trypsin inhibitor named BWI-2c was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by sequential affinity, ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. The peptide was sequenced and found to contain 41 amino acid residues, with four cysteine residues involved in two intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant BWI-2c identical to the natural peptide was produced in Escherichia coli in a form of a cleavable fusion with thioredoxin. The 3D (three-dimensional) structure of the peptide in solution was determined by NMR spectroscopy, revealing two antiparallel α-helices stapled by disulfide bonds. Together with VhTI, a trypsin inhibitor from veronica (Veronica hederifolia), BWI-2c represents a new family of protease inhibitors with an unusual α-helical hairpin fold. The linker sequence between the helices represents the so-called trypsin inhibitory loop responsible for direct binding to the active site of the enzyme that cleaves BWI-2c at the functionally important residue Arg(19). The inhibition constant was determined for BWI-2c against trypsin (1.7×10(-1)0 M), and the peptide was tested on other enzymes, including those from various insect digestive systems, revealing high selectivity to trypsin-like proteases. Structural similarity shared by BWI-2c, VhTI and several other plant defence peptides leads to the acknowledgement of a new widespread family of plant peptides termed α-hairpinins.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptomic and phylogenetic analyses reveal distinct aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in the aluminum-accumulating species buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haifeng; Wang, Hua; Zhu, Yifang; Zou, Jianwen; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Huang, Chao-Feng

    2015-01-21

    Similar to common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) shows a high level of aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. However, the molecular mechanisms for Al detoxification and accumulation are still poorly understood. To begin to elucidate the molecular basis of Al tolerance and accumulation, we used the Illumina high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to conduct a genome-wide transcriptome analysis on both tip and basal segments of the roots exposed to Al. By using the Trinity method for the de novo assembly and cap3 software to reduce the redundancy and chimeras of the transcripts, we constructed 39,815 transcripts with an average length of 1184 bp, among which 20,605 transcripts were annotated by BLAST searches in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that expression of genes involved in the defense of cell wall toxicity and oxidative stress was preferentially induced by Al stress. Our RNA-seq data also revealed that organic acid metabolism was unlikely to be a rate-limiting step for the Al-induced secretion of organic acids in buckwheat. We identified two citrate transporter genes that were highly induced by Al and potentially involved in the release of citrate into the xylem. In addition, three of four conserved Al-tolerance genes were found to be duplicated in tartary buckwheat and display diverse expression patterns. Nearly 40,000 high quality transcript contigs were de novo assembled for tartary buckwheat, providing a reference platform for future research work in this plant species. Our differential expression and phylogenetic analysis revealed novel aspects of Al-tolerant mechanisms in buckwheat.

  18. Fractionation of Buckwheat Seed Phenolics and Analysis of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamać Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fractions of phenolic compounds were obtained from the extract of common buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with methanol as a mobile phase. The total phenolics content ranged from 19.8±1.5 (fraction I to 164±2.2 mg (+-catechin eq/g (fraction IV. The profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the fractions were analysed using RP-HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was tested as ABTS⋅+ and DPPH⋅ scavenging activity and capability to reduce the Fe(III/2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl-s-triazine complex to the ferrous form. Results were expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, IC50 and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction IV that was predominated by flavones. TEAC, IC50 and FRAP values were: 1.47±0.01 mmol Trolox eq/g, 0.058±0.003 mg/assay and 2.18±0.05 mmol Fe(II/g, respectively. Rutin constituted 77.7% of the compounds identified in fraction III. The antiradical activity and reducing capability of this fraction were lower compared to fraction IV, but significantly higher than in fractions I and II. The main phenolic compounds of fractions I and II were phenolic acids (caffeic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and p-coumaric. The antioxidant activity of fraction V was similar to that of fraction III.

  19. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  1. The influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on its karyotype and protein profile during the fermentation of gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deželak, Matjaž; Gebremariam, Mekonnen M; Cadež, Neža; Zupan, Jure; Raspor, Peter; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2014-08-18

    Gluten-free beer-like beverages from malted buckwheat and quinoa are somehow close to their commercial production, but rather high expenses are expected due to the relatively high price of grain, some technological adaptations of process and the need for external enzyme supplementation during mashing. One of the common and efficient cost reduction measures in the industrial scale is serial repitching of the yeast biomass, which has not been studied for the buckwheat and quinoa wort fermentation before. In that manner we have monitored possible changes in yeast's proteins and chromosomal DNA during eleven serial repitchings of the yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain TUM 34/70 for fermentation of the barley, buckwheat and quinoa wort. Karyotypes showed changes in regard to the raw materials used and many responsible candidate proteins are suggested which could cause these differences. Different relative expressions of some protein bands were also linked to the proteins involved in yeast stress response and proteins involved in fermentation performance. Results suggest that serial repitching of the strain TUM 34/70 seems suitable for the production of gluten-free beer-like beverages from buckwheat and quinoa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products using modified QuEChERS and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-03-01

    A method was developed for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure was evaluated. Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) was studied as clean-up step, using graphitized black carbon (GBC) and primary secondary amine (PSA). The extract was diluted with water (50:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis. The method was validated and recoveries (except chia samples spiked at 10μg/kg) ranged from 75% to 92%. Intra and inter-day precision was lower than or equal to 17%. The limit of quantification of atropine and scopolamine was 0.4 and 2μg/kg, respectively. Eight types of samples (buckwheat, wheat, soy, buckwheat flour, buckwheat noodle, amaranth grain, chia seeds and peeled millet) were analyzed. Target compounds were not found above the detection limits of the method, but three transformation products of scopolamine (norscopine, hydroscopolamine and dihydroxyscopolamine) were putative identified in the tested samples using high resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive-Orbitrap). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory function in an in vivo amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Hae Song; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Young-Ho; Lee, Sanghyun

    2013-03-01

    Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat (TB) and common buckwheat (CB) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced impairment of cognition and memory function were investigated in vivo in order to identify potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated progressive memory deficits, cognitive impairment, and personality changes. An in vivo mouse model of AD was created by injecting the brains of ICR mice with Aβ(25-35), a fragment of the full-length Aβ protein. Damage of mice recognition ability through following Aβ(25-35) brain injections was confirmed using the T-maze test, the object recognition test, and the Morris water maze test. Results of behavior tests in AD model showed that oral administration of the methanol (MeOH) extracts of TB and CB improved cognition and memory function following Aβ(25-35) injections. Furthermore, in groups receiving the MeOH extracts of TB and CB, lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide levels in tissue, which are elevated by injection of Aβ(25-35), were also decrease. In particular, the MeOH extract of TB exerted a stronger protective activity than CB against Aβ(25-35)-induced memory and cognition impairment. The results indicate that TB may play a promising role in preventing or reversing memory and cognition loss associated with Aβ(25-35)-induced AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE PHENOLS ACCUMULATION IN TRANSFORMED ROOT CULTURES OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS SOURCES OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sytar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth parameters of transformed root cultures, total phenolic content and phenolic acids composition has been studied in root cultures, which were obtained from various explants of buckwheat by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4. The methods of obtaining of the transformed root cultures, total phenol estimation, gas-liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction has been used. Elevated levels of total phenols in transformed roots of buckwheat from different sources of explants have been found. The high content of chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-anisic and caffeic acids has been discovered in the root cultures, which can be used for their industrial production. Maximal root growth was equal 21.2 g/l of dry weight in the roots as source for root culture, 17.7 g/l with leaves and 14.6 g/l with stems at 3 week after placement. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction amplification was confirmed that the rol B gene (652 bp which transferred info hairy roots from Ri-plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for induction of root from plant species.

  5. Nutritive value of green or yellow foxtail, wild oats, wild buckwheat or redroot pigweed seed as determined with the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, R L; Craig, D L; Nalewaja, J D; North, B B

    1980-07-01

    Pure green foxtail (Setaria viridis Beauv.), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens Hubb.), wild oats (Avena fatua L.), wild buckwehat (Polygonum convolvulus L.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds were fed to growing male rats in two experiments. In the first experiment, green or yellow foxtail and wild oats seeds were found to be first-limiting in the amino acid lysine. Green or yellow foxtail seed supplemented with lysine produced satisfactory rat growth. Digestible energy (DE) values of lysine-supplemented diets were: 3.478, 3.068 and 2.696 kcal/g dry matter (DM) for green foxtail, yellow foxtail and wild oats, respectively. Protein digestibility values were 77.1, 68.6 and 54.2 for the respective diets. Wild oats were accepted poorly by the rats, even after lysine supplementation. In the second experiment, rats required approximately 7 days to adapt to voluntary consumption of an amino acid-supplemented wild buckwheat diet. Moderate weight gain of weanling male rats was obtained because of high consumption of the wild buckwheat diet, which had 2.206 kcal DE/g DM and 52.5% crude protein digestibility. In contrast, initial high acceptability of the redroot pigweed diet quickly declined. Digestibility values for the redroot pigweed diet were 2.884 kcal DE/g DM and 54.6% rude protein digestibility. The relationship between digestibility values obtained with rats and those obtained with swine is discussed.

  6. Recombinant Buckwheat Trypsin Inhibitor Induces Mitophagy by Directly Targeting Mitochondria and Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Hep G2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuanhua; Li, Shanshan; Ren, Rong; Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong

    2015-09-09

    Mitochondria are essential targets for cancer chemotherapy and other disease treatments. Recombinant buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (rBTI), a member of the potato type I proteinase inhibitor family, was derived from tartary buckwheat extracts. Our results showed that rBTI directly targeted mitochondria and induced mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. This occurs through enhanced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation associated with the rise of the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) content, and changes in the GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio. Mild and transient ROS induced by rBTI were shown to be important signaling molecules required to induce Hep G2 mitophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria. Furthermore, rBTI could directly induce mitochondrial fragmentation. It was also noted that rBTI highly increased colocalization of mitochondria in treated cells compared to nontreated cells. Tom 20, a subunit of the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane complex responsible for recognizing mitochondrial presequences, may be the direct target of rBTI.

  7. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradish, Angela E; Cutler, G Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Al-Induced Genes in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Root Apex: New Insight into Al Toxicity and Resistance Mechanisms in an Al Accumulating Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Relying on Al-activated root oxalate secretion, and internal detoxification and accumulation of Al, buckwheat is highly Al resistant. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these processes are still poorly understood. It is well-known that root apex is the critical region of Al toxicity that rapidly impairs a series of events, thus, resulting in inhibition of root elongation. Here, we carried out transcriptome analysis of the buckwheat root apex (0–1 cm with regards to early response (first 6 h to Al stress (20 μM, which is crucial for identification of both genes and processes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. We obtained 34,469 unigenes with 26,664 unigenes annotated in the NCBI database, and identified 589 up-regulated and 255 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs under Al stress. Functional category analysis revealed that biological processes differ between up- and down-regulated genes, although ‘metabolic processes’ were the most affected category in both up- and down-regulated DEGs. Based on the data, it is proposed that Al stress affects a variety of biological processes that collectively contributes to the inhibition of root elongation. We identified 30 transporter genes and 27 transcription factor (TF genes induced by Al. Gene homology analysis highlighted candidate genes encoding transporters associated with Al uptake, transport, detoxification, and accumulation. We also found that TFs play critical role in transcriptional regulation of Al resistance genes in buckwheat. In addition, gene duplication events are very common in the buckwheat genome, suggesting a possible role for gene duplication in the species’ high Al resistance. Taken together, the transcriptomic analysis of buckwheat root apex shed light on the processes that contribute to the inhibition of root elongation. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis of both transporter genes and TF genes not only deep our understanding on

  9. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  10. In vitro digestibility and changes in physicochemical and structural properties of common buckwheat starch affected by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Wang, Lijing; Cao, Rong; Fan, Huanhuan; Wang, Min

    2016-06-25

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal processing technology, was applied at 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600MPa to assess its effect on the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of common buckwheat starch (CBS). HHP treatment resulted in CBS granules with more rough surfaces. With the increasing pressure level, amylose content, pasting temperature, and thermal stability substantially increased and relative crystallinity, hardness, swelling power, and viscosity decreased. At 120-480MPa, HHP did not affect the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of CBS. However, at 600MPa, HHP contributed to a similar 'B'-type pattern. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified CBS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced content of rapidly digestible starch, and increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results revealed that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of CBS are effectively modified by HHP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the influence of buckwheat bran on wheat dough baking performance: Mechanistic insights from molecular and material science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Miriam; Marti, Alessandra; Marengo, Mauro; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, M Ambrogina; Renzetti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    A molecular and material science approach is used to describe the influence of coarse and fine buckwheat bran on wheat dough properties and bread textural quality. Focus is given on (i) gluten solvation and structural arrangements in presence of bran as studied by front-face fluorescence; (ii) thermo-mechanical behavior of dough during heating studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and (iii) texture of bread crumb analyzed in terms of a cellular solid. The thermo-mechanical behavior of dough was found to be largely related to starch phase transitions during heating. The use of thermodynamic approaches to biopolymer melting revealed that key transitions such as the onset of starch gelatinization were function of the interplay of water and bran volume fractions in the dough. Front-face fluorescence studies in wheat dough revealed that gluten solvation and structural arrangements were delayed by increasing bran addition level and reduction in particle size, as indicated by the drastic decrease in the protein surface hydrophobicity index. Variations in gluten structure could be strongly related to dough baking performance, i.e. specific volume. With regards to texture, the approach revealed that crumb texture was controlled by variations in density, moisture and bran volume fractions. Overall, this study elucidates a number of physical mechanisms describing the influence of buckwheat bran addition to dough and bread quality. These mechanisms strongly pointed at the influence of bran on water partitioning among the main polymeric components. In the future, these mechanisms should be investigated with bran material of varying source, composition and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra Amit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic

  13. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset

  14. Expansion of the IR in the chloroplast genomes of buckwheat species is due to incorporation of an SSC sequence that could be mediated by an inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aii, J; Kishima, Y; Mikami, T; Adachi, T

    1997-03-01

    The chloroplast genomes in buckwheat species contain large inverted repeats which are at least 4 kbp longer than the majority of those in land plants. The length of the buckwheat inverted repeats was attributable to an additional region located adjacent to the borders of the small single-copy region. We have cloned and sequenced a 5. 2-kbp SmaI fragment corresponding to this extra region in the inverted repeats. A homology search revealed that the sequence of the SmaI fragment is highly homologous to one side of the small single-copy region of the inverted repeats in dicot chloroplast DNAs such as tobacco and beechdrops. Interestingly, a 3.7-kbp segment in the middle of the SmaI fragment is inserted in the opposite orientation relative to those of the other dicot species, and 17-bp direct repeats are found located at both the ends of the additional region. These results suggest that expansion of the inverted repeats in buckwheat chloroplast DNA might have been associated with an inversion.

  15. Are tropane alkaloids present in organic foods? Detection of scopolamine and atropine in organic buckwheat (Fagopyron esculentum L.) products by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirlini, Martina; Demuth, Teresa M; Biancardi, Alberto; Rychlik, Michael; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Bruni, Renato

    2018-01-15

    A closer monitoring of tropane alkaloids (TA) in foods is now recommended by the European Commission, following a series of alerts related to the contamination of buckwheat with weeds of the genus Datura. A novel, accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the rapid detection of scopolamine and atropine in buckwheat foods. A suitable extraction protocol was set up to maximize recoveries and detection limits in different raw, processed and baked foods. The method offers good performances in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and precision, with LOQs at 0.04 and 0.10µg/kg. The established method is suitable for routine determination of trace levels of TA and was applied to 26 different buckwheat-derived organic foods, detecting TA in 3 samples (13.9-83.9µg/kg for atropine and 5.7-10.4µg/kg for scopolamine). Only in one case the level of contamination was relevant in terms of food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM ON THE KINETICS OF THE SWELLING OF GREEN BUCKWHEAT FLAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of green buckwheat flakes, especially swelling of the flakes at different process conditions. The process of swelling depends on the nature of the high molecular compound, temperature, composition and pH of the absorbing liquid and can flow unrestricted and restricted. With a limited degree of swelling of the swelling reaches the limit and is no longer changing. As a result of limited swelling formed jelly. If the limit value of the degree of swelling in contact with a further high-molecular compound and a solvent is reduced, there is an unlimited swelling. In this case, the swelling of the first stage of dissolution. Unlimited swell polymers with weak intermolecular bonds. Character of the process has an impact on quality indicators and semi-finished products. The resulting kinetic curves indicate limited swelling main components of green buckwheat flakes in all test solutions. In the alkaline pH range, partial dissolution occurred certain components, but the general nature of the process is not appreciably affected. The paper identified the maximum degree and the rate constant swelling green buckwheat flakes in solutions with different pH. To quantify the extent and limit of the rate constant swelling high-molecular compound at different process conditions (type of solvent, temperature, pH determine the degree of swelling at specified intervals and construct the kinetic curve swelling. The acidity of the medium affects mainly on swelling polyampholytes, which are the proteins that make up most of the swell components flakes green buckwheat. Depending on the pH of the protein macromolecule adopt different conformations. The minimum degree of swelling of the protein corresponds to its isoelectric point at which stipulates equality of positive and negative charges in the macromolecule and it rolled into a ball or globule, which hinders the penetration of solvent molecules into the matrix of high-molecular compound

  17. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-07-17

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering.

  18. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  20. Development and characterization of bacterial cellulose reinforced biocomposite films based on protein from buckwheat distiller's dried grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiao; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Xuchun; Guo, Yan; Chen, Lin; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2017-03-01

    Biocomposite films were manufactured by combining protein extracted from buckwheat distiller's dried grains with bacterial cellulose (BC). The film microstructures showed that BC is compatible with protein matrix and endows the film with high rigidity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that BC can promote thermal stability of the composite films. BC promoted the transition from a Newtonian to a non-Newtonian fluid and the shear thinning behavior of protein-BC solution. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the main functional groups' absorption peaks shifted to lower wavenumbers. Results of both FTIR and viscosity analysis proved the formation of intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds. These bonds affected film characteristics such as moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS), and water vapor permeability (WVP), which decreased with addition of BC. The WVP (6.68±0.78-5.95±0.54×10(-10)gm/Pasm(2)) of the films were lower than other protein films. Tensile strength (TS) values of films containing 1.8% and 2.0% BC (14.98±0.97 and 15.03±2.04MPa) were significantly higher than that of pure protein films (4.26±0.66MPa). Combination of proteins extracted from a waste product and BC led to composite films with low water vapor permeability and excellent mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remodeling of the composition of the membrane’s lipids of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under conditions of phosphorous deficiency and seed bacterization with phosphate solubilizing microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia SVIETLOVA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results on the sensitivity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. inoculated with phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM to phosphorus deficiency using the transformation of major photosynthetic tissues membrane lipids as the indicator. The analysis of glyco- and phospholipids performed has revealed the plants’ ability to react to a deficit in phosphorus with the selective accumulation of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG along with a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol (PG. Pre-sowing seed bacterization with PSM has balanced out the negative impact of a phosphorus deficiency on plants by stabilizing the PG content and reducing the difference in the PG/SQDG ratio.

  2. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  3. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3(,) H1, FtF3'H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  4. Effect of different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains on hairy root induction and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye eThwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as FtPAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3,H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 µg/mg DW, respectively, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 µg /g DW, respectively, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 µg /g DW, respectively. A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  5. Effects of adlay, buckwheat, and barley on transit time and the antioxidative system in obesity induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Yun; Son, Bo Kyung; Lee, Sang Sun

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we examined whether four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) affect the duration of food residence in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic enzyme activities in rats fed different combinations of the grains. The rats were raised for 4 weeks on a high fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into four groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the grains. Corresponding to the dietary fiber contents of the experimental grains, gut transit time was shortest in the rats fed GB and increased in the order of BW, AD, and WR. In addition, the accumulated shortest transit time occurred in the GB group. Gut transit time affected weight gain and major organ weight, as it was closely related to the absorption of nutrients. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver was higher in rats fed WR, AD, BW, and GB, indicating that the other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group. In conclusion, reduced colonic transit time has been implicated in reducing the incidence of colon cancer, as evidenced by populations consuming diets rich in fiber. Whole grains such as AD, BW, and GB may contribute to a significant supply of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress if they are consumed in large amounts.

  6. Effect of adlay, buckwheat and barley on lipid metabolism and aorta histopathology in rats fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jung Yun; Lee, Sang Sun

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality of adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW) and waxy barley (WB), with particular respect to their fiber components. Plasma lipid parameters, gut transit time and thickness of the aortic wall in rats fed with different grains were evaluated and compared with rats fed on white rice (WR). The rats were then raised for 4 weeks on an obesogenic diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93 G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids. 40 male rats were divided into 4 groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the following grains: WR, AD, BW, or WB. Gut transit time was shortened depending on the grain, with the WB group having the shortest time, followed by the BW group and the AD group, and then the WR group. Plasma lipid profiles differed significantly according to grain combination, and the levels of triglycerides in the AD, BW and WB groups were significantly lower than that in the WR group. The BW and WB groups showed lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C, and higher HDL-C than the WR group, although the group fed on AD did not show such results owing to the high content of lipids and calories. Accordingly, the reduction in gut transit time resulted in decreasing levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C. Rats fed on WB and BW showed significantly larger aortic lumen than those fed with AD and WR. Also the wall thickness of the WB group was significantly thinner than that of the WR group. Consumption of BW- and WB-containing diets significantly improved several cardiovascular risk factors induced by obesity in experimental rats. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  8. Inhibition of buckwheat starch digestion by the formation of starch/bile salt complexes: possibility of its occurrence in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2011-06-08

    During the digestion of starch in foods, starch is mixed with bile in the duodenum. Because fatty acids and some kinds of polyphenols could bind to starch, it was postulated that bile salts might also bind to starch. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of bile and bile salts on starch/iodine complex formation and pancreatin-induced starch digestion. Bile suppressed starch/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced starch digestion slightly in control buckwheat starch, but did so significantly in buckwheat starch from which fatty acids and polyphenols had been extracted. Such significant suppression and inhibition by bile were also observed in a reagent soluble starch. The effects of cholate and taurocholate on the starch/iodine complex formation and the pancreatin-induced starch digestion were essentially the same as those of bile. Bile, cholate, and taurocholate suppressed amylose/iodine complex formation more significantly than amylopectin/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced amylose digestion more effectively than the digestion of amylopectin. It is concluded from the results that bile salts could bind to starch, especially amylose, the helical structures of which were not occupied by other molecules such as fatty acids and polyphenols, and that the binding resulted in the inhibition of starch digestion by pancreatin. The conclusion suggests that the function of bile salts can be discussed from the point of not only lipid digestion but also starch digestion.

  9. Uncovering the relationship and mechanisms of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum and Type II diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia using a network pharmacology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Long Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Tartary buckwheat (TB, a crop rich in protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids, has been reported to have an effect on Type II diabetes (T2D, hypertension (HT, and hyperlipidemia (HL. However, limited information is available about the relationship between Tartary buckwheat and these three diseases. The mechanisms of how TB impacts these diseases are still unclear. Methods In this study, network pharmacology was used to investigate the relationship between the herb as well as the diseases and the mechanisms of how TB might impact these diseases. Results A total of 97 putative targets of 20 compounds found in TB were obtained. Then, an interaction network of 97 putative targets for these compounds and known therapeutic targets for the treatment of the three diseases was constructed. Based on the constructed network, 28 major nodes were identified as the key targets of TB due to their importance in network topology. The targets of ATK2, IKBKB, RAF1, CHUK, TNF, JUN, and PRKCA were mainly involved in fluid shear stress and the atherosclerosis and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Finally, molecular docking simulation showed that 174 pairs of chemical components and the corresponding key targets had strong binding efficiencies. Conclusion For the first time, a comprehensive systemic approach integrating drug target prediction, network analysis, and molecular docking simulation was developed to reveal the relationships and mechanisms between the putative targets in TB and T2D, HT, and HL.

  10. Diversity and pollination value of insects visiting the flowers of a rare buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum: Polygonaceae in disturbed and “natural” areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griswold, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared flower-visitors of the endangered plant Eriogonum pelinophilum, at relatively undisturbed and highly disturbed sites. We found no difference between sites in flower visitation rate or species richness of flower-visitors; species diversity of flower-visitors was higher at disturbed than at undisturbed sites but there was no difference in equitability. We found significant differences in total E. pelinophilum pollen carried on the body among 14 abundant bee species; eight abundant wasp species; and 12 abundant fly species. Both bee and wasp species carried significantly more pollen on the ventral compared to dorsal segments of the body; pollen on the body of fly species was more equally distributed across body surfaces. Total pollen carried on flower-visitor bodies was significantly related to visitor length, suggesting that larger visitors were more effective pollinators. Total Pollination Value, a measure combining both visitor abundance and body pollen was greater at the disturbed site than the undisturbed site, further suggesting that pollination in fragments of this rare species is not a major concern. We conclude that the high diversity of insect flower-visitors and the generalized nature of E. pelinophilum flowers make a special management programme to conserve pollinators unnecessary. Conservation of this buckwheat is best achieved by simple habitat preservation, together with a program to enlist private citizens to include buckwheat plants in their backyard gardens.

  11. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  12. Impact of Processing on the Protein Quality of Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flours and Blends, As Determined by in Vitro and in Vivo Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam; Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Neufeld, Jason; House, James D

    2017-05-17

    Blending of protein sources can increase protein quality by compensating for limiting amino acids present in individual sources, whereas processing grain flours by extrusion or baking can also alter protein quality. To determine the effect of baking and extrusion on the protein quality of blended flours from buckwheat and pinto beans, a rodent bioassay was performed and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. Overall, extruded products had higher protein efficiency ratio values, increased digestibility, and greater protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) values than baked products, with the extruded buckwheat/pinto blend having the greatest PDCAAS value of the experimental diets investigated. A correlation was found between both digestibility and PDCAAS values generated from in vitro and in vivo methods. The use of in vitro digestibility analysis should be investigated as a potential replacement for the current rodent assay for nutrient content claim purposes.

  13. Phenolics extracted from tartary (Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) buckwheat bran exhibit antioxidant activity, and an antiproliferative effect on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through the p38/MAP kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Yao; Lu, Keke; Yin, Ran; Ming, Jian

    2017-01-25

    Phenolics extracted from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) bran were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The bioactivity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, such as the antioxidant activity, and the inhibition capacity on the growth of cancer cells. The molecular mechanism for the inhibitive effect on cancer cells was explored. Results indicated that tartary buckwheat bran phenolics mainly exist in a free form, and free phenolics were twice as abundant as bound phenolics. Free caffeic acid (119.75 μg per 100 mg DW) and bound rutin (51.66 μg per 100 mg DW) represented the main free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. The free phenolic extract contributed to the major (>90%) antioxidant activities including the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The free phenolic extract exhibited anticancer activity for human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This significant inhibition effect was achieved through the p38/MAP kinase pathway by inducing cell apoptosis (up-regulating p-p38 and p-ASK1 expressions and down-regulating TRAF2 and p-p53 expressions), and negatively regulating the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 to S phase (increased expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of PCNA, cyclin D1 and CDK4). All these results indicated that tartary buckwheat bran could be a rich resource of natural antioxidants and inhibitors for the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells.

  14. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-04

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  15. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. © 2013.

  16. Age estimates for the buckwheat family Polygonaceae based on sequence data calibrated by fossils and with a focus on the amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja M Schuster

    Full Text Available The buckwheat family Polygonaceae is a diverse group of plants and is a good model for investigating biogeography, breeding systems, coevolution with symbionts such as ants and fungi, functional trait evolution, hybridization, invasiveness, morphological plasticity, pollen morphology and wood anatomy. The main goal of this study was to obtain age estimates for Polygonaceae by calibrating a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, using a relaxed molecular clock with fossil data. Based on the age estimates, we also develop hypotheses about the historical biogeography of the Southern Hemisphere group Muehlenbeckia. We are interested in addressing whether vicariance or dispersal could account for the diversification of Muehlenbeckia, which has a "Gondwanan" distribution. Eighty-one species of Polygonaceae were analysed with MrBayes to infer species relationships. One nuclear (nrITS and three chloroplast markers (the trnL-trnF spacer region, matK and ndhF genes were used. The molecular data were also analysed with Beast to estimate divergence times. Seven calibration points including fossil pollen and a leaf fossil of Muehlenbeckia were used to infer node ages. Results of the Beast analyses indicate an age of 110.9 (exponential/lognormal priors/118.7 (uniform priors million years (Myr with an uncertainty interval of (90.7-125.0 Myr for the stem age of Polygonaceae. This age is older than previously thought (Maastrichtian, approximately 65.5-70.6 Myr. The estimated divergence time for Muehlenbeckia is 41.0/41.6 (39.6-47.8 Myr and its crown clade is 20.5/22.3 (14.2-33.5 Myr old. Because the breakup of Gondwana occurred from 95-30 Myr ago, diversification of Muehlenbeckia is best explained by oceanic long-distance and maybe stepping-stone dispersal rather than vicariance. This study is the first to give age estimates for clades of Polygonaceae and functions as a jumping-off point for future studies on the historical biogeography of the family.

  17. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary effects of chitosan and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fagopyrum esculentum) alone or in combination with chitosan, in broiler diets, on the growth, feed intake and serum lipid profile of broilers. Starting as 10-day olds, 144 Cobb 500 broiler chicks were fed six manually prepared diets containing ...

  19. Dietary effects of chitosan and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sohel

    2015-11-04

    Nov 4, 2015 ... 10% BW+. 500 mg/kg chitosan. Feed Ingredients (%). Maize. 55. 45. 35. 25. 45. 45. Soybean meal. 20.8. 20.3. 20.0. 20.8. 20.3. 20.3. Rice polish. 10.7. 10.7. 10.7. 10.7. 10.7. 10.7. Meat and bone meal. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. Soybean oil. 3. 2.7. 2.6. 3. 2.7. 2.7. Limestone. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Di-calcium phosphate. 0.7. 0.7.

  20. The Content of Dietary Fibre and Polyphenols in Morphological Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Sulewska, Hanna; Kreft, Ivan; Gujska, Elżbieta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2018-02-12

    In this report, we presented the profile of polyphenolic substances in flowers, leaves, stalk and roots of Fagopyrum tataricum estimated by using RP-UHPLC-ESI-MS equipment (reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry). The neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose were also determined. Flowers, leaves, stalk and roots showed varying levels of dietary fibre and polyphenols. The highest content of neutral and acid detergent fibre were found in the roots (63.92 and 45.45% d.m., respectively) while the most rich in phenolic compounds were flowers (4.8 mg/1 g d.m.). Root and stalk contained the highest level of cellulose, 38.70 and 25.57% d.m., respectively. Among the investigated polyphenolic substances such as: 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydrobenzoic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, fagopyrin, ferulic acid, myricetin, gallic acid, isovanilic acid, isovitexin, kaempferol, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, procyanidin B2, quercetin, quercetin 3-D galactoside, rutin, syringic acid and vitexin, we observed that the contents of rutin and chlorogenic acid were the highest. We found some correlation between dietary fibre fractions and individual phenolic substances. The levels of acid detergent fibre (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose were negatively correlated with isovitexin, kaempferol, vitexin, fagopyrin, caffeic acid and procyanidin B2 content. In this investigation, two solvents (water and methanol) were estimated regarding their extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds. Taking these results into consideration, we recommend using methanol as the extractor to isolate chlorogenic acid, fagopyrin, kaempferol, procyanidin B2, quercetin, quercetin 3-D-galactoside, rutin, vitexin, and water for other investigated polyphenolic substances obtained from Fagopyrum tataricum.

  1. Chemsearch Journal Volume 4 Number 1, June, 2013

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magashi

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... buckwheat can be safely eaten by people who have celiac disease as it does not contain gluten. Buckwheat can be a good substitute for wheat, oats, rye and barley in a gluten-free diet. Buckwheat's well-balanced starch, protein, fat and mineral composition has found a renewed interest, particularly among ...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1002 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materially discolored and damaged by heat. (d) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn..., rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, and wheat. (e) Sieves...

  3. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and damaged by heat. (d) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, guar, hull..., sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. Principles...

  4. Environ: E00688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00688 Rheum compactum, Rheum franzenbachii, Rheum collinianum rhizome Crude drug Rheum compact...eae (buckwheat family) Rheum compactum, Rheum franzenbachii, Rheum collinianum rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br083...05] Dicot plants: others Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) E00688 Rheum compactum, Rheum franzenbachii, Rheum collinianum rhizome ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) on the performance and serum lipid profile of broiler chicks. Abstract PDF · Vol 46, No 1 (2016) - Articles Dietary effects of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed on growth performance, serum lipid profile and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks

  6. Archeological Test Excavations at Eight Sites in the Lake Sharpe Project Area of Hughes, Lyman, and Stanley Counties, South Dakota 1987. Appendixes A-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    showy clusters of small pinkish flowers. Two species of beebaim (Monarde fistulosa and Monarda oectinata) are presently found in the region (Johnson...21 Buckwheat or Dock (Polvoonum or Rumex) .................................................................. 21 Beebalm ( Monarda ...Botanical Sample) Cat. 0 Identification Common Name Part Whole Fragment 39HU83 804 Monarda Beebalm seed 2 Polvoonum or Rumex Buckwheat or Dock seed 3 Vitis

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Fatigue Activity of Flavonoids from Tartary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Flavonoids are the major biological activities components of tartary buckwheat which has multifunctional bioactivities. However, there are a limited number of studies on the effect of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (TBF) on physical fatigue at present. This study aimed to investigate the anti-fatigue activity of ...

  8. Fagopyrum esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Glauser, Gaétan; Etter, Clément; Signarbieux, Constant; Wirth, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Weed control by crops through growth suppressive root exudates is a promising alternative to herbicides. Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is known for its weed suppression and redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) control is probably partly due to allelopathic root exudates. This work studies whether other weeds are also suppressed by buckwheat and if the presence of weeds is necessary to induce growth repression. Buckwheat and different weeds were co-cultivated in soil, separating roots by a mesh allowing to study effects due to diffusion. Buckwheat suppressed growth of pigweed, goosefoot and barnyard grass by 53, 42, and 77% respectively without physical root interactions, probably through allelopathic compounds. Root exudates were obtained from sand cultures of buckwheat (BK), pigweed (P), and a buckwheat/pigweed mixed culture (BK-P). BK-P root exudates inhibited pigweed root growth by 49%. Characterization of root exudates by UHPLC-HRMS and principal component analysis revealed that BK and BK-P had a different metabolic profile suggesting that buckwheat changes its root exudation in the presence of pigweed indicating heterospecific recognition. Among the 15 different markers, which were more abundant in BK-P, tryptophan was identified and four others were tentatively identified. Our findings might contribute to the selection of crops with weed suppressive effects.

  9. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... damaged by heat. (e) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed, guar..., sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 × 3...

  10. 7 CFR 810.2002 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, wheat...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2202 - Definition of other terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shrunken and broken kernels. (h) Other grains. Barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed..., safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, and wild oats. (i) Shrunken and...

  12. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de ...

  13. Diabetes and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more. Gluten-free starches The following grains and starches are allowed on a gluten-free diet: Amaranth Arrowroot Beans/legumes Buckwheat Corn Millet Nut Flours Potato Quinoa Rice Sorghum Soy Tapioca Teff This document may ...

  14. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...

  15. Environ: E00127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00127 Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum rhizome Crude drug Rheum palmatum [TAX:137221], Rheum tangut...icum [TAX:137226] Same as: D06756 Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum rhizome ...

  16. 40 CFR 180.412 - Sethoxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pleasure, seed 35.0 Grape 1.0 Grape, raisin 2.0 Hare's ear mustard, seed 35.0 Hog, fat 0.2 Hog, meat 0.2... Mustard, seed 35.0 Nectarine 0.2 Nut, tree, group 14 0.2 Oil radish, seed 35.0 Okra 2.5 Pea and bean... Blueberry 4.0 Borage, meal 10 Borage, seed 6.0 Buckwheat, flour 25 Buckwheat, grain 19 Caneberry subgroup 13...

  17. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising.......Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  18. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  19. Colour change of bakery products influenced by used additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Čáslavková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the effects of selected additions of vegetable origin on the colour of whole grain breads. The colour was assessed using model samples which were made of mixtures containing various wholemeal flour types (wheat, spelt, and rye flour and increasing amounts of additions in the form of buckwheat, oat, and barley flour. The additions were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent. Colour measurement was performed instrumentally, using an image analysis method which was modified for the purposes of this study. It was found out that, regardless of the flour/addition ratio, both factors in the form of wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour, and barley, oat and buckwheat flour additions and their interactions exhibited a significant influence on the colour of the bakery products (P P < 0.05 were found for the following combinations: mixture of wheat flour with buckwheat, barley, and oat; mixture of spelt flour with buckwheat and oat; and mixture of rye flour with buckwheat and barley. The proposed general regression model which was created using the data obtained in the experiment, showed colour variability of more than 95 per cent.

  20. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Chaĭkina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts.

  2. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef G.N. Gabrial

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast and second meal (standardised lunch in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively. Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    to his vegetation type include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus ), needle-and thread, phlox, lupine ( Lupinus sp.), and buckwheat (Montana...conservation areas in relation to the communication sites. The federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus ) prefers large, turbid rivers...and Endangered Species within the ROI Common Name Scientific Name Federal Status Fish Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirynchus albus E Birds Bald Eagle

  4. 75 FR 65646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... take of the federally endangered El Segundo Blue Butterfly incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would result in the loss of Coast Buckwheat, which serves as butterfly habitat. We invite comments... Plan (HCP), and on our preliminary determination that the HCP qualifies as a low-effect plan that is...

  5. Dietary composite dry mixture in the production of flour culinary and functionality products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Belokurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Article contains information about new technologies of flour and bakery products on the basis of multicomponent structure products or the flour composite mixes executed from a flour of pumpkin and a thistle, a dry leaf of a stevia and dry lactulose, and also mixes from different types of grain, such as: corn, buckwheat, rice, millet.

  6. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 46, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary effects of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed on growth performance, serum lipid profile and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MS Islam, MN Siddiqui, MA Sayed, ...

  7. Discrimination of Polish unifloral honeys using overall PTR-MS and HPLC fingerprints combined with chemometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kus, P.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 62 honey samples of six floral origins (rapeseed, lime, heather, cornflower, buckwheat and black locust) were analysed by means of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and HPLC-DAD. The data were evaluated by principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbours

  8. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Niu, Bei; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin

    2016-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts), 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts), 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts), and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment: Western Range Command Transmit Site Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    Artemisia californica), black sage (Salvia me/litera), silver lupine (Lupinus chamissonis), coastal buckwheat (Eriogonum parvifolium), California...buried in leaf litter or burrowing near the surface through loose or sandy soil. The reproductive season begins with mating activities in late...activity relative disturbance occurs after nesting has already been initiated, construction-related noise could adversely impact reproductive success

  10. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceae (buckwheat family) Polygonum tuber Major component: Chrysophanol [CPD:C10315] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing blood D06697 Polygonum root Crude drugs [BR

  11. 77 FR 28703 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... impacts on small entities or families, and the benefits of including or excluding areas that exhibit these.... Because seed predation and the removal of flowering structures could significantly reduce the reproductive... benefit Umtanum desert buckwheat, these programs do not appear to have been designed to function as...

  12. Comparison of the volatile profiles of the crumb of gluten-free breads by DHE-GC/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico, Joana; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    The aroma of gluten-free bread has been considered of lower quality than that of the common wheat bread. With the aim of improving the aroma of gluten-free bread, the volatile profiles of the crumb of gluten-free breads made from rice, teff, buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa flours as well as corn...

  13. Boekweit en vlierbessen : alternatieve landbouwprodukten ten behoeve van het kleinschalig landschap in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuytens, G.

    1994-01-01

    A solution to the conservation of the small-scale landscape of Twente (the Netherlands) is found in the production of regional products, such as buckwheat and elderberry. Especially when agricultural production is started using organic production methods satisfactory financial results are expected

  14. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS, sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS, hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS, and exo-polysaccharide (EPS obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts, 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts, 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts, and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts, respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  15. Preparation of culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii-fermented products with high ergothioneine content and their taste quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Ho, Kung-Jui; Liang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Huang, Ling-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC. : Fr.) Ouel. was used in solid-state fermentation to develop novel mushroom products with a high amount of ergothioneine. The correlation coefficients between ergothioneine content and biomass were 0.8878 and 0.9206 for fermented adlay and buckwheat, respectively. Using optimal conditions, Pleurotus-fermented adlay and buckwheat (PFA and PFB) with the ergothioneine contents of 795.5 and 786.1 mg/ kg, respectively, were prepared. However, mycelia contained the highest ergothioneine content of 1514.6 mg/kg. As a result of SSF by P. eryngii, PFA and PFB contained more taste components than adlay and buckwheat, as evidenced by higher contents of total sugars and polyols, total free amino acids and monosodium glutamate-like components, and total and flavor 5'-nucleotides. In addition, PFB and buckwheat showed comparable equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values, whereas PFA showed a higher EUC value than adlay. Overall, Pleurotus-fermented products with a high amount of ergothioneine will be a novel functional food.

  16. Characterization of bioactive agents in five types of marketed sprouts and comparison of their antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic effects in fructose-loaded SHRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kozo; Koyama, Masahiro; Ishida, Ryuya; Kitahara, Takashi; Nakajima, Takero; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are important precursors of cardiovascular disease. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic potential of five types of sprouts in fructose-loaded spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Powdered sprouts (PSs) were produced from mung bean, broccoli, radish, and buckwheat sprouts and germinated soybeans by lyophilization. The PSs were analyzed for nutritional composition and bioactive agents (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], coenzyme Q10 [CoQ10], rutin, and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate [IP6]) and functionally tested in SHRs given water containing 25 % fructose and diets containing 30 % PS for 46 days. All PSs were nutritionally rich in protein and dietary fiber. CoQ10, GABA/rutin, and GABA/IP6 were abundant in broccoli, buckwheat, and germinated soybean PSs, respectively. Mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat PSs caused significant reductions in heart rates and/or serum triglycerides. Mung bean PS also significantly reduced serum total cholesterol. These data supported the antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic potential of mung bean, broccoli, and buckwheat sprouts.

  17. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  18. Cram, Michelle M.; Fraedrich, Stephen W. 2009. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Cram; Stephen Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum...

  19. The study of quality beer with the use of statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft waffle were developed on the basis of a mix of a chick-pea and buckwheat flour and pumpkin puree. Waffle have a soft structure, pleasant aroma and taste; contents all irreplaceable amino acids, protein, vitamins, macro - and microcells, food fibers.

  20. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G N; Shakib, Marie-Christine R; Gabrial, Gamal N

    2016-12-15

    Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period. The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic

  1. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  2. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  3. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  4. Response of phenolic metabolism induced by aluminium toxicity in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Smirnov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill. is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 µM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2% and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  5. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on isoquercetin production from rutin by commercial α-L-rhamnosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Park, Chang-Su; Kim, Yeong-Su

    2016-10-01

    To optimize conversion of rutin to isoquercetin by commercial α-L-rhamnosidase using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). The de-rhamnosylation activity of α-L-rhamnosidase for isoquercetin production was maximal at pH 6.0 and 50 °C using HHP (150 MPa). The enzyme showed high specificity for rutin. The specific activity for rutin at HHP was 1.5-fold higher than that at atmospheric pressure. The enzyme completely hydrolysed 20 mM rutin in tartary buckwheat extract after 2 h at HHP, with a productivity of 10 mM h(-1). The productivity and conversion were 2.2- and 1.5-fold higher at HHP than at atmospheric pressure, respectively. This is the first report concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis of isoquercetin in tartary buckwheat at HHP.

  6. Nutritional and sensory challenges of gluten-free bakery products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantiall, Sophie E; Serventi, Luca

    2017-09-28

    There is a growing need for gluten-free bakery products. Currently, gluten-free bakery products deliver lower protein, fibre and mineral content and elevated glycaemic index (GI) than gluten-containing foods. Only a mixture of rice and buckwheat flour or a low addition of either egg white or whey protein, has shown potential for the improvement of both nutrition and sensory qualities. To increase the fibre content, isolated cereal fibre and soluble fibre isolates have been incorporated into gluten-free formulations with some sensory success. Studies have shown that the GI of modern gluten-free products is no longer a major concern with the improvement of ingredient formulations and processing methods. The currently low mineral content can be increased with the use of mineral-rich ingredients such as amaranth, buckwheat or flaxseed flour. Nonetheless, consumers still show a preference to refined, low fibre breads over wholegrain fibre-rich bread.

  7. Vliv konzumace vybraných potravin sacharidové povahy na hladinu krevní glukózy

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammerová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the measurement of blood glucose levels after consumption of selected foods (glucose solution, milk chocolate, rice sandwiches with corn, fruit snacks with apricots and broken buckwheat multigrain bread) at regular intervals. The first part of this thesis is pursued to the literature review, which provides a comprehensive overview of the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It also discusses the differences in the carbohydrate metabolism of healthy people wit...

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF THE main HONEY CROPS BASED on remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moskalenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of bee forage identification and mapping based on multispectral images Landsat 8 have been shown in the research. The satellite images can be used to determine areas of crops that are resource for nectar and pollen such as sunflower, buckwheat and corn. Identifying bee forages was based on methods of supervised classification such as minimum distance to means, the linear discriminant analysis, the maximum likelihood, the parallelepiped and the k-nearest neighbors. The accuracy of classification methods of remote sensing data for identification of pollen and nectars cultures was compared. The method of maximum likelihood showed the best results for buckwheat and good one for corn and sunflower fields by 13/07/2016. Also this method showed good result for corn and sunflower fields, and poor result for identification of buckwheat fields by 29/07/2016. The stage of flowering plants is the most important period of cropgrowth phase for beekeeping because it is the periodof formation of pollen and nectar. Therefore identification of bee forage has been analyzed vegetation period from germination to flowering. Images of Landsat 8 (sensor OLI by 26/05/2016, 27/06/2016, 13/07/2016 and 29/07/2016 have been used in the research. The optimum period of remote sensing data for identification agricultural crops of bee forage has been determined. Buckwheat fields can be identified more effective in mid-July. Corn fields can be determined at the end of July. Sunflowers can be identified well as before flowering as during flowering.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Highly Dispersed Foodstuffs from Raw Vegetable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burushkina, T.N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of the low-waste conversion of whole legume and cereal seeds (soy, lupine, amaranth, oats, wheat, buckwheat into liquid and paste-like highly dispersed emulsion-suspension systems with almost complete set of nutrients, biologically active substances, and minerals of the original plants are created. These systems are aggregatively stable for 5-15 days or more without the use of stabilizers and emulsifiers.

  10. チャクチリソバの抗酸化性とα-グルコシダーゼ阻害活性に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    目黒, 周作; Shusaku, Meguro

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D.Don)Hara(Perennial buckwheat) seed and roots extract had been determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity(TEAC) assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) assay and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using intestinal acetone powders from rat in vitro. The results showed that F. dibotrys seed extract of MeOH and F. dibotrys roots had good total antioxidant activity in vitro...

  11. The choice of process parameters to obtain a stable dispersion system of plant-based bioactivated dicotyledonous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Samofalova; O. V. Safronova; A. P. Simonenkova

    2016-01-01

    The article dealswith the search for the unification of technological approaches to increase the efficiency of separation of the protein complex and stability of the plant foundations from seed dicotyledonous economically important crops of soybean, hemp, buckwheat. Uneven localization of nitrogenous substances in the seed largely determines the accessibility of protein complexes for extraction. Natural fermentation of spare proteins in cellular structures when the germination process starts ...

  12. The Post Cold War National Security Role of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-05

    such as buckwheat, red beans, laver ( edible seaweed ) and green tea. Japanese self-sufficiency in food crops is at an extremely low level compared with...assistance includes the supply of materials , development surveys, investments and loans for development projects, assistance in building and operating...raw materials (with crude oil accounting for 15 % of the total) and foodstuffs, and the majority of exports are industrial goods. Japan tries to open

  13. AFRL/MN LADAR Research Laboratory Construction and Establishment of an Outdoor LADAR Test Range Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-13

    corridor of land, the remaining trees will need to be clear-cut. Any disturbed areas would be seeded with grass or vegetated by some other means to...Cyperaceae), heath (Ericaceae), pea (Fabaceae), grass ( Poaceae or Gramineae), buckwheat (Polygonaceae), and yellow-eyed grass (Xyridaceae) (USAF 1995...will become re- vegetated with seed or sod. Thus, there are no anticipated impacts to the streams that serve as habitat for the Okaloosa Darter

  14. Range Roads: Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Environmental Assessment sedge (Cyperaceae), heath (Ericaceae), pea (Fabaceae), grass ( Poaceae ), buckwheat (Polygonaceae), and the yellow-eyed grass...need for grading the road surface, reducing maintenance costs (U.S. Air Force, 1999). Grass seeding is a cost-effective means to achieve...mulched, limed, fertilized, seeded , and covered with erosion blankets. The total project costs were $6,000. An evaluation of the site six months

  15. Environmental Assessment: Western Snowy Plover Habitat Restoration, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    blue butterflies emerge during summer with the opening of the flowers of seacliff buckwheat, which is used for larval food, adult nectaring, mate ...life of these butterflies is relatively short, only a few days between June and September, during which time they mate and lay eggs (Arnold 1983...Aquatic toxicity, invertebrates Water flea (Daphnia magna): Acute toxicity, 48 hours, static, EC50: 11 mg/L slightly toxic Avian toxicity Mallard duck

  16. Elaboración de masas madre de pan sin gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Pintos, Antía

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous fermented sourdough prepared from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat flours was formulated with the target of obtaining a gluten-free sourdough that might be incorporated to products suitable for people intolerant to gluten, making them more nutritious, with less glycemic index, with an extended shelf-life and with characteristic organoleptic qualities that make these products desirables for consumers. The behavior of the formulated sourdough was evaluated during an initial experiment...

  17. 戦前における熊本県阿蘇郡山東部畑作農業の構造

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 軍一郎

    1998-01-01

    Namino village is located in the highland on the east side of Mt.Aso and the village is in elevation between 600 and 900 meters. The highland includes extensive grassland which was used by farmers individually. There was a customary called "mizunagare" which ruled that grassland was affiliated to the field where rain water flows to. Major crops in the village were maize, rape, wheat, buckwheat, soybeans, small red beans, sweet potatoes and upland rice. Especially, maize and rape were widely g...

  18. Application of by-products in the development of foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Matejová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test potential by-product utilization in the development of foodstuffs for people intolerant for gluten. In this work were used three kinds of pomace – apple, buckwheat and grape (varieties Alibernet and Cabernet. Obtained dried pomace was applied into the baking products in ratio 5%, 10% and 15%. Apple and buckwheat pomace were applied into the breads and grape pomace were used in biscuits. The obtained products were sensory evaluated and texture analysis was used for determination of firmness. In terms of overall quality of tested breads, the evaluators indicated that bread with 5% addition of buckwheat pomace was the sample with the highest quality and from biscuit category products with 5% addition of grape pomace (Alibernet were shown to be the best. Regarding the texture determination the highest firmness showed a control sample in the case of biscuits and with the addition of pomace into the biscuits product firmness decreased. Contrary, in case of breads with the addition of pomace, the firmness increased. The results of texture analysis were statistically evaluated by non-parametric Wilcoxon test, among the samples there was no statistical significant difference found.

  19. Food and chemical industry. Soy sauce and chemical engineering; Shokuhinn to kagaku kogaku. Shoyu to kagaku kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitakura, Y.; Ishii, J. [Kikkoman Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The buckwheat soup is a mixture of seasonings such as soy sauce, sweet sake, sugar and the like and stock of dried bonito. This paper describes an analysis of the stock manufacturing step, an important step in the manufacture of buckwheat soup, and the setting of stock extraction conditions on the basis of this analysis. If the rate of infiltration of water into the dried bonito is found, it is a very effective finding for setting the thickness of flakes of dried bonito and the extraction time to prepare buckwheat soup industrially. To obtain such knowledge, the time taken for the water to pass through flakes of dried bonito of various thicknesses, to vaporize and to remove latent heat till the temperature of the surfaces of flakes lowers was measured. The thickness of flakes of dried bonito and extraction time were set on the basis of the data thus obtained. Dired bonito was then supplied to a bench scale flow extraction apparatus filled with hot water, and the content of inosinic acid, a taste component of the dried bonito in the extracted liquid was measured at predetermined time intervals. An operating manual for various extraction lot sizes was made on the basis of the data thsu obtained. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn

    2017-06-24

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L.) adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say) eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  1. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  2. Triticale crisp bread enriched with selected bioactive additives: volatile profile, physical characteristics, sensory and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Majcher, Małgorzata; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Jedrusek-Golinska, Anna; Przygoński, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    The effect of selected plant additives (couch grass, artichoke, kale, nettle, ground buckwheat husks, broad beans, fenugreek seeds, and extracts of yellow tea and mulberry leaf) on the volatile compounds, color, texture, sensory attributes, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties of triticale crisp bread was studied. The volatile profile of control bread was dominated by lipid oxidation products with hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal predominant. The additives strongly modified the volatile profile of the extruded crisp bread. The greatest differences were recorded in the case of products with artichoke and kale additions, which had respectively about 12 and 8 times higher levels of total volatile compounds than the control crisp bread. The samples containing kale, buckwheat, and fenugreek as well as yellow tea extract characterized high levels of sulfur compounds, with methanethiol predominant. The additives, especially kale, nettle, and artichoke affected the color of the crisp breads, in most cases making them darker. In terms of texture only the crisp bread with addition of buckwheat husk was significantly harder than the control sample. On the basis of sensory evaluation it was stated that among all the additives, the artichoke and fenugreek resulted in dramatic deterioration in the extruded product taste. The used additives also affected the antioxidant properties of triticale crisp bread. The greatest content of total phenolic compounds and the highest antioxidant activity were observed for the bread with yellow tea extract addition (3.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, than in control sample).

  3. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86).

  4. Staple foods consumption and irritable bowel syndrome in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqiu Zheng

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can cause gastrointestinal symptoms due to incomplete absorption in the small bowel. Thus, high-carbohydrate diets may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS.This observational and cross-sectional study assessed the association between consumption of several carbohydrate-enriched staple foods, such as rice, Japanese wheat noodles, Chinese noodles, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles, and the prevalence of IBS in Japanese adults.One thousand and eighty-two (837 men Japanese adult employees aged 19-85 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. IBS diagnosis was based on the Rome III criteria. Consumption of staple foods was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and divided into three categories (low, middle, high depending on their distribution.In the multivariate analysis, daily consumption of rice (odds ratios [ORs] and [95% confidence interval (CI]: middle, 1.36 [0.93-1.99]; high, 1.67 [1.12-2.49]; P for trend = 0.01, bread (middle, 1.88 [1.28-2.75]; high, 1.63 [1.10-2.41]; P for trend = 0.01, pasta (middle, 1.47 [1.01-2.15]; high, 1.68 [1.12-2.52]; P for trend = 0.01, and buckwheat noodles (middle, 1.76 [1.18-2.61]; high, 1.98 [1.31-3.00]; P for trend = 0.001 were associated with higher prevalence of IBS after adjustment for socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle-related factors. Buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, retained an association with the prevalence of IBS even after adjustment for daily intake of carbohydrates or plant proteins.This cross-sectional study demonstrated that the consumption of staple foods, such as rice, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles is associated with the prevalence of IBS. Of these, the consumption of buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, is associated with IBS independent of carbohydrate or plant protein contents.

  5. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Study of Biometric Datum of Green Manure Crops in the Process of Biological Soil Reclamation on the Territory of Coal Producer Ojsc “Mine No 12”In The Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovchenko, M. A.; Pinchuk, L. G.; Kolosolapova, A. A.; Alankina, D. N.

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the results of a study of green manure crops of different kinds, it is determined that the best growth results were obtained with incorporation of hydrogel in the substratum, and particularly in the clay, so as due to the amount of moisture in the substratum, clay is more hygroscopic and physico-chemical properties of hydrogel significantly increase moisture capacity of the substratum. Sowing field germination of all crops is much higher in the clay then in soil. Territories with the hydrogel usage showed a greater plant density per 1m2. Almost all crops with the major growth of herb were sowed in the clay with hydrogel addition, the crops height increased by 2.5 times. The only exception was Rye, the difference in height between its plants in “soil + hydrogel” and “clay+hydrogel” was less than 1%. It was registered that the root growth of Phacelia in “clay+hydrogel” increased by 2.5 times. While the root growth of Rump, on the contrary, increased in mellow soil with hydrogel by 43%. Other kinds of crops did not perform any difference in their root length. The increase of herbage in mixtures of green manure crops was negligible, whereas mono-sowing of such crops as Esparcet, Rump and Buckwheat showed the greatest increase of herbage in comparison to the soil lots and other sowing variants. The greatest increase of herbage among lots without hydrogel addition was performed on the clay ones: Esparcet - 250%, Buckwheat - 172% Rump - 123% Phacelia - 77.5%. The best results of herbage accumulation were showed by Esparcet, Buckwheat, Rump, Phacelia.

  7. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  8. [RATIONALE FOR ELIMINATING CERTAIN FOODS IN CHILDREN WITH FOOD ALLERGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takahiro; Futamura, Masaki; Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    Some caregivers of children with food allergy may eliminate specific foods from the diet of these children without first consulting doctors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of such practice and the sensitization of the offending foods. All participants were patients aged one year or over who visited our outpatients unit with complaints of food allergy. Caregivers of the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire to state the eliminated food items and the grounds for avoidance ("doctor's instructions", "family's judgment", and "not consumed in daily diet") of nine food items including chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, soy bean, rice, buckwheat, peanut, sesame and shrimp. Data on food-specific IgE titers were extracted from the patients' electronic medical charts. A total of 463 subjects were included in the analyses. Prevalence of patients with specific food avoidance of each of the food item was higher in the lower age group than the higher age group. More than 83% of the patients who avoided chicken egg, cow's milk or wheat were advised by their doctors to do so, while less than 49% of patients who avoided buckwheat did so for the same reason. The percentage of the patients who showed positive sensitization to buckwheat, peanut or shrimp, and avoided it without doctor's instructions, was 46%, 48%, and 34%, respectively. While the majority of caregivers of the children who visited our outpatient unit eliminated specific foods according to doctor's instructions, a considerable proportion of them do so inappropriately without first consulting a doctor.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quercetin glycosides in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, E U; Wittig, J; Mueller, S; Riethling, A K; Uehleke, B; Drewelow, B; Pforte, H; Jacobasch, G; Derendorf, H; Veit, M

    2001-05-01

    Due to its potentially beneficial impact on human health, the polyphenol quercetin has come into the focus of medicinal interest. However, data on the bioavailability of quercetin after oral intake are scarce and contradictory. Previous investigations indicate that the disposition of quercetin may depend on the sugar moiety of the glycoside or the plant matrix. To determine the influence of the sugar moiety or matrix on the absorption of quercetin, two isolated quercetin glycosides and two plant extracts were administered to 12 healthy volunteers in a four-way crossover study. Each subject received an onion supplement or quercetin-4'-O-glucoside (both equivalent to 100 mg quercetin), as well as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and buckwheat tea (both equivalent to 200 mg quercetin). Samples were analyzed by HPLC with a 12-channel coulometric array detector. In human plasma, only quercetin glucuronides, but no free quercetin, could be detected. There was no significant difference in the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters between the onion supplement and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside. Peak plasma concentrations were 2.3 +/- 1.5 microg x mL(-1) and 2.1 +/- 1.6 microg x mL(-1) (mean +/- SD) and were reached after 0.7 +/- 0.2 hours and 0.7 +/- 0.3 hours, respectively. After administration of buckwheat tea and rutin, however, peak plasma levels were--despite the higher dose-only 0.6 +/- 0.7 microg x mL(-1) and 0.3 +/- 0.3 microg x mL(-1), respectively. Peak concentrations were reached 4.3 +/- 1.8 hours after administration of buckwheat tea and 7.0 +/- 2.9 hours after ingestion of rutin. The terminal elimination half-life was about 11 hours for all treatments. Thus, the disposition of quercetin in humans primarily depends on the sugar moiety. To a minor extent, the plant matrix influences both the rate and extent of absorption in the case of buckwheat tea administration compared with the isolated compound. The site of absorption seems to be different for quercetin-4'-O

  10. The resource potential of Russian lands for crop farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. L.; Savin, I. Yu.; Stolbovoy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Geoinformational analysis shows that the fraction of lands that are optimal for farming of the main crops in Russia is about 10% of the available land at best (for summer wheat, buckwheat). For the majority of other crop cultures, this value is a few percent at most. The available resources are used very incompletely. The index of completeness of land resource potential use is no more than 10% for the majority of crops. Only in the case of soy are the available resources almost completely involved, whereas available land resources of winter wheat, grain maize, and sunflowers are used at 20-30%.

  11. The choice of process parameters to obtain a stable dispersion system of plant-based bioactivated dicotyledonous seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Samofalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dealswith the search for the unification of technological approaches to increase the efficiency of separation of the protein complex and stability of the plant foundations from seed dicotyledonous economically important crops of soybean, hemp, buckwheat. Uneven localization of nitrogenous substances in the seed largely determines the accessibility of protein complexes for extraction. Natural fermentation of spare proteins in cellular structures when the germination process starts leads to the accumulation of soluble nitrogen, and the change in the salt composition of protoplasm facilitates the transition in the solution of insoluble complexes in the form of colloids. It is shown that fine grinding of dry seeds increases the efficiency of extraction by 1.3–1.6 times, while rough grinding increases bioactivity by 1.6–1.8 times. The dispersion containing 8.1±0.7% of dry matter at buckwheat bases and 9.5±1,3% at hemp and soy bases with the water ratio 1:4 to 1:7 satisfy the requirements of taste sensations and fullness of the chemical composition. Based on the results of the extraction of protein of buckwheat seeds the conclusion has been drawn that there is a need for a differentiated approach to selecting conditions for the creation of food framework. Taking into consideration the fact that the amount of calcium in buckwheat seeds is17–25 times smaller than in oil seeds and the quantity of phosphorus is 1.6–2 times smaller, the contribution of electrostatic forces in the protein solubility is small and the additional actions to activate the protein complex are required. To predict the properties of vegetable bases of bioactivated soybean seeds and hemp, the central composite uniform-rotatable planning was applied and the full factorial experiment with factorial scheme 3×3×3 (33 was selected. The preferred combination of values of the input parameters X1, X2, X3 was discovered. They provide for the maximum of Y

  12. Stability of Se species in plant extracts rich in phenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuderman, Petra; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2010-02-01

    Since there is growing awareness of the strong dependence of the antioxidative function of selenium (Se) upon its chemical form, the stability of Se species during sample preparation is an important factor in obtaining qualitative and quantitative results. Many plant samples are rich in phenolic compounds (antioxidants), but data about their effect on specific Se species in extracts of plant samples are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the most common phenolic substances in plant parts, namely tannin and the flavonoid rutin, on the concentration and/or transformation of several Se species (SeMet, SeCys(2), SeMeSeCys, Se(VI) and Se(IV)) during sample preparation (24 h incubation at 37 degrees C) and storage (4 days at 4 degrees C). Moreover, the effect observed was then studied in a real sample, buckwheat, because this plant is known as a rich source of phenolics, especially tannin and rutin. Se speciation was carried out by on-line coupling of ion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS after water and enzymatic (protease) hydrolysis. The results showed that the ratio between the two antioxidants has an important role. When the antioxidants were present together, the response for Se(IV) was observed to start to decrease only at a ratio of rutin to tannin of 1:100 (w/w), indicating the ratio between antioxidants in buckwheat seeds. After water extraction, only 40% and after enzymatic extraction 80% of Se(IV) remained, but no other Se compound was detected with the system used. Furthermore, the extracts were not stable during storage at 4 degrees C. Signals for other Se species were stable. The results obtained for buckwheat seeds showed a decrease in Se(IV) response during sample preparation and storage, comparable to the one obtained with the experiments performed in vitro. However, Se species in extracts of other buckwheat parts (leaves, stems and sprouts) were stable. These results indicate that reactions in the extraction process and during

  13. THE ROLE OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH ῶ-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN CHILDREN’S NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Stepanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a structure and functions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and their role in infants’ nutrition. It was marked that Russian market has only one product for additional food enriched with PUFA ῶ-3 for children from 4 months old. It is milkless buckwheat «Heinz».Key words: children, nutrition, additional food, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:169-173

  14. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  15. Applicability of physico-chemical parameters of honey for identification of the botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Stanisław; Lukasiewicz, Marcin; Berski, Wiktor

    2013-01-01

    Efforts are being made to apply physicochemical parameters analysis in the identification of varietal honeys. With many variables describing a given population, it is feasible to differentiate between basing on principal component analysis (PCA). The aim of this study was to investigate selected physicochemical quality characteristics of nectar honey, with particular emphasis paid to carbohydrate composition, and to determine its applicability in identifying the variety of floral honey. The experimental materials were samples of commercial honey available at retail in Krakow in 2005-2007 period. The following analyses were performed: water content by the refractometric method, sugars content according to Luff-Schoorl, content of sugars using HPLC, electrical conductivity, specific rotation, and acidity of honey. Application of HPLC allowed the precise qualitative identification of sugars, which was impossible to be determined by Luff-Schoorl method. The obtained results were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). Based on the obtained results and performing the statistical analysis, it was found that the relationship between specific rotation and the total acidity can be used to distinguish buckwheat honeys from other analysed varieties. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the relationship between the specific rotation and maltose content can be used to distinguish between acacia honeys vs. buckwheat and lime honeys.

  16. Electrochemical Behavior and Determination of Rutin on Modified Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Macikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, IL/CPE and iron phthalocyanine (IP/CPE modified carbon paste electrodes in electroanalytical determinations of rutin were evaluated and compared to the performance of unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV, and amperometry were used for rutin analysis. The best current responses of rutin were obtained at pH 4.0 for all tested techniques. IL/CPE electrode was found to perform best with DPAdSV technique, where a detection limit (LOD as low as 5 nmol L-1 of rutin was found. On the other hand, IP/CPE showed itself to be an optimum choice for DPV technique, where LOD of 80 nmol L-1 was obtained. Analytical applicability of newly prepared electrodes was demonstrated on determination of rutin in the model samples and the extracts of buckwheat seeds. To find an optimum method for buckwheat seeds extraction, a boiling water extraction (BWE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, pressurized solvent extraction (PSE, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were tested.

  17. Multi-analysis determination of tropane alkaloids in cereals and solanaceaes seeds by liquid chromatography coupled to single stage Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-10-06

    Tropane alkaloids are a wide group of substances that comprises more than 200 compounds occurring especially in the Solanaceae family. The main aim of this study is the development of a method for the analysis of the principal tropane alkaloids as atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, tropane, tropine, littorine, homatropine, apoatropine, aposcopolamine, scopoline, tropinone, physoperuvine, pseudotropine and cuscohygrine in cereals and related matrices. For that, a simple solid-liquid extraction was optimized and a liquid chromatographic method coupled to a single stage Exactive-Orbitrap was developed. The method was validated obtaining recoveries in the range of 60-109% (except for some compounds in soy), precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 20% and detection and quantification limits equal to or lower than 2 and 3μg/kg respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of different types of samples as buckwheat, linseed, soy and millet, obtaining positives for anisodamine, scopolamine, atropine, littorine and tropinone in a millet flour sample above the quantification limits, whereas atropine and scopolamine were detected in a buckwheat sample, below the quantification limit. Contaminated samples with Solanaceaes seeds (Datura Stramonium and Brugmansia Arborea) were also analysed, detecting concentrations up to 693μg/kg (scopolamine) for contaminated samples with Brugmansia seeds and 1847μg/kg (atropine) when samples were contaminated with Stramonium seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  19. Enantiomeric determination and evaluation of the racemization process of atropine in Solanaceae seeds and contaminated samples by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2016-11-25

    A new method has been developed for the enantioselective separation of (-) and (+) hyoscyamine in Solanaceaes seeds and contaminated buckwheat. Chromatographic separation was optimized, evaluating two chiral columns, Chirobiotic V and Chiralpal-AY3. Better resolution was obtained using a Chiralpak-AY3 column, utilizing as mobile phase ethanol (0.1% diethanolamine). An extraction procedure based on a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) was applied, using water and acetonitrile containing 1% of acetic acid, and a clean-up step utilizing primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) as sorbents. The extract was diluted with ethanol (50/:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis, and the separation was carried out avoiding the racemization during this stage. Enantiomerization process of atropine was studied in samples at different conditions such as temperature (30, 50 and 80°C) and pH (3, 5, 7 and 9), observing that racemization occurs at high pH (9) and temperature (80°C). Stramonium and Brugmansia seeds were analyzed and the concentration of (-)-hyoscyamine was 1500mg/kg and 320mg/kg respectively. Contaminated buckwheat was also determined and (-)-hyoscyamine was detected at 170μg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardioprotective effects of diet with different grains on lipid profiles and antioxidative system in obesity-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Yun; Shin, Ji Hye; Lee, Sang Sun

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, the nutritional quality of four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) were evaluated in terms of plasma lipid parameters, gut transit time, and thickness of the aortic wall in rats. The rats were then raised for 4 weeks on the high-fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93 G) diets containing 1 % cholesterol and 20 % dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into 4 groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the following grains: WR, AD, BW, or WB. The level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in liver was shown to be higher in rats by the order of those fed WR, AD, GB, and BW. This indicates that other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. The superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group (p adlay, buckwheat, and glutinous barley. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the whole grains had a cardioprotective effect. This effect was related to several mechanisms that corresponded to lowering plasma lipids, decreasing TBARS, and increasing antioxidant activities.

  1. Sensory and chemical profiles of Finnish honeys of different botanical origins and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Rosenvald, Sirli; Laaksonen, Oskar; Vanag, Anita; Ollikka, Tarja; Vene, Kristel; Yang, Baoru

    2018-04-25

    The sensory-chemical profiles of Finnish honeys (labeled as buckwheat, cloudberry-bog, lingonberry, sweet clover, willowherb and multifloral honeys) were investigated using a multi-analytical approach. The sensory test (untrained panel, n = 62) was based on scaling and check-all-that-apply (CATA) methods accompanied with questions on preference and usage of honey. The results were correlated with corresponding profiles of odor-active compounds, determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Botanical origins and chemical compositions including sugars were evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. A total of 73 odor-active compounds were listed based on GC-O. Sweet and mild honeys with familiar sensory properties were preferred by the panelists (PCA, R2X(1) = 0.7) while buckwheat and cloudberry-bog honeys with strong odor, flavor and color were regarded as unfamiliar and unpleasant. The data will give the honey industry novel information on honey properties in relation to the botanical origin, and consumer preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Habitat management of organic vineyard in Northern Italy: the role of cover plants management on arthropod functional biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G; Marchesini, E; Reggiani, N; Montepaone, G; Schiatti, P; Sommaggio, D

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cover plants on arthropod functional biodiversity was investigated in a vineyard in Northern Italy, through a 3-year field experiment. The following six ground cover plants were tested: Sweet Alyssum; Phacelia; Buckwheat; Faba Bean; Vetch and Oat; control. Arthropods were sampled using different techniques, including collection of leaves, vacuum sampling and sweeping net. Ground cover plant management significantly affected arthropod fauna, including beneficial groups providing ecosystem services like biological control against pests. Many beneficial groups were attracted by ground cover treatments in comparison with control, showing an aggregative numerical response in the plots managed with some of the selected plant species. Alyssum, Buckwheat and 'Vetch and Oat' mixture showed attractiveness on some Hymenoptera parasitoid families, which represented 72.3% of the insects collected by sweeping net and 45.7 by vacuum sampling. Phytoseiidae mites showed a significant increase on leaves of the vineyard plots managed with ground covers, in comparison with control, although they did not show any difference among the treatments. In general, the tested ground cover treatments did not increase dangerous Homoptera populations in comparison with control, with the exception of Alyssum. The potential of ground cover plant management in Italian vineyards is discussed: the overall lack of potential negative effects of the plants tested, combined with an aggregative numerical response for many beneficials, seems to show a potential for their use in Northern Italy vineyards.

  3. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Okada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE. In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42 structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r=0.882 which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.

  4. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemometric analysis of minerals in gluten-free products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna; Klimczak, Inga; Rybicka, Iga

    2017-11-30

    Numerous studies indicate mineral deficiencies in people on a gluten-free (GF) diet. These deficiencies may indicate that GF products are less valuable source of minerals than gluten-containing products. In the study, the nutritional quality of fifty GF products is discussed taking into account the nutritional requirements for minerals expressed as % Recommended Daily Allowance (%RDA) or % Adequate Intake (%AI) for a model celiac patient. Analysed elements were: calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. Analysis of %RDA or %AI was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Using PCA, the differentiation between products based on rice, corn, potato, GF wheat starch and based on buckwheat, chickpea, millet, oats, amaranth, teff, quinoa, chestnut, and acorn was possible. In the HCA, four clusters were created. The main criterion determining the adherence of the sample to the cluster was the content of all minerals included to HCA (K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn), however only the content of Mn differentiated four formed groups. GF products made of buckwheat, chickpea, millet, oats, amaranth, teff, quinoa, chestnut, and acorn are better source of minerals than based on other GF raw materials, what was confirmed by PCA and HCA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Jubete, L; Arendt, E K; Gallagher, E

    2009-01-01

    The only treatment available for patients with coeliac disease is a lifelong elimination of food products containing gluten. The gluten-free products currently available in the market are considered of low quality and poor nutritional value. In the present study, the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were studied as potential healthy ingredients for improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free breads. The pseudocereal seeds and pseudocereal-containing gluten-free breads were evaluated in terms of their protein, fat, total starch, dietary fibre, ash and mineral content as well as their fatty acid composition. The pseudocereal containing gluten-free breads showed significantly higher levels of protein, fat, fibre and minerals than the control bread. The attributes of these breads conform to the expert's nutritional recommendations for the gluten-free diet and gluten-free foods. These results suggest that the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat can represent a healthy alternative to frequently used ingredients in gluten-free products.

  7. Skin-prick test and RAST responses to cereals in children with atopic dermatitis. Characterization of IgE-binding components in wheat and oats by an immunoblotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjonen, E; Vainio, E; Kalimo, K; Juntunen-Backman, K; Savolainen, J

    1995-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to cereals may occur via inhalation or ingestion. Although cereals are essential in the daily nutrition, only little information is available of the allergens causing symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of the present study was to analyse the IgE immune-response to various cereals and specific cereal fractions of wheat and oats in children with severe AD and correlate the results with challenge studies. Skin-prick tests (SPT) with a NaCl suspension of wheat, oats, rice, corn, millet and buckwheat and the ethanol soluble gliadin fraction of wheat were performed to 34 wheat/oats challenge positive or negative children with AD. Simultaneously serum total IgE and specific IgE antibody radioallergosorbent test (RAST), levels to wheat, oats and gluten were determined. In addition serum samples of these 34 AD patients and five age matched controls were analysed with IgE immunoblotting using neutral and acidic protein extracts of wheat and oats. From the 34 AD children 33 were SPT positive with wheat and 18 with oats. Positive RAST to wheat and oats could be detected in 32 and 30 samples respectively. From the oral wheat challenge positive children 12/14 appeared positive with gliadin SPT and revealed positive RAST to gluten, but each of the wheat challenge negative were negative in SPT with gliadin. In immunoblotting using neutral and acidic fractions of cereals the IgE binding with sera of challenge positive children showed the most intensive staining, but no correlation was found between different staining patterns and the clinical wheat sensitivity. The 26, 38 and 69 kDa bands in wheat and the 46 and 66 kDa in oats could be classified as major IgE binding proteins of these cereals (> 50% of the sera were positive). SPT with rice, corn, millet or buckwheat was positive in 16/34 patients. Intensive IgE staining to neutral/acidic soluble proteins in wheat and oats was seen, with major IgE binding to 26, 38 and 69 kDa proteins in

  8. The effect of active forms of silicon on the biomass of agricultural crops during their growth period on technogenically altered soils of the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V. Wagner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of recovery of technogenically affected soils remains unsolved. Silicon which moves in the “soil – plant” system has been insufficiently studied, though this element takes part in many processes. For assessing the role of silicon compounds, we selected samples of technogenically affected soils of different types in the territory of the research station for land reclamation of Dnіpro State Agrarian-Economic University in the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin. We conducted a vegetative experiment and a series of laboratory tests with adding SiO2. We chose the following crops: buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, 1794, vetch (Vicia sativa Linnaeus, 1753 and sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, 1753. The рН of the studied soils fluctuated between 7.1 to 7.8. The content of available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soils was low, except the content of phosphorus in pedozems. We analyzed 240 samples of plants and measured their biomass. Vetch grew best on sod-lithogenous soils on forest-like lomy soils, buckwheat and sunflower – on sod-lithogenous soils on grey-green clays. The variant of experiment with 0.2% solution of SiO2 was most the efficient during growing all chosen crops on all types of studied soils. After adding amphoteric silicon, the best biomass indicators of vetch and buckwheat were observed on sod-lithogenous soils on forest-like loam, and indicators for sunflower – on sod-lithogenous soils on grey-green clays. After using 0.3% and 0.4% solution of SiO2, a gel film forms, which the seeds have no energy to penetrate and run out. Thus it slows the plant’s growth. An exception was an experiment with pedozems with adding 0.4% solution of SiO2, when the biomass of vetch was 1.5 times greater than in the experiment with 0.2% solution. We observed no similar positive effect in other variants of the experiment. All chosen crops on technogenically affected soils reacted to addition of silicon compounds by increasing

  9. The influence of additional fluors on the retention ability of dough and the technological quality of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work monitored rheofermentation properties of dough prepared from composite flours formed by 70% of wheat flour T650 and the addition of 30%. Three kinds of additions were used, namely spelt flour, amaranth flour and buckwheat flour. To determine rheofermentation properties Rheofermentometer Rhea F4 was used, by means of which the dough development, the production of fermentation gases, retention ability of dough and the activity of used baking yeast were analysed. The best ability to retain formed fermentation gas had wheat flour (control and composite flour with the addition of spelt flour. The composite flour with addition of amaranth flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control lower by 13%, and the composite flour with addition of buckwheat flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control reduced by 20%. Control flour and composite flours were then processed in the baking experiment. Based on its results it was possible to evaluate the effect of the addition and retention capacity of dough on the quality of the final products (experimental loaves. The biggest loaf volume (200 cm3 and the optimal vaulting (0.65 were found in the control and a loaf made of composite flour with addition of spelt. Loaf volume, produced from composite flours with the addition of amaranth, and buckwheat was compared to control lower by 18.7%, and 16.3% respectively. The value of vaulting of these products (0.40 can be evaluated as unsatisfactory. Based on the evaluation of results observed by measuring on the rheofermentometer and baking experiment results it can be concluded that a better ability to retain the formed fermentation gas, thus ensuring high volume, had loaves made from wheat flour T650 and composite flour with addition of spelt flour. Based on the findings, it is possible to state that the results of rheofermentometric measurements predict the volume and vaulting of bakery products. By means of Rheofermentometer

  10. Phenolic compound production by different morphological phenotypes in hairy root cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy roots were obtained after inoculating sterile young stems of Fagopyrum tataricum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000. The established roots displayed two morphological phenotypes when cultured on hormone-free medium containing Murashige-Skoog salts and vitamins. The thin phenotype had a higher growth rate than the thick phenotype. Further, the phenolic compound content of the thin phenotype was higher than that of the thick phenotype. In terms of their total dry weight, the thin phenotype produced an almost double amount of (--epigallocatechin as well as more than 51.5% caffeic acid, 65% chlorogenic acid, and 40% rutin compared to the thick phenotype after 21 days of culture. Therefore, selection of the optimal morphological phenotype of hairy roots of tartary buckwheat is an important factor for improved phenolic compound production.

  11. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in the development of gluten-free bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BADIU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food intolerance became an important public health concern, and identification of effective strategies for prevention is required. There is an increasing incidence of coeliac disease or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten, so the coeliac disease became one of the most common food intolerances. This intolerance can be present at any age, from early childhood to elderly. The present paper presents an overview of the results/approaches of the latest scientific investigations on gluten-free products based on (i the use of different gluten-free base flours (rice, maize, sorghum, oat, buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa, teff; (ii the use of different ingredients/additives (starches, dairy products, egg proteins, dietary fibre, gum and hydrocolloids for improving nutritional quality and consumer acceptability; (iii developing alternative technologies such as enzymatic or sourdough technology and high hydrostatic pressure processing.

  13. Significance of thermal transitions on starch digestibility and firming kinetics of restricted water mixed flour bread matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Piga, Antonio

    2015-05-20

    The impact of wheat (WT) flour replacement up to 45% (weight basis) by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours on the thermal profiles of quaternary blended dough matrices have been investigated by simulating baking, cooling, and storage in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans. Endothermal transitions related to suitable patterns for low and slow starch hydrolysis, softer crumb and retarded firming kinetics in blended breads include delayed temperatures for starch gelatinization, and for the dissociation of amylose-lipid complex. In addition, (a) higher stability for the amylose-lipid inclusion complex, (b) lower energy for starch gelatinization, (c) lower limiting melting enthalpy and (d) slower rate for amylopectin retrogradation meet thermal requirements for achieving suitable textural and starch digestibility features in blended breads, fulfilled by adding T/GP/BW to replace 45% of WT flour in blended dough formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  15. FOOD AS VECTOR FOR NUTRACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days people consumption habits are changing they are inclined to buy healthy food that fulfills the need of essential nutrients in the body. With increasing educational level, people are becoming ready to accept different types of food & beverages that have added nutritional ingredient. Hence with this change, nutraceutical ingredient is gaining importance. Nutraceutical are those that combine technological and health properties. Nutraceutical Ingredients are substances with clinically confirmed health benefits and have broad applications in foods, beverages, dietary supplements and nutritional preparations. There are huge numbers of ingredients which are still unexplored. They have still not gained popularity in food industry. In this review paper a brief introduction of nutraceutical ingredient, its market and detailed knowledge of- Ginseng, Pine Bark Extract, Seabuckthorn, Buckwheat is mentioned.

  16. Cereals in Young Child Feeding: Which Is Better — Manufactured or Homemade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the peculiarities of the prescription of cereal complementary feeding for young children. It is emphasized the importance of manufactured cereals in young child feeding. The article analyzes data on the nutritional value and chemical composition of the most popular buckwheat and oatmeal porridge in the Russian Federation, as well as the benefits of cereal as the first complementary feeding for an infant. The characteristics of the different manufactured cereals for infant feeding prescribed to healthy children are given: dry instant, ready-to-use liquid, and fruit and grain cereals. The article also presents the rationale for the prescription of cereals at certain pathological conditions — food allergy, cow's milk protein intolerance, celiac disease, digestive problems, as well as information about the nutritional value of milk and dairy-free cereals.

  17. Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Young; Yan, Lei; Wang, Tianfeng; Lee, Sang Ryong; Park, Cheol Woo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently.

  18. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Burešová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ. The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiate the bread-making quality of gluten-free flour. Bread-making quality of gluten-free flour is the best characterised by curve slope of storage modulus G´and phase angle tg(δ while bread made from the flour with storage modulus and phase angle with non-linear slope in low deformation frequencies 0.01–0.10 Hz achieved the largest volume.

  19. Detection of aflatoxin B1 in imported food products into Japan by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Y; Hara, M; Kumazawa, N H; Hirano, K; Ueno, I; Egawa, K

    1991-02-01

    In order to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recovery test was evaluated. The detection limit of ELISA for AFB1 was 1 pg/assay and the recovery from maize spiked with AFB1 exceeded 80%. AFB1 was detected by ELISA in seven out of twelve samples of imported food products including peanut, almond, red pepper, cocoa bean, black pepper, buckwheat, walnut, adlay, soybean, popcorn, and pistachio nut, and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in four of the samples. However, the content of AFB1 in these samples was less than 10 ng/g of the minimum value authorized by the Japanese sanitation law. These results demonstrate that ELISA is more sensitive than HPLC and imported food products are broadly contaminated with AFB1.

  20. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  1. The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana

    2015-06-15

    This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (PJerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Amylopectin small chain glucans form structure fingerprint that determines botanical origin of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2017-02-20

    Starch granule size, shape and structure of amylopectin are species specific and influence starch properties and end-use of starch. Amylopectin glucan chain structure was used to predict the starch botanical sources. Mathematical probability for accumulation of small glucan chains DP 6-10 reveal exponential fit curve with maximum R2 in smallest granule size starches (Chlamydomonas, quinoa, buckwheat). Cereal and cassava showed R2 of 0.81-0.96 while in pulses and tubers it was less than 0.7. The amylopectin small glucan chains form a unique 'finger print region' that identified starch botanical source. Differential amylopectin chain length distribution (APCLD) graphs between DP 6-80 of all species from Chlamydomonas starch distinguished five structural groups that clustered the 31 analyzed starches into four major patterns. APCLD analyses of amylopectin combined with characteristic pattern of small linear DP (6-9) glucan chains predicted the starch botanical source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zou

    Full Text Available Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops.

  4. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  5. Physical barriers for suppression of movement of adult stink bugs into cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2014-01-01

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement of physical barriers at these interfaces could manage these pests. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a physical barrier, either synthetic or plant-based, at the peanut-to-cotton interface for suppressing stink bugs that would move to cotton. In 2012 and 2013, sorghum sudangrass (2.4 and 2.1 m high, respectively) was significantly taller than cotton (1.4 and 1.3 m high, respectively) which was taller than peanut (0.4 and 0.5 m high, respectively). Buckwheat (0.6 m high), planted only in 2012, was significantly taller than peanut, but shorter than cotton. For both years of the study, sorghum sudangrass and a 1.8-m-high polypropylene barrier wall effectively deterred dispersal of stink bugs into cotton. Because each of these barriers was taller than cotton, their success in protecting cotton likely was due to disruption of the flight of stink bugs from low-growing peanut into cotton. The shortest barrier wall (0.6-m-high) did not suppress stink bug dispersal into cotton probably because it was approximately the same height as peanut. In 2012, flowering buckwheat increased the efficacy of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) attacking N. viridula in cotton although it did not deter dispersal of stink bugs. In conclusion, a barrier at least as tall as cotton can effectively retard the entry of stink bug adults into cotton.

  6. Bronchial challenges with aerosolized food in asthmatic, food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Golder, N; Lack, G

    2002-08-01

    Allergic asthma is usually considered to be provoked by aeroallergens. However, we have recently recognized a group of children with food allergies who also develop asthma when exposed to the aerosolized form of the food. Between 1997 and 1999 we prospectively identified children with an immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated food allergy who develop asthma on inhalational exposure to the relevant food allergen while it is being cooked. Subjects were exposed for 20 min to the aerosolized form of the allergen and the symptoms and the lung function were monitored. Aerosolization was achieved by cooking the food in a small room. Where possible challenges were double-blinded. We identified 12 children with an IgE-mediated food allergy who developed asthma on inhalational exposure to food. The implicated foods were fish, chickpea, milk, egg or buckwheat. Nine out of the 12 children consented to undergo a bronchial food challenge. Five challenges were positive with objective clinical features of asthma. Additionally, two children developed late-phase symptoms with a decrease in lung function. Positive reactions were seen with fish, chickpea and buckwheat. There were no reactions to the seven placebo challenges. We have presented a prospective series of children with food allergy who developed symptoms of asthma with exposure to aerosolized food allergens. Our data demonstrates that, as in the case of other aeroallergens, inhaled food allergens can produce both early- and late-phase asthmatic responses. This highlights the importance of considering foods as aeroallergens in children with coexistent food allergy and allergic asthma. For these children, dietary avoidance alone may not be sufficient and further environmental measures may be required to limit exposure to aerosolized food.

  7. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops.

  8. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Adsorption of cellulase on cereal brans: a simple functional model from response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sergio F. da Silva

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available A functional model based on Langmuirian adsorption as a limiting mechanism was proposed to explain the effect of cellulase during the enzymatic pretreatment of bran, conducted prior to extraction of proteins, by wet alkaline process from wheat and buckwheat bran materials. The proposed model provides a good fit (r = 0.99 for the data generated thru predictive model taken from the response surface methodology, permitting calculation of a affinity constant (b and capacity constant (k, for wheat bran (b = 0.255 g/IU and k = 17.42% and buckwheat bran (b = 0.066g/IUand k = 78.74%.Modelo funcional baseado na adsorção de Langmuir como mecanismo limitante proposto para explicar o efeito da celulase durante o pré-tratamento enzimático de farelos, visando à extração de proteínas, através do método alcalino-úmido. O referido modelo ajusta se muito bem (r = 0,99 aos dados gerados com base em modelo preditivo obtido da metodologia da superfície de resposta. Pode-se calcular a constante de afinidade (b e a constante de capacidade (k para o farelo de trigo e farelo de trigo mourisco (sarraceno, usando uma equação análoga à isoterma de adsorção de Langmuir. Os resultados indicaram que o farelo de trigo mourisco apresenta uma capacidade mais alta para adsorver celulase e, conseqüentemente,'pode-se esperar uma resposta maior ao pré-tratamento com esta enzima.

  10. Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Raffaella; de Angelis, Maria; Alfonsi, Giuditta; de Vincenzi, Massimo; Silano, Marco; Vincentini, Olimpia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2005-06-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used to ferment durum wheat semolina under liquid conditions. After fermentation, the dough was freeze-dried, mixed with buckwheat flour at a ratio of 3:7, and used to produce the "fusilli" type Italian pasta. Pasta without prefermentation was used as the control. Ingredients and pastas were characterized for compositional analysis. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 92 of the 130 durum wheat gliadin spots were hydrolyzed almost totally during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the hydrolysis of gliadins. As shown by immunological analysis by R5-Western blot, the concentration of gluten decreased from 6280 ppm in the control pasta to 1045 ppm in the pasta fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Gliadins were extracted from fermented and nonfermented durum wheat dough semolina and used to produce a peptic-tryptic (PT) digest for in vitro agglutination tests on cells of human origin. The whole PT digests did not cause agglutination. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-6-B mannan column separated the PT digests in three fractions. Fraction C showed agglutination activity. The minimal agglutinating activity of fraction C from the PT digest of fermented durum wheat semolina was ca. 80 times higher than that of durum wheat semolina. Pasta was subjected to sensory analysis: The scores for stickiness and firmness were slightly lower than those found for the pasta control. Odor and flavor did not differ between the two types of pasta. These results showed that a pasta biotechnology that uses a prefermentation of durum wheat semolina by selected lactic acid bacteria and tolerated buckwheat flour could be considered as a novel tool to potentially decrease gluten intolerance and the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products.

  11. An RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis revealing novel insights into aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tea plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Huang, Jie; Song, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ziwei; Jiang, Ye; Zhu, Yulu; Zhao, Hua; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-07-01

    The tea plant ( Camellia sinensis L. O. Kuntze) is a high aluminum (Al) tolerant and accumulator species. Candidate genes related to Al tolerance in tea plants were assembled based on de novo transcriptome analysis. The homologs implied some common and distinct Al-tolerant mechanism between tea plants and rice, Arabidopsis and buckwheat. In addition to high Al tolerance, the tea plant exhibits good performance exposure to a proper Al level, and accumulates high Al in the leaves without any toxicity symptom. Therefore, Al was considered as a hyperaccumulator and beneficial element for tea plants. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms accounting for Al-tolerance and accumulation remain unknown in tea plants. In this study, transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq following a gradient Al-level exposure was assessed to further reveal candidate genes involved. Totally more than 468 million high-quality reads were generated and 213,699 unigenes were de novo assembled, among which 8922 unigenes were all annotated in the seven databases used. A large number of transporters, transcription factors, cytochrome P450, ubiquitin ligase, organic acid biosynthesis, heat shock proteins differentially expressed in response to high Al (P ≤ 0.05) were identified, which were most likely ideal candidates involved in the Al tolerance or accumulation. Furthermore, a few of the candidate Al-responsive genes related to Al sequestration, cell wall modification and organic acid excretion have been well elucidated as was already found in Arabidopsis, rice, and buckwheat. Thus, some consistent Al-tolerance mechanisms across the species are indicated. In conclusion, the transcriptome data provided useful insights of promising candidates for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in tea plants.

  12. Nutritional and Phytochemical Content of High-Protein Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multari, Salvatore; Neacsu, Madalina; Scobbie, Lorraine; Cantlay, Louise; Duncan, Gary; Vaughan, Nicholas; Stewart, Derek; Russell, Wendy R

    2016-10-11

    Sustainable sources of high-protein plants could help meet future protein requirements. Buckwheat, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and lupin were analyzed by proximate analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine their macro- and micronutrient contents, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the phytochemical profiles. The protein contents ranged from 20 to 43% (w/w), and all samples were found to be rich in insoluble fiber: 9-25% (w/w). The selected crops had a favorable micronutrient profile, with phosphorus levels ranging from 2.22 ± 0.05 to 9.72 ± 0.41 g kg-1, while iron levels ranged from 20.23 ± 0.86 to 69.57 ± 7.43 mg kg-1. The crops contained substantial amounts of phytophenolic compounds. In particular, buckwheat was a rich source of pelargonidin (748.17 ± 75.55 mg kg-1), epicatechin (184.1 ± 33.2 mg kg-1), quercetin (35.66 ± 2.22 mg kg-1), caffeic acid (41.74 ± 22.54 mg kg-1), and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (63.64 ± 36.16 mg kg-1); hemp contained p-coumaric acid (84.02 ± 8.10 mg kg-1), cyanidin (58.43 ± 21.01 mg kg-1), protocatechualdehyde (34.77 ± 5.15 mg kg-1), and gentisic acid (31.20 ± 1.67 mg kg-1); and fava bean was the richest source of ferulic acid (229.51 ± 36.58 mg kg-1) and its 5-5' (39.99 ± 1.10 mg kg-1) and 8-5 dimers (58.17 ± 6.68 mg kg-1). Demonstrating that these crops are rich sources of protein, fiber, and phytochemicals could encourage higher consumption and utilization of them as healthy and sustainable ingredients in the food and drink industry.

  13. The age, growth, sexual maturity, and sex ratio of the common whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill), of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1939-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  14. Picking among pen-reared quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  15. Studies on food preferences of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. to different crops in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Devi Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food preference by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky was studied on seven different crops and varieties including maize, wheat and rice. They were maize cultivars namely Arun-2, Manakamana-4, Deuti, buckwheat local cultivar, wheat cultivar namely Annapurna-1, polished rice-Radha 4 and unshelled rice cultivar Mansuli under storage condition at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from June 2013 to February 2014 . The hosts were tested using completely randomized design with three replications and were laid in free-choice and no-choice conditions. The maximum number of grain loss was recorded in wheat followed by polished rice respectively. Similarly, the highest weight loss was recorded in polished rice followed by Wheat in both conditions. F1 progeny emergence of weevil was highest in wheat followed by polished rice in free-choice and in no choice conditions, the highest progeny were emerged from polished rice followed by wheat. The lowest numbers of weevils emerged from rice in both conditions. Maximum germination losses were recorded in wheat (24.33% and lowest in Arun-2 (9.67. The rice showed a relatively higher preference to maize weevil under storage condition.

  16. Application of an Electronic Nose Instrument to Fast Classification of Polish Honey Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dymerski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents practical utilization of an electronic nose prototype, based on the FIGARO semiconductor sensors, in fast classification of Polish honey types—acacia flower, linden flower, rape, buckwheat and honeydew ones. A set of thermostating modules of the prototype provided gradient temperature characteristics of barbotage-prepared gas mixtures and stable measurement conditions. Three chemometric data analysis methods were employed for the honey samples classification: principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and cluster analysis (CA with the furthest neighbour method. The investigation confirmed usefulness of this type of instrument in correct classification of all aforementioned honey types. In order to provide optimum measurement conditions during honey samples classification the following parameters were selected: volumetric flow rate of carrier gas—15 L/h, barbotage temperature—35 °C, time of sensor signal acquisition since barbotage process onset—60 s. Chemometric analysis allowed discrimination of three honey types using PCA and CA and all five honey types with LDA. The reproducibility of 96% of the results was within the range 4.9%–8.6% CV.

  17. Estimation of honey authenticity by multielements characteristics using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzinska, M; Baralkiewicz, D

    2010-01-01

    In our study the mineral content of 55 honey samples, which represented three different types of honey: honeydew, buckwheat and rape honey from different areas in Poland, was evaluated. Determination of 13 elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn) was performed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We tried to prove that the analysis of quality and quantity of honey elements could be used to define honey origin by using ICP-MS as a technique for simultaneous determination of elements. Chemometric methods, such as CA and PCA, were applied to classify honey according to mineral content. CA showed three clusters corresponding to the three botanical origins of honey. PCA permitted the reduction of 13 variables to four principal components explaining 77.19% of the total variance. The first most important principal component was strongly associated with the value of K, Al, Ni and Cd. This study revealed that CA and PCA analysis appear useful tools for differentiation of honey samples authenticity using the profile of mineral content and they highlighted the relationship between the elements distribution and honey type. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of an electronic nose instrument to fast classification of Polish honey types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-06-18

    The paper presents practical utilization of an electronic nose prototype, based on the FIGARO semiconductor sensors, in fast classification of Polish honey types-acacia flower, linden flower, rape, buckwheat and honeydew ones. A set of thermostating modules of the prototype provided gradient temperature characteristics of barbotage-prepared gas mixtures and stable measurement conditions. Three chemometric data analysis methods were employed for the honey samples classification: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and cluster analysis (CA) with the furthest neighbour method. The investigation confirmed usefulness of this type of instrument in correct classification of all aforementioned honey types. In order to provide optimum measurement conditions during honey samples classification the following parameters were selected: volumetric flow rate of carrier gas-15 L/h, barbotage temperature-35 °C, time of sensor signal acquisition since barbotage process onset-60 s. Chemometric analysis allowed discrimination of three honey types using PCA and CA and all five honey types with LDA. The reproducibility of 96% of the results was within the range 4.9%-8.6% CV.

  19. Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

    2014-11-26

    Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C∞, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (≥ 3 g dietary fibre/100g bread). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in Aluminium Accumulation and Resistance between Genotypes of the Genus Fagopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al tolerance is not yet well understood. Therefore, a set of 94 genotypes from three Fagopyrum species with special emphasis on F. esculentum Moench were screened, with the objective of identifying genotypes with greatly differing Al accumulation capacity. The genotypes were grown in Al-enriched peat-based substrate for 21 days. Based on the Al concentration of the xylem sap, which varied by a factor of five, only quantitative but not qualitative genotypic differences in Al accumulation could be identified. Aluminium and citrate and Al and Fe concentrations in the xylem sap were positively correlated suggesting that Fe and Al are loaded into and transported in the xylem through related mechanisms. In a nutrient solution experiment using six selected F. esculentum genotypes differing in Al and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap the significant correlation between Al and iron transport in the xylem could be confirmed. Inhibition of root elongation by Al was highly significantly correlated with root oxalate-exudation and leaf Al accumulation. This suggests that Al-activated oxalate exudation and rapid transport of Al to the shoot are prerequisites for the protection of the root apoplast from Al injury and thus overall Al resistance and Al accumulation in buckwheat.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Composite Coatings in Potassium Rich Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina BRINKIENĖ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale method was used to study the performance of reinforced cement composites in potassium rich environment of biomass combustion. Buckwheat husk (BH was used as potential source of unexploited biomass product applicable as biomass derived fuel. In order to enhance the alkali effect on the properties of the investigated materials, the solution of potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was selected as potassium rich aggressive environment. Two reinforced cement composites as potential repair coatings for restoration of damaged refractory surfaces with different composition of aggregate were used in corrosion tests. Performance of refractory coatings was evaluated by analysing the microstructure of the treated composites as well as mechanical properties. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and optical microscopy were used to study the microstructure in the corroded region of the refractory coatings. Long term studies in the solution of 1M K2CO3 for 56 months have demonstrated that composite with the additive of fluid cracking catalyst of oil refinery and petrochemical industries is more durable in the potassium rich environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8348

  2. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  3. Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Zou, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Qiong; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Peng, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhao, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioactive metabolites. To enhance the functional flavonoids production in hairy root culture of F. tataricum. The elicitation treatment in combination with medium renewal strategy was applied for efficient promoting flavonoids production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures. The exogenous yeast polysaccharide (YPS) elicitor notably stimulated the functional metabolites production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. Combination with the YPS elicitation (200 mg/L) and medium renewal process, the maximal flavonoids yield was enhanced to 47.13 mg/L, about 3.2-fold in comparison with the control culture of 14.88 mg/L. Moreover, this research also revealed the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. These results indicated that the F. tataricum hairy root culture could be an effective system for rutin and quercetin production.

  4. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao-Chi Chien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7 % of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis of adenosine (0.92–1.96 μg/g, ergosterol (24.53–30.12 μg/g, ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 μg/g and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 μg/g. In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 μg/g. White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects.

  5. Gluten Contamination in Naturally or Labeled Gluten-Free Products Marketed in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Verma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only treatment of celiac disease. Gluten contamination has been frequently reported in nominally gluten-free products. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in gluten-free products currently available in the Italian market. Method: A total of 200 commercially available gluten-free products (including both naturally and certified gluten-free products were randomly collected from different Italian supermarkets. The gluten content was determined by the R5 ELISA Kit approved by EU regulations. Results: Gluten level was lower than 10 part per million (ppm in 173 products (86.5%, between 10 and 20 ppm in 9 (4.5%, and higher than 20 ppm in 18 (9%, respectively. In contaminated foodstuff (gluten > 20 ppm the amount of gluten was almost exclusively in the range of a very low gluten content. Contaminated products most commonly belonged to oats-, buckwheat-, and lentils-based items. Certified and higher cost gluten-free products were less commonly contaminated by gluten. Conclusion: Gluten contamination in either naturally or labeled gluten-free products marketed in Italy is nowadays uncommon and usually mild on a quantitative basis. A program of systematic sampling of gluten-free food is needed to promptly disclose at-risk products.

  6. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.

  7. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  8. Celiac disease and gluten-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mikulajová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmunity inflammatory disorder of the small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The prevalence of the disorder is around 1 % of the Western population and is still increasing. The symptoms of celiac disease include chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and growth retardation in children, and chronic fatigue and headache, bowel complaints, reduced fertility, dermatitis herpetiformis, osteoporosis, nerve and brain disorders, increasing risk of intestinal cancer. The clinical diagnosis of the disease is based on the serological tests and bowel biopsy. The treatment is a long-life gluten-free diet. It is necessary exclude from the diet wheat, rye, barley and probably oats and buckwheat and their products. The novel approaches for celiac disease are focused on the genetic manipulation of nontoxic gluten proteins, enzyme therapy, immune modulation, and induction of oral tolerance to gluten.doi:10.5219/276 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Improvement on The Ellis and Roberts Viability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With data sets of germination percent and storage time of seed lot of wheat and sorghum stored at three different storage temperature(t, °C with three different water content (m, % of seeds, together with data set of buckwheat and lettuce reported in literatures, the possibility that seed survival curve were transformed into line by survival proportion and the relationship that logarithm of average viability period (logp50 and standard deviation of seed death distribution in time (δwith t, m and interaction between t and m were analysed. Result indicated that survival proportion transformed seed survival curve to line were much easier than the probability adopted by Ellis and Roberts, and the most important factor affecting logp50 and δ of seed lot was interaction between t and m. Thus, Ellis and Roberts viability model were suggested to be improved as Ki=Vi-p/10K-CWT (t×m to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent unknown, a new model of Gi/G0=A-P/10K-CWT(t×m was constructed to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent already known.

  10. Studying the NDVI dynamics features for vegetation monitoring method development in the south of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, Irina

    Monitoring of vegetation state can be based on studying their dynamics features. Effective methods of satellite data interpretation using spectral feature distinctions should be applied for this purpose. Studying the time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growth period is one of such approaches. The analysis of NDVI temporal profile shape allows to identify vegetation objects on satellite image. The NDVI curve transformation regularities during growth period are studied in the process of study carried out. Growth rate in specific phenological phases (growth of vegetative organs; maturation and fruiting) and extreme NDVI values during total growth period are detected. Growth rate is calculated as a NDVI curve slope. The NDVI dynamics of different vegetation types (agricultural crops - wheat, oats, buckwheat; abandoned fields of different age, meadow steppe, stony steppe, feather-grass steppe, flood meadow etc.), located in the south of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Khakasia), has been derived and analyzed. Results of this study are as the basis for developed software, which produces the automatic identification of canopy using Terra Modis satellite measurement data.

  11. Diet-Related Knowledge and Physical Activity in a Large Cohort of Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patients: PROGENS ARENA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that behavioral intervention is crucial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevention and management. We aimed to estimate dietary habits and diet-oriented knowledge as well as the level of physical activity in 2500 insulin-treated Polish type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients (55.4% women. The mean age of the study participants was 64.9 ± 9.3 years, mean BMI was 31.4 kg/m2 ± 4.5, mean diabetes duration was 12.4 ± 6.9 years, and mean baseline HbA1c was 8.5%  ± 1.2. At the study onset, all the patients completed a questionnaire concerning health-oriented behavior. Results showed a significant lack of diet-related knowledge. For example, only 37.5% recognized that buckwheat contains carbohydrates; the percentage of correct answers in questions about fruit drinks and pasta was 56.4% and 61.2%, respectively. As for the physical activity, only 57.4% of examined T2DM patients declared any form of deliberate physical activity. To conclude, the cohort of poorly controlled insulin-treated T2DM patients studied by us is characterized by insufficient diet-related knowledge and by a very low level of physical activity. Further studies on other populations of insulin-treated T2DM patients are required to confirm these findings.

  12. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92–1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53–30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects. PMID:27904408

  13. Physical and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with carob fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Biernacka, Beata; Wójcik, Monika; Ziemichód, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    There are no reports of addition of carob fibre to gluten-free bread, as only carob germ flour was used. The research task was to determine what level of carob fibre can be used and how it influences the physical and sensorial properties of gluten-free bread. Especially, the knowledge of the antioxidant properties of such bread is very valuable. The gluten-free bread from rice, corn, and buckwheat flour (35:35:30%) was prepared after mixing (5 min), proofing (40 min, 30°C), and baking (45-50 min, 230°C) of dough. Carob fibre was added in the amounts of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of the total flour content. The results showed that increased content of carob fibre induced significant and favourable changes in the volume, colour, and texture (hardness and springiness) of the bread crumb. Carob fibre enriched the breads with lipophilic compounds able to chelate metal ions. The activity of hydrophilic compounds was significantly higher in the case of control bread and bread with the lowest percentage of the additive. In conclusion, the highest increase in antioxidant activity was found for breads with 1 and 2% of carob fibre. The most acceptable gluten-free bread can be obtained by adding up to 2% of carob.

  14. Differential antagonistic responses of Bacillus pumilus MSUA3 against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing fungal diseases in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mohit; Dheeman, Shrivardhan; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Kumar, Pradeep; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-12-01

    Chitinase and surfactin-mediated biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt and root rot of Fagopyrum esculentum respectively has been studied in this communication. Bacillus pumilus MSUA3 as a potential bacterial strain strongly inhibited the growth of R. solani and F. oxysporum involving the chitinolytic enzymes and an antibiotic surfactin. Plant growth promoting attributes seem to be involved in plant growth promotion and yield attributes. The action of cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) was found deleterious to F. oxysporum and R. solani even in the heat-treated (boiled/autoclaved) CFCS. The possible involvement of surfactin in disease control was revealed by colony PCR amplification of SrfA. Chitinolytic enzyme and antibiotic surfactin evidenced differential biocontrol of F. oxysporum and R. solani by B. pumilus MSUA3. A significant reduction in disease index under gnotobiotic conditions and productivity enhancement of F. esculentum using vermiculite-based bioformulation revealed B. pumilus MSUA3 as a successful potential biocontrol agent (BCA) and an efficient plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) for disease management and productivity enhancement of buckwheat crop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  16. Rheological Properties of Some Honeys in Liquefied and Crystallised States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakier Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of rheological measurements conducted on three types of Polish honey: rape, multi-floral, and buckwheat honeys. The investigations involved identification of the properties of the honeys in both liquefied (by heating as well as crystallised states. Both steady shear as well as dynamic rheological tests were performed. As a result, it was possible to show that the liquefied honeys behave like Newtonian fluids. Good agreement of the results between the rotary shear and oscillation rotary tests was observed, thus fulfilling the Cox-Mertz rule. The structure of the honeys was subjected to qualitative scrutiny by analysing photographs of the crystals taken in the conditions of shearing interferometry. The quantitative analysis was made by presenting a numerical distribution of crystal colonies with reference to the maximum dimensions of individual crystals. The geometric measurements of the crystals were carried out using analiSIS software. In the crystallised form, the media showed a thixotropic effect, and their apparent viscosity was many times higher than the dynamic viscosity in the liquid state. After plasticising by deformation with an increasing shear rate of up to 450s−1, the equilibrium melting curves of the crystallised honeys were described by the Ostwald-de Waele model. One particular reason for the research was to show that the results obtained for the honeys crystallised by the steady shear method, were qualitatively different from the results obtained in the dynamic measurements. The Cox-Mertz rule cannot be applied for the crystallised honeys.

  17. Antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, and fermented products of the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes), with high ergothioneine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Ho, Kung-Jui; Huang, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii is known to contain ergothioneine, and its products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and solid-state fermented products (adlay and buckwheat), were prepared to study their antioxidant properties. Fruiting bodies, regular and Hi-Ergo mycelia, and fermented products contained 2.05, 1.68, 5.76, 0.79-0.80 mg/g of ergothioneine, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained, P. eryngii products had effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Hi-Ergo mycelia was the most effective in the first 3 antioxidant properties in addition to its ergothioneine content. In addition, fruiting bodies were more effective in all antioxidant properties than regular mycelia. For ethanolic and hot water extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies, the correlation coefficients between total phenol contents and each antioxidant attribute were 0.483-0.921. Overall, P. eryngii products with high amounts of ergothioneine could be used beneficially as a functional food.

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of natural honeys of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miartina Fikselová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys, honey samples were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia. For antimicrobial activity determination honey solutions were prepared at three concentrations: 50, 25 and 12.5 % (by mass per volume. The potential antimicrobial activity of  selected samples against four species of bacteria (Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Pseudomonas aeroginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418, Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Candida albicans CCM 8216 was studied using the disc diffusion method. After incubation, the zones of inhibition of the growth of the microorganisms around the disks were measured. The strongest antimicrobial activity was shown at honey samples of 50 % concentration against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis. Against Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida albicans very low (at 50 %, 25 % concentration or zero antifugal (at 12.5 % concentration activity was determined. From the results obtained it was shown the variable ability of honey samples to scavenge stable free radical DPPH. TEACDPPH values ranged between 0.1-1.0 mmol.kg-1. As the antioxidative best source buckwheat honey was manifested and the lowest antioxidant activity was shown at acacia honey.

  19. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an adverse immune response to certain kinds of food. Although any food can cause allergic reactions, chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shellfish, fruit, and buckwheat account for 75% of food allergies in Japan. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies play a pivotal role in the development of food allergy. Recent advances in molecular biological techniques have enabled the efficient analysis of food allergens. As a result, many food allergens have been identified, and their molecular structure and IgE-binding epitopes have also been identified. Studies of allergens have demonstrated that IgE antibodies specific to allergen components and/or the peptide epitopes are good indicators for the identification of patients with food allergy, prediction of clinical severity and development of tolerance. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge regarding the allergens and IgE epitopes in the well-researched allergies to chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, shrimp, and peanut.

  20. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  1. Food allergy-lessons from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Gerez, Irvin Francis A; Soh, Shu E; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2008-07-01

    : This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. : PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. : There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have resulted in clinical food allergy of little importance in other populations. Crustacean shellfish is of importance in this region relative to other common food allergens. The high consumption of these foods and possibly coupled with cross-reactive tropomyosins from dominant inhalant dust mite and cockroach allergens in this region may explain this phenomenon. In contrast, the prevalence of peanut allergy is relatively low in this region. The reasons for this difference are not apparent. However, this may be a reflection of the general reduced propensity in this region to allergic diseases as seen with asthma. : Further research on food allergy in Asia is warranted because it offers unique opportunities to further our understanding on the influence of population and environment.

  2. Floral Strips Attract Beneficial Insects but Do Not Enhance Yield in Cucumber Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2017-04-01

    Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control. Flowers were planted within a commercial cucumber field in 20-m-long strips in a randomized complete block design with six replications in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Some floral treatments successfully attracted more beneficial insects than others, but the beneficials did not disperse out to the cucumber plants. Cucumber yield was unaffected by flowers with one exception: in 2015, cucumber yield in the sweet alyssum plots were greater than those in plots with no flowers. Our research indicates that adding flowers to cucumber fields to increase services from beneficial insects needs to be further investigated to better understand the effect of factors such as relative flowering strip size. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rutin attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Na, Ji-Young; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-10-01

    Rutin is derived from buckwheat, apples, and black tea. It has been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and neurotoxin. Its metabolite, acetaldehyde, is critically toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes acetaldehyde into nontoxic acetate. This study examined rutin's effects on ALDH2 activity in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells). Rutin's protective effects against acetaldehyde-based ethanol neurotoxicity were confirmed. Daidzin, an ALDH2 inhibitor, was used to clarify the mechanisms of rutin's protective effects. Cell viability was significantly increased after rutin treatment. Rutin significantly reversed ethanol-increased Bax, cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activity, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression in HT22 cells. Interestingly, rutin increased ALDH2 expression, while daidzin reversed this beneficial effect. Thus, this study demonstrates rutin protects HT22 cells against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity by increasing ALDH2 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a Korean mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100 s to 10,000 s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  6. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; van Ruth, Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-11-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in transmittance mode in the visible/near infrared (VIS-NIR) range (400-1000 nm). Three different machine learning algorithms were implemented to predict honey floral origin using honey spectral images. These methods, included radial basis function (RBF) network, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also exploited for dimensionality reduction. According to the obtained results, the best classifier (RBF) achieved a precision of 94% in a fivefold cross validation experiment using only the first two PCs. Mapping of the classifier results to the test set images showed 90% accuracy for honey images. Three types of honey including buckwheat, rapeseed and heather were classified with 100% accuracy. The proposed approach has great potential for honey floral origin detection. As some other honey properties can also be predicted using image features, in addition to floral origin detection, this method may be applied to predict other honey characteristics.

  7. Čezmejno sodelovanje na primeru občine Tržič = The crossborder cooperation: a case study of the Tržič municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mrak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The Municipality of Tržič borders with the Republic of Austria at the main ridge of the Karavanke mountain. Cooperation with the neighbouring communities Borovlje/Ferlach and Sele/Zell Pfare started in the eighties and it has become more intense after the year 1991. The border that was once separating the inhabitants on both sides of the mountain ridge has become more opened after the slovenian independence but the border control is after Schengen agreement more severe. Remote mountain border areas where access used to be limited were suddenly recognised as a great touristic potential. In the recent years the Municipality of Tržič together with Austrian partners managed to form some joined agriculture and tourism development projects within the PHARE programme (CBC - Crossborder Cooperation and ECOS - Ouverture. The projects deal with the regrowing of buckwheat, preservation of a special sheep breed - jezersko solčavska sheep, activation of the natural monument Dovžan gorge which will be logistically connected to Tscheppa gorge on the austrian side. Within the ECOS Ouverture programme the project of Thematic trails around the Košuta mountain has been initiated in order to reactivate and connect hidden natural and cultural potentials into integrated touristic offer of this part of the Karavanke mountain.

  8. Runoff and soil erosion of field plots in a subtropical mountainous region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N. F.; Wang, L.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic pressure coupled with strong precipitation events and a mountainous landscape have led to serious soil erosion and associated problems in the subtropical climate zone of China. This study analyzes 1576 rainfall-runoff-soil loss events at 36 experimental plots (a total of 148 plot-years of data) under a wide range of conditions in subtropical mountainous areas of China where slope farming is commonly practiced. The plots, which have standardized dimensions, represent five common types of land use and have four different slopes. Event-based analyses show that almost half of the total rainfall caused soil erosion in the study area. The dominant factor controlling the runoff coefficient is the slope gradient rather than the land use type. The maximum soil lossfor crop plots under steep tillage (35°) is 5004 t km-2 for a single event. Among the common local crops, the average soil loss values increase in the following order: buckwheat extreme events. The annual average soil loss of the 44 plots ranges from 19 to 4090 t km-2 year-1. The annual soil loss of plots of different land use types decrease in the following order: bare land (1533 t km-2 year-1) > cropland (1179 t km-2 year-1) > terraced cropland (1083 t km-2 year-1) > orchard land (1020 t km-2 year-1) > grassland (762 t km-2 year-1) > terraced orchard land (297 t km-2 year-1) > forest and grassland (281 t km-2 year-1).

  9. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay

    2016-01-01

    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands.

  11. Gluten Contamination in Naturally or Labeled Gluten-Free Products Marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil K; Gatti, Simona; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Monachesi, Chiara; Padella, Lucia; Baldo, Giada Del; Annibali, Roberta; Lionetti, Elena; Catassi, Carlo

    2017-02-07

    A strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only treatment of celiac disease. Gluten contamination has been frequently reported in nominally gluten-free products. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in gluten-free products currently available in the Italian market. A total of 200 commercially available gluten-free products (including both naturally and certified gluten-free products) were randomly collected from different Italian supermarkets. The gluten content was determined by the R5 ELISA Kit approved by EU regulations. Gluten level was lower than 10 part per million (ppm) in 173 products (86.5%), between 10 and 20 ppm in 9 (4.5%), and higher than 20 ppm in 18 (9%), respectively. In contaminated foodstuff (gluten > 20 ppm) the amount of gluten was almost exclusively in the range of a very low gluten content. Contaminated products most commonly belonged to oats-, buckwheat-, and lentils-based items. Certified and higher cost gluten-free products were less commonly contaminated by gluten. Gluten contamination in either naturally or labeled gluten-free products marketed in Italy is nowadays uncommon and usually mild on a quantitative basis. A program of systematic sampling of gluten-free food is needed to promptly disclose at-risk products.

  12. Root-knot Nematode Management in Dryland Taro with Tropical Cover Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, B S; Arakaki, A S

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-two cover crops were evaluated for their ability to reduce damage by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, to taro, Colocastia esculenta, in a tropical cropping system. Cover crops were grown and incorporated into the soil before taro was planted. Barley, greenpanic, glycine, marigold, sesame, sunn hemp, and sorghum x sudangrass DeKalb ST6E were poor or nonhosts to the nematode as measured by low population changes of nematodes in soil between cover crop planting and taro planting. Alfalfa, buckwheat, cowpea, lablab, Lana vetch, mustard, oat, okra, rhodes grass, ryegrain, ryegrass, siratro, sweet corn, and wheat allowed nematode populations to increase dramatically. Taro yields were greatest in the marigold plots and lowest in the ryegrain plots. Taro corm weight decreased with increasing initial nematode population (Pi) (r = 0.22, P = 0.056). Siratro, ryegrass, and Blizzard wheat plots had higher taro yield than plots with similar Pi's but planted to other cover crops. These cover crops may have antagonism to other soil microorganisms or their decomposition products may be toxic or adversely affect the nematodes. Cover crops can be an effective and valuable nematode management tactic for use in minor tropical cropping systems such as taro.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE CONTENT OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN SAMPLES OF POLISH HONEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of the determination of the total content of Cu, Pb and Zn by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry with atomization in an air-acetylene flame in Polish honeys samples. The research material was a honeydew, monofloral honey and buckwheat honey. For the mineralization of samples, the following solutions were applied: 1 HNO3(conc, 2 HNO3(conc and H2O2(conc in the volume ratio equal to 4:1 and 3:1. On the basis of the results and recommended food standards the percentage of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA in connection with the consumption of 100 g of product were estimated. To verify the results validation of analytical method used was carried out. It was included defining the following validation parameters values: the limit of detection and quantification; linearity and measurement range; repeatability and accuracy of the results. The contamination of the analyzed honeys by Pb is higher than the acceptable level of contamination of this element. The highest contents of Cu and Zn were characterized by monofloral honeys.

  14. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON LIFESTYLE GUIDANCE AND USE OF MANAGEMENT FORMS FOR FOOD ALLERGY IN LICENSED NURSERY SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Murata, Junko; Seto, Akiko; Nishisako, Shin; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    There have been no reports on the use of "foods allergy disease lifestyle guidance and management forms at day care centers" (life management guidance forms) for understanding details of pupils with food allergies. The contents of lifestyle management guidance forms obtained in Sagamihara city from licensed nurseries were investigated prospectively. We compared and analyzed for the use of life management guidance forms initially in 2013 and in the fiscal year of 2014 in Sagamihara city licensed nurseries. In all, in 2013 and 2014, 9,567 and 10,069 pupils were included in licensed nurseries, and 426 (4.5%) and 447 (4.4%) pupils had food allergies, 61 (0.6%) and 61 (0.6%) had anaphylaxis, respectively.The causative foods in 2013 and 2014, respectively, included unheated hen's egg in 71.6% and 69.6%; heated hen's egg in 54.2% and 54.8%; milk in 23.0% and 23.3%; peanuts in 17.8% and 17.0%; buckwheat in 7.3% and 8.5%; and wheat in 6.3% and 8.3%. There are no significant differences in the distribution of causative foods between 2013 and 2014.Immediate-type food allergy was significantly more frequent in 2014 than in 2013 (73.0% and 78.8%, respectively; p=0.040). Using a life management guidance form will make it easier to manage food allergies in children.

  15. Planting structure adjustment and food security in major food production district: A case study on 10 main food production counties in Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. J.; Yang, C. L.; Zhou, L. Y.

    2017-07-01

    This paper made an empirical study on planting structure adjustment and food security, in which main data and information came from the questionnaires of 10 main food-production counties in Gansu Province, China. The investigation results showed that: 1) During 1995 and 2014, the cultivated land area per household dropped by 2.40%, in which food crop area declined by 3.16%, yet cash crop area increased by 129% in the survey area. In the same period, the revenue per household increased by 162.99%, while food income from the revenue only increased by 17.42%; 2) In Hexi and Longzhong districts, mean wheat crop area per household shows a downtrend, while cash crop area increased significantly in the past 20 years. Especially, the household food output and income did not appear a simultaneous increase trend. In Longdong district, the household food output and income showed a simultaneous uptrend, and household income came mainly from miscellaneous grain (e.g. sorghum, bean, buckwheat, etc.); 3) In order to pursue higher economic efficiency of cultivated land, the farmers were forced to adjust planting structure and develop characteristics industries, profitable agriculture and cash crop with comparative advantage, which resulted in few food stock and impacted seriously on regional food security.

  16. Influence of different flours and starches on gluten-free bread aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Bernal, José Luis; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of different gluten-free flours (yellow and white corn, rice, oat, teff, buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa) and starches (wheat, corn and potato) on the generation of volatile compounds in the fermented doughs and crumbs. Volatile compounds were analyzed by static headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SHS-GC/MS). Nine fermentation and lipid oxidation volatile compounds were evaluated, which were found to be the same from dough to crumb but vary in levels. Concentrations of compounds produced during fermentation were higher in doughs whereas those from lipid oxidation were higher in crumbs. The type of flour/starch affected the concentration of these volatile compounds. The proportions of ethanol and 2/3-methylbutanol (fermentation compounds) were higher in dough from yellow and white corn, rice and oat while the proportions of hexanal, 1-pentanol and 2,4-decadienal (lipid oxidation compounds) were higher in the doughs made with starches. The proportions of ethanol and 2/3-methylbutanol were higher in quinoa and amaranth crumbs whilst hexanal, 1-pentanol and 2,4-decadienal were higher in yellow and white corn crumbs.

  17. Food Allergy--Lessons from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Objective This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. Methods PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. Results There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have resulted in clinical food allergy of little importance in other populations. Crustacean shellfish is of importance in this region relative to other common food allergens. The high consumption of these foods and possibly coupled with cross-reactive tropomyosins from dominant inhalant dust mite and cockroach allergens in this region may explain this phenomenon. In contrast, the prevalence of peanut allergy is relatively low in this region. The reasons for this difference are not apparent. However, this may be a reflection of the general reduced propensity in this region to allergic diseases as seen with asthma. Conclusions Further research on food allergy in Asia is warranted because it offers unique opportunities to further our understanding on the influence of population and environment. PMID:23282480

  18. Significance of dietotherapy on the clinical course of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaite, Rūta; Labanauskas, Liutauras; Balciūnaite, Sigita; Vaideliene, Laimute

    2009-01-01

    .001). During a one-year dietary treatment, 28.2% of children with atopic dermatitis became more tolerant to earlier food allergens. After the comparison of skin patch test results (before dietary treatment and after a one-year period), it was determined that only skin patch tests against buckwheat, oat, beef, and cacao did not change statistically significantly. Results of skin patch tests against other food products were found to be positive more rarely. Besides, children who followed their dietary recommendations suffered from gastrointestinal disorders more rarely as compared to children who did not follow their dietary recommendations (P=0.01). They suffered less from abdominal pain (P=0.01), abdominal distention (P=0.044), and constipation (P=0.035). Individual balanced replacement diet for children with atopic dermatitis helped to fully control nutrition of sick children from various age groups and had a positive effect on the clinical course of atopic dermatitis. Patients who followed their individual dietary recommendations suffered from severe allergic rash more rarely and they had to take fewer medicines against allergy as compared to children who did not follow dietary recommendations. Clinical course of atopic dermatitis in children who followed individual dietary recommendations was easier as compared to children who did not follow such recommendations. One-third of children with atopic dermatitis became more tolerant to earlier food allergens during a one-year period. After a one-year dietotherapy treatment, positive patch test reactions to many food products appeared to be more rarely, except for buckwheat, oat, beef, and cacao. Besides, children who followed their dietary recommendations suffered from gastrointestinal disorders (abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and constipation) significantly more rarely as compared to children who did not follow their dietary recommendations.

  19. Plant Proteinase Inhibitors in Therapeutics – Focus on Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Srikanth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI has been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and

  20. Fungal pathogens and antagonists in root-soil zone in organic and integrated systems of potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenc Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of culturable Fungi and Oomycota in root-soil habitat of potato cv. Owacja in organic and integrated production systems at Osiny (northern Poland was compared in 2008-2010. The densities of both pathogens were significantly greater in the organic system. The eudominant fungal taxa (with frequency > 10% in at least one habitat included species of Fusarium + Gibberella + Haematonectria, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichoderma. The dominant taxa (with frequency 5-10% included species from 13 genera. In the rhizoplane, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, the total density of potential pathogens was greater in the integrated system, and of potential antagonists in the organic system. Among eudominant and dominant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Gibellulopsis nigrescens occurred at greater density in the integrated system and Haematonectria haematococca and Phoma spp. in the organic system. Among eudominant antagonists, Trichoderma species occurred at greater density in the organic system. The organic system provided more disease suppressive habitat than the integrated system. The occurrence of brown leaf spot and potato blight was however similar in both systems. The mean yield of organic potatoes (24.9 t · ha-1 was higher than the mean organic potato yield in Poland (21.0 t · ha-1 and similar to the mean in other European countries (Germany 25.1 t · ha-1, Great Britain 25.0 t · ha-1. The organic system, based on a 5-year rotation, with narrow-leafed lupin, white mustard and buckwheat as a cover crop, inorganic fertilization based on ground rock phosphate + potassium sulphate, and biological and chemical control of insects and diseases (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis + copper hydroxide + copper oxychloride, may be recommended for use in central Europe.

  1. Activity of Polish unifloral honeys against pathogenic bacteria and its correlation with colour, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and other parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, P M; Szweda, P; Jerković, I; Tuberoso, C I G

    2016-03-01

    The use of honey as an antimicrobial agent gains importance due to often ineffectiveness of conventional treatment. However, activity of honey depends mainly on its botanical and geographical origin. To date, antimicrobial potential of Polish honeys has not yet been entirely investigated. In this study, 37 unifloral samples of 14 honey types (including rare varieties) from Poland were analysed and compared with manuka honey. The most active were cornflower, thyme and buckwheat honeys. Their MICs ranged from 3·12 to 25·00%, (depending on tested micro-organism) and often were lower than for manuka honey. Additionally, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, pH and conductivity were assessed and significant correlations (P colour component, rich in phenolics, with high conductivity and water content. The honey antibacterial properties depended mainly on peroxide mechanism and were vulnerable to excessive heating, but quite stable during storage in cold. A number of honey samples showed potential as effective antimicrobial agents. The observed correlations of MICs and physical-chemical parameters help to understand better the factors impacting the antibacterial activity. Honey is a promising agent in the treatment of non-healing infected wounds. Thirty-seven unifloral samples of 14 honey varieties from Poland were analysed for their antimicrobial activity and compared with manuka honey. Several honey types exert even higher antimicrobial potential and could be introduced to wound therapy. Additionally, positive correlations of the antimicrobial activity were found, especially with yellow colour and could be important in the search and screening of the honey active against Escherichia coli. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Melissa A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-seven honey samples from different floral sources and geographical locations were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of seven food spoilage organisms (Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Geotrichum candidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Penicillium expansum, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and five foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) using an overlay inhibition assay. They were also tested for specific activity against S. aureus 9144 and B. stearothermophilus using the equivalent percent phenol test--a well diffusion assay corresponding to a dilute phenol standard curve. Honey inhibited bacterial growth due to high sugar concentration (reduced water activity), hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in the honey. Some antibacterial activity was due to other unidentified components. The ability of honey to inhibit the growth of microorganisms varies widely, and could not be attributed to a specific floral source or demographic region produced in this study. Antibacterially active samples in this study included Montana buckwheat, tarweed, manuka, melaleuca, and saw palmetto. Furthermore, the bacteria were not uniformly affected by honey. Varying sensitivities to the antimicrobial properties were observed with four strains of S. aureus thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey samples. Mold growth was not inhibited by any of the honeys tested. B. stearothermophilus, a heat-resistant spoilage bacteria, was shown to be highly sensitive to honey in both the overlay and well diffusion assays; other sensitive bacteria included A. faecalis and L. acidophilus. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity was observed in both assays; the highest instance was observed in the specific activity assay against B. stearothermophilus. Further research could indicate whether

  3. The effect of covering and mulching on the soil temperature, growth and yield of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By improving the thermal and moisture conditions in the immediate vicinity of plants, plastic covers influenced the growth and development and increased the yield of vegetables. Soil mulching with organic material is one method of soil water protection and also helps maintain a constant soil temperature within the root system of crops. This study investigated the effect of plant covering and the type of straw applied to soil mulching (rye, corn, rape or buckwheat on the soil temperature, development of the plant and the yield of ‘Polfast’ F1 tomato. The effect of the straw was compared to a control plot without mulch. Soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm was higher in covered plots than in the plot without covers. The increase in soil temperature as a result of covering amounted to 1.3°C at 8:00 a.m. and 1.7°C at 2:00 p.m. Both in the morning and in the afternoon, the soil temperature in the plots without straw and without covers and under polypropylene fibre was higher than in the plots with straw. The application of covers resulted in higher aboveground parts of plants and higher leaf area compared to cultivation without covers. Irrespective of whether a covering was used, all of the types of straw investigated in the experiment caused the acceleration of growth and development of tomato plants. Simultaneous plant covering and soil mulching increased the total yield of fruits but did not have an influence on the share of marketable yield of the total yield.

  4. Bioactive indicators related to bioelements of eight unifloral honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vit, Patricia; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio; Rondón, Carlos; González, Isbelia; Luisa Di Bernardo, María; Ysabel García, María

    2010-12-01

    Honey is the most popular bee product used by man, with nutritional and medicinal purposes. Its great diversity is attributed to numerous factors (bee type, visited flora, environment, and management). The quality of honey is controlled with routine parameters (free acidity, diastase activity, reducing sugars, ash, water, hydroxymethyfurfural, and sucrose contents). Besides the biochemical quality control, a functional profile is also important for pharmacological applications. In this work, bioactive indicators such as the antioxidant activity, flavonoid and polyphenol contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and correlated to the content of six bioelements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, tandem FI-FAAS, in 14 unifloral Czech honeys. The antioxidant activity was 43.13 +/- 53.72 micromoles TEAC/100 g honey. The flavonoid content was 5.18 +/- 4.19 mg QE/100 g, and the polyphenol content was 45.38 +/- 27.20 mg GAE/100 g. Buckwheat honey showed the highest values for these indicators of bioactivity, the acacia honeys the lowest, and the rest of the honeys were comprised between both of them. Honey content of bioelements was 138.19 +/- 55.57 ppm Ca (min 77.11-max 261.65), 0.33 +/- 0.41 ppm Cu (min 0.00-max 1.37), 2.95 +/- 1.10 ppm Fe (min 1.34-max 5.36), 35.08 +/- 29.59 ppm Mg (min 8.76-128.06), 4.93 +/- 3.99 ppm Mn (min 0.34-max 11.31), 1.07 +/- 0.56 ppm Zn (min 0.49-max 2.52). The antioxidant activity of honey was significantly correlated to its content of cupper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc, but was not correlated to calcium.

  5. Plant Protease Inhibitors in Therapeutics-Focus on Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs) which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) have been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn, and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects due

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  7. Plant Protease Inhibitors in Therapeutics-Focus on Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs) which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) have been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn, and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects due

  8. Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieille, Sébastien La; Dubois, Sheila; Hayward, Stephen; Koerner, Terence B.

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ...) and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches) used for cooking and baking at home. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of incidental gluten potentially present in gluten-free diets from a Canadian perspective. We have conducted gluten exposure estimations from grain-containing foods and foods with grain-derived ingredients, taking into consideration the various rates of food consumption by different sex and age groups. These estimates have concluded that if gluten was present at levels not exceeding 20 ppm, exposure to gluten would remain below 10 mg per day for all age groups studied. However, in reality the level of gluten found in naturally gluten-free ingredients is not static and there may be some concerns related to the flours made from naturally gluten-free cereal grains. It was found that those containing a higher level of fiber and that are frequently used to prepare daily foods by individuals with celiac disease could be a concern. For this category of products, only the flours and starches labelled “gluten-free” should be used for home-made preparations. PMID:24566442

  9. Identification of barley-specific peptide markers that persist in processed foods and are capable of detecting barley contamination by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-16

    Consumers, especially those with allergies and/or intolerances, should have confidence in two critical areas of food safety: foods should be correctly labelled and free from contamination. To this end, global proteomic analysis employing LC-MS/MS of gluten-enriched extracts derived from 12 barley cultivars was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of barley contamination in foods. Subsequently, a number of candidate barley-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. From an initial panel of 26, 9 peptide markers were unique to barley, yet present in a wide range of barley varieties. The analytical method was then used to examine a range of breakfast cereals and was able to detect barley in a barley-based breakfast cereal and a muesli, but additionally allowed detection of contamination of cereals that were comprised of ancient grains and in commercially-sourced flours, including amaranth, chia, buckwheat, millet, rice, corn, oats, rye, spelt and green wheat (0.01-0.08%). LC-MS/MS provides an alternative to ELISA approaches to monitor food safety and the identification of robust and sensitive cereal-specific peptide markers is the first step toward the adoption of this technology. Coeliac disease is a serious health issue affecting up to 70million people globally for which there is no cure. The only treatment is a life-long gluten-free diet. Contamination of foods can occur at many stages of food production from farm to fork. As such, accurate quantification and identification of the source (i.e. cereal) and type (e.g. gluten) of contamination is critical to the health and well-being of a subset of the population, including those affected by coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet supplementation for 5 weeks with polyphenol-rich cereals improves several functions and the redox state of mouse leucocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Pedro; Alvarado, Carmen; Mathieu, Florence; Jiménez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    Background Cereals naturally contain a great variety of polyphenols, which exert a wide range of physiological effects both in vitro and in vivo. Many of their protective effects, including an improvement of the function and redox state of immune cells in unhealthy or aged subjects come from their properties as powerful antioxidant compounds. However, whether cereal-based dietary supplementation positively affects the immune function and cellular redox state of healthy subjects remains unclear. Aim of the study To investigate the effects of supplementation (20% wt/wt) for 5 weeks with four different cereal fractions on healthy mice. Methods Several parameters of function and redox state of peritoneal leukocytes were measured. The cereals, named B (wheat germ), C (buckwheat flour), D (fine rice bran) and E (wheat middlings) contained different amounts of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, catechin, rutin and oryzanol as major polyphenols. Results In general, all cereal fractions caused an improvement of the leukocyte parameters studied such as chemotaxis capacity, microbicidal activity, lymphoproliferative response to mitogens, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release, as well as oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSSG/GSH ratio, catalase (CAT) activity and lipid oxidative damage. We observed similar effects among the cereal fractions. Conclusions The results suggest that some of these effects may due, at least partially, to the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols naturally present in cereals. Since an appropriate function of the leukocytes has been proposed as marker of the health state, a short-term intake of cereals seems to be sufficient to exert a benefit in the health of the general population. However, further studies are needed to assess the optimal doses and to find out which active polyphenols are able to mediate the observed physiological effects before

  11. [Short effect and adverse reaction of dog days plaster for allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Zhao, Minghui; Fu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the short effect and safety of the acupoint application of dog days for allergic rhinitis. Two hundred and forty-nine patients were randomly divided into an application group (166 cases) and a placebo group (83 cases). On the first day of the first dog days, the first day of the second of the three ten-day periods of the hot season and the first day of the last of the three ten-day periods of the hot season, acupoint application was adopted mainly at Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) in the application group. The plaster was made of Chinese herbs, including Baijiezi (semen brassicae), Xixin (asarum), Yanhusuo (corydalis tuber) and Gansui (euphorbia kansui). Buckwheat plaster without medical ingredient was used in the placebo group. The application was pasted for 2-6 h every time. On the first three days of all the three periods of dog days, treatment was used continuously. The whole period of dog days was made into one course. The changes of symptom and syndrome scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) for symptom before and after treatment and the adverse reaction with the condition disposed were observed in the two groups. After treatment, the symptom and syndrome scores and VAS for symptom were improved compared with those before treatment in the two groups (all P reaction rates were 4.2% (7/166), 2.4% (2/83) respectively, with no statistical significance between the two groups (P > 0.05). The dog days plaster achieves obvious effect with good safety for allergic rhinitis.

  12. Characteristics of starch breads enriched with red potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch breads may often be low in nutritional value, in comparison to traditional products, as they contain less dietary fibre, protein and micro and macro elements. As an effect a risk of mineral deficiencies and digestive problems caused by lack of dietary fibre could be expected in persons adhering to gluten free diet. To eliminate such problems, a continuous research on gluten-free bread nutritional enrichment, has been done in recent years. Raw material used to enrich gluten free products should include: inulin, lupine, radish, soy, lucerne sprouts, oilseeds, different type of dried fruits. Among the most commonly used raw materials, there are flours from gluten free cereals and pseudocereals such as buckwheat, amaranth and maize are very popular. It seem that valuable alternative could be considered a red, purple or pink potatoes as starch breads additives. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect addition of freeze-dried color potatoes on crude fiber, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids and nutritional value of gluten free breads. It could be concluded, that freeze-dried color (red, purple, pink potatoes enriched the gluten free breads (starch breads with health promoting bioactive components, like polyphenols, and highly valuable protein. The most promising additive was Magenta Love red potato variety lyophilisates, because gluten free breads enriched with this component were characterized by high protein content and the highest content of free and bound polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins. The presence of all these components increased the nutritional and pro-health value of gluten free product as starch bread.

  13. QUALITY EVALUATION OF UNIFLORAL AND MULTIFLORAL HONEYS FROM SLOVAKIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the blossom honey samples divided into the three groups: acacia (Robinia psedoacacia honeys (n=14, other unifloral honeys (clover Trifolium pratense, lime Tilia cordata, rape Brassica napus, buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, chestnut Castanea sativa; n=8 and multifloral honeys (n=16. We tested the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of honeys. Followed physico-chemical parameters were tested: water, water content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, pH, free acidity and diastase. From microbiological parameters, we found total plate count (TPC, TPC of anaerobic microorganisms, counts of coliform bacteria, sporulating bacteria and microscopic fungi in the honey samples using dilution plating method. Water content ranged from 13.60 to 21.90 g 100g-1 and two samples of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for water content (max 20.00 g 100g-1. HMF ranged from 0.77 to 10.93 mg kg-1 that is typical for fresh and heat-untreated honeys. Average values of pH were 5.02 ± 0.25 for acacia honey, 4.98 ± 0.31 for other unifloral honeys and 4.66 ± 0.45 for multifloral honeys. One sample of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for free acidity (max 50 meq kg-1. Higher TPC (above 2.00 log CFU g-1 was detected in 2 out of 14 acacia honeys (14.29%, in 2 out of 8 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and in 5 out of 16 multifloral honeys (31.25%. Microscopic fungi were not found in 3 acacia honeys (21.43%, 2 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and 2 multifloral honeys (12.50%. Overall, the obtained results showed good quality of evaluated honeys.

  14. D-Fagomine lowers postprandial blood glucose and modulates bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Livia; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Calvo-Torras, María Ángeles; Adelantado, Carles; Juan, M Emília; Planas, Joana M; Cañas, Xavier; Lozano, Carles; Pumarola, Sergio; Clapés, Pere; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-06-01

    D-Fagomine is an iminosugar originally isolated from seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum sculentum Moench), present in the human diet and now available as a pure crystalline product. We tested D-fagomine for activities connected to a reduction in the risk of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The activities were: intestinal sucrase inhibition in vitro (rat mucosa and everted intestine sleeves), modulation of postprandial blood glucose in rats, bacterial agglutination and bacterial adhesion to pig intestinal mucosa. When ingested together with sucrose or starch, D-fagomine lowered blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner without stimulating insulin secretion. D-Fagomine reduced the area under the curve (0-120 min) by 20 % (P blood glucose concentration (Tmax) by 15 min at doses of 1-2 mg/kg body weight when administered together with 1 g sucrose/kg body weight. Moreover, D-fagomine (0·14 mm) agglutinated 60 % of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) populations (P < 0·01), while it did not show this effect on Bifidobacterium spp. or Lactobacillus spp. At the same concentration, d-fagomine significantly (P < 0·001) inhibited the adhesion of Enterobacteriaceae (95-99 % cells in the supernatant) and promoted the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus (56 % cells in the supernatant) to intestinal mucosa. D-Fagomine did not show any effect on bacterial cell viability. Based on all this evidence, D-fagomine may be used as a dietary ingredient or functional food component to reduce the health risks associated with an excessive intake of fast-digestible carbohydrates, or an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen analysis in Japan.

  16. Structure of bacterial communities in soil following cover crop and organic fertilizer incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Incorporation of organic material into soils is an important element of organic farming practices that can affect the composition of the soil bacterial communities that carry out nutrient cycling and other functions crucial to crop health and growth. We conducted a field experiment to determine the effects of cover crops and fertilizers on bacterial community structure in agricultural soils under long-term organic management. Illumina sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed diverse communities comprising 45 bacterial phyla in corn rhizosphere and bulk field soil. Community structure was most affected by location and by the rhizosphere effect, followed by sampling time and amendment treatment. These effects were associated with soil physicochemical properties, including pH, moisture, organic matter, and nutrient levels. Treatment differences were apparent in bulk and rhizosphere soils at the time of peak corn growth in the season following cover crop and fertilizer application. Cover crop and fertilizer treatments tended to lower alpha diversity in early season samples. However, winter rye, oilseed radish, and buckwheat cover crop treatments increased alpha diversity in some later season samples compared to a no-amendment control. Fertilizer treatments and some cover crops decreased relative abundance of members of the ammonia-oxidizing family Nitrosomonadaceae. Pelleted poultry manure and Sustane® (a commercial fertilizer) decreased the relative abundance of Rhizobiales. Our data point to a need for future research exploring how (1) cover crops influence bacterial community structure and functions, (2) these effects differ with biomass composition and quantity, and (3) existing soil conditions and microbial community composition influence how soil microbial populations respond to agricultural management practices.

  17. Ochratoxin A Concentrations in a Variety of Grain-Based and Non-Grain-Based Foods on the Canadian Retail Market from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Beata; O'Rourke, Sarah M; Bietlot, Henri P; Kurz, Karl; Aweryn, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The extent of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of domestically produced foods sold across Canada was determined from 2009 to 2014 with sampling and testing occurring each fiscal year. Cereal-based, fruit-based, and soy-based food samples (n = 6,857) were analyzed. Almost half of the samples (3,200; 47%) did not contain detectable concentrations of OTA. The remaining 3,657 samples contained OTA at 0.040 to 631 ng/g. Wheat, oats, milled products of other grains (such as rye and buckwheat), and to a lesser extent corn products and their derived foods were the most significant potential sources of OTA exposure for the Canadian population. Wine, grape juice, soy products, beer, dairy-based infant formula, and licorice candy were not significant contributors to OTA consumption. Spices had the highest OTA concentrations; but because so little is ingested, these foods are not considered to be a significant source of OTA. In contrast, infant formulas and cereals can be important dietary sources of OTA. Infant cereals containing oats and infant formulas containing soy had detectable concentrations of OTA, some of which exceeded the proposed Canadian guidelines. The prevalence and concentrations of OTA in major crops (wheat, corn, and oats) varied widely across years. Because these foods were purchased at retail stores, no information was available on the OTA concentrations in the raw materials, the storage conditions before purchase of the samples, or the origin of the ingredients (may include blends of raw materials from different years and/or different geographical regions of Canada); therefore, impact of these factors could not be assessed. Overall, 2.3% of the samples exceeded the proposed Canadian OTA regulatory limits and 2.7% exceeded the current European Union (EU) OTA regulatory limits. These results are consistent with a Health Canada exposure assessment published in 2010, despite the inclusion of a wider range of products and confirm the safety of foods widely

  18. Formulation of gluten-free flour culinary products of high nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Dombrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the production of gluten-free foods that are necessary for people suffering from this disease as celiac disease. The article reveals the relevance of developing recipes for gluten-free foods, which are not inferior to traditional in many respects. Classic recipes gluten-free bakery products, mainly based on rice, buckwheat, corn flour, which have little nutritional value. In this regard, the current development of technologies and formulations pastry dishes with use of nonconventional vegetable raw materials rich in dietary fibers, proteins and other beneficial substances that improve the biological and nutritional value of these products. The paper describes the formulation of gluten-free muffins, was based on the recipe of the cake "Capital". The main raw material for the new compositions of selected rice flour, and as enriching additives – flax flour and flour from the eggshell. Was conducted baking tests on the basis of which was chosen percentage of the input substances and the assessment of quality of semifinished and finished products. The quality of semi-finished products was evaluated by such indicators as humidity and the microstructure of the test. The quality of finished products was assessed using organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters, the results presented in the tables. Investigated the antioxidant activity of products. Produced sensometrical evaluation of aroma of control and experimental samples. Calculated chemical composition. The content of protein, vitamins, mineral substances in the experimental sample is significantly increased compared to control. Making flour egg shell has achieved the ratio of Ca-Mg-P as close to a perfect 1:0,39:1,53 Replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed and rice flour and the introduction of egg shell improve the amino acid composition of the product. The biological value increased by 2.3%.

  19. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of ‘whole grain’

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J.; Richardson, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005–2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe – when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes. PMID:24505218

  20. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J; Richardson, David P

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.

  1. Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien La Vieille

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ... and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches used for cooking and baking at home. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of incidental gluten potentially present in gluten-free diets from a Canadian perspective. We have conducted gluten exposure estimations from grain-containing foods and foods with grain-derived ingredients, taking into consideration the various rates of food consumption by different sex and age groups. These estimates have concluded that if gluten was present at levels not exceeding 20 ppm, exposure to gluten would remain below 10 mg per day for all age groups studied. However, in reality the level of gluten found in naturally gluten-free ingredients is not static and there may be some concerns related to the flours made from naturally gluten-free cereal grains. It was found that those containing a higher level of fiber and that are frequently used to prepare daily foods by individuals with celiac disease could be a concern. For this category of products, only the flours and starches labelled “gluten-free” should be used for home-made preparations.

  2. Breathe Plant Breathe: A Study of CO2 conversion in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.

    2016-12-01

    Some of the research that I have found is that plants with green oxygen produce the most oxygen.Green oxygen is the Some examples of plants like this are spouts (such as the sweet pea, buckwheat, and sunflower.) Some of the other plants are the snake plant and the areca plant. These three plants are most commonly used in households to produce more oxygen when needed. Looking at a few more websites I saw that the plants do not produce oxygen at night because they have no light to transfer within photosynthesis. Some other information that I got was that plants with thick leaves or have a lot of leaves on them produce more oxygen. Some examples of this are the peace lily and the bamboo palm. Since these plants have thick and big leaves they have more photosynthesis cells and can produce more oxygen. In conclusion, my hypothesis was supported. The plant that converted the most CO2 was the pothos. I learned that if you need house plants to help create oxygen, one of the best ones would be a pothos because of its fast conversion rate. As a result the plant that converted the most carbon dioxide into oxygen was the pothos. With an average start of 5259.6, and average finish of 1463, and an average change of 3796.6 The Fern had an: average change of: 5205, average start of: 6564.6, and an average finish of: 1500 The Aloe had an: average change of: 4409.2, average start of: 7707.6, and an average finish of: 3298.4 And the Panda had an: average change of: 4821.8 average start of: 6971.2, and an average finish of:2149

  3. MODERN COMPLEMENTARY FOODS IN THE PREVENTION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES: PROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rate allergenic properties of the complementary food line based on grains, fruits/vegetables and meat in the diet of infants (0–1 years old. Methods: The study included children aged 4–6 months with natural, mixed or artificial feeding, who had not received any complementary food before. The children were almost healthy or had a burdened allergic history. Complementary foods (porridge, vegetable puree, meat puree and fruit puree were administered basing on an individual plan depending on age, nutritional status and nature of feces. Tolerability of products and dynamics of mass-height and laboratory parameters were evaluated. At the beginning and at the end of the study, capillary blood was taken to determine the content of hemoglobin in red blood cells (MCH, the equivalent of hemoglobin in reticulocytes (RetHe, iron, ferritin, prealbumin, and specific E class immunoglobulin (IgE to the proteins in cow's and goat milk, apples, pears, prunes, zucchini, broccoli, cauliflower, rice, maize, buckwheat, turkey meat, and rabbit meat (quantitative allergy diagnostics using an express method. In addition, a scatological study was performed. Results: 60 healthy children received complementary foods based on grains, fruits/vegetables and meat on a step-by-step basis. The level of specific IgE to food allergens in all children under the study was within normal range (0–135 IU/ml both initially and after the administration of all the complementary foods studied. Conclusion: The investigated complementary foods have a low sensitizing potential, including in children with a burdened allergic history. This allows us to describe them as hypoallergenic products.

  4. Effects of experimentally reduced snowpack and passive warming on montane meadow plant phenology and floral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, J.A.; Debinski, D.M.; Caragea, P.C.; Germino, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Climate change can have a broad range of effects on ecosystems and organisms, and early responses may include shifts in vegetation phenology and productivity that may not coincide with the energetics and forage timing of higher trophic levels. We evaluated phenology, annual height growth, and foliar frost responses of forbs to a factorial experiment of snow removal (SR) and warming in a high-elevation meadow over two years in the Rocky Mountains, United States. Species included arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata, early-season emergence and flowering) and buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum, semi-woody and late-season flowering), key forbs for pollinator and nectar-using animal communities that are widely distributed and locally abundant in western North America. Snow removal exerted stronger effects than did warming, and advanced phenology differently for each species. Specifically, SR advanced green-up by a few days for B. sagittata to >2 wk in E. umbellatum, and led to 5- to 11-d advances in flowering of B. sagittata in one year and advances in bud break in 3 of 4 species/yr combinations. Snow removal increased height of E. umbellatum appreciably (~5 cm added to ~22.8 cm in control), but led to substantial increases in frost damage to flowers of B. sagittata. Whereas warming had no effects on E. umbellatum, it increased heights of B. sagittata by >6 cm (compared to 30.7 cm in control plots) and moreover led to appreciable reductions in frost damage to flowers. These data suggest that timing of snowmelt, which is highly variable from year to year but is advancing in recent decades, has a greater impact on these critical phenological, growth, and floral survival traits and floral/nectar resources than warming per se, although warming mitigated early effects of SR on frost kill of flowers. Given the short growing season of these species, the shifts could cause uncoupling in nectar availability and timing of foraging.

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODEL NON-ISOTHERMAL FLOW HIGHLY VISCOUS MEDIA CHANNELS MATRIX EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sidorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional steady flow of highly viscous medium in a cylindrical channel with Dissipation and dependence of the viscosity on the temperature. It is assumed that a relatively small intervals of temperature variation of the dynamic viscosity with a sufficient degree of accuracy can be assumed to be linear. The model was based on the equations of hydrodynamics and the heat transfer fluid. In the task channel wall temperature is assumed constant. An approximate solution of the problem, according to which the distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature is sought in the form of an expansion in powers of the dimensionless transverse coordinates. A special case, when the ratio of the velocity distribution, pressure and temperature is allowed to restrict the number of terms in the expansion as follows: for speed - the first 3 to the pressure - the first two for the temperature - the first 5. The expressions to determine the temperature profile of the medium in the channel and characterization dissipative heating. To simulate the process of heat transfer highly viscous media developed a program for personal electronic computers. The calculation was performed using experimental research data melt flow grain mixture of buckwheat and soybeans for the load speed of 0.08 mm / s. The method of computer simulation carried out checks on the adequacy of the solutions to the real process of heat transfer. Analysis of the results indicates that for small values of the length of the channel influence dissipation function appears mainly at the wall. By increasing the reduced length of this phenomenon applies to all section of the channel. At high temperature profile along the channel length is determined entirely by dissipation. In the case of heat transfer due to frictional heat only, the form of curves of temperature distribution is a consequence of the interaction effects of heating due to viscous shear effects cooling by conduction. The

  6. Forecast of the direction changes of meat products odor in the development of new recipes according to the results of “electronic nose” data treatment with chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using new parameters of quartz crystal microbalance and methods of principal component analysis and discriminant analysis using regression to latent structures for processing the output data of piezosensors array for the detection of individual odor-forming compounds, quantitative assessment of odor properties in routine analysis, in the development of new recipes of food systems with the introduction of functional additives in the factory laboratories are discussed. Sorption of volatile organic compounds that make up the odor of meat products, on thin films of sorbents - modifiers of piezoelectric resonators electrodes, forming an array of sensors of gases analyzer "electronic nose" is studied. The resulting sensor array is trained on the main marker substances (distilled water, ethane, butyric acids, aliphatic alcohols (C2-C5 of normal and isomeric structure, dimethyl ketone, methyl ethyl ketone, alkyl acetates (C2-C5 methylpropionate. The effect of of water vapors as interfering factor in sorption of organic compounds was assessed. The parameters of the efficiency of volatile compounds sorption, allowing the identification of individual organic compounds or a class of similar to them in nature in gas mixtures were calculated. The use of discriminant analysis with regression to latent structures allowed the identification of individual organic compounds in the equilibrium gas phases over the real models for forecasting of change of direction of meat products odor with partial replacement of meat raw materials with functional preparations of plant origin (buckwheat and millet cereals, pickles of soybean and rapeseed protein and products of microbial synthesis (preparation of yeast and wheat bran. For a detailed study of the changes in odor direction _ during the introduction of different amounts of cereals in the product the principal components method was applied. As the input parameters for the chemometric methods

  7. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass

  8. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  9. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    with erosional phenomena, most vanished as a result of afforestation and eutrophic precipitation; · wetland heath habitats, that largely disappeared due to reclamation and regional lowering of the groundwater table; · grazing of herded sheep of local breed on geo-structured heathlands, that is recently re-introduced for nature mangement purposes; · smaller agricultural plots on undulating 'essen' with crops such as buckwheat and wheat, now replaced by level terrain and maize monocultures; · monumental old trees on the oldest landscape paintings, often on river banks, are notably absent on later paintings. References Jungerius P, van den Ancker H, Wevers N 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. Presentation General Assembly European Geosciences Union EGU - SSS, Vienna.